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1 online resource.
  • 1. Biometals and Alzheimer's Disease 2. Copper in Alzheimer's Disease 3. The Role of Selenium in Neurodegenerative Diseases 4. Does HFE Genotype Impact Macrophage Phenotype in Disease Process and Therapeutic Response? 5. Chemical Elements and Oxidative Status in Neuroinflammation 6. Metals and Neuroinflammation 7. Metals and Prions: Twenty Years of Mining the Awe 8. Manganese and Neurodegeneration 9. Zinc in Autism 10. Metals and Motor Neuron Disease 11. Metals and Lysosomal Storage Disorders 12. Developmental Exposure to Metals and its Contribution to Age-Related Neurodegeneration 13. Metal Biology Associated with Huntington's Disease 14. Metal-Binding to Amyloid-ss Peptide: Coordination, Aggregation, and Reactive Oxygen Species Production 15. Metals and Mitochondria in Neurodegeneration 16. Metal Transporters in Neurodegeneration 17. Metal Imaging in the Brain 18. Metalloregulation of Protein Clearance: New Therapeutic Avenues for Neurodegenerative Diseases 19. Metals and Autophagy in Neurotoxicity 20. An Overview of Multifunctional Metal Chelators as Potential Treatments for Neurodegenerative Diseases 21. Abnormal Function of Metalloproteins Underlies Most Neurodegenerative Diseases.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128045626 20170612
Biometals in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Mechanisms and Therapeutics is an authoritative and timely resource bringing together the major findings in the field for ease of access to those working in the field or with an interest in metals and their role in brain function, disease, and as therapeutic targets. Chapters cover metals in Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Motor Neuron Disease, Autism and lysosomal storage disorders. This book is written for academic researchers, clinicians and advanced graduate students studying or treating patients in neurodegeneration, neurochemistry, neurology and neurotoxicology. The scientific literature in this field is advancing rapidly, with approximately 300 publications per year adding to our knowledge of how biometals contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this rapid increase in our understanding of biometals in brain disease, the fields of biomedicine and neuroscience have often overlooked this information. The need to bring the research on biometals in neurodegeneration to the forefront of biomedical research is essential in order to understand neurodegenerative disease processes and develop effective therapeutics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128045626 20170612
1 online resource.
  • Introduction xv PART I BIOPHYSICS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS I. Kinetics of Biological Processes 3 1 Qualitative Methods for Studying Dynamic Models of Biological Processes 5 2 Types of Dynamic Behavior of Biological Systems 17 3 Kinetics of Enzyme Processes 29 4 Self-Organization Processes in Distributed Biological Systems 45 II. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes 77 5 Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes in Biological Systems Near Equilibrium (Linear Thermodynamics) 79 6 Thermodynamics of Systems Far From Equilibrium (Nonlinear Thermodynamics) 91 PART II MOLECULAR BIOPHYSICS III. Three-dimensional Organization of Biopolymers 99 7 Three-dimensional Confi gurations of Polymer Molecules 101 8 Different Types of Interactions inMacromolecules 109 9 Conformational Energy and Three-dimensional Structure of Biopolymers 117 IV. Dynamic Properties of Globular Proteins 153 10 Protein Dynamics 155 11 Physical Models of Dynamic Mobility of Proteins 187 PART III BIOPHYSICS OF MEMBRANE PROCESSES V. Structure-functional Organization of Biological Membranes 227 12 Molecular Organization of Biological Membranes 229 13 Conformational Properties of Membranes 247 VI. Transport of Substances and Bioelectrogenesis 261 14 Nonelectrolyte Transport 263 15 Ion Transport. Ionic Equilibria 269 16 Electrodiffusion Theory of Ion Transport Across Membranes 281 17 Induced Ion Transport 287 18 Ion Transport in Channels 295 19 Ion Transport in Excitable Membranes 319 20 Active Transport 339 VII. Energy Transformation in Biomembranes 349 21 Electron Transport and Energy Transformation in Biomembranes 351 22 Physics of Muscle Contraction, Actin-Myosin Molecular Motor 365 23 Biophysics of Processes of Intracellular Signaling 379 VIII. Electronic Properties of Biopolymers 403 24 Fundamentals of Quantum Description of Molecules 405 25 Mechanisms of Charge Transfer and Energy Migration in Biomolecular Structures 425 26 Mechanisms of Enzyme Catalysis 481 27 Energy Transformation in Primary Processes of Photosynthesis 505 28 Electron-Conformational Interactions in Primary Processes of Photosynthesis 547 X. Primary Processes in Biological Systems 579 29 Photo-conversions of Bacteriorhodopsin and Rhodopsin 581 30 Photoregulatory and Photodestructive Processes 607 Further Reading 633 Index 635.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119160250 20170807
Following up on his first book, Fundementals of Biophysics, the author, a well-known scientist in this area, builds on that foundation by offering the biologist or scientist an advanced, comprehensive coverage of biophysics. Structuring the book into four major parts, he thoroughly covers the biophysics of complex systems, such as the kinetics and thermodynamic processes of biological systems, in the first part. The second part is dedicated to molecular biophysics, such as biopolymers and proteins, and the third part is on the biophysics of membrane processes. The final part is on photobiological processes. This ambitious work is a must-have for the veteran biologist, scientist, or chemist working in this field, and for the novice or student, who is interested in learning about biophysics. It is an emerging field, becoming increasingly more important, the more we learn about and develop the science. No library on biophysics is complete without this text and its precursor, both available from Wiley-Scrivener.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119160250 20170807
1 online resource.
  • Part One: Introduction to Discrimination Testing 1. History of sensory discrimination testing 2. Statistics for use in discrimination testing 3. Deciding which test to use in discrimination testing 4. Applications and limitations of discrimination testing Part Two: Methods and Analysis in Discrimination Testing: Practical Guidance 5. Paired comparison, directional difference test/2-alternative forced choice (2-AFC), Simple difference test/same different 6. A not A testing 7. Triangle testing 8. 2 out of 5 testing 9. Tetrad testing 10. Duo-trio: balanced and constant reference 11. Difference from Control 12. Ranking 13. ABX discrimination task 14. Dual standard testing 15. Analysis of the data Part Three: Future of Sensory Discrimination Testing 16. The future of sensory discrimination testing Appendices 17. A1: Where to find more information - ISO and ASTM standards 18. A2: Statistical tables.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081010099 20170814
Discrimination Testing in Sensory Science: A Practical Handbook is a one-stop-shop for practical advice and guidance on the performance and analysis of discrimination testing in sensory science. The book covers all aspects of difference testing: the history and origin of different methods, the practicalities of setting up a difference test, replications, the statistics behind each test, dealing with the analysis, action standards, and the statistical analysis of results with R. The book is written by sensory science experts from both academia and industry, and edited by an independent sensory scientist with over twenty years of experience in planning, running and analyzing discrimination tests. This is an essential text for academics in sensory and consumer science and any sensory scientist working in research and development in food, home, and personal care products, new product development, or quality control.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081010099 20170814
1 online resource.
