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Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (47 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Properties of GCase: structure and function
  • Enzymology and cell biology of GCase
  • Requirements for GCase activity
  • GCase and its role in Gaucher disease
  • Genotype/Phenotype and molecular correlations
  • Therapies for Gaucher disease (enzymes, genes, chaperones).
Book
8 p. : digital, PDF file.
<i>Escherichia coli</i> plays an important role as a member of the gut microbiota; however, pathogenic strains also exist, including various diarrheagenic <i>E. coli</i> pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic <i>E. coli</i> that cause illness outside of the GI-tract. <i>E. coli</i> have traditionally been serotyped using antisera against the ca. 186 O-antigens and 53 H-flagellar antigens. Phenotypic methods, including bacteriophage typing and O- and H- serotyping for differentiating and characterizing <i>E. coli</i> have been used for many years; however, these methods are generally time consuming and not always accurate. Advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to develop genetic-based subtyping and molecular serotyping methods for <i>E. coli</i>, which are more discriminatory compared to phenotypic typing methods. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of <i>E. coli</i> is replacing established subtyping methods such as pulsedfield gel electrophoresis, providing a major advancement in the ability to investigate food-borne disease outbreaks and for trace-back to sources. Furthermore, a variety of sequence analysis tools and bioinformatic pipelines are being developed to analyze the vast amount of data generated by WGS and to obtain specific information such as O- and H-group determination and the presence of virulence genes and other genetic markers.
Book
1 online resource (vii, 182 pages) : color illustrations
  • Preface; Contents; 1: The Protein Data Bank; 2: Seeing Is Believing: Methods of Structure Solution; 3: Visualizing the Invisible World of Molecules; 4: The Twists and Turns of DNA; 5: The Central Dogma; 6: The Secret of Life: The Genetic Code; 7: Evolution in Action; 8: How Evolution Shapes Proteins; 9: The Universe of Protein Folds; 10: Order and Chaos in Protein Structure; 11: Molecular Electronics; 12: Green Energy; 13: Peak Performance; 14: Cellular Signaling Networks; 15: GPCRs Revealed; 16: Signaling with Hormones; 17: Single-Molecule Chemistry: Enzyme Action and the Transition State
  • 18: Seven Wonders of the World of Enzymes One: Perfect Enzymes; Two: Induced Fit; Three: Form-Fitting Active Sites; Four: Allostery; Five: Substrate Channeling; Six: Chemical Cofactors; Seven: Ribozymes; 19: Building Bodies; 20: Coloring the Biological World; 21: Amazing Antibodies; 22: Attack and Defense:Weapons of the ImmuneSystem; 23: Reconstructing HIV
This book will take an evidence-based approach to current knowledge about biomolecules and their place in our lives, inviting readers to explore how we know what we know, and how current gaps in knowledge may influence the way we approach the information. Biomolecular science is increasingly important in our everyday life, influencing the choices we make about our diet, our health, and our wellness. Often, however, information about biomolecular science is presented as a list of immutable facts, discouraging critical thought. The book will introduce the basic tools of structural biology, supply real-life examples, and encourage critical thought about aspects of biology that are still not fully understood.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (24 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Uniformitarianism, Lamarckism and Darwin's theory
  • Mendel’s work and the science of genetics
  • The modern synthesis: a mechanistic basis for variation and heredity
  • Molecular biology: the age of biological information
  • Rethinking gradual progressive evolution
  • Evolutionary biology in the age of genomics
  • Eugenics, the dark chapter of evolutionary biology
  • Group-level selection and evolution of morality.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (36 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Cardiac aging in human and animal models
  • Molecular mechanisms for cardiac aging
  • Recent advances on potential interventions for cardiac aging
  • Future perspectives of cardiac aging interventions.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (16 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Niche construction: definitions and examples
  • The endomembrane system
  • Advent of cholesterol depended on oxygen
  • Ecosystems and the process of death
  • Internal niche construction
  • The swim-bladder, the lung and PTHrP
  • Niche construction and epigenetics interactions
  • Gaia hypothesis.
Book
10 p. : digital, PDF file.
Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using a Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx<sub>2e</sub> (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx<sub>1a</sub> (14%), stx<sub>2d</sub> (3%), and stx<sub>1c</sub> (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx<sub>2d</sub> were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx<sub>2a</sub> and stx<sub>2c</sub>, the stx<sub>2d</sub> variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfA<sub>O113</sub> and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfA<sub>O26</sub>, lpfA<sub>O157</sub>, fedA, orfA, and orfB. Furthermore, the present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (52 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Application of new diagnostic techniques in clinical medicine, mainly in molecular cytogenetics of neoplasia
  • Relevant chromosomal abnormalities that impact the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia.
