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  • 1. Mutagenesis and health problems2. Molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis3. Bacterial mutation assays4. Gene mutation assays in cultured mammalian cells5. Chromosomal aberration test6. In vivo cytogenetic assay7. Mutagenicity testing in environmental pollution control8. Mutagens in food and water9. Emerging methods for the identification of mutagens10. Guidelines and registration of the new compounds or drug like molecules11. Mutagenicity testing, regulatory guidelines and current needs.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128092521 20171204
Mutagenicity: Assays and Applications presents an extensive examination of the detection, assessment and future of mutagenicity, particularly as it concerns human health and the environment. Chapters focused on specific types of mutagens or testing methods for their detection collectively explore the current state of human and environmental mutagenesis, future perspectives and regulatory needs. The test procedures for measuring mutagenicity, their advantages and limitations are described with practical and procedural detail, along with their presentation and data processing aspects. It is an essential reference covering the breadth and depth of the field of mutagenicity studies and regulation. By providing both important introductory material and practical assays and applications, this book is useful to graduate students, academic and industry researchers and regulators at various stages of their careers, leading to improved risk assessment and regulation.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128092521 20171204
1 online resource (541 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This unique story offers an introductory conversation to genetics, embryology and evolution, taking us on a historical journey of biology through the ages. Using a series of dialogues between the Greek philosopher Democritus and his disciple Alkimus, we travel through time visiting eminent scientists throughout the centuries, from Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodor Boveri to Francis Crick, Max Perutz and Christiane Nüsslein–Volhard. We find ourselves at the intersection of competing theories in biology and witness the progression from the debunking the theory of spontaneous generation to the mapping of the genome. Attention is given not only to the great successes in the field but also to the equally important and exciting failures. Originally published in Hungarian, The Story of Genetics, Development and Evolution provides a historical background to the life sciences, with complex scientific concepts stripped down and explained carefully for academics and anyone interested in going back to the roots and philosophies of scientific progress."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource.
  • Part I: Brains and Performance Chapter 1: Cranimania and Human Behavior Chapter 2: Brains: What are They Good For? Chapter 3: Group Size, Territory and Disease Chapter 4: Performing as Human or as a Social Being Chapter 5: Smooth Brains, Convolutions, Complexity and Ability Chapter 6: Brain Sizes, Bigness and Neurons Chapter 7: A Brain of Two Parts: Cortex vs. Cerebellum Chapter 8: The Future of the Human Brain Part II: History of a Genus and the Evolution of Society Chapter 9: Anthropocentric or Indifferent Universe? Chapter 10: Racism As a Human Disease Chapter 11: Learning and "Hard Wiring" Chapter 12: The Housing Crisis and Homelessness Chapter 13: On the Curious Illusion of Human Uniqueness References About the Author.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781498540872 20171127
This book examines why humans have big brains, what big brains enable us to do, and how specialized brains are associated with eusociality in animals. It explores why brains expanded so slowly, and then why they stopped growing. This book whittles down the theories on brain size evolution to a few that represent testable hypotheses to identify logical and practical explanations for the phenomenon. At the core of this book is data derived from original, previously unpublished research on brain size in a number of social mammals. This data supports the idea that evolution of the brain in humans is the result of social interaction. This book also traces the products of the social brain: ideology, religion, urban life, housing, and learning and adapting to dense complex social interactions. It uniquely compares brain evolution in social animals across the animal kingdom, and examines the nature of the human brain and its evolution within the social and historical context of complex human social structures.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781498540872 20171127
EBSCOhost Access limited to 3 simultaneous users
1 online resource.
1 online resource.
