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1 online resource (70 p.) : digital, PDF file.
This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.
1 online resource ( x, 342 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • 1.Physico-chemical boundaries of life.- 2.Microbial diversity in deep hypersaline anoxic basins.- 3.Microbial speciation in the geothermal ecosystem.- 4.Bacterial adaptation to hot and dry deserts.- 5.Extremophiles in Antarctica: Life at low temperatures.- 6.Anhydrobiotic rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria: Potential for astrobiology and biotechnology.- 7.Psychrophilic microorganisms as important source for biotechnological processes.- 8.Halophilic microorganisms from man-made and natural hypersaline environments: Physiology, ecology, and biotechnological potential.- 9.Applications of extremophiles in astrobiology: Habitability and life detection strategies.- 10.Extremophiles in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.- 11.The Extreme Biology of Meteorites: Their Role in Understanding the Origin and Distribution of Life on Earth and in the Universe.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
This entirely updated second edition provides an overview on the biology, ecology and biodiversity of extremophiles. Unusual and less explored ecosystems inhabited by extremophiles such as marine hypersaline deeps, extreme cold, desert sands, and man-made clean rooms for spacecraft assembly are presented. An additional focus is put on the role of these highly specialized microorganism in applied research fields, ranging from biotechnology and nanotechnology to astrobiology. Examples such as novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection strategies for potential extraterrestrial life forms are discussed in detail. The book addresses researchers and advanced students in the fields of microbiology, microbial ecology and biotechnology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
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The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.
A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.
A subject afflicted with a cancer or precancerous condition is treated by administering an agent that increases expression of somatostatin receptors, and a cytotoxic recognition ligand. In an alternative embodiment, somatostatin analogs, which are radiolabeled are used to treat cancer or precancerous conditions.
1 online resource (Article No. 13972 ): digital, PDF file.
Photosynthesis uses a limited range of the solar spectrum, so enhancing spectral coverage could improve the efficiency of light capture. Here, we show that a hybrid reaction centre (RC)/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) complex accelerates photosynthetic growth in the bacterium <i>Rhodobacter sphaeroides</i>. The structure of the RC/YFP-light-harvesting 1 (LH1) complex shows the position of YFP attachment to the RC-H subunit, on the cytoplasmic side of the RC complex. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy of whole cells and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy of purified RC/YFP complexes show that the YFP–RC intermolecular distance and spectral overlap between the emission of YFP and the visible-region (Q<sub>X</sub>) absorption bands of the RC allow energy transfer via a Fo¨rster mechanism, with an efficiency of 40±10%. Finally, this proof-of-principle study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing spectral coverage for harvesting light using non-native genetically-encoded light-absorbers, thereby augmenting energy transfer and trapping in photosynthesis.
The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.
1 online resource (701 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"All coordination between cells, organs, and organisms depends on successful biocommunicative processes. There are abundant cases of communication in the biological world, both within (intraspecific) and between (interspecific) single-cell and multicellular microorganisms and higher animal forms. Split into two parts, this book first looks at the history, development and progress within the field of biocommunication. The second part presents real-life case studies and investigation into examples of biocommunication in the biological world. Among the organisms covered are bacteria, fungi, plants, terrestrial and marine animals, including bonobos, chimpanzees and dolphins, as well as a new theory of communication between parts in developing embryos (cybernetic embryos). Contributions from international experts in the field provide up-to-date research and results, while in depth analysis expands on these findings to pave the way for future discoveries. As the first comprehensive review of its kind, it is perfect for undergraduates, graduates, professionals and researchers in the field of life sciences."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (61 p.) : digital, PDF file.
U.S. military influenza surveillance uses electronic reporting of clinical diagnoses to monitor health of military personnel and detect naturally occurring and bioterrorism-related epidemics. While accurate, these systems lack in timeliness. More recently, researchers have used novel data sources to detect influenza in real time and capture nontraditional populations. With data-mining techniques, military social media users are identified and influenza-related discourse is integrated along with medical data into a comprehensive disease model. By leveraging heterogeneous data streams and developing dashboard biosurveillance analytics, the researchers hope to increase the speed at which outbreaks are detected and provide accurate disease forecasting among military personnel.