  • 1. The need for engineering neural tissue using stem cells 2. Overview of the nervous system 3. Stem cells and their applications in repairing the damaged nervous system 4. Design considerations when engineering neural tissue from stem cells 5. Natural biomaterials for engineering neural tissue from stem cells 6. Synthetic biomaterials for engineering neural tissue from stem cells 7. Drug delivery systems for engineering neural tissue 8. New technologies for engineering neural tissue from stem cells.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128113851 20171017
Engineering Neural Tissue from Stem Cells covers the basic knowledge needed to understand the nervous system and how existing cells can be used to create neural tissue. This book presents a broad range of topics related to the design requirements for engineering neural tissue from stem cells. It begins with the anatomy and function of the central and peripheral nervous system, also covering stem cells, their relation to the nervous system and their function in recovery after injury or disease. In addition, the book explores the role of the extracellular matrix and vasculature/immune system and biomaterials, including their suitability for neural tissue engineering applications.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128113851 20171017
1 online resource
Experimental Methods in Orthopaedic Biomechanics is the first book in the field that focuses on the practicalities of performing a large variety of in-vitro laboratory experiments. Explanations are thorough, informative, and feature standard lab equipment to enable biomedical engineers to advance from a 'trial and error' approach to an efficient system recommended by experienced leaders. This is an ideal tool for biomedical engineers or biomechanics professors in their teaching, as well as for those studying and carrying out lab assignments and projects in the field. The experienced authors have established a standard that researchers can test against in order to explain the strengths and weaknesses of testing approaches.
1 online resource : illustrations (chiefly color)
  • Basic genetic principles
  • Prenatal diagnosis
  • Basic embryology
  • Regulation of embryogenesis
  • The extracellular matrix in development
  • Stem cell biology
  • Mechanisms of cell death in the developing brain
  • Angiogenesis
  • Epigenetics
  • Placental development
  • Regulation of the placental circulation
  • Mechanisms of transfer across the human placenta
  • Endocrine and paracrine function of the human placenta
  • Fetal and maternal responses to intraamniotic infection
  • Fetal origins of adult disease : a classic hypothesis with new relevance
  • Physiologic effects of multiple pregnancy on mother and fetus
  • Placental function in intrauterine growth restriction
  • Basic pharmacologic principles
  • Principles of pharmacokinetics
  • Physicochemical and structural properties regulating placental drug transfer
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Drug distribution in fetal life
  • Drug transfer during breast-feeding
  • Circulatory and metabolic changes accompanying fetal growth restriction
  • Endocrine factors affecting neonatal growth
  • Human milk composition and function in the infant
  • Physiology of lactation
  • Fetal and neonatal iron metabolism
  • Neonatal calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium homeostasis
  • Zinc in the fetus and neonate
  • Vitamin a metabolism in the fetus and neonate
  • Vitamin e nutrition in the fetus and newborn
  • Vitamin k metabolism in the fetus and neonate
  • Maternal-fetal transfer of lipid metabolites
  • Brown adipose tissue : development and function
  • Lipids as an energy source for the premature and term neonate
  • Ketone body metabolism in the neonate
  • Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the developing central nervous system
  • Metabolism of glucose and methods of investigation in the fetus and newborn
  • Carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy
  • Oxygen consumption and general carbohydrate metabolism of the fetus
  • Role of glucoregulatory hormones in hepatic glucose metabolism during the perinatal period
  • Cell glucose transport and glucose handling during fetal and neonatal development
  • General concepts of protein metabolism
  • Fetal requirements and placental transfer of nitrogenous compounds
  • Temperature control in newborn infants
  • Responses of the fetus and neonate to hypothermia
  • Structure and development of the skin and cutaneous appendages
  • Physiologic development of the skin
  • Cardiovascular development
  • Developmental electrophysiology in the fetus and neonate
  • Developmental biology of the pulmonary vasculature
  • Development of the gastrointestinal circulation in the fetus and newborn
  • Physiology of congenital heart disease in the neonate
  • Neural regulation of blood pressure during fetal and newborn life
  • Developmental effects on the fetal circulation
  • Mechanisms regulating closure of the ductus arteriosus
  • Umbilical circulation
  • Fetal and placental circulation during labor
  • Physiology of resuscitation
  • Normal and abnormal structural development of the lung
  • Regulation of alveolarization
  • Physiologic mechanisms of normal and altered lung growth before and after birth
  • Molecular mechanisms of lung development and lung branching morphogenesis
  • Regulation of liquid secretion and absorption by the fetal and neonatal lung
  • Upper airway structure : function, regulation, and development
  • Regulation of lower airway function
  • Functional development of respiratory muscles
  • Mechanics of breathing
  • Pulmonary gas exchange in the developing lung
  • Oxygen transport and delivery
  • Control of breathing in fetal life and onset and control of breathing in the neonate
  • Basic mechanisms of oxygen sensing and response to hypoxia
  • Evaluation of pulmonary function in the neonate
  • Mechanisms of neonatal lung injury
  • Impaired lung growth after injury in premature lung
  • Antenatal factors that influence postnatal lung development and injury
  • Regulation of pulmonary circulation
  • Historical perspective
  • Surfactant homeostasis : composition and function of pulmonary surfactant lipids and proteins
  • Structure and development of alveolar epithelial cells
  • Regulation of surfactant-associated phospholipid synthesis and secretion
  • Antenatal hormonal therapy for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome
  • Surfactant treatment
  • Genetics and physiology of surfactant protein deficiencies
  • Trophic factors and regulation of gastrointestinal tract and liver development
  • Organogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Development of the enteric nervous system
  • Development of gastric secretory function
  • Development of gastrointestinal motility
  • Development of the exocrine pancreas
  • Digestive-absorption functions in fetuses, infants, and children
  • The developing microbiome of the fetus and newborn
  • Organogenesis and histologic development of the liver
  • Bile acid metabolism during development
  • Neonatal bilirubin metabolism
  • Hereditary contribution to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
  • Mechanistic aspects of phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
  • Development of the kidney : morphology and mechanisms
  • Functional development of the kidney in utero
  • Development and regulation of renal blood flow in the neonate
  • Development of the renin-angiotensin system
  • Postnatal development of glomerular filtration rate in neonates
  • Renal transport of sodium during development
  • Potassium homeostasis in the fetus and neonate
  • Role of the kidney in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis
  • Transport of amino acids in the fetus and neonate
  • Organic anion transport in the developing kidney
  • Concentration and dilution of urine
  • Urinary acidification
  • Response to nephron loss in early development
  • Fluid distribution in the fetus and neonate
  • Regulation of acid-base balance in the fetus and neonate
  • Developmental biology of stem cells : from the embryo to the adult
  • Developmental granulocytopoiesis
  • Developmental erythropoiesis
  • Developmental megakaryocytopoiesis
  • Developmental hemostasis
  • Platelet--vessel wall interactions
  • Host defense mechanisms against bacteria
  • Host defense mechanisms against fungi
  • Host defense mechanisms against viruses
  • T cell development
  • B cell development
  • Mononuclear phagocyte system
  • Normal and abnormal neutrophil physiology in the newborn
  • The complement system of the fetus and newborn
  • Cytokines and inflammatory response in the fetus and neonate
  • Immunology of human milk
  • Neonatal pulmonary host defense
  • Development of the nervous system
  • Development of the blood-brain barrier
  • Trophic factor, nutritional, and hormonal regulation of brain development
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage in the neonate
  • Cerebellar development—the impact of preterm birth and comorbidities
  • Electroencephalography in the preterm and term infant
  • Developmental aspects of pain
  • Early development of the human auditory system
  • Development of olfaction and taste in the human fetus and neonate
  • The growth plate : embryologic origin, structure, and function
  • Ontogenesis of striated muscle
  • Hypothalamus : neuroendometabolic center
  • Growth factor regulation of fetal growth
  • Growth hormone, prolactin, and placental lactogen in the fetus and newborn
  • Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the fetus and newborn infant
  • Development of the corticotropin-releasing hormone--corticotropin system in the mammalian fetus
  • Fetal and neonatal adrenocortical physiology
  • Fetal and neonatal thyroid physiology
  • Genetics of sex determination and differentiation
  • Differentiation of the ovary
  • Testicular development and descent
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal sepsis
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal hypoglycemia
  • Pathophysiology of cardiomyopathies
  • Pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • Pathophysiology of shock in the fetus and neonate
  • Pathophysiology of apnea of prematurity
  • Pathophysiology of respiratory distress syndrome
  • Pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome
  • Pathophysiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Pathophysiology of ventilator-dependent infants
  • Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Pathophysiology of kernicterus
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal acute kidney injury
  • Pathophysiology of edema
  • Pathophysiology of retinopathy of prematurity
  • Pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal white matter injury
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal bacterial meningitis
  • Pathophysiology of neural tube defects
  • Pathophysiology of preeclampsia
  • Pathophysiology of preterm birth
  • Pathophysiology of chorioamnionitis : host immunity and microbial virulence.
Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this 2-volume resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780323352147 20160912
1 online resource (579 p.) : ill. (some col).
"What is bioengineering all about? How will it impact the future? Can it find the cure for diabetes and other chronic diseases? A long-awaited continuation of the 2004 book, Understanding the Human Machine: A Primer for Bioengineering, this volume intends to address these questions and more. Written together with 18 scientists active in the field, Max E. Valentinuzzi brings his decades of teaching bioengineering and physiology at the undergraduate and graduate levels to readers, giving a profound, and sometimes philosophical, insight into the realm of bioengineering."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (44 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Enamel biology
  • Enamel structure & morphology
  • Enamel microanatomy
  • Enamel decussation & fractures
  • Enamel mechanical properties
  • Environmental background & human evolution
  • Tooth size, bite forces & enamel integrity.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (19 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Bone biology
  • Bone structure
  • Collagen fiber orientation
  • Aging & fractures
  • Osteocyte density.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (45 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Aging (senescence) our evolved life history
  • Global maximum life expectancy
  • Postmenopausal survival characterizes all human populations
  • Longevity affects age at maturity across our primate order
  • Comparing humans and chimpanzees
  • Grandmother effects and the evolution of human life history
  • What physiological mechanisms have slowed human aging?
  • Age-specific fertility rates in humans & chimpanzees
  • Overall mortality effects on age-specific variation.
1 online resource (238 p).
  • Chapter 1: Personal monitoring and health data acquisition in smart homesChapter 2: Contactless monitoring of respiratory activity using electromagnetic waves for ambient assisted living framework: feasibility study and prototype realizationChapter 3: Technology-based assistance of people with dementia: state of the art, open challenges, and future developmentsChapter 4: Wearable sensors for gesture analysis in smart healthcare applicationsChapter 5: Design and prototyping of an innovative home automation system for the monitoring of elderly peopleChapter 6: Multi-sensor platform for circadian rhythm analysisChapter 7: Smart multi-sensor solutions for ADL detectionChapter 8: Comprehensive human monitoring based on heterogeneous sensor networkChapter 9: Ambient intelligence for health: advances in vital signs and gait monitoring systems within mHealth environmentsChapter 10: Smartphone-based blood pressure monitoring for falls risk assessment: techniques and technologies.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781785611513 20171017
Interest in Information and Communication Technologies for human monitoring, smart health and assisted living is growing due to the significant impact that these technologies are expected to have on improving the quality of life of ageing populations around the world. This book brings together chapters written by a range of researchers working in these topics, providing an overview of the areas and covering current research, developments and applications for a readership of researchers and research-led engineering practitioners. It discusses the promises and the possible advantages of these technologies, and also indicates the challenges for the future. Topics covered include: personal monitoring and health data acquisition in smart homes; contactless monitoring of respiratory activity; technology-based assistance of people with dementia; wearable sensors for gesture analysis; design and prototyping of home automation systems for the monitoring of elderly people; multi-sensor platform for circadian rhythm analysis; smart multi-sensor solutions for activity detection; human monitoring based on heterogeneous sensor networks; mobile health for vital signs and gait monitoring systems; and smartphone-based blood pressure monitoring for falls risk assessment.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781785611513 20171017
1 online resource : illustrations
  • Lists of Contributors xiii 1 Natural Products as Enzyme Inhibitors 1David M. Pereira, Catarina Andrade, Patricia Valentao, and Paula B. Andrade 1.1 Why Are Natural Products Good Enzyme Inhibitors? 1 1.2 Drawbacks of Natural Products 4 1.3 The Future of Natural Products Drug Discovery 5 1.3.1 New Sources and New Production Methods 5 1.3.2 New Strategies for Delivery 9 1.3.3 New Targets?/Drug Repurposing 12 1.4 Conclusion 13 References 13 2 Molecular Targets of Clinically Relevant Natural Products from Filamentous Marine Cyanobacteria 19Lik T. Tan 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors 20 2.2.1 Largazole 20 2.2.2 Santacruzamate A 22 2.3 Proteasome Inhibitors 23 2.3.1 Carmaphycins 23 2.4 Protease Enzymes 24 2.4.1 Serine Protease Inhibitors 24 2.4.2 Falcipain Inhibitors 27 Gallinamide A 27 2.4.3 Cathepsin Inhibitors 28 2.4.4 ss?-Secretase 1 (BACE1) Inhibitors 30 Tasiamide B 30 2.5 Protein Kinase C Modulators 30 2.5.1 Aplysiatoxins 30 2.6 Interference of the Actin and Microtubule Filaments 31 2.6.1 Dolastatins 10/15 31 2.6.2 Bisebromoamide 32 2.7 Sec61 Protein Translocation Channel Inhibitors 32 2.7.1 Apratoxin A 32 2.8 Prohibitin Inhibitors 34 2.8.1 Aurilide 34 2.9 Sodium Channels Modulators 35 2.10 Conclusions 35 References 36 3 Natural Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors with Antihypertensive Properties 45Maria Margalef, Francisca I. Bravo, Anna Arola-Arnal, and Begona Muguerza 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Regulation 46 3.2.1 Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 46 3.3 The Treatment of Hypertension 47 3.3.1 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 47 3.4 Natural Products as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 50 3.4.1 Polyphenols 50 3.4.2 Protein Derived Peptides 55 3.5 Conclusions 58 References 58 4 Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors of Marine Origin 69Tania Silva, David M. Pereira, Patricia Valentao, and Paula B. Andrade 4.1 Relevance of Marine Organisms 69 4.2 Inflammation 69 4.2.1 Phospholipase A2 70 4.3 Marine Molecules as PLA2 Inhibitors 72 4.3.1 Sponge?]Derived Metabolites 72 4.3.2 Metabolites from Other Organisms 83 4.4 Conclusion 86 References 86 5 ss-Secretase (BACE1) Inhibitors from Natural Products 93Wei?-Shuo Fang, Deyang Sun, Shuang Yang, and Na Guo 5.1Introduction 93 5.2 Flavonoids 94 5.2.1 Flavones, Flavonols and Flavone Glycosides 95 5.2.2 Dihydroflavonoids 96 5.2.3 Biflavonoids 98 5.2.4 Chalcones 100 5.2.5 Isoflavonoids 102 5.2.6 Catechins 102 5.2.7 Xanthones 104 5.3 Chromones 104 5.4 Phenolic Acids and Tannins 105 5.4.1 Phenol Acids 105 5.4.2 Tannins 106 5.4.3 Simple Phenol Derivatives and Polyphenols 107 5.5 Stilbenes and Derivatives 110 5.6 Coumarins 112 5.7 Benzoquinones and Anthraquinones 114 5.8 Alkaloids 116 5.9 Terpenes 118 5.10 Lignans 120 5.11 Fatty Acid 121 5.12 Saccharides, Peptides and Amino Acid Derivatives 121 5.13 BACE1 Inhibitory Active Extracts of Natural Products 122 5.14 Bioassays for the Discovery of BACE1 Inhibitors 124 5.15 Prospective 124 5.16 Acknowledgements 125 References 125 6 Hypoglycaemic Effects of Plants Food Constituents via Inhibition of Carbohydrate-Hydrolysing Enzymes: From Chemistry to Future Applications 135Monica R. Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Seyed M. Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo?]Sanchez, Luca Rastrelli, and Rosa Tundis 6.1 Introduction 135 6.2 α-Amylase 136 6.3 α-Glucosidase 137 6.4 Hypoglycaemic Natural Compounds 137 6.4.1 Flavonoids 139 6.4.2 Phenolic Acids 141 6.4.3 Terpenoids 142 6.4.4 Alkaloids 147 6.4.5 Tannins 150 Ellagitannins 150 6.4.6 Miscellaneous 152 6.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 152 Abbreviations 153 References 153 7 Natural Products Targeting Clinically Relevant Enzymes of Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Implicated in Inflammation and Cancer 163Gorla V. Reddy, Nagendra S. Yarla, Shobha Ediga, Dinesh K. Tiwari, Naresh Kumar, Sandhya Singh, Vasundhra Bhandari, Anupam Bishayee, Chintalapally V. Rao, and Pallu Reddanna 7.1 Introduction 163 7.2 Eicosanoid Biosynthetic Pathways 164 7.2.1 Phospholipases 165 7.2.2 Cyclooxygenases 166 7.2.3 Lipoxygenases 166 7.2.4 Cytochrome P450 (CYP)?]dependent Monooxygenases 166 7.3 Eicosanoid Biosynthetic Pathways in Inflammation and Cancer 167 7.3.1 Role of PLA2s in Inflammation and Cancer 167 7.3.2 Role of COXs in Inflammation and Cancer 168 7.3.3 Role of LOXs in Inflammation and Cancer 169 7.3.4 Role of CYP?]dependent Monooxygenases in Inflammation and Cancer 170 7.4 Natural Products as Anti-inflammatory Agents 170 7.4.1 Natural Products from Plant Origin 170 Baicalein 170 Berberine 171 Chebulagic Acid 172 Curcumin 172 Ellagic Acid 173 Epigallocatechin?]3?]Gallate 174 Eugenol 174 Fisetin 174 Gallic Acid 175 Genistein 175 Guggulsterone 176 Piperine 176 Quercetin 177 Resveratrol 178 Silibinin 178 Terpenoids 179 Triptolids 180 Ursolic Acid (UA) 181 7.4.2 Natural Products from Marine Origin 182 Axinelline A 182 Scalaradial 182 Tetrapetalone 183 7.4.3 Natural Products from Microorganisms 183 C?]Phycocyanin 183 Kojic Acid 184 Lobaric Acid 185 7.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 185 References 186 8 Anti-HIV Natural Products 209Tzi B. Ng, Jack H. Wong, Chi F. Cheung, Charlene C. W. Ng, Tak F. Tse, and Helen Chan 8.1 Introduction 209 8.2 Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins 209 8.3 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors 210 8.3.1 Antifungal Proteins 210 8.3.2 Defensins and Defensin?]Like Anti?]Fungal Peptides 210 8.3.3 Cathelicidins 210 8.3.4 Whey Proteins 211 8.3.5 Proteases and Protease Inhibitors 211 8.3.6 Lectins 211 8.3.7 Laccases and Ribonucleases 212 8.3.8 Polysaccharides and Polysaccharopeptides 212 8.3.9 Other HIV?]Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors 212 8.4 Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase Associated RNase H 213 8.5 HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors 213 8.6 HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors 214 8.7 Discussion 214 Acknowledgements 216 References 216 9 Natural Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain: Therapeutic and Toxicological Implications 225Fernando Pelaez, Nuria de Pedro, and Jose R. Tormo 9.1 Introduction: The Structure of the Electron Transport Chain 225 9.2 Natural Inhibitors of the Respiratory Chain 228 9.2.1 Complex I Inhibitors 228 Acetogenins from Annonaceae as Complex I Inhibitors 231 9.2.2 Complex II Inhibitors 233 9.2.3 Complex III Inhibitors 234 9.2.4 Complex IV Inhibitors 235 9.2.5 Complex V Inhibitors 237 9.3 Therapeutic, Agrochemical and Toxicological Implications 239 9.3.1 ETC Inhibitors as Fungicides 239 9.3.2 ETC Inhibitors as Insecticides, Acaricides, and Anthelmintic Agents 240 9.3.3 ETC Inhibitors with Activity Against Protozoan Parasites 241 9.3.4 Diabetes and ETC Inhibition 241 9.3.5 ETC Inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy in Cancer 242 Mechanistic Insights on the Anti?]Tumour Properties of ETC Inhibitors 244 9.3.6 Toxicological Implications of ETC Inhibition 245 Neurotoxicity and ETC Inhibition 245 Other Toxicity Aspects of ETC Inhibition 246 9.4Conclusions 247 References 247 10 Targeting Enzymatic Pathways with Marine-Derived Clinical Agents 255Renato B. Pereira, Ramesh Dasari, Florence Lefranc, Alexander Kornienko, Robert Kiss, and Nelson G. M. Gomes 10.1 Marine Environment as an Established Source of Drug Candidates 255 10.2 Enzyme-Targeting Derived Effects of Marine-Derived Approved Drugs 256 10.3 Marine-Derived Agents in Clinical Development Targeting Relevant Enzymatic Pathways 261 10.4 Concluding Remarks 264 Acknowledgements 265 References 265 11 Anti-Malarial Drug Discovery: New Enzyme Inhibitors 277Raghu Raj and Vipan Kumar 11.1 Introduction 277 11.2 Falcipain (FP-2) Inhibitors 278 11.3 Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Inhibitors (PNP) 284 11.4 Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) and Thymidylate Synthase (TS) Inhibitors 286 11.5 Hypoxanthine-Guanine-(Xanthine) Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors 290 11.6 Conclusion 293 References 293 12 Natural Plant-Derived Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease 297Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Tharusha Jayasena, and Perminder Sachdev 12.1 Introduction 297 12.2 Natural Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 299 12.2.1 Alkaloid Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 302 Rutaceae 302 Nelumbonaceae 303 Papaveraceae 303 Menispermaceae 303 Magnoliaceae 304 Apocynaceae 304 Amaryllidaceae 304 Lycopodiaceae 305 Buxaceae 305 Liliaceae 306 12.2.2 Non?]Alkaloid Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 306 Asparagaceae 306 Chenopodiaceae 306 Clusiaceae 307 Gentianaceae 307 Fabaceae 307 Lamiaceae 307 Moraceae 308 Iridaceae 308 Zygophyllaceae 308 Sterculiaceae 308 Combretaceae 309 Myristicaceae 309 Anacardiaceae 309 Nelumbonaceae 309 12.3 Conclusion 309 Acknowledgements 309 References 310 Index 319.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527805938 20171009
The past decade has seen the reappearance of natural products as a valuable source of potent therapeutics. Here, experts on bioactive natural products cover the full spectrum of clinically relevant enzymes that are known to be targeted by natural products. Key enzymes include acetylcholine esterase, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, cyclooxygenase, dihydrofolate reductase, phospholipase A2, respiratory complexes, and many more. By connecting the diversity of medicinal natural product sources with their potential clinical applications, this volume serves as a companion for the medicinal chemist looking for innovative small molecule compounds as well as for pharmacologist interested in the clinical effects and mode of action of herbal and traditional medicines.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527805938 20171009
1 online resource (436 p.)
