Book
xii, 429 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications is a new reference demonstrating the implementation of multiscale modeling techniques on process safety applications. It is a valuable resource for readers interested in theoretical simulations and/or computer simulations of hazardous scenarios. As multi-scale modeling is a computational technique for solving problems involving multiple scales, such as how a flammable vapor cloud might behave if ignited, this book provides information on the fundamental topics of toxic, fire, and air explosion modeling, as well as modeling jet and pool fires using computational fluid dynamics. The book goes on to cover nanomaterial toxicity, QPSR analysis on relation of chemical structure to flash point, molecular structure and burning velocity, first principle studies of reactive chemicals, water and air reactive chemicals, and dust explosions. Chemical and process safety professionals, as well as faculty and graduate researchers, will benefit from the detailed coverage provided in this book. * Provides the only comprehensive source addressing the use of multiscale modeling in the context of process safety* Bridges multiscale modeling with process safety, enabling the reader to understand mapping between problem detail and effective usage of resources* Presents an overall picture of addressing safety problems in all levels of modeling and the latest approaches to each in the field* Features worked out examples, case studies, and a question bank to aid understanding and involvement for the reader.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Book
1 online resource.
  • Membrane Processes.- The Optimal Control Problem.- Solution of Optimal Control Problems.- Operation at Limiting Flux.- Perfect Rejection of Both Solutes.- Perfect Rejection of Macro-Solute.- Constant Incomplete Rejection of Solutes.- General Membrane Model.- Conclusions and Future Research.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from the limiting flux model through increasingly generalized models to propose a simple numerical approach to the general case of optimal operation for batch diafiltration processes. Researchers interested in the modelling of batch processes or in the potential industrial applications of optimal control theory will find this monograph a valuable source of inspiration, instruction and ideas.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
xv, 375 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
  • Preface. 1. Process Technology Today. 2. Jobs in Process Technology. 3. John's Twelve-Hour Shift. 4. Safety. 5. Environmental Compliance and Title V. 6. Emergency Response Teams. 7. Process Physics for Operators. 8. Quality for Operators. 9. Economics for Operators. 10. Communication for Operators. 11. Instrumentation. 12. Routine Technician Duties. 13. Process Samples and common Analytical Tests. 14. Operator Maintenance Duties. 15. Material Handling of Bulk Liquids. 16. Material Handling of Bulk Solids. 17. Material Handling: Oil Movement and Storage. 18. Process Unit Shutdown. 19. Process Unit Turnaround. 20. Process Unit Startup. 21. Abnormal Situations. 22. Process Troubleshooting. Glossary.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Addressing modern process plant operations in an easy-to-understand format, this comprehensive text reveals the important role technicians play in the function of a business unit. The author thoroughly examines operator responsibilities and functions, from recognizing opportunities that improve process operations, to detecting and removing threats to steady-state operation. The text also systematically explores business fundamentals and the importance of quality, as well as the chemistry and physics of process operations, maintenance duties, material handling, and process troubleshooting techniques. Now thoroughly expanded and updated, the Second Edition of this trusted text includes new chapters on jobs in process technology, environmental compliance, emergency response, and instrumentation. With numerous new and revised tables and photos, as well as additional learning resources to promote Internet research and critical thinking, the text is an even more useful and effective resource for current and future process plant technicians.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Book
1 online resource : color illustrations
  • Cover; Title Page; Copyright Page; Contents; Preface; Acknowledgments; Fourth Edition; Third Edition; Second Edition; First Edition; 1
  • Perspective, perspective, perspective; Introduction; The media rarely focuses on the benefits of the chemical industry; A glance at the history of chemical manufacturing before the industrial revolution; The modern industrial chemical industry modifies our way of living; Risks are not necessarily how they are perceived; Splashy and dreadful versus the ordinary; A specific example of splashy and dreadful versus the ordinary.
  • Perceptions of risk viewed as voluntary versus involuntaryMoral versus immoral; Detectable risks versus undetectable risks; Natural versus man-made; Natural pesticides; Are we scaring ourselves to death?; Plant employee safety versus life-style choices; The chemical industry's excellent safety record; Who has the most dangerous jobs?; Dangerous jobs; How to identify dangerous jobs; Characteristic of dangerous jobs; Relative risks compared to the chemical industry jobs; What events resulted in fatal occupational injuries in 2012?; Just how dangerous is it to work in a US chemical plant?
  • How are the chemical and refinery industries doing today when it comes to major losses? And what should we do in the future?Process safety culture; References; 2
  • Good intentions; Modifications made with good intentions; A tank truck catastrophically fails; Afterthoughts on the destroyed tank truck; Siphoning destroys a tender tank; Afterthoughts on the acid tank; Tank roof splits from overfilling; A well-intended change yields a storage tank collapse; Afterthoughts on a storage tank collapse; A water drain line is altered and a reactor explodes; Afterthoughts on the steam explosion.