Book
25 p. : digital, PDF file.
Microbial-mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park have been studied for nearly 50 years. The emphasis has mostly focused on the chlorophototrophic bacterial organisms of the phyla <i>Cyanobacteria</i> and <i>Chloroflexi</i>. In contrast, the diversity and metabolic functions of the heterotrophic community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are not well understood. In this study we analyzed the orange-colored undermat of the microbial community of Mushroom Spring using metagenomic and rRNA-amplicon (iTag) analyses. Our analyses disclosed a highly diverse community exhibiting a high degree of unevenness, strongly dominated by a single taxon, the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, <i>Roseiflexus</i> spp. The second most abundant organisms belonged to the <i>Thermotogae</i>, which have been hypothesized to be a major source of H-2 from fermentation that could enable photomixotrophic metabolism by <i>Chloroflexus</i> and <i>Roseiflexus</i> spp. Other abundant organisms include two members of the <i>Armatimonadetes</i> (OP10); <i>Thermocrinis</i> sp.; and phototrophic and heterotrophic members of the <i>Chloroflexi</i>. Further, an <i>Atribacteria</i> (OP9/JS1) member; a sulfate-reducing <i>Therrnodesulfovibrio</i> sp.; a <i>Planctomycetes</i> member; a member of the EM3 group tentatively affiliated with the <i>Thermotogae</i>, as well as a putative member of the <i>Arrninicenantes</i> (OP8) represented ≥ 1% of the reads. <i>Archaea</i> were not abundant in the iTag analysis, and no metagenomic bin representing an archaeon was identified. A high microdiversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences was identified for the dominant taxon, <i>Roseiflexus</i> spp. Previous studies demonstrated that highly similar <i>Synechococcus</i> variants in the upper layer of the mats represent ecological species populations with specific ecological adaptations. In conclusion, this study suggests that similar putative ecotypes specifically adapted to different niches occur within the undermat community, particularly for <i>Roseiflexus</i> spp.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (11 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: History of descriptive physiology
  • Systems biology
  • The biota expansion
  • Downward causation vs. cell-cell signaling
  • Holism vs. Reductionism: philosophical views about nature
  • Molecular changes mediating evolution
  • Cell communication as mechanism of novelty
  • From phylogeny-ontogeny to homeostasis & repair
  • Homeostasis as the mechanism for evolution
  • Explicate/Implicate order.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (15 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Tissue interactions during morphogenesis
  • Automaturation due to mechanotransduction
  • PTHrP is stretch-regulated
  • Dissociation of endoderm from mesoderm and fibrosis
  • Co-culture of endoderm and mesoderm lead to homeostasis
  • Neutral Lipid Trafficking.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (33 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Evolution of endothermy
  • PTHrP, Glucocorticoid and β-Adrenergic Receptor gene duplications
  • Hypoxia integrates respiratory and endocrine systems
  • Selection pressure for integrated physiology: lung, kidney, heart
  • Ontogeny-phylogeny of lung cell evolution
  • Swim bladder-lung functional homology
  • PTHrP is stretch-regulated
  • Chemiosmosis-homeostasis and the origins of life
  • Vertical integration of the effect of cholesterol on homeostasis
  • Cell-cell interactions and adaptation to oxygen
  • Endothermy as exaptation of oxygen adaptation
  • Physiologic homology based on cell-cell interactions.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (5 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Basis for predictive medicine
  • Utility in rational drug design & improving medical practices
  • Bioethics based on physiologic principles
  • A universal database for the natural sciences
  • The ideal human living environment.
Book
1 online resource (572 p.)
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (41 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Overview of lens anatomy and function
  • Lens macrostructure/microanatomy and lens transparency
  • Molecular mechanisms of the vertebrate lens development
  • Factors contributing to normal lens physiology
  • The role of proteins integral to lenticular transparency
  • Genetics of lens abnormalities
  • The importance of precision diagnoses in congenital lens abnormality cases
  • Next generation sequencing technologies in the diagnosis of lens abnormalities.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (26 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: The origin of life
  • Major transitions and size increase
  • Formation of cells
  • Molecules in the cellular environment
  • Complex cells
  • Conflict mediation
  • Multi level selection
  • Multicellularity
  • Origin of societies.
