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1 online resource.
Fractional evolution inclusions are an important form of differential inclusions within nonlinear mathematical analysis. They are generalizations of the much more widely developed fractional evolution equations (such as time-fractional diffusion equations) seen through the lens of multivariate analysis. Compared to fractional evolution equations, research on the theory of fractional differential inclusions is however only in its initial stage of development. This is important because differential models with the fractional derivative providing an excellent instrument for the description of memory and hereditary properties, and have recently been proved valuable tools in the modeling of many physical phenomena. The fractional order models of real systems are always more adequate than the classical integer order models, since the description of some systems is more accurate when the fractional derivative is used. The advantages of fractional derivatization become evident in modeling mechanical and electrical properties of real materials, description of rheological properties of rocks and in various other fields. Such models are interesting for engineers and physicists as well as so-called pure mathematicians. Phenomena investigated in hybrid systems with dry friction, processes of controlled heat transfer, obstacle problems and others can be described with the help of various differential inclusions, both linear and nonlinear. Fractional Evolution Equations and Inclusions is devoted to a rapidly developing area of the research for fractional evolution equations & inclusions and their applications to control theory. It studies Cauchy problems for fractional evolution equations, and fractional evolution inclusions with Hille-Yosida operators. It discusses control problems for systems governed by fractional evolution equations. Finally it provides an investigation of fractional stochastic evolution inclusions in Hilbert spaces.
1 online resource (Article No. e1004677 ) : digital, PDF file.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived from activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (12 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Obesity: a global epidemic (epidemiology)
  • Obesity in the past
  • Evolutionary perspective
  • Obesity harms everyone
  • Obesity does not affect all populations equally.
1 online resource (xxi, 258 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • ch. 1. The enigma of smell
  • ch. 2. An evolutionary perspective
  • ch. 3. How smell works
  • ch. 4. To catching a whiff
  • ch. 5. Making sense of a sense
  • ch. 6. Sex, smell and 'ADAM'
  • ch. 7. The scent of humankind
  • ch. 8. Armpit evolution
  • ch. 9. Incense and perfume
  • ch. 10. Smell and high culture
  • ch. 11. Art and literature
  • ch. 12. Adam's nose and the making of humankind.
This book is about the evolution of the sense of smell, from its bacterial origin 3.4 billion years ago, to today's modern, sophisticated humans with an insatiable appetite for perfumes and fragrances.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (40 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Patterns of genetic variation in Europe and the Neolithic
  • Ancient DNA and anatomically modern humans (Challenges & Potential)
  • The Neolithic transition in Europe (Scandinavia, Iberia and Eastern Europe).
1 online resource (Article No. 8285 ) : digital, PDF file.
Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These similarities likely reflect a shared role for fermentative metabolisms despite a shift in primary carbon sources from plant-derived to animal-derived polysaccharides, such as chitin. In contrast, protein catabolism and essential amino acid synthesis pathways in baleen whale microbiomes more closely resemble those of terrestrial carnivores. Our results demonstrate that functional attributes of the microbiome can vary independently even given an animal-derived diet, illustrating how diet and evolutionary history combine to shape microbial diversity in the mammalian gut.
1 online resource.
For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.
1 online resource (11 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
As the title of the grant clearly states, this project has explores a unique way that makes use of manmade proteins to turn solar energy into chemical fuels. A major impetus to the work is that there is growing support for the view that two related forces will impact on future livability of Earth. The first is the finite supply of fossil fuels to power the Earth making it prudent to save this resource for the creation of useful chemicals. The second is that burning fossil fuels to generate power releases “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere. There is mounting evidence that this is a major contribution to the warming trend in the Earth’s atmosphere and biosphere.
1 online resource.
Initial proposal summary: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant mutants among bacteria (superbugs) is a persistent and growing threat to public health. In many ways, we are engaged in a war with these microorganisms, where the corresponding arms race involves chemical weapons and biological targets. Just as advances in microelectronics, imaging technology and feature recognition software have turned conventional munitions into smart bombs, the long-term objectives of this proposal are to develop highly effective antibiotics using next-generation biomolecular modeling capabilities in tandem with novel subatomic feature detection software. Using model compounds and targets, our design methodology will be validated with correspondingly ultra-high resolution structure-determination methods at premier DOE facilities (single-crystal X-ray diffraction at Argonne National Laboratory, and neutron diffraction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The objectives and accomplishments are summarized.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (51 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Identity by descent (IBD): mechanism
  • Identity by descent (IBD): insight into modern humans
  • Estimating IBD: Wright inbreeding coefficient
  • Estimating IBD: genomic inbreeding coefficient
  • Estimating IBD: runs of homozygosity (ROH)
  • Properties of ROH.
1 online resource (29 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests including hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850 and 950 degrees C. At both temperatures, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. The magnitude of this effect depended on the specific mechanisms and whether they resulted in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creep-fatigue for a particular temperature and strain range combination. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creep-fatigue resistance at 950 degrees C but did continue to degrade the lifetimes at 850 degrees C.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (46 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Impact of women migration on the population genetics
  • Different social organizations in Central Asia
  • Common ancestors study in Pastoralists from Central Asia
  • Impact of social organization on genetic diversity
  • Cultural transmission of reproductive success
  • Genetic adaptations to diet.