  • An air system is improved and a vessel blows upAfterthoughts on air system; A new air system improved economics, but jeopardized safety; Another incident with nitrogen backup for a compressed air supply; Afterthoughts on incident with nitrogen backup for a compressed air supply; The hazards of nitrogen asphyxiation; Concerns for safety on a refrigerated ethylene tank; Afterthoughts on the ethylene tank; Beware of impurities, stabilizers, or substitute chemicals; Afterthoughts on impurities, stabilizers, or substitute chemicals.
  • Good intentions on certain new protection systems lead to troublesA gas compressor is protected from dirt, but the plant catches fire; Afterthoughts on plant fire; A replacement check valve installed
  • one detail overlooked; What was one of the immediate causes of the fire?; What did investigators recommend?; Another good intentions project: new tanks are destroyed and the neighborhood is disrupted; Introduction to terminal troubles; The explosion and fire; Tank vent treatment; Incompatible chemicals
  • carbon beds and flammables; The fire scenario and the challenges.
Chemical Process Safety: Learning from Case Histories, Fourth Edition gives insight into eliminating specific classes of hazards while also providing real case histories with valuable lessons to be learned. This edition also includes practical sections on mechanical integrity, management of change, and incident investigation programs, along with a list of helpful resources. The information contained in this book will help users stay up-to-date on all the latest OSHA requirements, including the OSHA-required Management of Change, Mechanical Integrity, and Incident Investigation regulations. Learn how to eliminate hazards in the design, operation, and maintenance of chemical process plants and petroleum refineries. World-renowned expert in process safety, Roy Sanders, shows how to reduce risks in plants and refineries, including a summary of case histories from high profile disasters and recommendations for how to avoid repeating the same mistakes. Following the principles outlined in this text will help save lives and reduce loss. * Features additional new chapters covering safety culture, maintaining a sense of vulnerability, and additional learning opportunities from recent incidents and near misses* Contains updated information from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Safety Council, with concise summaries of some of the most important case histories of the twenty-first century* Includes significantly expanded information from the US Chemical Safety Board, US OSHA, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE)* Provides a completely updated chapter to guide readers to a wealth of reference material available on the web and elsewhere.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
xxiii, 800 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm
  • Introduction-- General Concepts in Sustainable Chemical Technologies-- Separations and Purifications-- Overview by Darrell Patterson-- Membrane Separation-- Gas Separations using Ionic Liquids-- Absorption and Adsorption Processes-- Liquid-Liquid Extractions and Stripping (including supercritical fluids)-- Ionic Liquids and their application to a more sustainable chemistry-- Crystallisation in Continuous Flow Processes-- Chemical Transformation and Reactors-- Overview by Janet Scott-- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors-- The application of supercritical carbon dioxide extractions of functional compounds for more sustainable future-- Processes employing cavitation e.g. ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation-- Microwave Chemistry and Microwave Reactors-- Continuous Flow Processes-- Bioelectrochemical Systems for a Sustainable Future-- Nanoparticles and their application in sustainable chemistry-- Sustainable Processes in the Metal and Mining Industry-- Photochemical production of Fine Chemicals-- Biochemical Transformations and Reactors-- Overview, by Professor David Leak-- Enzyme Biotransformations and Reactors-- Algae and Bacterial Technologies for Biofuels-- Fermentations and Sustainable Technologies-- Process Integration-- Overview by Rafiqul Gani-- Process Control for Sustainable Processes-- Quantifying the Impact of New Materials and Processes Towards Environmentally Sustainable Technology-- Systematic Computer Aided Framework for Process Synthesis, Design and Intensification.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This comprehensive book approaches sustainability from two directions, the reduction of pollution and the maintaining of existing resources, both of which are addressed in a thorough examination of the main chemical processes and their impact. Divided into five sections, each introduced by a leading expert in the field, the book takes the reader through the various types of chemical processes, demonstrating how we must find ways to lower the environmental cost (of both pollution and contributions to climate change) of producing chemicals. Each section consists of several chapters, presenting the latest facts and opinion on the methodologies being adopted by the chemical industry to provide a more sustainable future. A follow-up to Materials for a Sustainable Future (Royal Society of Chemistry 2012), this book will appeal to the same broad readership - industrialists and investors; policy makers in local and central governments; students, teachers, scientists and engineers working in the field; and finally editors, journalists and the general public who need information on the increasingly popular concepts of sustainable living.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF.