  • Section I. Chemical Biology 1. Determinants of Nitric Oxide Chemistry: Impact of Cell Signaling Processes 2. Nitric oxide redox biochemistry in lipid environments 3. Mechanisms and biological consequences of peroxynitrite-dependent protein oxidation and nitration 4. Systems Approaches to Unraveling Nitric Oxide Response Networks in Prokaryotes Section II. Principles of Biology A. Nitric Oxide Synthases 5. Uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cardiovascular disease and its pharmacological reversal 6. Tetrahydrobiopterin: An essential cofactor for Nitric Oxide Synthases and Amino Acid Hydroxylases 7. Regulation of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase 8. Molecular Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase B. Guanylate Cyclase and Cyclic GMP 9. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: Allosteric Activation and Redox Regulation C. Nitric Oxide Signaling 10. Untargeted Discovery of NO-modified Proteins 11. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling: Cyclooxygenases, Lipoxygenases and Nitro-Fatty Acids 12. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Vascular Cells is Regulated through CD47 by Thrombospondin-1 13. The Regulation of Cell Energetics and Mitochondrial Signaling by Nitric Oxide D. Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production 14. Nitric oxide-asymmetric dimethylarginine system in endothelial cell senescence E. Nitric Oxide and Remodeling 15. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Apoptosis and Autophagy: Biochemical and Computational Studies F. Nitrite and Nitrate 16. NO formation from inorganic nitrate and nitrite 17. Mechanisms of nitrite reduction in ischemia in the cardiovascular system: therapeutic potential 18. Nitrite Therapy for Ischemic Syndromes 19. Nitrite and heme globins: Reaction mechanisms and physiological targets Section III. Principles of Pathobiology A. Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Function 20. Nitric Oxide in Vascular Damage and Regeneration 21. Free radicals as atherosclerotic risk-The relation of NO- 22. The role of oxidative stress in endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation B. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide 23. Nitric oxide, oxidative stress, immune response and critical care 24. Reactive Metabolites of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury 25. Nitric oxide in airway inflammation 26. Novel therapeutic applications of nitric oxide (NO) in the inhibition of tumor malignancy and reversal of resistance.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128042731 20170911
Nitric Oxide: Biology and Pathobiology, Third Edition, provides information on nitric oxide, a signaling molecule of key importance for the cardiovascular system that regulates blood pressure and blood flow to different organs. With recent links to the role of nitric oxide in the expression of healthy benefits of controlled diet and aerobic exercise, and the reactions of nitric oxide that can impact cell signaling, this book provides a comprehensive resource during a time when increased research attention is being paid across the fields of biochemistry, chemistry, molecular biology, gene therapy, cell biology, immunology, pharmacology, neuroscience, and physiology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128042731 20170911
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (45 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: The human microbiome
  • 16S ribosomal RNA
  • Physiological roles of the intestinal microbiota
  • Mammalian mucosal surfaces
  • Paneth cells
  • Intestinal antimicrobial peptides
  • The defensins: animal models
  • Defensins, regulation of the microbiota and implications for intestinal homeostasis
  • Paneth cells and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis
  • Diseases associated with Paneth cell abnormalities.
1 online resource : illustrations.
  • PART I. TISSUE ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS Tissue Engineering: Past, Present and Future Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering: Prospects and challenges Stem Cells and other Cell Sources: Prospects and Challenges Microfluidics in Tissue Engineering Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering Biosensors in Tissue Engineering PART II. TISSUE ENGINEERED ARTIFICIAL ORGANS Wound Healing and Tissue Engineered Cartilage Tissue Engineering Tissue Engineering of Liver Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel Tissue Engineering of Lungs Tissue Engineering for Cardiac Tissues Heart Valve Tissue Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering- Bone, Ligament, tendon Tissue Engineered Trachea Tissue Engineering of Pancreas Tissue Engineering of Renal Tissue (Kidney) Bone Tissue Engineering Neural Tissue Engineering Brain Tissue Engineering Concluding Remarks.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527689941 20170424
  • Volume 1 List of Contributors xiii Foreword xxiii Preface xxv Part I Fundamentals 1 1 Introduction to Tissue Engineering 3 Rami Mhanna and Anwarul Hasan 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Clinical Need for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 4 1.3 History of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 5 1.4 Fundamentals of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 6 1.5 Applications of Tissue Engineering 14 1.6 Challenges in Tissue Engineering 21 1.7 The Future of Tissue Engineering 22 1.8 Conclusions 23 References 24 2 Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering 35 Samad Ahadian, Rahaf Rahal, Javier Ramon-Azcon, Raquel Obregon, and Anwarul Hasan 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Biomaterial Tissue Interactions 37 2.3 Properties of Biomaterials 40 2.4 Scaffold Requirements for Specific Tissues 44 2.5 Classification of Biomaterials 45 2.6 Fabrication Methods of Biomaterials 61 2.7 Testing of Biomaterials 64 2.8 Challenges for Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering 65 2.9 Conclusions and Future Directions 67 Acknowledgment 69 Abbreviations 69 References 70 3 Harnessing the Potential of Stem Cells from Different Sources for Tissue Engineering 85 Divya Murali, Kunal G. Kshirsagar, Anwarul Hasan, and Arghya Paul 3.1 Introduction 85 3.2 Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 86 3.3 Unique Properties 86 3.4 Types of Stem Cells 87 3.5 Application of Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 92 3.6 Challenges and Future Directions 101 3.7 Conclusion 102 Acknowledgments 102 References 102 4 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Scaffold-Based Tissue Engineering 111 Deepti Rana, Minal Thacker, Maria Leena, and Murugan Ramalingam 4.1 Introduction 111 4.2 Basics of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 112 4.3 Concept of Scaffold-Based Tissue Engineering 116 4.4 Cell Scaffold Interactions 118 4.5 Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 121 4.6 Concluding Remarks 134 Acknowledgments 134 References 134 5 Biosensors for Optimal Tissue Engineering: Recent Developments and Shaping the Future 143 Jihane Abouzeid, Ghinwa Darwish, and Pierre Karam 5.1 Introduction 143 5.2 Fundamentals of Biosensors 143 5.3 Biosensing Techniques 145 5.4 Real-Time Sensing in Tissue Engineering and Cell Growth 147 5.5 In Vivo Implementations and the Challenges Faced 155 5.