Book
1 online resource ()
  • Front Cover; Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging; Copyright Page; Contents; List of Contributors; Introduction to the Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging; Series Preface; Acknowledgments; I. Introductory Aspects on Aging and Nutrition; 1 Molecular and Cellular Basis of Aging; Introduction; Biological Principles of Aging; Occurrence, Accumulation, and Consequences of Molecular Damage; Homeodynamics and the Homeodynamic Space; Nutrition and Food for Aging Interventions; Nutritional Hormetins; Conclusions; Summary Points; References.
  • 2 Unraveling Stochastic Aging Processes in Mouse Liver: Dissecting Biological from Chronological AgeIntroduction; Pathological Parameters are only Partially Associated with Chronological Age; Intraorgan Specific Biological Phenotypes; Tissue-Specific Biological Phenotypes; Gene Expression Profiles Related to Pathological Aging Parameters; Gene Expression Profiles Correlating with Pathological Parameters are Largely Specific to the Pathological Parameters; Future Perspectives; Conclusion; References; 3 Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics: The Basis of Molecular Nutrition; Introduction.
  • Nutrigenetics of Omega-3 PUFA in CVDNutrigenetics of Omega-3 PUHA in Cancer; DNA Damage and Nutrients; Cellular Senescence and Nutrients; Epigenetics and Nutrients; Summary Points; References; 4 Diet and Longevity Phenotype; Introduction; Main Text; Nutrient Components and Aging Process; Crucial Role of Fatty Acid Component; Genomic Studies and Importance of Palmitoleic Acid; The Central Position of Energy Sensor Systems; The Involvement of Sympathetic System; Epigenetic Linkage of Aging and Nutrition; Summary; References; 5 Nutrition in the Elderly: General Aspects; Introduction.
  • Malnutrition in the Elderly: Definition and General AspectsCauses of Malnutrition in the Elderly; Malnutrition: Possible Correction With Supplements in the Elderly; Nutrient-Sensing Pathways; Nutrient-Gene Interaction in the Elderly (Nutrigenomic Approach); Conclusions and Perspectives; Summary Points; Acknowledgments; References; 6 Nutrition in the Hospitalized Elderly; Introduction; Pathogenesis of Malnutrition in Hospitalized Elderly; The Interaction Between Aging, Health Status, Hospital Environment, and Nutritional Status; Why Are Hospitalized Older Adults Nutritionally Vulnerable?
  • Age-Related ChangesAnorexia of Aging; Changes in the Body Composition; Taste, Smell, and Mastication Dysfunction; Gastrointestinal Changes; Medical Causes; Use of Multiple Medications; Functional and Psychosocial Factors; Hospital Environment-Related Risks; Clinical Consequences of Malnutrition in Hospital; Malnutrition Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Elderly; Malnutrition Screening as a Part from Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA); Comprehensive Nutritional Assessment; Nutritional History; Physical and Clinical Assessment; Anthropometry; The Biochemical Investigations.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (38 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: X chromosome inactivation
  • The X inactivation centre (Xic)
  • Key role of the Xist locus
  • Towards an understanding of Xist gene regulation in early mouse development
  • Mechanisms regulating Xist RNA localisation within the inactive X chromosome territory
  • Chromatin modification and gene silencing by Xist RNA.
Book
Article No. e0153700 : digital, PDF file.
Recently, catalytic peptides were introduced that mimicked protease activities and showed promising selectivity of products even in organic solvents where protease cannot perform well. However, their catalytic efficiency was extremely low compared to natural enzyme counterparts presumably due to the lack of stable tertiary fold. We hypothesized that assembling these peptides along with simple hydrophobic pockets, mimicking enzyme active sites, could enhance the catalytic activity. Here we fused the sequence of catalytic peptide CP4, capable of protease and esterase-like activities, into a short amyloidogenic peptide fragment of Aβ. When the fused CP4-Aβ construct assembled into antiparallel β- sheets and amyloid fibrils, a 4.0-fold increase in the hydrolysis rate of p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) compared to neat CP4 peptide was observed. Furthermore, the enhanced catalytic activity of CP4-Aβ assembly could be explained both by pre-organization of a catalytically competent Ser-His-acid triad and hydrophobic stabilization of a bound substrate between the triad and p-NPA, indicating that a design strategy for self-assembled peptides is important to accomplish the desired functionality.