  • Series Preface Preface Acknowledgments Author Biographies Contributors Membrane Separation-- Alfredo Cassano, Rene Ruby Figueroa, and Enrico Drioli Size Reduction-- Constantina Tzia and Virginia Giannou Centrifugation-Filtration-- T. Varzakas Crystallization-- T. Varzakas Mixing Emulsions-- T. Varzakas, V. Polychniatou, and C. Tzia Solid-Liquid Extraction-- Sofia Chanioti, George Liadakis, and Constantina Tzia Supercritical Fluid Extraction-- Epaminondas Voutsas Chilling and Freezing-- M. Giannakourou and V. Giannou Drying of Foods-- Panagiotis A. Michailidis and Magdalini K. Krokida Fluidized Bed, Spouted Bed, and In-Store Drying of Grain-- Dr. Srzednicki Fermentation and Enzymes-- Constantinos Katsimpouras, Paul Christakopoulos, and Evangelos Topakas Fluid and Species Transfer in Food Biopolymers-- Pawan S. Takhar Encapsulation of Food Ingredients: Agents and Techniques-- Charikleia Chranioti and Constantina Tzia Multiphysics Modeling of Innovative and Traditional Food Processing Technologies-- Kai Knoerzer and Henry Sabarez New/Innovative Technologies-- George I. Katsaros and Petros S. Taoukis Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Food Engineering Handbook: Food Process Engineering addresses the basic and applied principles of food engineering methods used in food processing operations around the world. Combining theory with a practical, hands-on approach, this book examines the thermophysical properties and modeling of selected processes such as chilling, freezing, and dehydration. A complement to Food Engineering Handbook: Food Engineering Fundamentals, this text: * Discusses size reduction, mixing, emulsion, and encapsulation * Provides case studies of solid-liquid and supercritical fluid extraction * Explores fermentation, enzymes, fluidized-bed drying, and more Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, Food Engineering Handbook: Food Process Engineering is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : illustrations (mostly color)
  • Front Cover; Lithium Process Chemistry; Copyright; CONTENTS; CONTRIBUTORS; FOREFRONT; Chapter 1
  • Global Lithium Resources and Sustainability Issues; 1. DATA AND INFORMATION SOURCES, RELATED ISSUES; 2. LITHIUM USES; 3. LITHIUM SUPPLY; 4. CONCLUSIONS: MULTIPLE FACTORS WILL DRIVE THE FUTURE AVAILABILITY OF LITHIUM; REFERENCES; Chapter 2
  • Fundamentals in Electrochemistry and Hydrometallurgy; 1. FUNDAMENTALS IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES; 2. FUNDAMENTALS IN HYDROMETALLURGY; REFERENCES; Chapter 3
  • Lithium Production Processes; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. LITHIUM PRODUCTION PROCESSES.
  • 3. NEW PROJECT DEVELOPMENT4. CONCLUSIONS; REFERENCES; Chapter 4
  • Lithium Battery Technologies: From the Electrodes to the Batteries; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. BATTERY COMPONENTS AND ELECTRODE LIMITATIONS; 3. POSITIVE ELECTRODE (CATHODE) MATERIALS; 4. NEGATIVE ELECTRODE (ANODE) MATERIALS; 5. SEPARATOR AND CURRENT COLLECTORS; 6. INTERFACE CHEMISTRY IN LIBS; REFERENCES; Chapter 5
  • Lithium Battery Technologies: Electrolytes; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. LIQUID ELECTROLYTES; 3. POLYMER ELECTROLYTES; 4. ANODIC STABILITY OF LIQUID ELECTROLYTES; 5. ELECTROLYTE WETTABILITY; 6. CONCLUSION; REFERENCES.
  • Chapter 6
  • Perspectives in Lithium Batteries1. INTRODUCTION; 2. POTENTIAL OF LI-SULFUR BATTERIES; 3. LI-OXYGEN SYSTEM FOR ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY DENSITY BATTERIES; 4. LI-AQUEOUS BATTERIES; 5. GREENER OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED BY ORGANIC BATTERIES; REFERENCES; Chapter 7
  • Lithium Batteries Recycling; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPENT LIBS WASTE; 3. RECYCLING OF SPENT PORTABLE LIBS; 4. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SPENT LIBS RECYCLING; 5. CONCLUSION; REFERENCES; Chapter 8
  • Life Cycle and Sustainability; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. LCA APPLIED TO LIBS "CONCEPT, METHOD, AND KEY RESULTS."
  • 3. FROM RECYCLING PROCESS DEFINITION TO SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONSREFERENCES; Conclusions; INDEX.
Lithium Process Chemistry: Resources, Extraction, Batteries and Recycling presents, for the first time, the most recent developments and state-of-the-art of lithium production, lithium-ion batteries, and their recycling. The book provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries, including terminology related to these two fields. It is of particular interest to electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries. It is also useful for both teachers and students, presenting an overview on Li production, Li-ion battery technologies, and lithium battery recycling processes that is accompanied by numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances. The book represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. * Provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries* Represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source.* Ideal for both electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries * Presents recent developments, as well as challenges in lithium production and lithium-ion battery technologies and their recycling* Covers examples of Li processes production with schematics, also including numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : ill. (some color).
