Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2011.
Book — xix, 326 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm.
1. Ocean Acidification: Background and History
2. Past Changes of Ocean Carbonate Chemistry
3. Recent and Future Changes in Ocean Carbonate Chemistry
4. Skeletons and Ocean Chemistry: The Long View
5. Effect of Ocean Acidification on the Diversity and Activity of Heterotrophic Marine Microorganisms
6. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Pelagic Organisms and Ecosystems
7. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Benthic Processes, Organisms, and Ecosystems
8. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Nektonic Organisms
9. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Fauna
10. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
11. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Marine Source of Atmospherically-Active Trace Gases
12. Biogeochemical Consequences of Ocean Acidification and Feedback to the Earth System
13. The Ocean Acidification Challenges Facing Science and Society
14. Impact of Climate Change Mitigation on Ocean Acidification Projections
15. Ocean Acidification: Knowns, Unknowns, and Perspectives
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
The ocean helps moderate climate change thanks to its considerable capacity to store CO2, through the combined actions of ocean physics, chemistry, and biology. This storage capacity limits the amount of human-released CO2 remaining in the atmosphere. As CO2 reacts with seawater, it generates dramatic changes in carbonate chemistry, including decreases in pH and carbonate ions and an increase in bicarbonate ions. The consequences of this overall process, known as "ocean acidification", are raising concerns for the biological, ecological, and biogeochemical health of the world's oceans, as well as for the potential societal implications. This research level text is the first to synthesize the very latest understanding of the consequences of ocean acidification, with the intention of informing both future research agendas and marine management policy. A prestigious list of authors has been assembled, among them the coordinators of major national and international projects on ocean acidification. (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Introduction General Ocean Acidification Terrestrial and Freshwater Acidification Literature Cited Historical General Present to 35,000 Years Ago From 35,000 to 450,000 Years Ago From 450,000 to 2.1 Million Years Ago 2.5 From 15 to 60 Million Years Ago 15 From 89 to 545+ Million Years Ago Literature Cited Sources of Oceanic Acidification General Anthropogenic Biological Physical Literature Cited Mode of Action General Chemical Physical Biological Literature Cited Acidification Effects on Biota General Photosynthetic Flora Invertebrates Vertebrates Literature Cited Field Studies General Arctic Ocean Arabian Sea Atlantic Ocean Australia Baltic Sea Belgian Coastal Areas Bering Sea and Environs Bermuda Borneo Caribbean Region Greenland Sea Gulf of Maine Indian Ocean Ischia Island, Italy Japan, Volcano Islands Labrador Sea North American West Coast North Sea Pacific Ocean Red Sea Southern Ocean Tatoosh Island, Washington Literature Cited Modifiers General Methodological Natural Variations Interactions Literature Cited Mitigation General Ocean Sequestration Declining Water Quality Reduction in Emissions from Airliners Increasing International Cooperation Develop Alternative Technologies Environmental Modification Legislation Literature Cited Concluding Remarks.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book critically examines the available literature on oceanic acidification, including a historical review of pH and atmospheric CO2 levels over the millennia; natural and anthropogenic sources of CO2 to the atmosphere and sea surface; chemical, physical, and biological mode of action; biological effects of acidification to marine plants and animals under laboratory conditions; field observations on seawater chemistry and effects of declining pH; and various technical and political mitigation strategies. Written by Dr. Ronald Eisler, a noted authority on chemical risk assessment, the book summarizes real and projected effects of oceanic acidification. (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, 
Book — 1 online resource (xvi, 76 pages) : illustrations
1 Front Matter-- 2 Summary-- 3 1 Introduction-- 4 2 General Issues: Content and Comprehensiveness of the IWGOA Strategic Plan-- 5 3 Specific Analysis of the Themes of the Strategic Plan-- 6 References-- 7 Appendix A: Statement of Task-- 8 Appendix B: Committee and Staff Biographies-- 9 Appendix C: Acronyms and Terminology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
The world's ocean has already experienced a 30% rise in acidity since the industrial revolution, with acidity expected to rise 100 to 150% over preindustrial levels by the end of this century. Potential consequences to marine life and also to economic activities that depend on a healthy marine ecosystem are difficult to assess and predict, but potentially devastating. To address this knowledge gap, Congress passed the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring (FOARAM) Act in 2009, which, among other things, required that an interagency working group create a "Strategic Plan for Federal Research and Monitoring of Ocean Acidification." Review of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Plan reviews the strategic plan on the basis of how well it fulfills program elements laid out in the FOARAM Act and follows the advice provided to the working group in the NRC's 2010 report, Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. This report concludes that, overall, the plan is strong and provides a comprehensive framework for improving our understanding of ocean acidification. Potential improvements include a better defined strategy for implementing program goals, stronger integration of the seven broad scientific themes laid out in the FOARAM Act, and better mechanisms for coordination among federal agencies and with other U.S. and international efforts to address ocean acidification. (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Video — 1 videodisc (83 min.) : sd., col. with b&w sequences ; 4 3/4 in.
