1 online resource (1 volume) : illustrations
  • Foreword xv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi About the Author xxiii Part I: Basic Principles 1 Chapter 1: Introductory Concepts 3 1.1 Using This Book 4 1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem 5 1.3 Degrees of Freedom 12 1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation 16 1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology 17 1.6 Concluding Comments 19 Problems 20 Chapter 2: Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation 21 2.1 Calculating Areas 22 2.2 Calculating Volumes 28 2.3 Complex Objects: Areas and Volumes 33 2.4 Interpolation and Extrapolation 40 2.5 Concluding Comments 46 Problems 46 Chapter 3: Units of Measure 51 3.1 Time 53 3.2 Length 54 3.3 Volume 55 3.4 Temperature 56 3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force 61 3.6 Vectors 63 3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples 66 3.8 Density and Specific Gravity 68 3.9 The Mole Unit 69 3.10 Concentrations 72 3.11 Pressure 76 3.12 Work and Power 78 3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance 80 3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures 84 3.15 Scientific Notation 85 3.16 The Vernier Scale 86 3.17 Prefixes: M versus m 87 3.18 Concluding Comments 88 References 89 Problems 90 Chapter 4: Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature 93 4.1 Boyle's Law 94 4.2 Charles's Law 96 4.3 Absolute Temperature 97 4.4 The Ideal Gas Law 98 4.5 Real Gases 108 4.6 Volumetric Fractions and Mole Fractions 110 4.7 Standard Conditions 111 4.8 Concluding Comments 112 Appendix 4A: Equations of State 113 Problems 119 Chapter 5: Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work 123 5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence 127 5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter 128 5.3 Work 130 5.4 Heat Capacity 131 5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy 135 5.6 Power 138 5.7 Entropy 139 5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems 142 5.9 Functions of State 144 5.10 The Mollier Diagram 145 5.11 Steam Tables 148 5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures 151 5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat 158 5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy 160 5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics 164 5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion 167 5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency 168 5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps 176 5.19 Joule-Thomson Expansion 179 5.20 Turbo-Expanders 181 5.21 Systems 182 5.22 Concluding Comments 186 Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity 186 Problems 188 Chapter 6: Phase Equilibria 193 6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction 194 6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure 195 6.3 Chemical Potential 199 6.4 Boiling 200 6.5 Azeotropes 201 6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs' Phase Rule 203 6.7 Phase Transitions 206 6.8 Effects of Impurities 208 6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point 210 6.10 Equilibrium Equations 212 6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume 217 6.12 Osmotic Pressure 218 6.13 Ion Exchange 219 6.14 Supercritical Fluids 222 6.15 Concluding Comments 224 Problems 224 Chapter 7: Chemical Reaction Kinetics 227 7.1 Effect of Reactant Concentration 228 7.2 Complex Mechanisms with Intermediates 231 7.3 Effect of Temperature 236 7.4 Catalysts 238 7.5 Yield, Fractional Conversion, and Extent of Reaction 241 7.6 Equilibrium Reactions and the Law of Mass Action 248 7.7 Effect of Phase Behavior 250 7.8 Concluding Comments 251 Problems 252 Part II: Calculations: Material and Energy Balances 259 Chapter 8: Material Balances 261 8.1 Methodology 262 8.2 The Assumption of Steady-State 273 8.3 Single-Phase Material Balances for Separation Processes 273 8.4 Single-Phase Material Balances for Blending Processes 283 8.5 Multiple-Phase Material Balances 295 8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions 304 8.7 Material Balances in the Real World 313 8.8 Concluding Comments 314 Appendix 8A: Business Economics 315 Problems 320 Chapter 9: Energy Balances 337 9.1 Methodology 338 9.2 Simple Energy Balances 340 9.3 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances 344 9.4 Simultaneous Balances with Chemical Reactions 351 9.5 Concluding Comments 357 Appendix 9A: Heat of Mixing 358 Problems 362 Part III: Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena 371 Chapter 10: Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow 373 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity 375 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 382 10.3 Vectors and Tensors 385 10.4 Shell Balances 386 10.5 The Equations of Motion 392 10.6 Dimensional Analysis 393 10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor 396 10.8 The Bernoulli Equation 402 10.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow 412 10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head 413 10.11 Concluding Comments 415 References 416 Problems 416 Chapter 11: Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer 419 11.1 Heat Conduction 421 11.2 Convection 431 11.3 Combined Conduction and Convection 435 11.4 Radiation 439 11.5 Dimensional Analysis 448 11.6 Shell Balances 456 11.7 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Heat Transfer 459 11.8 Concluding Comments 462 References 463 Problems 463 Chapter 12 : Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer 469 12.1 Diffusion 471 12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport 476 12.3 Shell Balances 477 12.4 Dispersion 481 12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World 482 12.6 Mass-Transfer Processes: Unit Operations 483 12.7 Material and Energy Balances 498 12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow 516 12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency 518 12.10 Concluding Comments 528 References 529 Problems 530 Postface 535 Appendix A: Answers to Selected Problems 537 Chapter 1 537 Chapter 2 537 Chapter 3 538 Chapter 4 538 Chapter 5 538 Chapter 6 539 Chapter 7 539 Chapter 8 539 Chapter 9 546 Chapter 10 547 Chapter 11 547 Chapter 12 548 Appendix B: Conversion Factors 551 Appendix C: Gas Constants 555 Appendix D: Steam Tables 557 Index 593.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780133388336 20160711
A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today's Process Control Operators In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don't exist. Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration. Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know "what the numbers mean" so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably. T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Coverage includes * Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures * Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation * Understanding Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, and the Ideal Gas Law * Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions * Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems * Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization * Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control * Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries * Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems * Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput * Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors * Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling * Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780133388336 20160711
xii, 429 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications is a new reference demonstrating the implementation of multiscale modeling techniques on process safety applications. It is a valuable resource for readers interested in theoretical simulations and/or computer simulations of hazardous scenarios. As multi-scale modeling is a computational technique for solving problems involving multiple scales, such as how a flammable vapor cloud might behave if ignited, this book provides information on the fundamental topics of toxic, fire, and air explosion modeling, as well as modeling jet and pool fires using computational fluid dynamics. The book goes on to cover nanomaterial toxicity, QPSR analysis on relation of chemical structure to flash point, molecular structure and burning velocity, first principle studies of reactive chemicals, water and air reactive chemicals, and dust explosions. Chemical and process safety professionals, as well as faculty and graduate researchers, will benefit from the detailed coverage provided in this book. * Provides the only comprehensive source addressing the use of multiscale modeling in the context of process safety* Bridges multiscale modeling with process safety, enabling the reader to understand mapping between problem detail and effective usage of resources* Presents an overall picture of addressing safety problems in all levels of modeling and the latest approaches to each in the field* Features worked out examples, case studies, and a question bank to aid understanding and involvement for the reader.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780123969750 20160619
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
1 online resource.