The fourth edition of Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooling of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy. * Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications * Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes* Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
xix, 358 pages : ill. ; 25 cm
  • Preface XI List of Symbols XIII 1 Overview of Micro Reaction Engineering 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 What are Microstructured Devices? 2 1.3 Advantages of Microstructured Devices 2 1.3.1 Enhancement of Transfer Rates 2 1.3.2 Enhanced Process Safety 5 1.3.3 Novel OperatingWindow 7 1.3.4 Numbering-Up Instead of Scale-Up 7 1.4 Materials and Methods for Fabrication of Microstructured Devices 9 1.5 Applications of Microstructured Devices 10 1.5.1 Microstructured Reactors as Research Tool 11 1.5.2 Industrial/Commercial Applications 11 1.6 Structure of the Book 13 1.7 Summary 13 References 14 2 Basis of Chemical Reactor Design and Engineering 19 2.1 Mass and Energy Balance 19 2.2 Formal Kinetics of Homogenous Reactions 21 2.2.1 Formal Kinetics of Single Homogenous Reactions 22 2.2.2 Formal Kinetics of Multiple Homogenous Reactions 24 2.2.3 Reaction Mechanism 25 2.2.4 Homogenous Catalytic Reactions 26 2.3 Ideal Reactors andTheir Design Equations 29 2.3.1 Performance Parameters 29 2.3.2 BatchWise-Operated Stirred Tank Reactor (BSTR) 30 2.3.3 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 35 2.3.4 Plug Flow or Ideal Tubular Reactor (PFR) 39 2.4 Homogenous Catalytic Reactions in Biphasic Systems 45 2.5 Heterogenous Catalytic Reactions 49 2.5.1 Rate Equations for Intrinsic Surface Reactions 50 2.5.2 Deactivation of Heterogenous Catalysts 57 2.6 Mass and Heat Transfer Effects on Heterogenous Catalytic Reactions 59 2.6.1 External Mass and Heat Transfer 60 2.6.2 Internal Mass and Heat Transfer 69 2.6.3 Criteria for the Estimation of Transport Effects 83 2.7 Summary 84 2.8 List of Symbols 86 References 87 3 Real Reactors and Residence Time Distribution (RTD) 89 3.1 Nonideal Flow Pattern and Definition of RTD 89 3.2 Experimental Determination of RTD in Flow Reactors 91 3.2.1 Step Function Stimulus-Response Method 92 3.2.2 Pulse Function Stimulus-Response Method 93 3.3 RTD in Ideal Homogenous Reactors 95 3.3.1 Ideal Plug Flow Reactor 95 3.3.2 Ideal Continuously Operated Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 95 3.3.3 Cascade of Ideal CSTR 96 3.4 RTD in Nonideal Homogeneous Reactors 98 3.4.1 Laminar Flow Tubular Reactors 98 3.4.2 RTD Models for Real Reactors 100 3.4.3 Estimation of RTD in Tubular Reactors 105 3.5 Influence of RTDon the Reactor Performance 107 3.5.1 Performance Estimation Based on Measured RTD 108 3.5.2 Performance Estimation Based on RTD Models 110 3.6 RTD in Microchannel Reactors 115 3.6.1 RTD of Gas Flow in Microchannels 117 3.6.2 RTD of Liquid Flow in Microchannels 118 3.6.3 RTD of Multiphase Flow in Microchannels 122 3.7 List of Symbols 126 References 127 4 Micromixing Devices 129 4.1 Role of Mixing for the Performance of Chemical Reactors 129 4.2 Flow Pattern and Mixing in Microchannel Reactors 136 4.3 Theory of Mixing in Microchannels with Laminar Flow 137 4.4 Types of Micromixers and Mixing Principles 143 4.4.1 Passive Micromixer 144 4.4.2 Active Micromixers 154 4.5 Experimental Characterization of Mixing Efficiency 158 4.5.1 Physical Methods 158 4.5.2 Chemical Methods 159 4.6 Mixer Efficiency and Energy Consumption 171 4.7 Summary 172 4.8 List of Symbols 173 References 173 5 Heat Management by Microdevices 179 5.1 Introduction 179 5.2 Heat Transfer in Microstructured Devices 181 5.2.1 Straight Microchannels 181 5.2.2 Curved Channel Geometry 189 5.2.3 Complex Channel Geometries 191 5.2.4 Multichannel Micro Heat Exchanger 191 5.2.5 Microchannels with Two Phase Flow 193 5.3 Temperature Control in Chemical Microstructured Reactors 195 5.3.1 Axial Temperature Profiles in Microchannel Reactors 197 5.3.2 Parametric Sensitivity 201 5.3.3 Multi-injection Microstructured Reactors 212 5.4 Case Studies 221 5.4.1 Synthesis of 1,3-Dimethylimidazolium-Triflate 221 5.4.2 Nitration of Dialkyl-Substituted Thioureas 222 5.4.3 Reduction of Methyl Butyrate 223 5.4.4 Reactions with Grignard Reagent in Multi-injection Reactor 224 5.5 Summary 226 5.6 List of Symbols 226 References 228 6 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Solid Systems 231 6.1 Introduction 231 6.2 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Solid Reactions 232 6.3 Microstructured Reactors for Catalytic Gas-Phase Reactions 233 6.3.1 Randomly Micro Packed Beds 233 6.3.2 Structured Catalytic Micro-Beds 235 6.3.3 CatalyticWall Microstructured Reactors 238 6.4 Hydrodynamics in Fluid Solid Microstructured Reactors 239 6.5 Mass Transfer in Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 243 6.5.1 Randomly Packed Bed Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 244 6.5.2 Catalytic Foam Microstructured Reactors 245 6.5.3 CatalyticWall Microstructured Reactors 246 6.5.4 Choice of Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 253 6.6 Case Studies 255 6.6.1 Catalytic Partial Oxidations 255 6.6.2 Selective (De)Hydrogenations 257 6.6.3 Catalytic Dehydration 259 6.6.4 Ethylene Oxide Synthesis 259 6.6.5 Steam Reforming 