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1 online resource (1 streaming video file (24 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Uniformitarianism, Lamarckism and Darwin's theory
  • Mendel’s work and the science of genetics
  • The modern synthesis: a mechanistic basis for variation and heredity
  • Molecular biology: the age of biological information
  • Rethinking gradual progressive evolution
  • Evolutionary biology in the age of genomics
  • Eugenics, the dark chapter of evolutionary biology
  • Group-level selection and evolution of morality.
1 online resource (14 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
In this study, the toxicity of alcohols is one of the major roadblocks of biological fermentation for biofuels production. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium, has been engineered to generate 1-butanol from cheap carbon feedstocks through a synthetic metabolic pathway. However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. Only a few studies have reported the general stress response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress. Therefore, it is highly desirable to obtain a strain with ameliorated 1-butanol tolerance and elucidate the molecular mechanism of 1-butnaol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1 for future strain improvement. In this work, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to isolate mutants with 1-butanol tolerance up to 0.5 %. The evolved strains, BHBT3 and BHBT5, demonstrated increased growth rates and higher survival rates with the existence of 1-butanol. Whole genome sequencing revealed a SNP mutation at kefB in BHBT5, which was confirmed to be responsible for increasing 1-butanol tolerance through an allelic exchange experiment. Global metabolomic analysis further discovered that the pools of multiple key metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, and disaccharides, were increased in BHBT5 in response to 1-butanol stress. Additionally, the carotenoid synthesis pathway was significantly down-regulated in BHBT5. In conclusion, we successfully screened mutants resistant to 1-butanol and provided insights into the molecular mechanism of 1-butanol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1. This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (11 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: History of descriptive physiology
  • Systems biology
  • The biota expansion
  • Downward causation vs. cell-cell signaling
  • Holism vs. Reductionism: philosophical views about nature
  • Molecular changes mediating evolution
  • Cell communication as mechanism of novelty
  • From phylogeny-ontogeny to homeostasis & repair
  • Homeostasis as the mechanism for evolution
  • Explicate/Implicate order.
1 streaming video (141 minutes) : sound, colour.
  • Section 1. Differential evolution
  • Lesson 1. Explaining differential evolution
  • Lesson 2. Improvements to differential evolution
  • Lesson 3. Benchmarks of differential evolution
  • Section 2. Application of DE to tree model reconstruction
  • Lesson 4. Procedural tree models in tree model reconstruction
  • Lesson 5. Automatic modeling of trees using differential evolution
  • Lesson 6. Reconstructing trees from images using differential evolution
  • Section 3. Application of differential evolution in underwater glider path planning
  • Lesson 7. Solving underwater robotics challenges with differential evolution
  • Lesson 8. Planning glider paths using differential evolution
  • Lesson 9. Differential evolution performance comparison
  • Section 4. Application of differential evolution in hydro and thermal power plant scheduling
  • Lesson 10. Hydro-thermal scheduling using differential evolution
  • Lesson 11. Parallel differential evolution
  • Lesson 12. Surrogate differential evolution
  • Section 5. Applications of differential evolution in real world industrial challenges
  • Lesson 13. CEC 2011 benchmarks of differential evolution
  • Lesson 14. Open issues of differential evolution
  • Lesson 15. Forthcoming challenges of differential evolution.
Differential Evolution (DE) is one of the most popular, high-performance optimization algorithms with variants that have been outperforming others for years. As a result, DE has grown to accommodate wide usage for a variety of disciplines across scientific fields. Differential Evolution and Large-Scale Optimization Applications presents a research-based overview and cross-disciplinary applications of optimization algorithms. Emphasizing applications of Differential Evolution (DE) across sectors and laying the foundation for further use of DE algorithms in real-world settings, this video is an essential resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate-level students.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (15 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Tissue interactions during morphogenesis
  • Automaturation due to mechanotransduction
  • PTHrP is stretch-regulated
  • Dissociation of endoderm from mesoderm and fibrosis
  • Co-culture of endoderm and mesoderm lead to homeostasis
  • Neutral Lipid Trafficking.
1 online resource.
  • Front Cover ; Fractional Evolution Equations and Inclusions ; Copyright ; Table of Contents ; Preface; Chapter 1: Preliminaries; 1.1 Basic Facts and Notation ; 1.2 Fractional Integrals and Derivatives
  • 1.3 Semigroups and Almost Sectorial Operators 1.4 Spaces of Asymptotically Periodic Functions ; 1.5 Weak Compactness of Sets and Operators
  • 1.6 Multivalued Analysis1.7 Stochastic Process; Chapter 2: Fractional Evolution Equations; 2.1 Cauchy Problems; 2.2 Bounded Solutions on Real Axis ; 2.3 Notes and Remarks ; Chapter 3: Fractional Evolution Inclusions With Hille-yosida Operators; 3.1 Existence of Integral Solutions
  • 3.2 Topological Structure of Solution Sets 3.3 Notes and Remarks ; Chapter 4: Fractional Control Systems ; 4.1 Existence and Optimal Control ; 4.2 Optimal Feedback Control; 4.3 Controllability; 4.4 Approximate Controllability
  • 4.5 Topological Structure of Solution Sets 4.6 Notes and Remarks ; Chapter 5: Fractional Stochastic Evolution Inclusions; 5.1 Existence of Mild Solutions
Fractional evolution inclusions are an important form of differential inclusions within nonlinear mathematical analysis. They are generalizations of the much more widely developed fractional evolution equations (such as time-fractional diffusion equations) seen through the lens of multivariate analysis. Compared to fractional evolution equations, research on the theory of fractional differential inclusions is however only in its initial stage of development. This is important because differential models with the fractional derivative providing an excellent instrument for the description of memory and hereditary properties, and have recently been proved valuable tools in the modeling of many physical phenomena. The fractional order models of real systems are always more adequate than the classical integer order models, since the description of some systems is more accurate when the fractional derivative is used. The advantages of fractional derivatization become evident in modeling mechanical and electrical properties of real materials, description of rheological properties of rocks and in various other fields. Such models are interesting for engineers and physicists as well as so-called pure mathematicians. Phenomena investigated in hybrid systems with dry friction, processes of controlled heat transfer, obstacle problems and others can be described with the help of various differential inclusions, both linear and nonlinear. Fractional Evolution Equations and Inclusions is devoted to a rapidly developing area of the research for fractional evolution equations & inclusions and their applications to control theory. It studies Cauchy problems for fractional evolution equations, and fractional evolution inclusions with Hille-Yosida operators. It discusses control problems for systems governed by fractional evolution equations. Finally it provides an investigation of fractional stochastic evolution inclusions in Hilbert spaces.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (26 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: The origin of life
  • Major transitions and size increase
  • Formation of cells
  • Molecules in the cellular environment
  • Complex cells
  • Conflict mediation
  • Multi level selection
  • Multicellularity
  • Origin of societies.