  • Membrane Processes.- The Optimal Control Problem.- Solution of Optimal Control Problems.- Operation at Limiting Flux.- Perfect Rejection of Both Solutes.- Perfect Rejection of Macro-Solute.- Constant Incomplete Rejection of Solutes.- General Membrane Model.- Conclusions and Future Research.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319204741 20160619
This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from the limiting flux model through increasingly generalized models to propose a simple numerical approach to the general case of optimal operation for batch diafiltration processes. Researchers interested in the modelling of batch processes or in the potential industrial applications of optimal control theory will find this monograph a valuable source of inspiration, instruction and ideas.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319204741 20160619
1 online resource (x, 336 pages) : illustrations (some color)
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Process Intensification: A Process Systems Engineering View
  • Chapter 3 Systematic Synthesis of Intensified Distillation Systems
  • Chapter 4 Process Intensification in Heat and Mass Exchanger Networks
  • Chapter 5 Heat-Integrated Intensified Distillation Processes
  • Chapter 6: Process Intensification by Reactive Distillation
  • Chapter 7 Process intensification in Biotechnology Applications
  • Chapter 8 Process Intensification: Industrial Applications
  • Chapter 9 Stochastic Optimization for Process Intensification
  • Chapter 10 Process Intensification in the Production of Liquid Biofuels: Strategies to Minimize Environmental Impact
  • Chapter 11 Dynamics, Controllability and Control of Intensified Processes.
This book will provide researchers and graduate students with an overview of the recent developments and applications of process intensification in chemical engineering. It will also allow the readers to apply the available intensification techniques to their processes and specific problems. The content of this book can be readily adopted as part of special courses on process control, design, optimization and modelling aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students. This book will be a useful resource for researchers in process system engineering as well as for practitioners interested in applying process intensification approaches to real-life problems in chemical engineering and related areas.
xv, 375 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
  • Preface. 1. Process Technology Today. 2. Jobs in Process Technology. 3. John's Twelve-Hour Shift. 4. Safety. 5. Environmental Compliance and Title V. 6. Emergency Response Teams. 7. Process Physics for Operators. 8. Quality for Operators. 9. Economics for Operators. 10. Communication for Operators. 11. Instrumentation. 12. Routine Technician Duties. 13. Process Samples and common Analytical Tests. 14. Operator Maintenance Duties. 15. Material Handling of Bulk Liquids. 16. Material Handling of Bulk Solids. 17. Material Handling: Oil Movement and Storage. 18. Process Unit Shutdown. 19. Process Unit Turnaround. 20. Process Unit Startup. 21. Abnormal Situations. 22. Process Troubleshooting. Glossary.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781133950158 20160618
Addressing modern process plant operations in an easy-to-understand format, this comprehensive text reveals the important role technicians play in the function of a business unit. The author thoroughly examines operator responsibilities and functions, from recognizing opportunities that improve process operations, to detecting and removing threats to steady-state operation. The text also systematically explores business fundamentals and the importance of quality, as well as the chemistry and physics of process operations, maintenance duties, material handling, and process troubleshooting techniques. Now thoroughly expanded and updated, the Second Edition of this trusted text includes new chapters on jobs in process technology, environmental compliance, emergency response, and instrumentation. With numerous new and revised tables and photos, as well as additional learning resources to promote Internet research and critical thinking, the text is an even more useful and effective resource for current and future process plant technicians.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781133950158 20160618
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
1 online resource : color illustrations
  • Cover; Title Page; Copyright Page; Contents; Preface; Acknowledgments; Fourth Edition; Third Edition; Second Edition; First Edition; 1
  • Perspective, perspective, perspective; Introduction; The media rarely focuses on the benefits of the chemical industry; A glance at the history of chemical manufacturing before the industrial revolution; The modern industrial chemical industry modifies our way of living; Risks are not necessarily how they are perceived; Splashy and dreadful versus the ordinary; A specific example of splashy and dreadful versus the ordinary.
  • Perceptions of risk viewed as voluntary versus involuntaryMoral versus immoral; Detectable risks versus undetectable risks; Natural versus man-made; Natural pesticides; Are we scaring ourselves to death?; Plant employee safety versus life-style choices; The chemical industry's excellent safety record; Who has the most dangerous jobs?; Dangerous jobs; How to identify dangerous jobs; Characteristic of dangerous jobs; Relative risks compared to the chemical industry jobs; What events resulted in fatal occupational injuries in 2012?; Just how dangerous is it to work in a US chemical plant?
  • How are the chemical and refinery industries doing today when it comes to major losses? And what should we do in the future?Process safety culture; References; 2
  • Good intentions; Modifications made with good intentions; A tank truck catastrophically fails; Afterthoughts on the destroyed tank truck; Siphoning destroys a tender tank; Afterthoughts on the acid tank; Tank roof splits from overfilling; A well-intended change yields a storage tank collapse; Afterthoughts on a storage tank collapse; A water drain line is altered and a reactor explodes; Afterthoughts on the steam explosion.
