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Book
1 online resource (p. 676-683) : digital, PDF file.
We present 1,003 reference genomes that were sequenced as part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) initiative, selected to maximize sequence coverage of phylogenetic space. These genomes double the number of existing type strains and expand their overall phylogenetic diversity by 25%. Comparative analyses with previously available finished and draft genomes reveal a 10.5% increase in novel protein families as a function of phylogenetic diversity. The GEBA genomes recruit 25 million previously unassigned metagenomic proteins from 4,650 samples, improving their phylogenetic and functional interpretation. We identify numerous biosynthetic clusters and experimentally validate a divergent phenazine cluster with potential new chemical structure and antimicrobial activity. This Resource is the largest single release of reference genomes to date. Bacterial and archaeal isolate sequence space is still far from saturated, and future endeavors in this direction will continue to be a valuable resource for scientific discovery.
Book
1 online resource () : illustrations.
  • Processing 2D gel electrophoresis images for efficient Gaussian mixture modeling.- Development of text mining tools for information retrieval from patents.- Multidimensional Feature Selection and Interaction Mining with Decision Tree based ensemble methods.- Study of the Epigenetic Signals in the Human Genome.- An Ensemble Approach for Gene Selection in Gene Expression Data.- Dissimilar Symmetric Word Pairs in the Human Genome.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319608150 20170814
Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next-generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and constantly evolving, distinct types of omics data technologies, have created an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis of the datasets produced and their integration call for new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Clearly, Biology is more and more a science of information and requires tools from the computational sciences. In the last few years, we have seen the rise of a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists with a strong background in the biological and computational sciences. In this context, the interaction of researchers from different scientific fields is, more than ever, of foremost importance in boosting the research efforts in the field and contributing to the education of a new generation of Bioinformatics scientists. The PACBB'17 conference was intended to contribute to this effort and promote this fruitful interaction, with a technical program that included 39 papers spanning many different sub-fields in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Further, the conference promoted the interaction of scientists from diverse research groups and with a distinct background (computer scientists, mathematicians, biologists).
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319608150 20170814
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource (70 p.) : digital, PDF file.
This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.
Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) biologists in the Environmental Compliance and Protection Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) initiated a multi-year program in 2013 to monitor avifauna at two open detonation sites and one open burn site on LANL property. Monitoring results from these efforts are compared among years and with avifauna monitoring conducted at other areas across LANL. The objectives of this study are to determine whether LANL firing site operations impact bird abundance or diversity. LANS biologists completed the fourth year of this effort in 2016. The overall results from 2016 continue to indicate that operations are not negatively affecting bird populations. Data suggest that community structure may be changing at some sites and this trend will continue to be monitored.
Book
1 online resource (12 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Fungi interact closely with bacteria, both on the surfaces of the hyphae and within their living tissues (i.e. endohyphal bacteria, EHB). These EHB can be obligate or facultative symbionts and can mediate diverse phenotypic traits in their hosts. Although EHB have been observed in many lineages of fungi, it remains unclear how widespread and general these associations are, and whether there are unifying ecological and genomic features can be found across EHB strains as a whole. We cultured 11 bacterial strains after they emerged from the hyphae of diverse Ascomycota that were isolated as foliar endophytes of cupressaceous trees, and generated nearly complete genome sequences for all. Unlike the genomes of largely obligate EHB, the genomes of these facultative EHB resembled those of closely related strains isolated from environmental sources. Although all analysed genomes encoded structures that could be used to interact with eukaryotic hosts, pathways previously implicated in maintenance and establishment of EHB symbiosis were not universally present across all strains. Independent isolation of two nearly identical pairs of strains from different classes of fungi, coupled with recent experimental evidence, suggests horizontal transfer of EHB across endophytic hosts. Given the potential for EHB to influence fungal phenotypes, these genomes could shed light on the mechanisms of plant growth promotion or stress mitigation by fungal endophytes during the symbiotic phase, as well as degradation of plant material during the saprotrophic phase. As such, these findings contribute to the illumination of a new dimension of functional biodiversity in fungi.
Book
1 online resource (p. 3103-3108) : digital, PDF file.
Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo- EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages.
