xxxiv, 607 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
  • List of Figures Xi List of Tables Xvii Abbreviations Xix Glossary Xxiii 1 Process Safety and Safe Automation 1 1.1 Objective 7 1.2 Scope 9 1.3 Limitations 9 1.4 Target Audience 11 1.5 Incidents That Define Safe Automation 13 1.6 Overview of the Contents 18 1.7 Key Differences 21 2 The Role of Automation in Process Safety 23 2.1 Process Operations 23 2.2 Plant Automation 33 2.3 A Framework for Process Safety 42 2.4 Risk-Based Design 54 2.5 Risk Management of Existing Facility 78 3 Automation Specification 83 3.1 Process Automation Lifecycle 83 3.2 Functional Specification 91 3.3 Designing For Operating Objectives 92 3.4 Inherently Safer Practices 104 3.5 Designing for Core Attributes 107 3.6 Control and Safety System Integration 133 4 Design And Implementation Of Process Control Systems 153 4.1 Input and Output Field Signal Types 161 4.2 Basic Application Program Functions 162 4.3 Process Control Objectives 165 4.4 Process Controller Technology Selection 172 4.5 Detailed Application Program Design 194 5 Design and Implementation of Safety Controls, Alarms, and Interlocks (SCAI) 211 5.1 SCAI Classification 215 5.2 Design Considerations 220 5.3 SCAI Technology Selection 244 6 Administrative Controls and Monitoring 265 6.1 Introduction 265 6.2 Automation Organization Management 266 6.3 Process Safety Information 269 6.4 Operating Procedures 273 6.5 Maintenance Planning 291 6.6 Human and Systematic Failure Management 303 6.7 Management of Change 316 6.8 Auditing, Monitoring and Metrics 321 Appendix A. Control System Considerations 329 Appendix B. Power, Grounding, and Shielding 371 Appendix C. Communications 391 C.1 Communication Classifications 391 C.2 Common Communication Network Topologies 395 C.3 Communication between Devices 397 C.4 Wireless Communication 400 C.5 Common Communication Configurations 403 C.6 Common Data Communication Issues 407 C.7 Process Control and Safety System Communications 412 C.8 SCAI Communications 419 Appendix D. Alarm Management 423 D.1 Alarms 423 D.2 Standards and Resources 423 D.3 Alarm Management 423 D.4 Managing the Safety Aspects Of Alarms 436 D.5 Alarm System Performance Benchmarking 437 D.6 Alarm Management Software 438 Appendix E. Field Device Considerations 441 E.1 General Signal Safety 441 E.2 Field Device Selection 458 E.3 Flow Measurement 465 E.4 Pressure Measurement 475 E.5 Level Measurement 476 E.6 Temperature Measurement 487 E.7 On-Stream Process Analysis 489 E.8 Automated Valves 493 E.9 Electric Motors 504 E.10 Steam Turbine Variable Speed Drives 505 Appendix F. Sis Equipment Selection 511 F.1 Selection Basis 511 F.2 Additional Considerations 518 Appendix G. Human Machine Interface Design 529 G.1 General 529 G.2 Operator Interface Standards and Resources 531 G.3 Instrument Panels 533 G.4 Configurable Operator Workstations 534 G.5 Process Alarms 538 G.6 Sis Impact on HMI 545 G.7 Control-Center Environment 545 G.8 Video 546 G.9 Operator Interfaces Of Future 546 G.10 HMI Considerations Checklist 547 Appendix H. Application Programming 551 H.1 Software Types 551 H.2 Application Program Development 552 H.3 Application Programming Languages 554 H.4 Application Program Developmental Models 556 H.5 Process Control Application Program 557 H.6 SCAI Application Program 563 Appendix I. Instrument Reliability Program 565 I.1 Introduction 565 I.2 Tracking Failure 566 I.3 Data Taxonomy 568 I.4 Data Collection Efforts 569 I.5 Failure Investigation 571 I.6 Calculation of Failure Rate 572 I.7 Verification 576 Appendix J. Acceptance Testing Guidelines 581 J.1 Acceptance Testing 581 J.2 Standards 581 J.3 Factory Acceptance Test 582 J.4 Site Acceptance Test (SAT) 589 Index 597.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118949498 20170213
This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent layers of safety. An expanded edition, this book includes a revision of original concepts as well as chapters that address new topics such as use of wireless automation and Safety Instrumented Systems. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118949498 20170213
Science Library (Li and Ma)
ix, 502 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Science Library (Li and Ma)
1 online resource (1 volume) : illustrations
