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Book
1 online resource (76 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.
Book
1 online resource (33 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted its first annual survey update of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2013 survey.
Book
1 online resource (p. 1-7 ) : digital, PDF file.
Illumina is the most widely used next generation sequencing technology and produces millions of short reads that contain errors. These sequencing errors constitute a major problem in applications such as de novo genome assembly, metagenomics analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism discovery. In this study, we present ADEPT, a dynamic error detection method, based on the quality scores of each nucleotide and its neighboring nucleotides, together with their positions within the read and compares this to the position-specific quality score distribution of all bases within the sequencing run. This method greatly improves upon other available methods in terms of the true positive rate of error discovery without affecting the false positive rate, particularly within the middle of reads. We conclude that ADEPT is the only tool to date that dynamically assesses errors within reads by comparing position-specific and neighboring base quality scores with the distribution of quality scores for the dataset being analyzed. The result is a method that is less prone to position-dependent under-prediction, which is one of the most prominent issues in error prediction. The outcome is that ADEPT improves upon prior efforts in identifying true errors, primarily within the middle of reads, while reducing the false positive rate.
Book
254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (43 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Anesthesia in lab animals sciences: reasons and concerns
  • Different stages and components of general anesthesia
  • Groups of drugs and side effects
  • Injectable vs. inhalational agents
  • Equipment
  • Choosing the best practice.
This report summarizes the persistence of bacterial strains and their resistance to antibacterial drugs, as well as how they have emerged.
Switchgrass is an increasingly important biofuel crop, but knowledge of switchgrass fungal pathogens is not extensive. The purpose of this research was to identify the fungal pathogens that decrease crop yield of switchgrass grown in Tennessee and to investigate a potential sustainable disease management strategy from a value-added by-product of the switchgrass biofuel conversion process. The specific objectives were 1) to identify and characterize prevalent fungal pathogens of switchgrass in Tennessee, 2) assess switchgrass seed produced in the United States for seedborne fungal pathogens, and 3) evaluate switchgrass extractives for antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens.
Provided herein are methods and apparatus for detecting a target nucleic acid in a sample and related methods and apparatus for diagnosing a condition in an individual. The condition is associated with presence of nucleic acid produced by certain pathogens in the individual.
An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.
Book
1 online resource (vi, 398 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • The Era of Big Data: From Data-driven Research to Data-driven Clinical Care.- Biostatistics, data mining and computational modeling.- Gene expression and profiling.- The next generation sequencing and applications in clinical research.- Clinical epigenetics and epigenomics.- Proteomic profiling: Data mining and analyses.- Targeted metabolomics: the next generation of clinical chemistry!?.- Clinical bioinformatics for biomarker discovery in targeted metabolomics.- Metagenomic Profiling, Interaction of Genomics with Meta-genomics.- Clinical Epigenetics and Epigenomics.- Integrative Biological Databases.- Standards and Regulations for (Bio)Medical Software.- Clinical applications and systems biomedicine.- Key Law and Policy Considerations for Clinical Bioinformaticians.- Challenges and Opportunities in Clinical Bioinformatics.- Heterogeneity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9789401775410 20160619
This book elucidates how genetic, biological and medical information can be applied to the development of personalized healthcare, medication and therapies. Focusing on aspects of the development of evidence-based approaches in bioinformatics and computational medicine, including data integration, methodologies, tools and models for clinical and translational medicine, it offers an essential introduction to clinical bioinformatics for clinical researchers and physicians, medical students and teachers, and scientists working with human disease-based omics and bioinformatics. Dr. Xiangdong Wang is a distinguished Professor of Medicine. He is Director of Shanghai Institute of Clinical Bioinformatics, Director of Fudan University Center for Clinical Bioinformatics, Deputy Director of Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Director of Biomedical Research Center, Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China; Dr. Christian Baumgartner is a Professor of Health Care and Biomedical Engineering at Institute of Health Care Engineering with European Notified Body of Medical Devices, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; Dr. Denis Shields is a Professor of Clinical Bioinformatics at Conway Institute, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; Dr. Hong-Wen Deng is a Professor at Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, USA; Dr. Jacques S Beckmann is a Professor and Director of Section of Clinical Bioinformatics, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9789401775410 20160619
Book
48 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents a review of existing approaches to estimate the costs of inaction, as well as the benefits of policy action, for air pollution. It focuses primarily on health impacts from air pollution. The paper presents the "impact pathway approach", which includes various steps in the analysis of the costs of air pollution. These include quantifying emissions, calculating the concentrations of the pollutants, applying epidemiologic studies to calculate the physical health effects and applying valuation methods to calculate the economic costs of the health impacts. The report also reviews applications of the impact pathway approach to applied economic studies that aim at calculating the macroeconomic costs of air pollution. It proposes possible approaches for including the feedbacks from the health impacts of air pollution in an applied economic framework. While ideally this requires serious modifications of the modelling frameworks and an improvement of the available empirical results, some impacts, such as changes in health expenditures and labour productivity, can easily been incorporated, following the literature on the economic costs of the health impacts of climate change.