1 online resource.
  • Acknowledgments; Contents; About the Editors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 The Decline of Biodiversity in the Agro-ecosystems; 1.2 Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe Agriculture
  • The Role of History; 1.3 Conservation Tools: From the Protected Areas Approach and Nature2000 Network to the High Nature Value Areas in Europe; 1.3.1 A Concept of Protected Areas Application to Successful Conservation; 1.3.2 Theories for Fragmented Space; 1.3.3 Applying Ecological Terminology for Agricultural Landscapes of Whole Europe?; 1.4 HNV Farming Definition
  • 1.5 Approaches to Characterize HNV Farming1.5.1 Land Cover Approach; 1.5.2 Farm System Approach; 1.5.3 Species Approach; 1.6 The HNV as Support for Biodiversity and Public Goods; 1.7 This Book in Few Words; References; Chapter 2: Spread of the Concept of HNV Farmland in Europe: A Systematic Review; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Methods; 2.3 Results; 2.4 Discussion; Bibliography; Chapter 3: Identifying HNV Areas Using Geographic Information Systems and Landscape Metrics; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Simple Metrics for Identification of HNV Farmland; 3.3 Input Data for Calculation of Landscape Metrics
  • 3.4 Landscape Metrics Case Study: An Example of Using Landscape Metrics to Identify HNV FarmlandReferences; Chapter 4: Suitable Methods for Monitoring HNV Farmland Using Bird Species; 4.1 Bird Count Methods for Farmland Systems: Single-Habitat and Multi-habitat Species; 4.2 The Concept of Bioindicators or Environmental Surrogates and Common Measures of Diversity in Bird Communities; 4.2.1 The Concept of Bioindicators; 4.2.2 Common Diversity Metrics Useful for Bird Communities; 4.3 Species Distribution Models and Other Useful Statistical Tools; 4.3.1 SDMs in a Nutshell; 4.4 Other Useful Tools
  • 4.4.1 MRT-Multiregression Tree Analysis4.4.2 Indicator Species Analysis; References; Part I: Case Studies; Chapter 5: Case Study 1. Bird as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Farmlands from Central Italy; 5.1 Methodology; 5.1.1 Study Area; 5.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 5.1.3 Data Analysis; 5.2 Results; 5.2.1 Farmland Classification and Description; 5.2.2 Bird Indicators of HNV Farmland; 5.2.3 Relative Importance of HNV Farmland Characteristics for Bird Distribution; 5.3 Discussion; 5.3.1 Utility of the Proposed Methodology; References
  • Chapter 6: Case Study 2. Birds as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Portuguese Cork Oak Montados6.1 Methodology; 6.1.1 Study Area; 6.1.2 Bird Census; 6.1.3 HNV Features and Explanatory Variables; 6.1.4 Data Analysis; 6.2 Results; 6.2.1 Environmental Variables; 6.2.2 Bird Guilds; 6.2.3 Modelling of Bird Guilds; 6.3 Discussion; 6.4 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Case Study 3. Using Indicator Species AnalysisIndVal to Identify Bird Indicators of HNV in Farmlands from Western P...; 7.1 Methodology; 7.1.1 Study Area; 7.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 7.1.3 Data Analysis; 7.2 Results
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The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.
1 online resource (Article No. 41121 ): digital, PDF file.
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of fatty acid amides that play signaling roles in diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. We used fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades NAE into ethanolamine and free fatty acid to terminate its signaling function. In animals, chemical inhibitors of FAAH for therapeutic treatment of pain and as tools to probe deeper into biochemical properties of FAAH. In a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that dampened the inhibitory effect of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth, we identified 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrim idine-2,4(3 H, 6 H)-dione (or MDPD). MDPD alleviated the growth inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0, in part by enhancing the enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH). In vitro, biochemical assays showed that MDPD enhanced the apparent Vmax of AtFAAH but did not alter the affinity of AtFAAH for its NAE substrates. Furthermore, structural analogs of MDPD did not affect AtFAAH activity or dampen the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling growth indicating that MDPD is a specific synthetic chemical activator of AtFAAH. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an unbiased chemical genetic approach to identify new pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH- and NAE-mediated physiological processes in plants.