260 6.6.6 Fischer Tropsch Synthesis 261 6.7 Summary 261 6.8 List of Symbols 262 References 262 7 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Fluid Reactions 267 7.1 Conventional Equipment for Fluid Fluid Systems 267 7.2 Microstructured Devices for Fluid Fluid Systems 268 7.2.1 Micromixers 269 7.2.2 Microchannels 271 7.2.3 Microstructured Falling Film Reactor for Gas Liquid Reactions 272 7.3 Flow Patterns in Fluid Fluid Systems 273 7.3.1 Gas Liquid Flow Patterns 273 7.3.2 Liquid Liquid Flow Patterns 280 7.4 Mass Transfer 284 7.4.1 Mass Transfer Models 285 7.4.2 Characterization of Mass Transfer in Fluid Fluid Systems 286 7.4.3 Mass Transfer in Gas Liquid Microstructured Devices 287 7.4.4 Mass Transfer in Liquid Liquid Microstructured Devices 296 7.4.5 Comparison with Conventional Contactors 299 7.5 Pressure Drop in Fluid Fluid Microstructured Channels 300 7.5.1 Pressure Drop in Gas Liquid Flow 301 7.5.2 Pressure Drop in Liquid Liquid Flow 304 7.6 Flow Separation in Liquid Liquid Microstructured Reactors 307 7.6.1 Conventional Separators 308 7.6.2 Types of Microstructured Separators 308 7.6.3 Conventional Separator Adapted for Microstructured Devices 315 7.7 Fluid Fluid Reactions in Microstructured Devices 315 7.7.1 Examples of Gas Liquid Reactions 317 7.7.2 Examples of Liquid Liquid Reactions 319 7.8 Summary 323 7.9 List of Symbols 324 References 325 8 Three-Phase Systems 331 8.1 Introduction 331 8.2 Gas Liquid Solid Systems 331 8.2.1 Conventional Gas Liquid Solid Reactors 331 8.2.2 Microstructured Gas Liquid Solid Reactors 333 8.3 Gas Liquid Liquid Systems 346 8.4 Summary 347 8.5 List of Symbols 347 References 348 Index 351.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Faster, cheaper and environmentally friendly, these are the criteria for designing new reactions and this is the challenge faced by many chemical engineers today. Based on courses thaught by the authors, this advanced textbook discusses opportunities for carrying out reactions on an industrial level in a technically controllable, sustainable, costeffective and safe manner. Adopting a practical approach, it describes how miniaturized devices (mixers, reactors, heat exchangers, and separators) are used successfully for process intensification, focusing on the engineering aspects of microstrctured devices, such as their design and main chracteristics for homogeneous and multiphase reactions. It adresses the conditions under which microstructured devices are beneficial, how they should be designed, and how such devices can be integrated in an existing chemical process. Case studies show how the knowledge gained can be applied for particular processes. The textbook is essential for master and doctoral students, as well as for professional chemists and chemical engineers working in this area.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Book
1 online resource (343 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Book
1 online resource.
  • List of Contributors Preface Chapter 1. Introduction F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 2. Cryogenic CO2 capture M. van Sint Annaland, M. Tuinier, and F. Gallucci Chapter 3. Novel pre combustion power production Membrane reactors F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 4. High Temperature Oxygen Separation Membranes for Oxy Fuel Combustion Power Production V. Middelkoop and B. Michielsen Chapter 5. Chemical Looping Combustion for Power Production V. Spallina, H.P. Hamers, F. Gallucci, and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 6. Sorption Enhanced Fuel Conversion G. Manzolini, D. Jansen, and A.D. Wright Chapter 7. Pd-based membranes in hydrogen production for fuel cells R. Bredesen, T.A. Peters, T. Boeltken, and R. Dittmeyer Chapter 8. From biomass to SNG L. Di Felice and F. Micheli Chapter 9. Blue Energy: Salinity Gradient for Energy Conversion P. Chiesa, A. Giuffrida, and M. Astolfi Chapter 10. Solar process heat and process intensification B. Muster and C. Brunner Chapter 11. Bio-energy intensified biomass utilization K. Gallucci and P.U. Foscolo Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book addresses the application of process intensification to sustainable energy production, combining two very topical subject areas. Due to the increasing process of petroleum, sustainable energy production technologies must be developed, for example bioenergy, blue energy, chemical looping combustion, concepts for CO2 capture etc. Process intensification offers significant competitive advantages, because it provides more efficient processes, leading to outstanding cost reduction, increased productivity and more environment-friendly processes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
xxxvi, 388 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • 1. Introduction to modelling and simulation
  • 2. An overview of modelling and simulation
  • 3. Models based on simple laws
  • 4. Models based on laws of conservation
  • 5. Multiphase systems without reaction
  • 6. Multiphase systems with reaction
  • 7. Population balance models and discrete-event models
  • 8. Artificial neural network-based models
  • 9. Model validation and sensitivity analysis
  • 10. Case studies
  • 11. Simulation of large plants.