  • An air system is improved and a vessel blows upAfterthoughts on air system; A new air system improved economics, but jeopardized safety; Another incident with nitrogen backup for a compressed air supply; Afterthoughts on incident with nitrogen backup for a compressed air supply; The hazards of nitrogen asphyxiation; Concerns for safety on a refrigerated ethylene tank; Afterthoughts on the ethylene tank; Beware of impurities, stabilizers, or substitute chemicals; Afterthoughts on impurities, stabilizers, or substitute chemicals.
  • Good intentions on certain new protection systems lead to troublesA gas compressor is protected from dirt, but the plant catches fire; Afterthoughts on plant fire; A replacement check valve installed
  • one detail overlooked; What was one of the immediate causes of the fire?; What did investigators recommend?; Another good intentions project: new tanks are destroyed and the neighborhood is disrupted; Introduction to terminal troubles; The explosion and fire; Tank vent treatment; Incompatible chemicals
  • carbon beds and flammables; The fire scenario and the challenges.
Chemical Process Safety: Learning from Case Histories, Fourth Edition gives insight into eliminating specific classes of hazards while also providing real case histories with valuable lessons to be learned. This edition also includes practical sections on mechanical integrity, management of change, and incident investigation programs, along with a list of helpful resources. The information contained in this book will help users stay up-to-date on all the latest OSHA requirements, including the OSHA-required Management of Change, Mechanical Integrity, and Incident Investigation regulations. Learn how to eliminate hazards in the design, operation, and maintenance of chemical process plants and petroleum refineries. World-renowned expert in process safety, Roy Sanders, shows how to reduce risks in plants and refineries, including a summary of case histories from high profile disasters and recommendations for how to avoid repeating the same mistakes. Following the principles outlined in this text will help save lives and reduce loss. * Features additional new chapters covering safety culture, maintaining a sense of vulnerability, and additional learning opportunities from recent incidents and near misses* Contains updated information from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Safety Council, with concise summaries of some of the most important case histories of the twenty-first century* Includes significantly expanded information from the US Chemical Safety Board, US OSHA, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE)* Provides a completely updated chapter to guide readers to a wealth of reference material available on the web and elsewhere.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128044285 20160619
xxiii, 800 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm
  • Introduction-- General Concepts in Sustainable Chemical Technologies-- Separations and Purifications-- Overview by Darrell Patterson-- Membrane Separation-- Gas Separations using Ionic Liquids-- Absorption and Adsorption Processes-- Liquid-Liquid Extractions and Stripping (including supercritical fluids)-- Ionic Liquids and their application to a more sustainable chemistry-- Crystallisation in Continuous Flow Processes-- Chemical Transformation and Reactors-- Overview by Janet Scott-- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors-- The application of supercritical carbon dioxide extractions of functional compounds for more sustainable future-- Processes employing cavitation e.g. ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation-- Microwave Chemistry and Microwave Reactors-- Continuous Flow Processes-- Bioelectrochemical Systems for a Sustainable Future-- Nanoparticles and their application in sustainable chemistry-- Sustainable Processes in the Metal and Mining Industry-- Photochemical production of Fine Chemicals-- Biochemical Transformations and Reactors-- Overview, by Professor David Leak-- Enzyme Biotransformations and Reactors-- Algae and Bacterial Technologies for Biofuels-- Fermentations and Sustainable Technologies-- Process Integration-- Overview by Rafiqul Gani-- Process Control for Sustainable Processes-- Quantifying the Impact of New Materials and Processes Towards Environmentally Sustainable Technology-- Systematic Computer Aided Framework for Process Synthesis, Design and Intensification.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781849739757 20160618
This comprehensive book approaches sustainability from two directions, the reduction of pollution and the maintaining of existing resources, both of which are addressed in a thorough examination of the main chemical processes and their impact. Divided into five sections, each introduced by a leading expert in the field, the book takes the reader through the various types of chemical processes, demonstrating how we must find ways to lower the environmental cost (of both pollution and contributions to climate change) of producing chemicals. Each section consists of several chapters, presenting the latest facts and opinion on the methodologies being adopted by the chemical industry to provide a more sustainable future. A follow-up to Materials for a Sustainable Future (Royal Society of Chemistry 2012), this book will appeal to the same broad readership - industrialists and investors; policy makers in local and central governments; students, teachers, scientists and engineers working in the field; and finally editors, journalists and the general public who need information on the increasingly popular concepts of sustainable living.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781849739757 20160618
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
1 online resource : text file, PDF.
  • Series Preface Preface Acknowledgments Author Biographies Contributors Membrane Separation-- Alfredo Cassano, Rene Ruby Figueroa, and Enrico Drioli Size Reduction-- Constantina Tzia and Virginia Giannou Centrifugation-Filtration-- T. Varzakas Crystallization-- T. Varzakas Mixing Emulsions-- T. Varzakas, V. Polychniatou, and C. Tzia Solid-Liquid Extraction-- Sofia Chanioti, George Liadakis, and Constantina Tzia Supercritical Fluid Extraction-- Epaminondas Voutsas Chilling and Freezing-- M. Giannakourou and V. Giannou Drying of Foods-- Panagiotis A. Michailidis and Magdalini K. Krokida Fluidized Bed, Spouted Bed, and In-Store Drying of Grain-- Dr. Srzednicki Fermentation and Enzymes-- Constantinos Katsimpouras, Paul Christakopoulos, and Evangelos Topakas Fluid and Species Transfer in Food Biopolymers-- Pawan S. Takhar Encapsulation of Food Ingredients: Agents and Techniques-- Charikleia Chranioti and Constantina Tzia Multiphysics Modeling of Innovative and Traditional Food Processing Technologies-- Kai Knoerzer and Henry Sabarez New/Innovative Technologies-- George I. Katsaros and Petros S. Taoukis Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482261660 20160618
Food Engineering Handbook: Food Process Engineering addresses the basic and applied principles of food engineering methods used in food processing operations around the world. Combining theory with a practical, hands-on approach, this book examines the thermophysical properties and modeling of selected processes such as chilling, freezing, and dehydration. A complement to Food Engineering Handbook: Food Engineering Fundamentals, this text: * Discusses size reduction, mixing, emulsion, and encapsulation * Provides case studies of solid-liquid and supercritical fluid extraction * Explores fermentation, enzymes, fluidized-bed drying, and more Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, Food Engineering Handbook: Food Process Engineering is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482261660 20160618
1 online resource (381 pages) : illustrations, tables
1 online resource : illustrations (mostly color)
  • Front Cover; Lithium Process Chemistry; Copyright; CONTENTS; CONTRIBUTORS; FOREFRONT; Chapter 1
  • Fundamentals in Electrochemistry and Hydrometallurgy; 1. FUNDAMENTALS IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES; 2. FUNDAMENTALS IN HYDROMETALLURGY; REFERENCES; Chapter 3
  • Lithium Production Processes; 1. INTRODUCTION; 2. LITHIUM PRODUCTION PROCESSES.