1 online resource (107 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
Beta-decay spectroscopy provides important information on nuclear structure and properties needed to understand topics as widely varied as fundamental nuclear astrophysics to applied nuclear reactor design. However, there are significant limitations of our knowledge due to an inability to experimentally measure everything. Therefore, it is often necessary to rely on theoretical calculations which need to be vetted with experimental results. The focus of this report will be results from experimental research performed by the Principal Investigator (PI) and his research group at Mississippi State University in which the group played the lead role in proposing, implementing, performing and analyzing the experiment. This research was carried out at both the National Superconduction Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The primary emphasis of the research was the use of \bdec spectroscopy as a tool to understand the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich nuclei which could then be applied to improve theory and to increase the overall knowledge of nuclear structure.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (47 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: The Origin of Life
  • Physics entrained
  • Multiple theories over the ages
  • Character and origination of organic molecules linking to self organization
  • Necessity of cells
  • Theoretical pathways to the origination of life
  • Exploration of what actually constitutes life
  • Emphasizes the paramount aspects of cognition, communication, and cellular collaboration towards problem solving in evolution.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (35 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Adaptations: exploration of various definitions
  • Reasons for variations in animals
  • Natural Selection
  • Biomimicry: nature-inspired solutions
  • Top 10 causes of morbidity and mortality in humans
  • What is a model
  • Focus on the natural phenomena
  • Animals resistant to heart disease or cancer
  • Hypoxia and anoxia tolerant species
  • Biomimicry for injury prevention and treatment
  • Animal models of: neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, kidney function
  • Biomimicry to prevent disease transmission
  • Understanding stress in animals.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (29 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Events leading up to eukaryotic cell formation
  • Evolutionary conflicts
  • Mediation of conflicts
  • Surface-to-volume constraints
  • Endosymbiosis
  • Mechanisms of metabolic homeostasis
  • The major features of eukaryotes.
1 online resource (11 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.
1 online resource (Article No. e1004677 ) : digital, PDF file.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived from activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (38 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Trichoplax and the origin of animal complexity
  • Complex patterns usually evolve from more basic patterns
  • Introducing the placozoan Trichoplax
  • Metazoan
  • Definition
  • The Biology of Placozoa
  • Trichoplax adhaerens: Grell clone
  • Comparing Placozoa with other Metazoa
  • Parallel evolution: diploblasts & triploblasts
  • The new Placula hypothesis
  • Hox-like genes.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (18 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Neutral Lipid Trafficking
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) as failed cell-cell interactions
  • PPARγ prevention of BPD
  • de Duve Hypothesis
  • Preventive Medicine
  • PTHrP, Glucocorticoid and βAdrenergic Receptor gene duplications
  • Oxygen effects on cell-cell interactions
  • Phylogeny of lung, kidney, heart
  • Skin-lung homology
  • Lung-kidney homology
  • Lung-brain homology
  • Predictive Model.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (12 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Ontogeny, the "short history" of the organism
  • Embryogenesis, blastula to gastrula
  • Molecular signaling and morphogenesis
  • Alternating extrinsic/intrinsic selection pressure
  • Swim Bladder-Lung homology
  • Continuum from ontogeny to phylogeny, homeostasis, repair
  • PTHrP necessary for alveolarization
  • PTHrP, Glucocorticoid and βAdrenergic Receptor gene duplications
  • Evolution of Endothermy.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (12 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Obesity: a global epidemic (epidemiology)
  • Obesity in the past
  • Evolutionary perspective
  • Obesity harms everyone
  • Obesity does not affect all populations equally.
1 online resource (133 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.
1 online resource (xxi, 258 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • ch. 1. The enigma of smell
  • ch. 2. An evolutionary perspective
  • ch. 3. How smell works
  • ch. 4. To catching a whiff
  • ch. 5. Making sense of a sense
  • ch. 6. Sex, smell and 'ADAM'
  • ch. 7. The scent of humankind
  • ch. 8. Armpit evolution
  • ch. 9. Incense and perfume
  • ch. 10. Smell and high culture
  • ch. 11. Art and literature
  • ch. 12. Adam's nose and the making of humankind.
This book is about the evolution of the sense of smell, from its bacterial origin 3.4 billion years ago, to today's modern, sophisticated humans with an insatiable appetite for perfumes and fragrances.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781783265183 20160618