Compositions and methods of making a modified polyhydroxylated polymer comprising a polyhydroxylated polymer having reversibly modified hydroxyl groups, whereby the hydroxyl groups are modified by an acid-catalyzed reaction between a polydroxylated polymer and a reagent such as acetals, aldehydes, vinyl ethers and ketones such that the modified polyhydroxylated polymers become insoluble in water but freely soluble in common organic solvents allowing for the facile preparation of acid-sensitive materials. Materials made from these polymers can be made to degrade in a pH-dependent manner. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargoes were successfully loaded into particles made from the present polymers using single and double emulsion techniques, respectively. Due to its ease of preparation, processability, pH-sensitivity, and biocompatibility, of the present modified polyhydroxylated polymers should find use in numerous drug delivery applications.
Book
1 online resource ( x, 342 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • 1.Physico-chemical boundaries of life.- 2.Microbial diversity in deep hypersaline anoxic basins.- 3.Microbial speciation in the geothermal ecosystem.- 4.Bacterial adaptation to hot and dry deserts.- 5.Extremophiles in Antarctica: Life at low temperatures.- 6.Anhydrobiotic rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria: Potential for astrobiology and biotechnology.- 7.Psychrophilic microorganisms as important source for biotechnological processes.- 8.Halophilic microorganisms from man-made and natural hypersaline environments: Physiology, ecology, and biotechnological potential.- 9.Applications of extremophiles in astrobiology: Habitability and life detection strategies.- 10.Extremophiles in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.- 11.The Extreme Biology of Meteorites: Their Role in Understanding the Origin and Distribution of Life on Earth and in the Universe.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
This entirely updated second edition provides an overview on the biology, ecology and biodiversity of extremophiles. Unusual and less explored ecosystems inhabited by extremophiles such as marine hypersaline deeps, extreme cold, desert sands, and man-made clean rooms for spacecraft assembly are presented. An additional focus is put on the role of these highly specialized microorganism in applied research fields, ranging from biotechnology and nanotechnology to astrobiology. Examples such as novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection strategies for potential extraterrestrial life forms are discussed in detail. The book addresses researchers and advanced students in the fields of microbiology, microbial ecology and biotechnology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource (xii, 404 pages.) :.
The book presents recent developments and application of fluorescent protein-labelling techniques and two-photon molecular probes. It introduces research of super-resolution localization microscopy, photoacoustic molecular (functional) imaging, and optical molecular tomography for small animal in vivo. The book illustrates optical labeling techniques and imaging instruments and their application in biological studies.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783110304381 20170814
The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.
Book
1 online resource (p. 865-878) : digital, PDF file.
Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. For hybrid poplar (Populus alba 9 grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. Additionally, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. Our results suggest that the over expression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.
Book
1 online resource (29 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Dietary restriction increases the longevity of many organisms, but the cell signaling and organellar mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. We demonstrate that to permit long-term survival in response to sudden glucose depletion, yeast cells activate lipid-droplet (LD) consumption through micro-lipophagy (µ-lipophagy), in which fat is metabolized as an alternative energy source. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation triggered this pathway, which required Atg14p. More gradual glucose starvation, amino acid deprivation or rapamycin did not trigger µ-lipophagy and failed to provide the needed substitute energy source for long-term survival. During acute glucose restriction, activated AMPK was stabilized from degradation and interacted with Atg14p. This prompted Atg14p redistribution from ER exit sites onto liquid-ordered vacuole membrane domains, initiating µ-lipophagy. Our findings that activated AMPK and Atg14p are required to orchestrate µ-lipophagy for energy production in starved cells is relevant for studies on aging and evolutionary survival strategies of different organisms.
A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.
A subject afflicted with a cancer or precancerous condition is treated by administering an agent that increases expression of somatostatin receptors, and a cytotoxic recognition ligand. In an alternative embodiment, somatostatin analogs, which are radiolabeled are used to treat cancer or precancerous conditions.
Book
1 online resource (p. 4477-4482) : digital, PDF file.