  • Cover; Challenging the Modern Synthesis; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Introduction: Challenging the Modern Synthesis; Part I: Adaptation and Selection; 1. Natural Selection, Adaptation, and the Recovery of Development; 2. Why Would We Call for a New Evolutionary Synthesis? The Variation Issue and the Explanatory Alternatives; 3. Genetic Assimilation and the Paradox of Blind Variation; 4. Evolutionary Theory Evolving; Part II: Development; 5. Evo-​Devo and the Structure(s) of Evolutionary Theory: A Different Kind of Challenge; 6. Toward a Nonidealist Evolutionary Synthesis
  • 7. Evolvability and Its Evolvability8. "Chance Caught on the Wing": Metaphysical Commitment or Methodological Artifact?; Part III: Inheritance; 9. Limited Extended Inheritance; 10. Heredity and Evolutionary Theory; 11. Serial Homology as a Challenge to Evolutionary Theory: The Repeated Parts of Organisms from Idealistic Morphology to Evo-​Devo; Index
Since its origin in the early 20th century, the Modern Synthesis theory of evolution has grown to become the orthodox view on the process of organic evolution. Its central defining feature is the prominence it accords to genes in the explanation of evolutionary dynamics. Since the advent of the 21st century, however, the Modern Synthesis has been subject to repeated and sustained challenges. These are largely empirically driven. In the last two decades, evolutionary biology has witnessed unprecedented growth in the understanding of those processes that underwrite the development of organisms and the inheritance of characters. The empirical advances usher in challenges to the conceptual foundations of evolutionary theory. The extent to which the new biology challenges the Modern Synthesis has been the subject of lively debate. Many current commentators charge that the new biology of the 21st century calls for a revision, extension, or wholesale rejection of the Modern Synthesis Theory of evolution. Defenders of the Modern Synthesis maintain that the theory can accommodate the exciting new advances in biology. The original essays collected in this volume survey the various challenges to the Modern Synthesis arising from the new biology of the 21st century. The authors are evolutionary biologists, philosophers of science, and historians of biology from Europe and North America. Each of the essays discusses a particular challenge to the Modern Synthesis treatment of inheritance, development, or adaptation. Taken together, the essays cover a spectrum of views, from those that contend that the Modern Synthesis can rise to the challenges of the new biology, with little or no revision required, to those that call for the abandonment of the Modern Synthesis. The collection will be of interest to researchers and students in evolutionary biology, and the philosophy and history of the biological sciences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199377176 20171017
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
1 online resource ( ix, 837 pages) : illustrations.
  • Was the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans chimpanzee-like?
  • Introduction: chimpanzees and human evolution / Martin N. Muller
  • Reconstructing the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans / David R. Pilbeam and Daniel E. Lieberman
  • Equal, similar, but different: convergent bonobos and conserved chimpanzees / Brian Hare and Richard W. Wrangham
  • Chimpanzees and the evolution of human uniqueness
  • Introduction: chimpanzees and human uniqueness / Martin N. Muller
  • Mortality, senescence, and lifespan / Michael D. Gurven and Cristina M. Gomes
  • Fertility and fecundity / Melissa Emery Thompson and Peter T. Ellison
  • Locomotor ecology and evolution in chimpanzees and humans / Herman Pontzer
  • Evolution of the human dietary niche: initial transitions / Sherry V. Nelson and Marian I. Hamilton
  • Evolution of the human dietary niche: quest for high quality / Rachel N. Carmody
  • From pan to man the hunter: hunting and meat sharing by chimpanzees, humans, and our common ancestor / Brian M. Wood and Ian C. Gilby
  • The evolution of the human mating system / Martin N. Muller and David R. Pilbeam
  • From chimpanzee society to human society: bridging the kinship gap / Bernard Chapais
  • Violent cousins: chimpanzees, humans, and the roots of war / Michael l. Wilson and Luke Glowacki
  • Cooperative and competitive relationships within sexes / Richard W. Wrangham and Joyce Benenson
  • Cooperation between the sexes / Adrian V. Jaeggi, Paul l. Hooper, Ann E. Caldwell Hooper, Michael D. Gurven, Jane B. Lancaster and Hillard S. Kaplan
  • Sexual coercion in chimpanzees and humans / Martin N. Muller
  • Tool use and manufacture in the last common ancestor of pan and homo / Campbell Rolian and Susana Carvalho
  • Cultural evolution in chimpanzees and humans / Joseph Henrich and Claudio Tennie
  • Chimpanzee cognition and the roots of the human mind / Alexandra G. Rosati
  • Ancestral precursors, social control, and social selection in the evolution of morals / Christopher Boehm
  • Communication and language Katie E. Slocombe and Thom Scott Philips.
Knowledge of wild chimpanzees has expanded dramatically. This volume, edited by Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham, and David Pilbeam, brings together scientists who are leading a revolution to discover and explain human uniqueness, by studying our closest living relatives. Their conclusions may transform our understanding of human evolution.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780674967953 20171211
1 online resource (15 p.) : digital, PDF file.