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Book
1 online resource.
The 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering creates an international forum where scientific and industrial contributions of computer-aided techniques are presented with applications in process modeling and simulation, process synthesis and design, operation, and process optimization. The organizers have broadened the boundaries of Process Systems Engineering by inviting contributions at different scales of modeling and demonstrating vertical and horizontal integration. Contributions range from applications at the molecular level to the strategic level of the supply chain and sustainable development. They cover major classical themes, at the same time exploring a new range of applications that address the production of renewable forms of energy, environmental footprints and sustainable use of resources and water.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Thermodynamics as a Basic of Inanimate and Animate Nature Nanotherapeutics: A novel approach of target based drug delivery Phosphorus-Containing Polypeptides Free Radical Initiation in Polymers under the Action of Nitrogen Oxides The Structure and Properties of Blends of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Analysis Methods of Some Nanocomposites Structure Synthesis, Properties And Applications Ozone And It Compounds Functional Models of Fe(Ni) Dioxygenases. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Catalytic Active Nickel and Iron Heteroligand Complexes Association Between Calcium Chloride and Caffeine as Seen by Transport Techniques and Theoretical Calculations Synthesis of Biologically Awake Antioxidants in Feactions of Esterification 2- (N-acetylamid)-3-(3 ', 5 '-di-tert.butyl-4 '-hydroxyphenyl)-Propionic Acid Attempting to Consider Mechanism of Originating of Damages of Chromosome in the Different Phases of Mitotic Cycle Biology of Development of Phytopathogenic Fungi of Fusarium Link and Resistance of Cereals to It in Climatic Conditions of Tyumen Region Realization of Potential Possibilities of a Genotype at Level of Phenotype Cooperation of High Schools and Scientific Institutions on the Way of Education of Scientific Shots to Modern Conditions Fluid Flow and Control of Bending Instability During Electrospinning Relaxation Parameters of Polymers The Morphological Features of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Blends Perspectives of Application Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering Method for Quality Control of Medicines Interaction and Structure Formation of Gelatin type A with Thermo Aggregates of Bovine Serum Albumin Wild Orchids of Colchis Forests and Save Them as Objects of Ecoeducation and Producers of Medicinal Substances Express Assessment of Cell Viability in Biological Preparations Activity of Liposomal Antimicrobic Preparations Concerning Staphylococcus Aureus Polyelectrolyte Microsensors as a New Tool for Metabolites' Detection Selection of Medical Preparations for Treating Lower Parts of the Urinary System Improvement of the Functional Properties of Lysozyme by Interaction with 5-methylresorcinol Introductions in Culture in vitro Rare Bulbous Plants of the Sochi Black Sea Coast (Scilla, Muscari, Galanthus) Change of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Ascorbic Acid and Paracetamol High-Diluted Solutions at Their Joint Presence The Methods of the Study of the Processes of the Issue to Optical Information Biological Object Research Update on Conjugated Polymers Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Effectiveness of Centrifugal Separator Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This new book offers research and updates on the chemical process in liquid and solid phases. The collection of topics in this book reflect the diversity of recent advances in chemical processes with a broad perspective that will be useful to scientists as well as graduate students and engineers. The book will help to fill the gap between theory and practice in industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface ix 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Categories of Processes 3 1.2. The Industry 5 1.3. The Ultimate Batch Process: The Kitchen in Your Home 13 1.4. Categories of Batch Processes 14 1.5. Automation Functions Required for Batch 18 1.6. Automation Equipment 26 Reference 30 2 Measurement Considerations 31 2.1. Temperature Measurement 32 2.2. Pressure Measurement 39 2.3. Weight and Level 47 2.4. Flow Measurements 61 2.5. Loss-in-Weight Application 67 References 72 3 Continuous Control Issues 73 3.1. Loops That Operate Intermittently 74 3.2. Emptying a Vessel 80 3.3. Terminating a Co-Feed 85 3.4. Adjusting Ratio Targets 89 3.5. Attaining Temperature Target for the Heel 97 3.6. Characterization Functions in Batch Applications 100 3.7. Scheduled Tuning in Batch Applications 101 3.8. Edge of the Envelope 104 3.9. No Flow Through Control Valve 107 3.10. No Pressure Drop across Control Valve 111 3.11. Attempting to Operate above a Process-Imposed Maximum 115 3.12. Attempting to Operate Below a Process-Imposed Minimum 121 3.13. Jacket Switching 124 3.14. Smooth Transitions between Heating and One Cooling Mode 129 3.15. Smooth Transitions between Two Cooling Modes 140 References 148 4 Discrete Devices 149 4.1. Discrete Inputs 149 4.2. Discrete Outputs 157 4.3. State Feedbacks 167 4.4. Associated Functions 176 4.5. Beyond Two-State Final Control Elements 