  • Chapter 6
Lithium Process Chemistry: Resources, Extraction, Batteries and Recycling presents, for the first time, the most recent developments and state-of-the-art of lithium production, lithium-ion batteries, and their recycling. The book provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries, including terminology related to these two fields. It is of particular interest to electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries. It is also useful for both teachers and students, presenting an overview on Li production, Li-ion battery technologies, and lithium battery recycling processes that is accompanied by numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances. The book represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. * Provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries* Represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source.* Ideal for both electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries * Presents recent developments, as well as challenges in lithium production and lithium-ion battery technologies and their recycling* Covers examples of Li processes production with schematics, also including numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128014172 20160618
1 online resource (1 volume) : illustrations
The fourth edition of Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooling of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy. * Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications * Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes* Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780750685245 20160711
1 online resource : illustrations (some color)
The fourth edition of Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooling of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy. * Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications * Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes* Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780750685245 20160618
xix, 358 pages : ill. ; 25 cm
  • Preface XI List of Symbols XIII 1 Overview of Micro Reaction Engineering 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 What are Microstructured Devices? 2 1.3 Advantages of Microstructured Devices 2 1.3.1 Enhancement of Transfer Rates 2 1.3.2 Enhanced Process Safety 5 1.3.3 Novel OperatingWindow 7 1.3.4 Numbering-Up Instead of Scale-Up 7 1.4 Materials and Methods for Fabrication of Microstructured Devices 9 1.5 Applications of Microstructured Devices 10 1.5.1 Microstructured Reactors as Research Tool 11 1.5.2 Industrial/Commercial Applications 11 1.6 Structure of the Book 13 1.7 Summary 13 References 14 2 Basis of Chemical Reactor Design and Engineering 19 2.1 Mass and Energy Balance 19 2.2 Formal Kinetics of Homogenous Reactions 21 2.2.1 Formal Kinetics of Single Homogenous Reactions 22 2.2.2 Formal Kinetics of Multiple Homogenous Reactions 24 2.2.3 Reaction Mechanism 25 2.2.4 Homogenous Catalytic Reactions 26 2.3 Ideal Reactors andTheir Design Equations 29 2.3.1 Performance Parameters 29 2.3.2 BatchWise-Operated Stirred Tank Reactor (BSTR) 30 2.3.3 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 35 2.3.4 Plug Flow or Ideal Tubular Reactor (PFR) 39 2.4 Homogenous Catalytic Reactions in Biphasic Systems 45 2.5 Heterogenous Catalytic Reactions 49 2.5.1 Rate Equations for Intrinsic Surface Reactions 50 2.5.2 Deactivation of Heterogenous Catalysts 57 2.6 Mass and Heat Transfer Effects on Heterogenous Catalytic Reactions 59 2.6.1 External Mass and Heat Transfer 60 2.6.2 Internal Mass and Heat Transfer 69 2.6.3 Criteria for the Estimation of Transport Effects 83 2.7 Summary 84 2.8 List of Symbols 86 References 87 3 Real Reactors and Residence Time Distribution (RTD) 89 3.1 Nonideal Flow Pattern and Definition of RTD 89 3.2 Experimental Determination of RTD in Flow Reactors 91 3.2.1 Step Function Stimulus-Response Method 92 3.2.2 Pulse Function Stimulus-Response Method 93 3.3 RTD in Ideal Homogenous Reactors 95 3.3.1 Ideal Plug Flow Reactor 95 3.3.2 Ideal Continuously Operated Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 95 3.3.3 Cascade of Ideal CSTR 96 3.4 RTD in Nonideal Homogeneous Reactors 98 3.4.1 Laminar Flow Tubular Reactors 98 3.4.2 RTD Models for Real Reactors 100 3.4.3 Estimation of RTD in Tubular Reactors 105 3.5 Influence of RTDon the Reactor Performance 107 3.5.1 Performance Estimation Based on Measured RTD 108 3.5.2 Performance Estimation Based on RTD Models 110 3.6 RTD in Microchannel Reactors 115 3.6.1 RTD of Gas Flow in Microchannels 117 3.6.2 RTD of Liquid Flow in Microchannels 118 3.6.3 RTD of Multiphase Flow in Microchannels 122 3.7 List of Symbols 126 References 127 4 Micromixing Devices 129 4.1 Role of Mixing for the Performance of Chemical Reactors 129 4.2 Flow Pattern and Mixing in Microchannel Reactors 136 4.3 Theory of Mixing in Microchannels with Laminar Flow 137 4.4 Types of Micromixers and Mixing Principles 143 4.4.1 Passive Micromixer 144 4.4.2 Active Micromixers 154 4.5 Experimental Characterization of Mixing Efficiency 158 4.5.1 Physical Methods 158 4.5.2 Chemical Methods 159 4.6 Mixer Efficiency and Energy Consumption 171 4.7 Summary 172 4.8 List of Symbols 173 References 173 5 Heat Management by Microdevices 179 5.1 Introduction 179 5.2 Heat Transfer in Microstructured Devices 