This project has demonstrated the level of commercial readiness for production of the industrial chemical, 1,4-butanediol (BDO), from lignocellulosic biomass by engineered E. coli. Targets were BDO titer, rate, and yield (TRY) and growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates (Hz). A range of Hzs were used to assess limitations for biomass-to-BDO. Via adaptive evolution methods, whole-genome sequencing, and introduction of identified target genes, strains co-utilizing C5/ C6 sugars were made. The composition of Hz versus TRY led to a modified Hz composition. This was used in partnership with the DOE to redirect the project to focus on 1) several biomass Hz from new suppliers, 2) Hz specification due to the characteristics of the Genomatica BDO process, 3) a gene cassette to engineer any BDO producing strain for biomass, and 4) modified BDO recovery to more economically recover BDO at industry specifications. BDO TRY and growth of the E. coli strains were predictable based on Hz composition from several suppliers. This defined metrics for biomass Hz composition to achieve BDO TRY along with internal TEA to evaluate the economic potential of each modification to strain, Hz feed, and process. An improved biomass-to-BDO production strain reached BDO T-R in a 30 L fermentation above original objectives. Yield approached the proposed Y and modifications to BDO recovery were demonstrated. Genomatica is now in the position of being able to incorporate biomass feedstocks into the commercial GENO BDO process.
1 online resource (452 p.) : ill. (some col.).
"Optimization plays a key role in the design, planning and operation of chemical and related processes for several decades. Techniques for solving optimization problems are of deterministic or stochastic type. Of these, stochastic techniques can solve any type of optimization problems and can be adapted for multiple objectives. Differential evolution (DE), proposed about two decades ago, is one of the stochastic techniques. Its algorithm is simple to understand and use. DE has found many applications in chemical engineering. This unique compendium focuses on DE, its recent developments and applications in chemical engineering. It will cover both single and multi-objective optimization. The book contains a number of chapters from experienced editors, and also several chapters from active researchers in this area."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource.
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
1 online resource.
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
1 online resource ( xxiii, 333 pages) :
  • Forward Part I: History of Attitudes toward Evolution in the South 1. Darwinism in the American South 2. Race and Evolution in Antebellum Alabama: The Polygenist Prehistory We'd Rather Ignore 3. "The Cadillac of Disclaimers": Twenty Years of Official Antievolution in Alabama4. Deconstructing the Alabama Disclaimer with Students: A Powerful Lesson in Evolution, Politics, and Persuasion Part II: Culture and Education in the American South 5. Evolution Acceptance among Preservice Science Teachers in the South6. Evolution Acceptance among Undergraduates in the South 7. Religion, Politics, and Science for U.S. Southerners 8. Sharing News and Views about Evolution in Social Media Part III: Perspectives and Resources from the Natural Sciences 9. Resources for Teaching Biological Evolution in the Deep South 10. Teaching Louisiana Students about Evolution by Comparing the Anatomy of Fishes and Humans 11. Teaching Evolution in Real Time 12. Trace Fossils of Alabama: Life in the Coal Age Part IV: Perspectives and Resources from the Social Sciences 13. What Can the Alabama Mississippians Teach Us about Human Evolution and Behavior?14. Tattooing Commitment, Quality, and Football in Southeastern North America APPENDIX: Additional Resources for Biological Evolution Education in Alabama Afterward.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781349951383 20170502
This volume reaches beyond the controversy surrounding the teaching and learning of evolution in the United States, specifically in regard to the culture, politics, and beliefs found in the Southeast. The editors argue that despite a deep history of conflict in the region surrounding evolution, there is a wealth of evolution research taking place-from biodiversity in species to cultural evolution and human development. In fact, scientists, educators, and researchers from around the United States have found their niche in the South, where biodiversity is high, culture runs deep, and the pace is just a little bit slower.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781349951383 20170502
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
1 online resource.