182 5 Material Transfers 185 5.1. Multiple-Source, Single-Destination Material Transfer System 186 5.2. Single-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 189 5.3. Multiple-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 191 5.4. Validating a Material Transfer 194 5.5. Dribble Flow 197 5.6. Simultaneous Material Transfers 202 5.7. Drums 203 6 Structured Logic for Batch 205 6.1. Structured Programming 207 6.2. Product Recipes and Product Batches 212 6.3. Formula 215 6.4. Operations 216 6.5. Phases 220 6.6. Actions 223 References 226 7 Batch Unit or Process Unit 227 7.1. Defi ning a Batch Unit 228 7.2. Supporting Equipment 232 7.3. Step Programmer 237 7.4. Failure Considerations 241 7.5. Coordination 254 7.6. Shared Equipment: Exclusive Use 257 7.7. Shared Equipment: Limited Capacity 261 7.8. Identical Batch Units 262 8 Sequence Logic 265 8.1. Features Provided by Sequence Logic 265 8.2. Failure Monitoring and Response 267 8.3. Relay Ladder Diagrams 273 8.4. Procedural Languages 276 8.5. Special Languages 278 8.6. State Machine 280 8.7. Grafcet/Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) 283 9 Batches and Recipes 290 9.1. Organization of Recipes 291 9.2. Corporate Recipes 294 9.3. Executing Product Batches Simultaneously 299 9.4. Managing Product Batches 302 9.5. Executing Operations 305 9.6. Batch History Data 309 9.7. Performance Parameters 313 Index 319.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Gives a real world explanation of how to analyze and troubleshoot aprocess control system in a batch process plant Explains how to analyze the requirements forcontrolling a batch process, develop the control logic to meetthese requirements, and troubleshoot the process controls in batchprocesses Presents three categories of batch processes (cyclicalbatch, multigrade facilities, and flexible batch) and examines thedifferences in the control requirements in each Examines various concepts of a product recipe and whatits nature must be in a flexible batch facility Approaches the subject from the process perspective, with emphasis on the advantages of using structured logic in theautomation of all but the simplest batch processes. Discusses the flow of information starting at theplant floor and continuing through various levels of the controllogic up to the corporate IT level.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (373 pages) : illustrations
Distillation: Equipment and Processes-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers-is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the theory and practice of modern distillation, suitable for advanced students and professionals working in a laboratory, industrial plants, or a managerial capacity. It addresses the most important and current research on industrial distillation, including all steps in process design (feasibility study, modeling, and experimental validation), together with operation and control aspects. This volume features an extra focus on distillation equipment and processes. * Winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers* Practical information on the newest development written by recognized experts* Coverage of a huge range of laboratory and industrial distillation approaches* Extensive references for each chapter facilitates further study.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (373 pages) : illustrations
Distillation: Equipment and Processes-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers-is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the theory and practice of modern distillation, suitable for advanced students and professionals working in a laboratory, industrial plants, or a managerial capacity. It addresses the most important and current research on industrial distillation, including all steps in process design (feasibility study, modeling, and experimental validation), together with operation and control aspects. This volume features an extra focus on distillation equipment and processes. * Winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers* Practical information on the newest development written by recognized experts* Coverage of a huge range of laboratory and industrial distillation approaches* Extensive references for each chapter facilitates further study.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Foreword Acknowledgements Introduction Author Dictionary: A-Z Bibliography Appendix: Key to Products.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Since the third edition of this reference was completed, there have been major changes in the global chemical industry. With less emphasis on new processes for making basic chemicals and more emphasis on pollution prevention and waste disposal, petrochemical processes are giving way to biochemical processes. These changes are reflected in the new processes being developed, many of which have their own names. In addition, niche improvements are still being made in petrochemistry, and some of these processes have new names as well. Gathering and defining a large portion of special named processes that may fall outside standard chemical texts or be scattered among industry manuals, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Named Processes in Chemical Technology, Fourth Edition provides a single-source reference on an extensive array of named processes. It provides concise descriptions of those processes in chemical technology that are known by special names that are not self-explanatory. While