  • Foreword xv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi About the Author xxiii Part I: Basic Principles 1 Chapter 1: Introductory Concepts 3 1.1 Using This Book 4 1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem 5 1.3 Degrees of Freedom 12 1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation 16 1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology 17 1.6 Concluding Comments 19 Problems 20 Chapter 2: Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation 21 2.1 Calculating Areas 22 2.2 Calculating Volumes 28 2.3 Complex Objects: Areas and Volumes 33 2.4 Interpolation and Extrapolation 40 2.5 Concluding Comments 46 Problems 46 Chapter 3: Units of Measure 51 3.1 Time 53 3.2 Length 54 3.3 Volume 55 3.4 Temperature 56 3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force 61 3.6 Vectors 63 3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples 66 3.8 Density and Specific Gravity 68 3.9 The Mole Unit 69 3.10 Concentrations 72 3.11 Pressure 76 3.12 Work and Power 78 3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance 80 3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures 84 3.15 Scientific Notation 85 3.16 The Vernier Scale 86 3.17 Prefixes: M versus m 87 3.18 Concluding Comments 88 References 89 Problems 90 Chapter 4: Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature 93 4.1 Boyle's Law 94 4.2 Charles's Law 96 4.3 Absolute Temperature 97 4.4 The Ideal Gas Law 98 4.5 Real Gases 108 4.6 Volumetric Fractions and Mole Fractions 110 4.7 Standard Conditions 111 4.8 Concluding Comments 112 Appendix 4A: Equations of State 113 Problems 119 Chapter 5: Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work 123 5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence 127 5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter 128 5.3 Work 130 5.4 Heat Capacity 131 5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy 135 5.6 Power 138 5.7 Entropy 139 5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems 142 5.9 Functions of State 144 5.10 The Mollier Diagram 145 5.11 Steam Tables 148 5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures 151 5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat 158 5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy 160 5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics 164 5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion 167 5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency 168 5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps 176 5.19 Joule-Thomson Expansion 179 5.20 Turbo-Expanders 181 5.21 Systems 182 5.22 Concluding Comments 186 Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity 186 Problems 188 Chapter 6: Phase Equilibria 193 6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction 194 6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure 195 6.3 Chemical Potential 199 6.4 Boiling 200 6.5 Azeotropes 201 6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs' Phase Rule 203 6.7 Phase Transitions 206 6.8 Effects of Impurities 208 6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point 210 6.10 Equilibrium Equations 212 6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume 217 6.12 Osmotic Pressure 218 6.13 Ion Exchange 219 6.14 Supercritical Fluids 222 6.15 Concluding Comments 224 Problems 224 Chapter 7: Chemical Reaction Kinetics 227 7.1 Effect of Reactant Concentration 228 7.2 Complex Mechanisms with Intermediates 231 7.3 Effect of Temperature 236 7.4 Catalysts 238 7.5 Yield, Fractional Conversion, and Extent of Reaction 241 7.6 Equilibrium Reactions and the Law of Mass Action 248 7.7 Effect of Phase Behavior 250 7.8 Concluding Comments 251 Problems 252 Part II: Calculations: Material and Energy Balances 259 Chapter 8: Material Balances 261 8.1 Methodology 262 8.2 The Assumption of Steady-State 273 8.3 Single-Phase Material Balances for Separation Processes 273 8.4 Single-Phase Material Balances for Blending Processes 283 8.5 Multiple-Phase Material Balances 295 8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions 304 8.7 Material Balances in the Real World 313 8.8 Concluding Comments 314 Appendix 8A: Business Economics 315 Problems 320 Chapter 9: Energy Balances 337 9.1 Methodology 338 9.2 Simple Energy Balances 340 9.3 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances 344 9.4 Simultaneous Balances with Chemical Reactions 351 9.5 Concluding Comments 357 Appendix 9A: Heat of Mixing 358 Problems 362 Part III: Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena 371 Chapter 10: Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow 373 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity 375 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 382 10.3 Vectors and Tensors 385 10.4 Shell Balances 386 10.5 The Equations of Motion 392 10.6 Dimensional Analysis 393 10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor 396 10.8 The Bernoulli Equation 402 10.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow 412 10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head 413 10.11 Concluding Comments 415 References 416 Problems 416 Chapter 11: Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer 419 11.1 Heat Conduction 421 11.2 Convection 431 11.3 Combined Conduction and Convection 435 11.4 Radiation 439 11.5 Dimensional Analysis 448 11.6 Shell Balances 456 11.7 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Heat Transfer 459 11.8 Concluding Comments 462 References 463 Problems 463 Chapter 12 : Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer 469 12.1 Diffusion 471 12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport 476 12.3 Shell Balances 477 12.4 Dispersion 481 12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World 482 12.6 Mass-Transfer Processes: Unit Operations 483 12.7 Material and Energy Balances 498 12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow 516 12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency 518 12.10 Concluding Comments 528 References 529 Problems 530 Postface 535 Appendix A: Answers to Selected Problems 537 Chapter 1 537 Chapter 2 537 Chapter 3 538 Chapter 4 538 Chapter 5 538 Chapter 6 539 Chapter 7 539 Chapter 8 539 Chapter 9 546 Chapter 10 547 Chapter 11 547 Chapter 12 548 Appendix B: Conversion Factors 551 Appendix C: Gas Constants 555 Appendix D: Steam Tables 557 Index 593.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780133388336 20160711