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 158 References 159 6 Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering 169 Raquel Obregon, Javier Ramon-Azcon, and Samad Ahadian 6.1 Introduction 169 6.2 Bioreactors 170 6.3 Applications of Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering 175 6.4 Summary and Future Perspectives 191 Acknowledgment 191 Abbreviations 191 References 192 Part II Applications 215 7 Tissue-Engineered Human Skin Equivalents and Their Applications in Wound Healing 217 Lara Yildirimer, Divia Hobson, Zhi Yuan (William) Lin, Wenguo Cui, and Xin Zhao 7.1 Introduction 217 7.2 Development of Tissue-Engineered Human Skin Equivalents 220 7.3 Application of TESs inWound Healing 226 7.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 233 Acknowledgments 234 References 234 8 Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering 243 Jiayin Fu, Pengfei He, and Dong-An Wang 8.1 Introduction 243 8.2 Articular Cartilage Lesions and Repair 245 8.3 Basics of Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering 248 8.4 Strategies in Current Cartilage Tissue Engineering 265 8.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 273 List of Abbreviations 275 References 276 9 Liver Tissue Engineering 297 Jessica L. Sparks 9.1 Introduction 297 9.2 Liver Biology 299 9.3 Liver Biomechanics 304 9.4 Liver Mechanobiology 308 9.5 Biophysical Stimuli in Liver Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 313 9.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 314 References 314 10 Development of Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels 325 Haiyan Li 10.1 Introduction 325 10.2 Biology of Blood Vessels 326 10.3 Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels 329 10.4 Conclusion and Perspective 344 Acknowledgment 345 References 345 Volume 2 Foreword xv Preface xvii 11 Engineering Trachea and Larynx 363 Marta B. Evangelista, Sait Ciftci, PeterMilad, Emmanuel Martinod, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Christian Debry, and Nihal E. Vrana 11.1 Introduction 363 11.2 Basic Anatomy and Histology of the Larynx and Trachea 364 11.3 Indications for Tracheal Resection 366 11.4 Available Remedies Following Total Laryngectomy 369 11.5 RegenerativeMedicine Strategies and Tissue Engineering Tools for Tracheal and Larynx Replacement 372 11.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 381 Declaration/Conflict of Interest 382 References 382 12 Pulmonary Tissue Engineering 389 Patrick A. Link and Rebecca L. Heise 12.1 Introduction 389 12.2 Clinical Need for Pulmonary Tissue Engineering 389 12.3 Structure Function Relationship in the Conducting Airways and the Lung 394 12.4 Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Approaches for the Lung 397 12.5 Conclusions, Remaining Challenges, and Future Directions 408 References 408 13 Cardiac Tissue Engineering 413 Eun Jung Lee and Pamela Hitscherich 13.1 Introduction 413 13.2 Cardiac Tissue Architecture 414 13.3 Cell Source Considerations 416 13.4 Engineering for Myocardial Tissue 422 13.5 Conclusion and Future Directions 430 References 430 14 Approaches and Recent Advances in Heart Valve Tissue Engineering 445 Anna Mallone, Benedikt Weber, and Simon P. Hoerstrup 14.1 Introduction 445 14.2 Principles of Tissue Engineering: Shaping the Valvular Construct 448 14.3 In Vitro Bioengineering of Heart Valves: Scaffold Materials 449 14.4 Cells for Valvular Bioengineering 454 14.5 Challenges and Limitations 456 14.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 457 References 457 15 Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering: Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle Replacement and Repair 465 Jorge A. Uquillas, Settimio Pacelli, Shuichiro Kobayashi, and Sebastian Uquillas 15.1 Introduction 465 15.2 Biology of Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle 467 15.3 Grafting Practices for Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle Repair 473 15.4 Factors in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering 477 15.5 Recent Advancements in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering 494 15.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 498 References 499 16 Bone Tissue Engineering: State of the Art, Challenges, and Prospects 525 Jan O. Gordeladze, Havard J. Haugen, Stale P. Lyngstadaas, and Janne E. Reseland 16.1 Introduction 525 16.2 Factors Important in Tissue Engineering of Bone 526 16.3 Fabricated Tissues by 3D Printing of Suspensions of Cells on Micro-Carriers 529 16.4 Recent Advances in Bone Tissue Engineering 533 16.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 546 References 548 17 Tissue Engineering of the Pancreas 553 Masayuki Shimoda 17.1 Introduction 553 17.2 Treatment Options for T1D 554 17.3 Bioartificial Pancreas 556 17.4 Biomaterials/Encapsulation 558 17.5 Conclusion 564 References 566 18 Tissue Engineering of Renal Tissue (Kidney) 575 Raquel Rodrigues-Diez, Valentina Benedetti, Giuseppe Remuzzi, and Christodoulos Xinaris 18.1 Introduction 575 18.2 Biology of the Kidney 576 18.3 Overview of Kidney Development and Vascularization 578 18.4 Developmental Engineering 581 18.5 Bio-Scaffold-Based Technologies 587 18.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 594 Acknowledgments 595 References 595 19 Design and Engineering of Neural Tissues 603 Muhammad N. Hasan and Umut A. Gurkan 19.1 Introduction 603 19.2 Natural Biomaterials for Nerve Tissue Repair 605 19.3 Synthetic Biomaterials for Nerve Tissue Repair 623 19.4 Development of Nanofibrous Scaffolds 625 19.5 Summary and Future Direction 634 References 634 20 Neural-Tissue Engineering Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injury 655 Tala El Tal, Rayan El Sibai, Stefania Mondello, and Firas Kobeissy 20.1 Introduction 655 20.2 Neurogenesis in CNS: Resident Neural Stem Cells 657 20.3 Cell-Based and NeuroprotectionTherapeutic Strategies 658 20.4 Construct Technology: Biomaterials Approach 663 20.5 Application to Living System: Translational Approaches 668 20.6 Future Outlook: Transition to the Clinic 669 References 671 21 Bionics in Tissue Engineering 677 Thanh D. Nguyen and Brian P. Timko 21.1 Introduction 677 21.2 Electronics for Biointerfaces 678 21.3 Novel Power Sources 688 21.4 3D Printing 692 21.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 695 References 695 Index 701.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527338634 20170424
A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527689941 20170424
1 online resource.