181 5.2.1 Straight Microchannels 181 5.2.2 Curved Channel Geometry 189 5.2.3 Complex Channel Geometries 191 5.2.4 Multichannel Micro Heat Exchanger 191 5.2.5 Microchannels with Two Phase Flow 193 5.3 Temperature Control in Chemical Microstructured Reactors 195 5.3.1 Axial Temperature Profiles in Microchannel Reactors 197 5.3.2 Parametric Sensitivity 201 5.3.3 Multi-injection Microstructured Reactors 212 5.4 Case Studies 221 5.4.1 Synthesis of 1,3-Dimethylimidazolium-Triflate 221 5.4.2 Nitration of Dialkyl-Substituted Thioureas 222 5.4.3 Reduction of Methyl Butyrate 223 5.4.4 Reactions with Grignard Reagent in Multi-injection Reactor 224 5.5 Summary 226 5.6 List of Symbols 226 References 228 6 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Solid Systems 231 6.1 Introduction 231 6.2 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Solid Reactions 232 6.3 Microstructured Reactors for Catalytic Gas-Phase Reactions 233 6.3.1 Randomly Micro Packed Beds 233 6.3.2 Structured Catalytic Micro-Beds 235 6.3.3 CatalyticWall Microstructured Reactors 238 6.4 Hydrodynamics in Fluid Solid Microstructured Reactors 239 6.5 Mass Transfer in Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 243 6.5.1 Randomly Packed Bed Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 244 6.5.2 Catalytic Foam Microstructured Reactors 245 6.5.3 CatalyticWall Microstructured Reactors 246 6.5.4 Choice of Catalytic Microstructured Reactors 253 6.6 Case Studies 255 6.6.1 Catalytic Partial Oxidations 255 6.6.2 Selective (De)Hydrogenations 257 6.6.3 Catalytic Dehydration 259 6.6.4 Ethylene Oxide Synthesis 259 6.6.5 Steam Reforming 260 6.6.6 Fischer Tropsch Synthesis 261 6.7 Summary 261 6.8 List of Symbols 262 References 262 7 Microstructured Reactors for Fluid Fluid Reactions 267 7.1 Conventional Equipment for Fluid Fluid Systems 267 7.2 Microstructured Devices for Fluid Fluid Systems 268 7.2.1 Micromixers 269 7.2.2 Microchannels 271 7.2.3 Microstructured Falling Film Reactor for Gas Liquid Reactions 272 7.3 Flow Patterns in Fluid Fluid Systems 273 7.3.1 Gas Liquid Flow Patterns 273 7.3.2 Liquid Liquid Flow Patterns 280 7.4 Mass Transfer 284 7.4.1 Mass Transfer Models 285 7.4.2 Characterization of Mass Transfer in Fluid Fluid Systems 286 7.4.3 Mass Transfer in Gas Liquid Microstructured Devices 287 7.4.4 Mass Transfer in Liquid Liquid Microstructured Devices 296 7.4.5 Comparison with Conventional Contactors 299 7.5 Pressure Drop in Fluid Fluid Microstructured Channels 300 7.5.1 Pressure Drop in Gas Liquid Flow 301 7.5.2 Pressure Drop in Liquid Liquid Flow 304 7.6 Flow Separation in Liquid Liquid Microstructured Reactors 307 7.6.1 Conventional Separators 308 7.6.2 Types of Microstructured Separators 308 7.6.3 Conventional Separator Adapted for Microstructured Devices 315 7.7 Fluid Fluid Reactions in Microstructured Devices 315 7.7.1 Examples of Gas Liquid Reactions 317 7.7.2 Examples of Liquid Liquid Reactions 319 7.8 Summary 323 7.9 List of Symbols 324 References 325 8 Three-Phase Systems 331 8.1 Introduction 331 8.2 Gas Liquid Solid Systems 331 8.2.1 Conventional Gas Liquid Solid Reactors 331 8.2.2 Microstructured Gas Liquid Solid Reactors 333 8.3 Gas Liquid Liquid Systems 346 8.4 Summary 347 8.5 List of Symbols 347 References 348 Index 351.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527331284 20160618
Faster, cheaper and environmentally friendly, these are the criteria for designing new reactions and this is the challenge faced by many chemical engineers today. Based on courses thaught by the authors, this advanced textbook discusses opportunities for carrying out reactions on an industrial level in a technically controllable, sustainable, costeffective and safe manner. Adopting a practical approach, it describes how miniaturized devices (mixers, reactors, heat exchangers, and separators) are used successfully for process intensification, focusing on the engineering aspects of microstrctured devices, such as their design and main chracteristics for homogeneous and multiphase reactions. It adresses the conditions under which microstructured devices are beneficial, how they should be designed, and how such devices can be integrated in an existing chemical process. Case studies show how the knowledge gained can be applied for particular processes. The textbook is essential for master and doctoral students, as well as for professional chemists and chemical engineers working in this area.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527331284 20160618
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
1 online resource (343 pages) : illustrations (some color)
This book introduces the concept of novel process windows, focusing on cost improvements, safety, energy and eco-efficiency throughout each step of the process. The first part presents the new reactor and process-related technologies, introducing the potential and benefit analysis. The core of the book details scenarios for unusual parameter sets and the new holistic and systemic approach to processing, while the final part analyses the implications for green and cost-efficient processing. With its practical approach, this is invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, fuels and oils industries.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527328581 20160618
1 online resource.