Book
1 online resource (37 p.)
This paper discusses the scope for market mechanisms, already established for greenhouse gas mitigation in Annex 1 countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol, for implementing "net mitigation, " defined here as mitigation beyond Annex 1 countries' formal mitigation requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Such market mechanisms could be useful for establishing and extending greenhouse gas mitigation targets also under the Paris Agreement from December 2015. Net mitigation is considered in two possible forms: as a "net atmospheric benefit, " or as an "own contribution" by offset host countries. A main conclusion is that a "net atmospheric benefit" is possible at least in the short run, best implemented via stricter baselines against which offsets are credited; but it can also take the form of offset iscounting whereby offset buyers are credited fewer credits. The latter, although generally inefficient, can be a second-best response to certain imperfections in the offset market, which are discussed in the paper. There is less merit for claiming that "own contributions" can lead to additional mitigation under existing mechanisms.
Book
1 online resource (XVI, 254 p. 292 ill., 55 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Data and Methods
  • Climate Change Historical Simulations and Projections
  • Comparisons among Multi-model Ensemble Methods
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions
  • Transferred Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Carbon Trade between Developed and Developing World.
This atlas and reference resource assembles the latest research findings on the responsibility and obligation of human society for historical climate change. It clearly and quantitatively estimates to what extent the developed and developing world are responsible for historical climate change with regard to anthropogenic carbon and sulfur emissions as well as global carbon trade, and so provides a potential tool to address the controversial issue of carbon emission reduction in international climate negotiations. Since the quantitative attribution of historical climate change is calculated based on CMIP5 models, the fidelity of these models in representing the observed climate change is also evaluated. In addition to evaluation, future climate change based on CMIP5 models is also shown both on global and regional scales (especially for China and its surrounding areas ) in terms of surface air temperature, precipitation, sea surface temperature, atmospheric circulations and Arctic Sea ice. The atlas also makes various comparisons among different multi-model ensemble methods in order to obtain the most reliable estimation.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 10373 ) : digital, PDF file.
Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. Here we use concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized warming has apparent and immediate consequences for the soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. In conclusion, these results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales.
Compound of Formula I: are described, along with compositions containing the same and methods of use thereof. ##STR00001##
Book
1 online resource (3 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
In the last grant period we explored the Na+ binding site of the recently discovered light-driven sodium ion pump. The rationale was that comparison of this novel system to the similar proton pumps and chloride ion pumps would reveal the amazingly (and unexpectedly) wide variety of structural features that govern conversion of light-energy into biologically useful transmembrane gradients and thus production of biomass. A thorough description of this system would establish the basis for continuing our funded research on these proteins.
Book
1 online resource (xvi, 247 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"Biofluid mechanics is the study of a certain class of biological problems from the viewpoint of fluid mechanics. Though biofluid mechanics does not involve any new development of the general principles of fluid mechanics, it does involve some new applications of its methods. Complex movements of fluids in the biological system demand for an analysis achievable only with professional fluid mechanics skills, and this volume aims to equip readers with the knowledge needed. This second edition is an enlarged version of the book published in 1992. While retaining the general plan of the first edition, this new edition presents an engineering analysis of the cardiovascular system relevant to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and combines engineering principles. Included in the material of this volume are: the emerging interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering, which deals with the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain and improve tissue function, and cellular and molecular bioengineering, which involves the mechanical, electrical and chemical processes of the human cell and tries to explain how cellular behaviour arises from molecular-level interactions. The added material in this edition is specifically designed for biomedical engineering professionals and students, and looks at the important applications of biofluid mechanics from an engineering perspective."-- Provided by publisher.
Provided herein are metabolically modified microorganisms characterized by having an increased keto-acid flux when compared with the wild-type organism and comprising at least one polynucleotide encoding an enzyme that when expressed results in the production of a greater quantity of a chemical product when compared with the wild-type organism. The recombinant microorganisms are useful for producing a large number of chemical compositions from various nitrogen containing biomass compositions and other carbon sources. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing alcohols, acetaldehyde, acetate, isobutyraldehyde, isobutyric acid, n-butyraldehyde, n-butyric acid, 2-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 2-methyl-1-butyric acid, 3-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butyric acid, ammonia, ammonium, amino acids, 2,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediamine, isobutene, itaconate, acetoin, acetone, isobutene, 1,5-diaminopentane, L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, shikimic acid, mevalonate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), isoprenoids, fatty acids, homoalanine, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, tetrahydrofuran, 3-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, gamma-butyrolactone, pyrrolidinone, n-methylpyrrolidone, aspartic acid, lysine, cadeverine, 2-ketoadipic acid, and/or S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) from a suitable nitrogen rich biomass.