  • Introduction.- Part I: Beginnings.- Part II: Adulthood.- Part III: Aging.- Part IV: Making visible the invisible.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319441016 20170410
This volume explores methods used by social scientists and human biologists to understand fundamental aspects of human experience. It is organized by stages of the human lifespan: beginnings, adulthood, and aging. Explored are particular kinds of experiences - including pain, stress, activity levels, sleep quality, memory, and menopausal hot flashes - that have traditionally relied upon self-reports, but are subject to inter-individual differences in self-awareness or culture-based expectations. The volume also examines other ways in which normally "invisible" phenomena can be made visible, such as the caloric content of foods, blood pressure, fecundity, growth, nutritional status, genotypes, and bone health. All of the chapters in this book address the means by which social scientists and human biologists measure subjective and objective experience.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319441016 20170410
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
1 PDF (xv, 135 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Enabling technologies
  • 1.1.1 Camera-based systems
  • 1.1.2 Body worn sensors
  • 1.1.3 Force and pressure-based systems
  • 1.2 Body tracking in context
  • 1.3 Overview
  • 2. Clinical assessment of motor disability
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Tracking disease progression in multiple sclerosis assessment
  • 2.2.1 Contexts and practices in MS assessment with the EDSS
  • 2.2.2 Challenges and characteristics of assessment room
  • 2.2.3 Doctor-patient relationship in assessment
  • 2.2.4 Summary
  • 2.3 Understanding concerns in system design: assess MS system
  • 2.3.1 System overview
  • 2.3.2 Algorithms
  • 2.3.3 Movement exercise protocol
  • 2.3.4 Ensuring standardized movement performance
  • 2.3.5 Framing and standardization, seeing how the machine sees
  • 2.3.6 Representing the movement measure and classification
  • 2.4 Conclusions
  • 3. Self-directed rehabilitation and care
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Facilitating physical activity in chronic musculoskeletal pain
  • 3.3 Technology for chronic pain rehabilitation
  • 3.3.1 Go-with-the-flow: sonification in movement rehabilitation
  • 3.3.2 Transferring to everyday functioning: kinect vs. wearable smartphone as a body-tracking device
  • 3.3.3 Self-directed rehabilitation as process: from clinical facilitation to self-management
  • 3.3.4 Tracking affective states and pain levels
  • 3.4 Exergaming and balance rehabilitation in older adults
  • 3.4.1 Balance and fall risk in older adults
  • 3.4.2 Body-tracking technology for balance training
  • 3.4.3 Designing a balance training game
  • 3.4.4 Understanding rehabilitative game use
  • 3.5 Conclusion
  • 4. Interactions for clinicians
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Sterility and constraints on imaging practices
  • 4.3 Tracking the body of the clinician for enabling touchless interaction with images
  • 4.4 Clinical considerations in gesture design
  • 4.4.1 Clinical constraints on movement in gesture design
  • 4.4.2 Supporting collaboration and control
  • 4.4.3 What actions and body parts to track for the purposes of system control
  • 4.4.4 Engaging and disengaging the system
  • 4.4.5 Feedback and making oneself sensed
  • 4.4.6 Coarse vs. fine-grained control
  • 4.5 Body tracking, gesture, and robotics
  • 4.6 Increasing interaction bandwidth through input modality
  • 4.7 Conclusions
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Contextual design
  • 5.2.1 Sensor technology
  • 5.2.2 Data and algorithms
  • 5.2.3 Designing movements
  • 5.2.4 Interface and interaction design
  • 5.2.5 Physical set-up and form factor
  • 5.2.6 Social set-up and practices
  • 5.3 The future
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
Within the context of healthcare, there has been a long-standing interest in understanding the posture and movement of the human body. Gait analysis work over the years has looked to articulate the patterns and parameters of this movement both for a normal healthy body and in a range of movement-based disorders. In recent years, these efforts to understand the moving body have been transformed by significant advances in sensing technologies and computational analysis techniques all offering new ways for the moving body to be tracked, measured, and interpreted. While much of this work has been largely research focused, as the field matures, we are seeing more shifts into clinical practice. As a consequence, there is an increasing need to understand these sensing technologies over and above the specific capabilities to track, measure, and infer patterns of movement in themselves. Rather, there is an imperative to understand how the material form of these technologies enables them also to be situated in everyday healthcare contexts and practices. There are significant mutually interdependent ties between the fundamental characteristics and assumptions of these technologies and the configurations of everyday collaborative practices that are possible them. Our attention then must look to social, clinical, and technical relations pertaining to these various body technologies that may play out in particular ways across a range of different healthcare contexts and stakeholders. Our aim in this book is to explore these issues with key examples illustrating how social contexts of use relate to the properties and assumptions bound up in particular choices of body-tracking technology. We do this through a focus on three core application areas in healthcare-assessment, rehabilitation, and surgical interaction-and recent efforts to apply body-tracking technologies to them.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781627054560 20160619
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (36 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Cardiac aging in human and animal models
  • Molecular mechanisms for cardiac aging
  • Recent advances on potential interventions for cardiac aging
  • Future perspectives of cardiac aging interventions.
1 online resource.
  • List of Contributors xi 1 Carotenoids: Overview of Nomenclature, Structures, Occurrence, and Functions 1 Agnieszka Kaczor, Malgorzata Baranska, and Krzysztof Czamara 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Nomenclature and structures 2 1.3 Occurrence and functions 7 1.3.1 Functions in plants 7 1.3.2 Antioxidants in humans 8 1.3.3 Role in visual and cognitive function 8 1.3.4 Carotenoids in human skin 8 1.3.5 Signaling function 9 1.3.6 Industrial applications 9 1.3.7 Carotenoids of specified properties 9 References 10 Part I Therapy 15 2 The Role of Antioxidants in Prevention of Premature Skin Aging 17 Jurgen Lademann, Maxim Evgen evich Darvin, Fanny Knorr, Sascha Jung, Leonhard Zastrow, and Martina Claudia Meinke 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 State of the art 17 2.2.1 Solar radiation and skin aging 17 2.2.2 Carotenoids and the antioxidants of the human skin 18 2.2.3 Factors influencing the antioxidant status of the skin 20 2.2.4 Antioxidants and sun protection 21 2.2.5 Antioxidants and skin aging 22 2.2.6 Investigations into the antioxidant status of high school students 22 2.2.7 Accumulation of antioxidants in human skin by systemic and topical application 23 2.2.8 Ethnic influences on the antioxidant status 24 2.2.9 The antioxidant status in pregnant women and neonates 25 2.3 Summary 26 Conclusions 26 References 27 3 Antitumor Activity of Dietary Carotenoids, and Prospects for Applications in Therapy: Carotenoids and Cancer by Raman Imaging 31 Halina Abramczyk and Jakub Surmacki 3.1 Results 33 3.2 Conclusions 38 3.3 Perspectives 38 References 39 4 Photoprotection and Radiation Protection by Dietary Carotenoids 43 Fritz Boehm, Ruth Edge, Terence George Truscott, and Christian Witt 4.1 Introduction 43 4.2 Carotenoids and singlet oxygen 44 4.2.1 Organic solvents 44 4.2.2 Cell models 46 4.2.3 Cells 47 4.3 Radicals 48 4.3.1 Radical cations 48 4.3.2 Carotenoid radical adducts 49 4.3.3 Neutral radicals 50 4.3.4 Radical anions 51 4.3.5 The interaction of CARs with the superoxide radical and its protonated conjugated