  • Preface xi List of Contributors xiii 1. Introduction 1 Fausto Gallucci and Martin van Sint Annaland References 6 2. Cryogenic CO2 Capture 7 M. van Sint Annaland, M. J. Tuinier and F. Gallucci 2.1 Introduction CCS and Cryogenic Systems 7 2.1.1 Carbon Capture and Storage 8 2.1.2 Cryogenic separation 10 2.2 Cryogenic Packed Bed Process Concept 11 2.2.1 Capture Step 11 2.2.2 CO2 Recovery Step 12 2.2.3 H2O Recovery and Cooling Step 13 2.3 Detailed Numerical Model 13 2.3.1 Model Description 13 2.3.2 Simulation Results 15 2.3.3 Simplified Model: Sharp Front Approach 16 2.3.4 Model Description 16 2.3.5 Process Analysis 22 2.3.6 Initial Bed Temperature 24 2.3.7 CO2 Inlet Concentration 24 2.3.8 Inlet Temperature 25 2.3.9 Bed Properties 25 2.4 Small-Scale Demonstration (Proof of Principle) 25 2.4.1 Results of the Proof of Principle 26 2.5 Experimental Demonstration of the Novel Process Concept in a Pilot-Scale Set-Up 31 2.5.1 Experimental Procedure 32 2.5.2 Experimental Results 33 2.5.3 Simulations for the Proof of Concept 36 2.5.4 Radial Temperature Profiles 36 2.5.5 Influence of the Wall 38 2.6 Techno-Economic Evaluation 39 2.6.1 Process Evaluation 40 2.6.2 Parametric Study 41 2.6.3 Comparison with Absorption and Membrane Technology 45 2.7 Conclusions 49 2.8 Note for the Reader 49 List of symbols 50 Greek letters 50 Subscripts 51 References 51 3. Novel Pre-Combustion Power Production: Membrane Reactors 53 F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 The Membrane Reactor Concept 55 3.3 Types of Reactors 57 3.3.1 Packed Bed Membrane Reactors 58 3.3.2 Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors 65 3.3.3 Membrane Micro-Reactors 72 3.4 Conclusions 74 3.5 Note for the reader 75 References 75 4. Oxy Fuel Combustion Power Production Using High Temperature O2 Membranes 81 Vesna Middelkoop and Bart Michielsen 4.1 Introduction 81 4.2 MIEC Perovskites as Oxygen Separation Membrane Materials for the Oxy-fuel Combustion Power Production 83 4.3 MIEC Membrane Fabrication 85 4.4 High-temperature ceramic oxygen separation membrane system on laboratory scale 87 4.4.1 Oxygen permeation measurements and sealing dense MIEC ceramic membranes 87 4.4.2 BaxSr1 xCo1 xFeyO3 and LaxSr1 xCo1 yFeyO3 Membranes 89 4.4.3 Chemical Stability of Perovskite Membranes Under Flue-Gas Conditions 96 4.4.4 CO2-Tolerant MIEC Membranes 99 4.5 Integration of High-Temperature O2 Transport Membranes into Oxy-Fuel Process: Real World and Economic Feasibility 103 4.5.1 Four-End and Three-End Integration Modes 103 4.5.2 Pilot-Scale Membrane Systems 104 4.5.3 Further Scale-Up of O2 Production Systems 106 References 109 5. Chemical Looping Combustion for Power Production 117 V. Spallina H. P. Hamers, F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland 5.1 Introduction 117 5.2 Oxygen carriers 120 5.2.1 Nickel-based OCs 122 5.2.2 Iron-based OCs 122 5.2.3 Copper-based OCs 122 5.2.4 Manganese-based OCs 123 5.2.5 Other Oxygen Carriers 123 5.2.6 Sulfur Tolerance 123 5.3 Reactor Concepts 124 5.3.1 Interconnected Fluidized Bed Reactors 124 5.3.2 Packed Bed Reactors 132 5.3.3 Rotating Reactor 143 5.4 The Integration of CLC Reactor in Power Plant 144 5.4.1 Natural Gas Power Plant with CLC 144 5.4.2 Coal-Based Power Plant with CLC 148 5.4.3 Comparison between CLC in packed beds and circulated fluidized beds 162 5.5 Conclusions 164 Nomenclature 167 Subscripts 168 References 168 6. Sorption-Enhanced Fuel Conversion 175 G. Manzolini, D. Jansen and A. D. Wright 6.1 Introduction 175 6.2 Development in Sorption-Enhanced Processes 176 6.2.1 Enhanced Steam Methane Reformer 177 6.2.2 SEWGS 177 6.3 Sorbent Development 180 6.3.1 Sorbent for Sorption-Enhanced Reforming 180 6.3.2 Sorbent for Enhanced Water-Gas Shift 182 6.4 Process Descriptions 188 6.4.1 Fluidised Beds 189 6.4.2 Fixed Beds 190 6.4.3 Design Optimisation of Fixed Bed Processes 195 6.5 Sorption-Enhanced Reaction Processes in Power Plant for CO2 Capture 196 6.5.1 SER 196 6.5.2 SEWGS case 199 6.6 Conclusions 203 Nomenclature 204 References 204 7. Pd-Based Membranes in Hydrogen Production for Fuel cells 209 Rune Bredesen, Thijs A. Peters, Tim Boeltken and Roland Dittmeyer 7.1 Introduction 209 7.2 Characteristics of Fuel Cells and Applications 211 7.3 Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production for Energy Applications 213 7.4 Pd-Based Membranes 216 7.5 Hydrogen Production Using Pd-Based Membranes 216 7.5.1 Hydrogen from Natural Gas and Coal 217 7.5.2 Hydrogen from Ethanol 219 7.5.3 Hydrogen from Methanol 220 7.5.4 Hydrogen from Other Hydrocarbon Sources 221 7.5.5 Hydrogen from Ammonia 221 7.6 Process Intensification by Microstructured Membrane Reactors 221 7.7 Integration of Pd-Based Membranes and Fuel Cells 229 7.8 Final Remarks 231 Acknowledgements 231 References 232 8. From Biomass to SNG 243 Luca Di Felice and Francesca Micheli 8.1 Introduction 243 8.2 Current Status of Bio-SNG Production and Facilities in Europe 244 8.3 Bio-SNG Process Configuration 245 8.3.1 The Gasification Step 247 8.3.2 Gas Cleaning 248 8.3.3 The Synthesis