  • Evolution in the dark - introduction.- The role of rudimentation in evolution.- Diversity and phylogenetic age of cave species.- Surface and cave populations of Mexican Astyanax.- Complexity of interrelationship of cave and surface fish.- Regressive and constructive traits in Astyanax surface and cave fish.- Mechanisms of regressive evolution.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783662545102 20170731
This book provides fascinating insights into the development and genetics of evolutionary processes on the basis of animals living in the dark, such as the Astyanax cave fish. Biologically functionless traits show high variability, which results from neutral deleterious mutations no longer being eliminated by natural selection, which normally acts to preserve functional capability. These negative mutations accumulate until the traits they are responsible for become rudimentary or even lost. The random genetic basis of regressive evolution is in accordance with Nei's Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, which applies to the molecular level. Such processes are particularly conspicuous in species living in constant darkness, where, for example in Astyanax, all traits depending on the exposure to light, like eyes, pigmentation, visually triggered aggressive behaviour, negative phototaxis, and several peripheral outcomes of circadian rhythmicity, are useless and diminish. In compensation constructive traits like taste, olfaction or the lateral line senses are improved by selection and do not show variability. Regressive and constructive traits inherit independently, proving that the rudimentation process is not driven by pleiotropic linkage between them. All these traits are subject to mosaic evolution and exhibit unproportional epistatic gene effects, which play an important role in evolutionary adaptation and improvement. Offering valuable evolutionary insights and supplemented by a wealth of illustrations, this book will appeal to evolutionary and developmental biologists alike.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783662545102 20170731
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (34 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: History of discovery of The complement system
  • Evolution of complement
  • The alternative complement pathway
  • Defects and diseases associated with complement
  • Complement and inflammation.
1 online resource.
  • Part I Evolution of the Brain.- 1 An overview of brain evolution: lobe-finned fish vs ray-finned fish.- 2 The Origins of the Bird Brain: Multiple Pulses of Cerebral Expansion in Evolution.- 3 The evolution of mammalian brains from early mammals to present-day primates.- 4 Developmental sequences predict multiple types of increased intra-connectivity in evolution: a comparative analysis of developmental timing, gene expression, neuron numbers, and diffusion MR tractography.- Part II Evolution of Cognition.- 5 The Evolution of Cognitive Brains in Non-mammals.- 6 Evolution of Cognitive Brains: Mammals.- 7 On the Matter of Mind: Neural Complexity and Functional Dynamics of the Human Brain.- 8 Behavioural, cognitive, and neuronal changes in the acquisition of tool use.- 9 Great ape social attention.- 10 Evolution of vocal communication: From animal calls to human speech.- 11 Integration Hypothesis: A Parallel Model of Language Development in Evolution.- Part III Evolution of Emotion.- 12 Evolution of the emotional brain.- 13 Evolutionary origin of empathy and inequality aversion.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9784431565574 20171106
This book presents a new view on the evolution of the brain, cognition, and emotion. Around a half-century ago, Professor Harry Jerison published a seminal book entitled Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Since then, there has been a series of dramatic methodological and conceptual changes which have led to many new insights into the understanding of brain evolution and cognition. This book is particularly focused on three significant aspects of such changes. First, taking advantage of a new integrated approach called evolutionary developmental biology or Evo/Devo, researchers have started to look into vertebrate brain evolution from the developmental perspective. Second, comparative neuroanatomists have accumulated a large amount of information about the brains of diverse animal groups to refute the old-fashioned idea that vertebrate brains evolved linearly from non-mammals to mammals. Third, comparative behavioral studies have demonstrated that sophisticated cognition and emotion are not unique to some primates but are also found in many non-primate and even non-mammalian species. This work will appeal to a wide readership in such fields as neuroscience, cognitive science, and behavioral science.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9784431565574 20171106
1 online resource.
  • Part I: Self/Nonself Evolution, â A new view of how MHC class I molecules fight disease: generalists and specialists.- Evolution and diversity of defensins in vertebrates.- Interdependencies between the adaptation and interference modules guide efficient CRISPR-Cas immunity.- How the other half lives: CRISPR-Cas's influence on bacteriophages.- Hidden Silent Codes in Viral Genomes.- Self and Non-Self from a Genomic Perspective: Transposable Elements.- Mammalian-specific traits generated by LTR retrotransposon-derived SIRH genes.- Part II: Species Evolution and Evolution of Complex Traits, The life history of domesticated genes illuminates the evolution of novel mammalian genes.- Evolution of Complex Traits in Human Populations.- The descent of bison.- Convergent and parallel evolution in early Glires (Mammalia).- Reductive evolution of apicomplexan parasites from phototrophic an-cestors.- Part III : Methods and Concepts, Evolution of milk oligosaccharides and their function in monotremes and marsupials.- Mechanistic Models of Protein Evolution.- Genome-wide screens for molecular convergent evolution in mammals.- Assessing evolutionary potential in tree species through ecology-informed genome screening.- Evolutionary constraints on coding sequences at the nucleotidic level: a statistical physics approach.- Case studies of seven gene families with unusual high retention rate since the Vertebrate and Teleost Whole Genome Duplications.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319615684 20171009
This book presents 19 selected contributions to the 20th Evolutionary Biology Meeting in Marseille, which took place in September 2016. They are grouped under the following major themes:* Self/Nonself Evolution* Species Evolution and Evolution of Complex Traits* Methods and Concepts The aims of the annual meetings in Marseille - which bring together leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists using evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research - are to promote the exchange of ideas and to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering a revealing overview of the latest findings in the field of evolutionary biology, this book represents an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students alike.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319615684 20171009
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (44 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Human evolutionary history
  • Human evolution and childbirth
  • Birth in other primates
  • How anatomical changes for bipedalism impact birth
  • Birth in early human ancestors
  • The helpless human newborn
  • The evolutionary legacy of birth
  • Why women benefit from assistance at birth
  • Value of emotional support during labor and delivery.