"Documents how the pH balance has changed dramatically since the beginning of the industrial revolution: a 30% increase in acidification ... Experts predict that over the next century, steady increases in carbon dioxide emissions and the continued rise in the acidity of the oceans will cause most of the world's fisheries to experience a total bottom-up collapse -- a state that could last for millions of years ..."--Container.
Variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of seawater is a significant driver of change in marine ecosystems. In particular, pH and temperature heavily influence growth, calcification, survivorship, and other biological processes in a suite of marine taxa. In addition to their individual impacts, these variables may have synergistic or antagonistic effects when combined. Anthropogenically driven ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming (OW) are drastically altering these conditions in marine ecosystems around the world. Calcifying organisms in shallow, nearshore ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to these drastic changes. One such calcifying species that may be vulnerable is the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Juveniles have thinner shells and are in a critical period of growth, making them especially vulnerable. This study seeks to quantify the individual and combined impacts of future OA and OW conditions on the development and survivorship of juvenile red abalone in order to inform the conservation and management of this species. A gas-controlled aquarium (GCA) system housed at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute was utilized, 64 tanks that are individually and randomly delivered water from each of 4 predefined treatments: (1) ambient pH with ambient temperature (control); (2) reduced pH with ambient temperature (OA individually); (3) ambient pH with heated temperature (OW individually); and (4) low pH with heated temperature (OA and OW). Ambient seawater was collected from an intake in Monterey Bay at ~16.6 m below mean sea surface height. Offset values from ambient were used as opposed to constant treatments to achieve fluctuation that matched the degree of natural daily/seasonal fluctuations in Monterey. Low pH was defined as a -0.5 pH unit offset from ambient to represent potential OA conditions projected for the year 2100, exacerbated by upwelling. Erroneous system functioning caused unexpected spiking of temperature within temperature treated tanks, thus these treatments were not utilized in analysis. 256 juvenile H. rufescens (post-settlement, <1 yr) of 2 size classes were weighed and photographed for later measurement of initial shell length and surface area using ImageJ. Individuals were randomly distributed into GCA system tanks in groups of four, two of each size class. After 28 days, abalone were once again photographed and shells and tissue were weighed separately. There was a significant interaction between pH and size class, with the small size class in low pH having a significantly different change in surface area from the other group means and the only negative mean change. Final dry shell weight varied with size class and pH; the small size class in high pH had a significantly higher average final dry shell weight than that of the small size class in low pH. Size class significantly predicted mortality, and the small size class had higher mortalities than the larger size class in both pH treatments. The small size class was most noticeably impacted by low pH conditions, with a significantly lower mean change in surface area than that of other groups, a negative mean change in surface area suggesting dissolution, and the lowest mean final dry shell weight. This is strong evidence that younger/smaller juveniles are highly susceptible to growth delays as a result of OA. Delays in growth in these smaller size classes would have a major effect on red abalone population sizes and demographics as smaller-than-average individuals have lower fecundity, reduced likelihood of reaching sexual maturity, and higher natural mortality. Red abalone populations could quite possibly experience further decline in future projections of oceanic conditions in this region, and this also suggests a high vulnerability for other calcifying species that will be undergoing similar environmental changes. This makes the development of better management and conservation strategies and further study for this species, as well as other mollusc, even more important as anthropogenic activity continues to alter the marine environment.