Step 250 8.4 Catalytic Systems 251 8.5 The Case Study 253 8.5.1 The Feeding Composition 254 8.5.2 Heat Exchangers 256 8.5.3 Scrubber Tar Removal 257 8.5.4 Ammonia Absorber 258 8.5.5 HCl and H2S Removal 259 8.5.6 Compression Section 259 8.5.7 Separation Section: H2O and CO2 Removal 259 8.5.8 Methanation Section Case 1: Adiabatic Fixed Bed with Intermediate Cooling 260 8.5.9 Methanation Section Case 2: Isothermal Fluidized Bed 262 8.6 Chemical Efficiency 263 8.7 Conclusions 263 References 264 9. Blue Energy: Salinity Gradient for Energy Conversion 267 Paolo Chiesa, Marco Astolfi and Antonio Giuffrida 9.1 Introduction 267 9.2 Fundamentals of Salinity Gradient Exploitation 268 9.3 Pressure Retarded Osmosis Technology 270 9.3.1 Operating Principles 271 9.3.2 Plant Layout and Components 272 9.3.3 Design Criteria and Optimization 276 9.3.4 Technology Review 277 9.3.5 Pilot Testing 278 9.4 The Reverse Electrodialysis Technology 279 9.4.1 Operating Principles and Plant Layout 279 9.4.2 RED Technology Review 282 9.5 Other Salinity Gradient Technologies 284 9.5.1 Reverse Vapor Compression 284 9.5.2 Hydrocratic Generator 288 9.6 Osmotic Power Plants Potential 290 9.6.1 Site Criteria for Osmotic Power Plants 292 9.7 Conclusions 294 References 296 10. Solar Process Heat and Process Intensification 299 Bettina Muster and Christoph Brunner 10.1 Solar Process Heat A Short Technology Review 299 10.1.1 Examples of solar process heat system concepts 301 10.1.2 Solar process heat collector development 302 10.2 Potential of Solar Process Heat in Industry 305 10.3 Bottlenecks for Integration of Solar Process Heat in Industry 305 10.3.1 Introduction 305 10.3.2 Bottlenecks of the Industrial Process to Integrate Solar Heat Supply 306 10.3.3 Bottlenecks of the Solar Process Heat System 308 10.3.4 Engineering Intensified Process Systems for Renewable Energy Integration 308 10.4 PI A Promising Approach to Increase the Solar Process Heat Potential? 309 10.4.1 Intensifying the Industrial Process and Possible Effects on Solar Process Heat 311 10.5 Conclusion 328 References 328 11. Bioenergy Intensified Biomass Utilization 331 Katia Gallucci and Pier Ugo Foscolo 11.1 Introduction 331 11.2 Biomass Gasification: State-of-the-Art Overview 332 11.2.1 Cold Gas Cleaning and Conditioning: Current Systems 335 11.3 Hot Gas Cleaning 343 11.3.1 Contaminant Problems Addressed 343 11.3.2 Dust Filtration 349 11.3.3 Catalytic Conditioning 352 11.3.4 The UNIQUE Concept for Gasification and Hot Gas Cleaning and Conditioning 363 11.4 Conclusions 376 References 377 Index 387.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118449356 20160618
  • List of Contributors Preface Chapter 1. Introduction F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 2. Cryogenic CO2 capture M. van Sint Annaland, M. Tuinier, and F. Gallucci Chapter 3. Novel pre combustion power production Membrane reactors F. Gallucci and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 4. High Temperature Oxygen Separation Membranes for Oxy Fuel Combustion Power Production V. Middelkoop and B. Michielsen Chapter 5. Chemical Looping Combustion for Power Production V. Spallina, H.P. Hamers, F. Gallucci, and M. van Sint Annaland Chapter 6. Sorption Enhanced Fuel Conversion G. Manzolini, D. Jansen, and A.D. Wright Chapter 7. Pd-based membranes in hydrogen production for fuel cells R. Bredesen, T.A. Peters, T. Boeltken, and R. Dittmeyer Chapter 8. From biomass to SNG L. Di Felice and F. Micheli Chapter 9. Blue Energy: Salinity Gradient for Energy Conversion P. Chiesa, A. Giuffrida, and M. Astolfi Chapter 10. Solar process heat and process intensification B. Muster and C. Brunner Chapter 11. Bio-energy intensified biomass utilization K. Gallucci and P.U. Foscolo Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118449394 20160618
This book addresses the application of process intensification to sustainable energy production, combining two very topical subject areas. Due to the increasing process of petroleum, sustainable energy production technologies must be developed, for example bioenergy, blue energy, chemical looping combustion, concepts for CO2 capture etc. Process intensification offers significant competitive advantages, because it provides more efficient processes, leading to outstanding cost reduction, increased productivity and more environment-friendly processes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118449356 20160618
xxxvi, 388 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • 1. Introduction to modelling and simulation
  • 2. An overview of modelling and simulation
  • 3. Models based on simple laws
  • 4. Models based on laws of conservation
  • 5. Multiphase systems without reaction
  • 6. Multiphase systems with reaction
  • 7. Population balance models and discrete-event models
  • 8. Artificial neural network-based models
  • 9. Model validation and sensitivity analysis
  • 10. Case studies
  • 11. Simulation of large plants.
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
1 online resource.