484 pages : color illustrations, maps ; 27 cm
  • Section 1: Basics -- 1. The evidence for evolution -- 2. The engine of evolution -- Section 2: History -- 3. The tree of life -- 4. The diversity of life -- 5. The ancestry of life -- Section 3: Origins -- 6. The origin of variation -- 7. The origin of species -- 8. The origin of innovation -- Section 4: Adaptation -- 9. Adaptation and evolved design -- 10. Evolving bodies -- 11. The dynamic genome -- Section 5: Selection -- 12. Artificial selection -- 13. Experimental evolution -- 14. Selection in natural populations -- Section 6: Interaction -- 15. Sexual selection -- 16. Cooperation and conflict -- 17. Symbiosis and struggle.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
The Evolution of Life stands alone amongst the major textbooks by focusing on key principles to offer a truly accessible, unintimidating treatment of evolutionary biology. With adaptation through natural selection - how the integrated complexity of living organisms comes about - as its central theme, the book adopts a lucid, crystal-clear narrative to explain the mechanism of evolution and its main outcomes. Chapters are grouped into six themed parts - basics, history, origins, adaptation, selection, and interaction - and the text is regularly interspersed with descriptive headings that set out a clear path through the subject. The Evolution of Life is written to instil a true understanding of the essential principles of evolutionary biology without that understanding being compromised by peripheral detail. As such, it is the ideal introduction for any student encountering this fascinating subject for the first time. Online Resource Centre The Evolution of Life is supported by the following online resources: For registered adopters: - Figures from the book in electronic format for use in lectures - A set of exam questions for each chapter - Journal Clubs: discussion questions that guide students through research papers related to each chapter For students: - Programs and interactive spreadsheets related to activities posed in the book.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Biology Library (Falconer)
1 online resource (various pagings) : illustrations (some color).
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Of snails and snakes
  • 1.2. The three key elements
  • 1.3. Stochasticity
  • 1.4. Towards a mathematics of evolution
  • 1.5. Organization of this book
  • 2. Cell biology and molecular genetics
  • 2.1. Cellular architecture and proliferation
  • 2.2. DNA, RNA and proteins
  • 2.3. Metabolism
  • 3. Phylogeny and development
  • 3.1. Phylogenic trees
  • 3.2. Development
  • 4. Elementary evolutionary dynamics
  • 4.1. Conceptual challenges and the standard assumption
  • 4.2. Haploids
  • 4.3. Diploids
  • 4.4. Projection onto tightly linked clusters of loci
  • 4.5. Drift and fixation
  • 5. Probability and measurement
  • 5.1. Fundamental laws of probability
  • 5.2. Random variables and their distributions
  • 5.3. Expectation and variance
  • 5.4. Common distributions and their properties
  • 5.5. Measurement scales
  • 6. Statistical inference and estimation
  • 6.1. The essential ideas
  • 6.2. Justifying the likelihood ratio principle
  • 6.3. Linking alleles to traits
  • 6.4. Microarrays: the stepping down procedure
  • 6.5. Analysis of bivariate data
  • 7. Sequence, structure and function
  • 7.1. Principles of dynamic programming
  • 7.2. Sequence phylogenies
  • 7.3. Sequence alignment
  • 7.4. Deep structure
  • 7.5. From sequence to function
  • 8. Analysis of quantitative trait loci
  • 8.1. Recombinant distributions
  • 8.2. Genetic markers and mapping
  • 8.3. The number of quantitative trait loci
  • 9. Evolutionary dynamics of QTL
  • 9.1. Heritability
  • 9.2. Dynamics of the additive genetic component
  • 9.3. The persistence of sex
  • 10. Adaptive dynamics and speciation
  • 10.1. Adaptive dynamics
  • 10.2. Fisher's law for adaptive dynamics
  • 10.3. Adaptive radiations and mass extinctions
  • 11. Traits as objects of selection
  • 11.1. Regimenting traits
  • 11.2. Scope and limitations of the additive genetic model
  • 12. Fitness and optimality
  • 12.1. Evolution of protandry in butterflies
  • 12.2. Evolution of juvenility
  • 12.3. Evolution of homeostasis
  • 12.4. Fitness probes
  • Appendices.
  • A. Species, speciation and systematics
  • B. Dangerous ideas
  • C. Dynamics
  • D. Constrained optimization
  • E. Thermal physics.
Written for researchers and postgraduate students with a background in physics or applied mathematics and a desire to apply their skills to problems in the life sciences, this beautifully illustrated and stimulating book develops an understanding of the gene-to-trait problem in the context of evolutionary dynamics, from the modern perspective of integrative biology. The gene-to-trait problem resides at the heart of a great many questions in biology. The author presents both elementary and advanced material in a way that brings out how this gene-to-trait problem is treated in the contexts of bioinformatics and evolutionary dynamics. Key ideas and techniques that underlie some of the most-used bioinformatics methods are discussed in an integrative context and a wide range of examples of mathematical models of living things is developed in an evolutionary framework.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (47 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: The first study of global gene-language coevolution
  • Coevolution since 1988
  • Coevolution in the genomic era
  • Serial Founder Effect for genes and languages?
  • Regional studies of language and population genetic evolution.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (35 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Introduction to genetic drift
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • Experimental observations of genetic drift
  • Wright-Fisher model
  • Computational simulations.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (28 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Genomic signature of genetic drift on human populations
  • Serial founder effect model
  • Genetic drift signature on the site frequency spectrum (SFS)
  • Future directions.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (34 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Austronesian expansion is an expansion of languages
  • Spread of Austronesian languages from Taiwan
  • Genetic study of Taiwan
  • Putting together archaeology, linguistics, and genetics
  • Genetics and the Austronesian expansion.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (31 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Ethical & social implications of genetic research in indigenous communities
  • A multidisciplinary approach to infer evolutionary history
  • Genetic variation studies in Native Americans
  • Ancient DNA research to bypass genomic effects of European colonization
  • Non-indigenous admixture in Native Americans.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (28 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Quantifying human skeletal variation
  • Genetic & environmental basis of human skeletal variation
  • Observations about human genetic variation
  • Patterns of cranial variation vs. patterns of genetic variation
  • Evolutionary processes that shaped patterns of cranial variation
  • Humans in comparison with other taxa.