1 online resource.
  • ""Cover""; ""Half Title""; ""Title""; ""Copyright""; ""Dedication""; ""Contents""; ""Preface and Acknowledgments""; ""Introduction: The Beginnings""; ""1 The Spaniels of San Marcos: What Is a Dog and Who Cares?""; ""2 Cooperation between Species""; ""3 Homo canis: Why Humans Are Different Than All Other Primates""; ""4 Wolves, Archaeologists, and the Origin of Dogs""; ""5 Asia: The First of the Dog-Men and Japanese Dog-Wolves""; ""6 â#x80;#x9C;Dingo Makes Us Humanâ#x80;#x9D;: Aboriginal Peoples and Canis lupus dingo""; ""7 North America: The World Wolf Made""
  • ""8 Wolves and Coyotes: Creators and Tricksters""""9 The Process of Domestication: Tame versus Feral and Domestic versus Wild""; ""10 Living with Wolves and Dogs: Issues and Controversies""; ""11 Living Well with Wolves and Dogs""; ""Conclusion: The Friendly Predator""; ""References""; ""Index""; ""A""; ""B""; ""C""; ""D""; ""E""; ""F""; ""G""; ""H""; ""I""; ""J""; ""K""; ""L""; ""M""; ""N""; ""O""; ""P""; ""Q""; ""R""; ""S""; ""T""; ""U""; ""V""; ""W""; ""Y""
1 online resource (18 p.) : digital, PDF file.
The genome of Caldithrix abyssi, the first cultivated representative of a phylum-level bacterial lineage, was sequenced within the framework of Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. The genomic analysis revealed mechanisms allowing this anaerobic bacterium to ferment peptides or to implement nitrate reduction with acetate or molecular hydrogen as electron donors. The genome encoded five different [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases, one of which, group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase, is presumably involved in lithoheterotrophic growth, three other produce H<sub>2</sub> during fermentation, and one is apparently bidirectional. The ability to reduce nitrate is determined by a nitrate reductase of the Nap family, while nitrite reduction to ammonia is presumably catalyzed by an octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase εHao. The genome contained genes of respiratory polysulfide/thiosulfate reductase, however, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate were not used as the electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration with acetate or H<sub>2</sub>, probably due to the lack of the gene of the maturation protein. Nevertheless, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate stimulated growth on fermentable substrates (peptides), being reduced to sulfide, most probably through the action of the cytoplasmic sulfide dehydrogenase and/or NAD(P)-dependent [NiFe]-hydrogenase (sulfhydrogenase) encoded by the genome. Surprisingly, the genome of this anaerobic microorganism encoded all genes for cytochrome c oxidase, however, its maturation machinery seems to be non-operational due to genomic rearrangements of supplementary genes. Despite the fact that sugars were not among the substrates reported when C. abyssi was first described, our genomic analysis revealed multiple genes of glycoside hydrolases, and some of them were predicted to be secreted. This finding aided in bringing out four carbohydrates that supported the growth of C. abyssi: starch, cellobiose, glucomannan and xyloglucan. The genomic analysis demonstrated the ability of C. abyssi to synthesize nucleotides and most amino acids and vitamins. Finally, the genomic sequence allowed us to perform a phylogenomic analysis, based on 38 protein sequences, which confirmed the deep branching of this lineage and justified the proposal of a novel phylum Calditrichaeota.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (44 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Enamel biology
  • Enamel structure & morphology
  • Enamel microanatomy
  • Enamel decussation & fractures
  • Enamel mechanical properties
  • Environmental background & human evolution
  • Tooth size, bite forces & enamel integrity.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (19 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Bone biology
  • Bone structure
  • Collagen fiber orientation
  • Aging & fractures
  • Osteocyte density.