Here, the extraordinary genetic diversity of the HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)<sub>3</sub>, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)<sub>3</sub>] poses challenges for vaccine development. Envs of different clinical isolates exhibit different sensitivities to antibody-mediated neutralization. Envs of difficult-to-neutralize viruses are thought to be more stable and conformationally homogeneous trimers than those of easy-to-neutralize viruses, thereby providing more effective concealment of conserved, functionally critical sites. In this study we have characterized the antigenic properties of an Env derived from one of the most neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates, CH120.6. Sequence variation at neutralizing epitopes does not fully account for its exceptional resistance to antibodies. The full-length, membrane-bound CH120.6 Env is indeed stable and conformationally homogeneous. Its antigenicity correlates closely with its neutralization sensitivity, and major changes in antigenicity upon CD4 engagement appear to be restricted to the coreceptor site. The CH120.6 gp140 trimer, the soluble and uncleaved ectodomain of (gp160)<sub>3</sub>, retains many antigenic properties of the intact Env, consistent with a conformation close to that of Env spikes on a virion, whereas its monomeric gp120 exposes many nonneutralizing or strain-specific epitopes. Thus, trimer organization and stability are important determinants not only for occluding many epitopes but also for conferring resistance to neutralization by all but a small set of antibodies. Env preparations derived from neutralization-resistant viruses may induce irrelevant antibody responses less frequently than do other Envs and may be excellent templates for developing soluble immunogens.
The present invention provides a nanodisc with a membrane scaffold protein. The nanodisc includes a membrane scaffold protein, a telodendrimer and a lipid. The membrane scaffold protein can be apolipoprotein. The telodendrimer has the general formula PEG-L-D-(R).sub.n, wherein D is a dendritic polymer; L is a bond or a linker linked to the focal point group of the dendritic polymer; each PEG is a poly(ethylene glycol) polymer; each R is and end group of the dendritic polymer, or and end group with a covalently bound hydrophobic group, hydrophilic group, amphiphilic compound, or drug; and subscript n is an integer from 2 to 20. Cell free methods of making the nanodiscs are also provided.
Book
1 online resource (p. 884-890) : digital, PDF file.
ε-Caprolactam and δ-valerolactam are important commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced annually. Biological production of these highly valued chemicals has been limited due to a lack of enzymes that cyclize ω-amino fatty acid precursors to corresponding lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5-aminovaleric acid into δ-valerolactam and 6-aminocaproic acid into ε-caprolactam. Recombinant E. coli expressing ORF26 produced valerolactam and caprolactam when 5-aminovaleric acid and 6-aminocaproic acid were added to the culture medium. Upon coexpressing ORF26 with a metabolic pathway that produced 5-aminovaleric acid from lysine, we were able to demonstrate production of δ-valerolactam from lysine.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. e0171360) : digital, PDF file.
Here, the feasibility of visible and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as tool to classify Miscanthus samples was explored in this study. Three types of Miscanthus plants, namely, M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. fIoridulus, were analyzed using a NIR spectrophotometer. Several classification models based on the NIR spectra data were developed using line discriminated analysis (LDA), partial least squares (PLS), least squares support vector machine regression (LSSVR), radial basis function (RBF) and neural network (NN). The principal component analysis (PCA) presented rough classification with overlapping samples, while the models of Line_LSSVR, RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN presented almost same calibration and validation results. Due to the higher speed of Line_LSSVR than RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN, we selected the line_LSSVR model as a representative. In our study, the model based on line_LSSVR showed higher accuracy than LDA and PLS models. The total correct classification rates of 87.79 and 96.51% were observed based on LDA and PLS model in the testing set, respectively, while the line_LSSVR showed 99.42% of total correct classification rate. Meanwhile, the lin_LSSVR model in the testing set showed correct classification rate of 100, 100 and 96.77% for M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. fIoridulus, respectively. The lin_LSSVR model assigned 99.42% of samples to the right groups, except one M. fIoridulus sample. The results demonstrated that NIR spectra combined with a preliminary morphological classification could be an effective and reliable procedure for the classification of Miscanthus species.
Book
1 online resource (46076) : digital, PDF file.
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death globally. Decisions surrounding how to control an infectious disease outbreak currently rely on a subjective process involving surveillance and expert opinion. However, there are many situations where neither may be available. Modeling can fill gaps in the decision making process by using available data to provide quantitative estimates of outbreak trajectories. Effective reduction of the spread of infectious diseases can be achieved through collaboration between the modeling community and public health policy community. However, such collaboration is rare, resulting in a lack of models that meet the needs of the public health community. Here we show a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model modified to include control measures that allows parameter ranges, rather than parameter point estimates, and includes a web user interface for broad adoption. We apply the model to three diseases, measles, norovirus and influenza, to show the feasibility of its use and describe a research agenda to further promote interactions between decision makers and the modeling community.