overviews of the chemical technology industry are present in other books, most of the names defined within this volume are unique to this compilation. This reference includes named processes in current commercial use around the world, processes that have been or are being piloted on a substantial scale, and even obsolete processes that have been important in the past. The length of the dictionary entries reflects their importance and topicality. The text includes references that document the origins of the processes and review the latest developments. Written by a highly experienced and respected author, this user-friendly text is presented in a practical dictionary format that is useful for a broad audience including industrial chemists and engineers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (628 pages) : illustrations
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1. Introductory Remarks 1 1.1 Perspective / 1 1.2 Organization and Objectives / 2 1.3 Approach / 8 2. Water 11 2.1 Perspective / 11 2.2 Important Properties of Water / 12 3. Concentration Units for Gases, Liquids, and Solids16 3.1 Selected Concentration Units / 16 3.2 The Ideal Gas Law and Gas Phase Concentration Units / 20 3.3 Aqueous Concentration Units / 23 3.4 Applications of Volume Fraction Units / 28 4. The Law of Mass Action and Chemical Equilibria 36 4.1 Perspective / 36 4.2 The Law of Mass Action / 37 4.3 Gas/Water Distributions / 38 4.4 Acid/Base Systems / 39 4.5 Metal Complexation Systems / 40 4.6 Water/Solid Systems (Solubility/Dissolution) / 41 4.7 Oxidation/Reduction Half Reactions / 43 5. Air / Water Distribution: Henry s Law 44 5.1 Perspective / 44 5.2 Henry s Law Constants / 46 5.3 Applications of Henry s Law / 51 6. Acid/Base Component Distributions 64 6.1 Perspective / 64 6.2 Proton Abundance in Aqueous Solutions: pH and the IonProduct of Water / 65 6.3 Acid Dissociation Constants / 69 6.4 Mole Accounting Relations / 70 6.5 Combination of Mole Balance and Acid/Base Equilibria /74 6.6 Alkalinity, Acidity, and the Carbonate System / 82 6.7 Applications of Acid/Base Principles in SelectedEnvironmental Contexts / 91 7. Mass Balance, Ideal Reactors, and Mixing 119 7.1 Perspective / 119 7.2 The Mass Balance / 120 7.3 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analyses / 121 7.4 Exit Responses for Ideal Reactors / 125 7.5 Modeling of Mixing in Ideal CMFRs / 130 7.6 Applications of CMFR Mixing Principles in EnvironmentalSystems / 144 8. Reactions in Ideal Reactors 157 8.1 Perspective / 157 8.2 Chemical Stoichiometry and Mass/Volume Relations / 158 8.3 Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 171 8.4 Applications of Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 183 8.5 Interfacial Mass Transfer in Ideal Reactors / 216 9. Reactions in Nonideal Reactors 265 9.1 Perspective / 265 9.2 Exit Concentration Versus Time Traces / 266 9.3 Residence Time Distribution Density / 267 9.4 Cumulative Residence Time Distributions / 271 9.5 Characterization of RTD Distributions / 272 9.6 Models for Addressing Longitudinal Dispersion in Reactors /275 9.7 Modeling Reactions in CMFRs in Series (TiS) Reactors /280 9.8 Modeling Reactions with the Plug-Flow with Dispersion Model/ 282 9.9 Modeling Reactions Using the Segregated Flow (SF) Model /289 9.10 Applications of Nonideal Reactor Models / 291 9.11 Considerations for Analyses of Spatially Variant Processes/ 305 9.12 Modeling Utilization and Growth in PFR-Like Reactors UsingTiS and SF / 318 10. Acid-Base Advanced Principles 335 10.1 Perspective / 335 10.2 Activity Coefficient / 336 10.3 Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants / 344 10.4 Nonideal Conjugate Acid/Conjugate Base Distributions /350 10.5 The Proton Balance (Proton Condition) / 358 10.6 Analyses of Solutions Prepared by Addition of Acids, Bases, and Salts to Water / 365 10.7 Analysis of Mixed Aqueous Solutions / 380 10.8 Acid and Base Neutralizing Capacity / 396 10.9 Activity Versus Concentration for Nonelectrolytes / 417 11. Metal Complexation and Solubility 439 11.1 Perspective / 439 11.2 Hydration of Metal Ions / 440 11.3 Cumulative Formation Constants / 441 11.4 Formation Equilibria for Solids / 447 11.5 Speciation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions ContainingLigands / 448 11.6 Metal Hydroxide Solubility / 456 11.7 Solubility of Metal Carbonates / 467 11.8 Solubility of Other Metal Ligand Solids / 511 12. Oxidation and Reduction 519 12.1 Perspective / 519 12.2 Redox Half Reactions / 520 12.3 The Nernst Equation / 533 12.4 Electron Availability in Environmental Systems / 535 Appendices 571 References 599 Index 602.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book introduces students to the various contextual areas of environmental engineering and includes the application of basic mathematics, scientific principles, and beginning engineering concepts in environmental engineering. The systematic approach focuses upon context-independent applications of important chemical principles and then applies these principles to various environmental engineering topics. It also demonstrates a MathCAD worksheet for mathematically modeling various systems arising in environmental engineering. These concepts are applicable to water/wastewater treatment, surface mining, agricultural systems, landfills, aqueous and marine sediments, surface waters, and atmospheric moisture.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)

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