48 p.
The purpose of this working paper is to review existing chemical risk assessment methods in the context of supporting socio-economic cost-benefit analysis, focusing on more “typical” risk assessments that may not have strong epidemiologic data and/or were not originally designed to support socio-economic analyses. A number of case studies of such “typical” chemical risk assessments were reviewed with respect to their suitability for supporting socio-economic analyses.
Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.
The present invention relates to enzyme compositions for high temperature saccharification of cellulosic material and to uses thereof.
1 online resource (p. 73-82 ): digital, PDF file.
<p>Protein crystallography data collection at synchrotrons is routinely carried out at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate radiation damage. Although damage still takes place at 100 K and below, the immobilization of free radicals increases the lifetime of the crystals by approximately 100-fold. Recent studies have shown that flash-cooling decreases the heterogeneity of the conformational ensemble and can hide important functional mechanisms from observation. These discoveries have motivated increasing numbers of experiments to be carried out at room temperature. However, the trade-offs between increased risk of radiation damage and increased observation of alternative conformations at room temperature relative to cryogenic temperature have not been examined. A considerable amount of effort has previously been spent studying radiation damage at cryo-temperatures, but the relevance of these studies to room temperature diffraction is not well understood. Here, the effects of radiation damage on the conformational landscapes of three different proteins (<i>T. danielli</i> thaumatin, hen egg-white lysozyme and human cyclophilin A) at room (278 K) and cryogenic (100 K) temperatures are investigated. Increasingly damaged datasets were collected at each temperature, up to a maximum dose of the order of 10<sup>7</sup> Gy at 100 K and 10<sup>5</sup> Gy at 278 K. Although it was not possible to discern a clear trend between damage and multiple conformations at either temperature, it was observed that disorder, monitored by <i>B</i>-factor-dependent crystallographic order parameters, increased with higher absorbed dose for the three proteins at 100 K. At 278 K, however, the total increase in this disorder was only statistically significant for thaumatin. A correlation between specific radiation damage affecting side chains and the amount of disorder was not observed. Lastly, this analysis suggests that elevated conformational heterogeneity in crystal structures at room temperature is observed despite radiation damage, and not as a result thereof.</p>
1 online resource ( x, 87 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Abbreviations; Introduction; 1 New Perspectives on Ecological Networks; Abstract; 1.1 The Impact of Urbanization Processes on the Consumption of the Soil and on the Fragmentation; 1.2 From Protected Natural Areas to Reticular System; 1.3 The Paradigm of the Ecological Networks; 1.4 European Policies About Ecological Networks; References; 2 Ecological Networks and Planning; Abstract; 2.1 The Issue of Regulation; 2.2 The Re-processing of Values: New Types of Planning?; 2.3 Ecological Networks in Planning Instruments; 2.4 The Case of Italy
  • 2.5 The Italian Census of Local Scale Planning Instruments According to the Ecological Network ModelReferences; 3 Ecological Network, Application of a Model in Sicily; Abstract; 3.1 Soil Consumption and Fragmentation of the Regional Natural System; 3.2 Urban-Planning Versus Environment-Planning; 3.3 A Reticular System for the Protected Areas; 3.4 The Application of the Ecological Network in Wide-Area Planning in Sicily: The Case of the Metropolitan City of Palermo and of the Libero Consorzio Di Siracusa; References; Conclusions; References
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Certain nanocrystals possess exceptional optical properties that may make them valuable probes for biological imaging, but rendering these nanoparticles biocompatible requires that they be small enough not to perturb cellular systems. This invention describes a phosphorescent upconverting sub-10 nm nanoparticle comprising a lanthanide-doped hexagonal .beta.-phase NaYF.sub.4 nanocrystal and methods for making the same.
One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.
Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.