The 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering creates an international forum where scientific and industrial contributions of computer-aided techniques are presented with applications in process modeling and simulation, process synthesis and design, operation, and process optimization. The organizers have broadened the boundaries of Process Systems Engineering by inviting contributions at different scales of modeling and demonstrating vertical and horizontal integration. Contributions range from applications at the molecular level to the strategic level of the supply chain and sustainable development. They cover major classical themes, at the same time exploring a new range of applications that address the production of renewable forms of energy, environmental footprints and sustainable use of resources and water.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780444634344 20160613
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Thermodynamics as a Basic of Inanimate and Animate Nature Nanotherapeutics: A novel approach of target based drug delivery Phosphorus-Containing Polypeptides Free Radical Initiation in Polymers under the Action of Nitrogen Oxides The Structure and Properties of Blends of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Analysis Methods of Some Nanocomposites Structure Synthesis, Properties And Applications Ozone And It Compounds Functional Models of Fe(Ni) Dioxygenases. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Catalytic Active Nickel and Iron Heteroligand Complexes Association Between Calcium Chloride and Caffeine as Seen by Transport Techniques and Theoretical Calculations Synthesis of Biologically Awake Antioxidants in Feactions of Esterification 2- (N-acetylamid)-3-(3 ', 5 '-di-tert.butyl-4 '-hydroxyphenyl)-Propionic Acid Attempting to Consider Mechanism of Originating of Damages of Chromosome in the Different Phases of Mitotic Cycle Biology of Development of Phytopathogenic Fungi of Fusarium Link and Resistance of Cereals to It in Climatic Conditions of Tyumen Region Realization of Potential Possibilities of a Genotype at Level of Phenotype Cooperation of High Schools and Scientific Institutions on the Way of Education of Scientific Shots to Modern Conditions Fluid Flow and Control of Bending Instability During Electrospinning Relaxation Parameters of Polymers The Morphological Features of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Blends Perspectives of Application Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering Method for Quality Control of Medicines Interaction and Structure Formation of Gelatin type A with Thermo Aggregates of Bovine Serum Albumin Wild Orchids of Colchis Forests and Save Them as Objects of Ecoeducation and Producers of Medicinal Substances Express Assessment of Cell Viability in Biological Preparations Activity of Liposomal Antimicrobic Preparations Concerning Staphylococcus Aureus Polyelectrolyte Microsensors as a New Tool for Metabolites' Detection Selection of Medical Preparations for Treating Lower Parts of the Urinary System Improvement of the Functional Properties of Lysozyme by Interaction with 5-methylresorcinol Introductions in Culture in vitro Rare Bulbous Plants of the Sochi Black Sea Coast (Scilla, Muscari, Galanthus) Change of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Ascorbic Acid and Paracetamol High-Diluted Solutions at Their Joint Presence The Methods of the Study of the Processes of the Issue to Optical Information Biological Object Research Update on Conjugated Polymers Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Effectiveness of Centrifugal Separator Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482203660 20160612
This new book offers research and updates on the chemical process in liquid and solid phases. The collection of topics in this book reflect the diversity of recent advances in chemical processes with a broad perspective that will be useful to scientists as well as graduate students and engineers. The book will help to fill the gap between theory and practice in industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482203660 20160612
1 online resource.
  • Preface ix 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Categories of Processes 3 1.2. The Industry 5 1.3. The Ultimate Batch Process: The Kitchen in Your Home 13 1.4. Categories of Batch Processes 14 1.5. Automation Functions Required for Batch 18 1.6. Automation Equipment 26 Reference 30 2 Measurement Considerations 31 2.1. Temperature Measurement 32 2.2. Pressure Measurement 39 2.3. Weight and Level 47 2.4. Flow Measurements 61 2.5. Loss-in-Weight Application 67 References 72 3 Continuous Control Issues 73 3.1. Loops That Operate Intermittently 74 3.2. Emptying a Vessel 80 3.3. Terminating a Co-Feed 85 3.4. Adjusting Ratio Targets 89 3.5. Attaining Temperature Target for the Heel 97 3.6. Characterization Functions in Batch Applications 100 3.7. Scheduled Tuning in Batch Applications 101 3.8. Edge of the Envelope 104 3.9. No Flow Through Control Valve 107 3.10. No Pressure Drop across Control Valve 111 3.11. Attempting to Operate above a Process-Imposed Maximum 115 3.12. Attempting to Operate Below a Process-Imposed Minimum 121 3.13. Jacket Switching 124 3.14. Smooth Transitions between Heating and One Cooling Mode 129 3.15. Smooth Transitions between Two Cooling Modes 140 References 148 4 Discrete Devices 149 4.1. Discrete Inputs 149 4.2. Discrete Outputs 157 4.3. State Feedbacks 167 4.4. Associated Functions 176 4.5. Beyond Two-State Final Control Elements 182 5 Material Transfers 185 5.1. Multiple-Source, Single-Destination Material Transfer System 186 5.2. Single-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 189 5.3. Multiple-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 191 5.4. Validating a Material Transfer 194 5.5. Dribble Flow 197 5.6. Simultaneous Material Transfers 202 5.7. Drums 203 6 Structured Logic for Batch 205 6.1. Structured Programming 207 6.2. Product Recipes and Product Batches 212 6.3. Formula 215 6.4. Operations 216 6.5. Phases 220 6.6. Actions 223 References 226 7 Batch Unit or Process Unit 227 7.1. Defi ning a Batch Unit 228 7.2. Supporting Equipment 232 7.3. Step Programmer 237 7.4. Failure Considerations 241 7.5. Coordination 254 7.6. Shared Equipment: Exclusive Use 257 7.7. Shared Equipment: Limited Capacity 261 7.8. Identical Batch Units 262 8 Sequence Logic 265 8.1. Features Provided by Sequence Logic 265 8.2. Failure Monitoring and Response 267 8.3. Relay Ladder Diagrams 273 8.4. Procedural Languages 276 8.5. Special Languages 278 8.6. State Machine 280 8.7. Grafcet/Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) 283 9 Batches and Recipes 290 9.1. Organization of Recipes 291 9.2. Corporate Recipes 294 9.3. Executing Product Batches Simultaneously 299 9.4. Managing Product Batches 302 9.5. Executing Operations 305 9.6. Batch History Data 309 9.7. Performance Parameters 313 Index 319.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470381991 20160616
Gives a real world explanation of how to analyze and troubleshoot aprocess control system in a batch process plant Explains how to analyze the requirements forcontrolling a batch process, develop the control logic to meetthese requirements, and troubleshoot the process controls in batchprocesses Presents three categories of batch processes (cyclicalbatch, multigrade facilities, and flexible batch) and examines thedifferences in the control requirements in each Examines various concepts of a product recipe and whatits nature must be in a flexible batch facility Approaches the subject from the process perspective, with emphasis on the advantages of using structured logic in theautomation of all but the simplest batch processes. Discusses the flow of information starting at theplant floor and continuing through various levels of the controllogic up to the corporate IT level.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470381991 20160616

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