acid 51 4.4 Future prospects and challenges 53 4.5 Conclusion 53 Acknowledgments 54 References 54 5 Macular Carotenoids: Human Health Aspects 59 Aruna Gorusupudi and Paul S. Bernstein 5.1 Introduction 59 5.2 Macular pigment distribution 60 5.3 Human health aspects 61 5.4 Age?]related macular degeneration (AMD) 61 5.5 Macular carotenoid absorption 63 5.6 Stereochemistry and metabolism of macular carotenoids 65 5.7 Measurement of macular carotenoids 67 5.8 Conclusions and perspectives 68 References 68 Part II Spectroscopy 75 6 Vibrational Spectroscopy as a Tool to Investigate Carotenoids 77 Jan Cz. Dobrowolski 6.1 Introduction 77 6.2 Vibrations of carotenoids 77 6.2.1 Geometry 78 6.2.2 Geometrical cis?]trans isomerism 78 6.2.3 Syn?]periplanar (s?]cis) or anti?]periplanar (s?]trans) conformations 79 6.2.4 ?]electron delocalization 79 6.2.5 The nature, shape, and energy of the electronic ground and excited states 79 6.2.6 Electron affinity, ionization, reduction, and oxidation potentials 80 6.2.7 The nature and shape of molecular vibrations and vibrational coupling patterns 80 6.2.8 The role of methyl groups attached to the polyene chain and the end groups 81 6.3 Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy to study natural carotenoids 81 6.3.1 Bacteria lichens and algae 83 6.3.2 Corals and pearls 87 6.3.3 Art and archeology 90 6.4 Perspectives 91 Acknowledgments 92 References 92 7 Structural Studies of Carotenoids in Plants, Animals, and Food Products 103 Takashi Maoka 7.1 Introduction 103 7.2 Extraction and pre?]preparation of carotenoids 103 7.3 Chromatography and separation of carotenoids 105 7.3.1 Column chromatography and thin?]layer chromatography 105 7.3.2 High?]performance liquid chromatography 105 7.4 Quantification of carotenoids 106 7.5 Identification and structural elucidation of carotenoids 106 7.5.1 Chemical dramatization 107 7.5.2 UV?]Vis, IR, and Raman spectrometry 107 7.5.3 Mass spectrometry 108 7.5.4 NMR spectrometry 111 7.6 Determination of absolute configuration of carotenoids 120 7.6.1 Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy 120 7.6.2 NMR spectrometry using the modified Mosher method 122 7.6.3 Synthetic approach 123 7.6.4 X?]ray crystallography 124 7.6.5 Examples of structural determination of natural carotenoids 124 7.7 Conclusion (future prospects and challenges) 126 Acknowledgments 126 References 127 8 In Situ Studies of Carotenoids in Plants and Animals 131 Malgorzata Baranska, Jan Cz. Dobrowolski, and Grzegorz Zajac 8.1 Introduction 131 8.2 Plants 131 8.3 Animals 134 8.4 Humans 137 8.4.1 Skin 137 8.4.2 Macular pigment 139 8.4.3 Carotenoids in single human cells 140 8.5 Perspectives 142 Acknowledgments 143 References 143 9 Carotenoids in Pigment Protein Complexes: Relation between Carotenoid Structure and Function 147 Wieslaw I. Gruszecki 9.1 Biological functions of carotenoids 147 9.2 Carotenoids in pigment protein complexes 149 9.3 Final remarks 154 9.4 Perspectives 155 Acknowledgments 155 References 155 Part III Technology 159 10 Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Regulation in Plants 161 Rafal Baranski and Christopher I. Cazzonelli 10.1 Biosynthetic pathways 161 10.1.1 Occurrence in nature 161 10.1.2 Cellular localization and compartmentalization 162 10.1.3 Pathways to generate isoprenoid precursors for carotenoid biosynthesis 163 10.1.4 The main pathway toward carotenoid biosynthesis 165 10.1.5 Specialty branches of the pathway 169 10.2 Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis 170 10.2.1 Cross?]talk between and within the carotenoid and MEP pathways 171 10.2.2 Environmental and developmental control 171 10.2.3 Regulation by epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms 172 10.2.4 Carotenoids in plastid biogenesis, differentiation, and control 173 10.2.5 Enzyme localization and metabolon compartmentalization 174 10.2.6 Carotenoid degradation and production of signaling metabolites 175 10.3 Biofortification and health perspectives 178 Acknowledgments 179 References 179 11 Carotenoid Bioavailability from the Food Matrix: Toward Efficient Extraction Procedures 191 Hartwig Schulz 11.1 Introduction 191 11.2 Occurrence of carotenoids in food materials 193 11.3 Bioavailability and bioefficiency of carotenoids 194 11.4 Extraction of carotenoids from various food matrices 197 11.5 Conclusions 210 11.6 Perspectives 211 References 211 12 Carotenoid Production by Bacteria, Microalgae, and Fungi 217 Ralf Martin Schweiggert and Reinhold Carle 12.1 Introduction 217 12.2 Microbial biosynthesis of carotenoids 218 12.3 Carotenoid?]rich microorganisms 223 12.3.1 Microalgae 223 12.3.2 Yeasts and filamentous fungi 225 12.3.3 Bacteria 226 12.4 Selected examples of biotechnological carotenoid production 228 12.4.1 Production of ?]carotene 228 12.4.2 Production of astaxanthin 230 12.4.3 Production of lycopene 232 12.4.4 Production of lutein and zeaxanthin 233 12.5 Perspectives and conclusions 234 References 235 13 Impact of Stress Factors on Carotenoid Composition, Structures, and Bioavailability in Microbial Sources 241 Agnieszka Kaczor and Marta Z. Pacia 13.1 Introduction 241 13.2 Light 242 13.3 Temperature 246 13.4 Carbon and nitrogen sources 249 13.5 Aerobic versus anaerobic conditions 250 13.6 Inorganic and organic salts 250 13.7 Other chemical agents 253 13.8 pH 253 13.9 Multiple stress factors 254 13.10 Perspectives and conclusions 254 Acknowledgments 255 References 255 14 Syntheses with Carotenoids 261 Hans?]Richard Sliwka and Vassilia Partali 14.1 Introduction 261 14.2 Reaction with double bonds 263 14.2.1 Hydrogenation 263 14.2.2 Halogenation 263 14.2.3 Oxidation 263 14.2.4 Electron transfer from and to carotenoids 264 14.2.5 Iron carbonyl 264 14.2.6 Nitration 265 14.2.7 In?]chain modification 265 14.3 Transformation of substituents 265 14.3.1 C=O C=C 265 14.3.2 CH=O CH=S 267 14.3.3 C=O C=S 268 14.3.4 C=O C OH 268 14.3.5 Inversion of OH 269 14.3.6 OH F, Cl, Br, and I 269 14.3.7 OH SR, SCN, SH, N2, NH2, and SeR 269 14.3.8 OH OR 270 14.3.9 OH glycosides 271 14.3.10 Reactions with carotenoid epoxides 271 14.3.11 Reactions with halogen carotenoids 271 14.3.12 Metal complexes with carotenols, carotenals, and carotenones 272 14.4 Preparative derivatization 272 14.5 Syntheses with carotenoid acids and carotenols 272 14.5.1 COOH COCl 273 14.5.2 COOH COO M+ 273 14.5.3 COOH COOR 273 14.5.4 COOR COOH 277 14.5.5 COOH CONH2 279 14.5.6 COOH CO O OC (carotenoid anhydrides) 279 14.6 Carotenoid reactions with Au 280 14.7 Valuation and conclusion 281 Acknowledgments 282 References 283 Index 291.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118622223 20170313
Carotenoids are an essential component of the human diet. Bioactive by nature, they are rich in antioxidants, promote vitamin A activity and lower the development of chronic illnesses. As such they are an area of growing interest to researchers and scientists who are working to design, develop and launch new functional food products, dietary supplements and other nutritional solutions. Carotenoids: Nutrition, Analysis and Technology is an up-to-date overview of the key areas of carotenoids in nutrition, therapy and technology. In the first section, the authors present a functional food perspective, outlining the therapeutic applications of the bioactive pigments. The second part is dedicated to the spectroscopic analysis of carotenoids, providing in-depth scientific methods and real research findings. In the final section, various technological applications of carotenoids are considered, including biotechnology and future prospects. Written by international experts in the field, this comprehensive book will be of interest to food scientists and researchers, nutritionists and health food companies. It will be of particular use to anyone involved in the spectroscopic analysis of carotenoids and other related bioactives.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118622261 20170313
online resource (x, 438 pages) : color illustrations ; 19 cm
  • Fundamentals / S. Silbernagl and F. Lang
  • Temperature, energy / S. Silbernagl
  • Blood / S. Silbernagl
  • Kidney, salt and water balance / F. Lang
  • Stomach, intestines, liver / S. Silbernagl
  • Heart and circulation / S. Silbernagl
  • Metabolic disorders / S. Silbernagl
  • Hormones / F. Lang
  • Neuromuscular and sensory systems / F. Lang.
Medical Library (Lane)