A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today's Process Control Operators In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don't exist. Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration. Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know "what the numbers mean" so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably. T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Coverage includes * Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures * Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation * Understanding Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, and the Ideal Gas Law * Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions * Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems * Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization * Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control * Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries * Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems * Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput * Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors * Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling * Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780133388336 20160711
xvi, 339 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • Chemical Physics. Halogen Containing Simple and Complicated Block Copolyethers. Welding Modes and Their Influence on the Adhesions. Kinetics and Mechanism of Polymer Dispersion Formation on Based of (Meth) Acrylates. Films and Nonwoven Materials Based on Polyurethane, the Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer, and Their Blends. Investigation of Polypropylene/Low-Density Polyethylene Blends. Elastic Modulus of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)/Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Blends. Low-Toxic Nitrogen-Containing Antioxidant for Polyvinyl Chloride. Impact of Organosilicone Modifiers on the Properties of Ethylene Copolymers. UV Spectroscopy Study of 1,2-Dihydro-C60-Fullerenes in Polar Solvent. Hexagonal Structures in Physical Chemistry and Physiology. Complex Formation Between Alk4NBr and 1,1,3-Trimethyl-3-(4-Methylphenyl)Butyl Hydroperoxide on the Base of NMR 1H Investigation. Polyamides and Polyamidoether in Macromolecules Containing Triphenylmethane Groups. A Detailed Review on Nanofibers Production and Applications. Biochemical Physics. Composition of Bioregulator Obtained from Garlic Allium Sativum L. Morphological and Bioenergetical Characteristics of Mitochondria. Halophilic Microorganisms from Saline Wastes of Starobin Potash Deposit. Biochemical Characteristics of Insects Hermetia Illucens. Peptides of a Plant Origin Exerting Hepatoprotective Properties. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781771883023 20160919
Written by highly regarded experts in the field, this book covers many of the major themes of chemical and biochemical physics, addressing important issues, from concept to technology to implementation. It provides new research and updates on a variety of issues in physical chemistry and biochemical physics. Many chapters include case studies and supporting technologies and explain the conceptual thinking behind current uses and potential uses not yet implemented. By providing an applied and modern approach, this volume presents a wide-ranging view of current developments in applied methodologies in chemical and biochemical physics research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781771883023 20160919
Science Library (Li and Ma)
1 online resource (598 p.)
Industrial Chemical Process Analysis and Design uses chemical engineering principles to explain the transformation of basic raw materials into major chemical products. The book discusses traditional processes to create products like nitric acid, sulphuric acid, ammonia, and methanol, as well as more novel products like bioethanol and biodiesel. Historical perspectives show how current chemical processes have developed over years or even decades to improve their yields, from the discovery of the chemical reaction or physico-chemical principle to the industrial process needed to yield commercial quantities. Starting with an introduction to process design, optimization, and safety, Martin then provides stand-alone chapters-in a case study fashion-for commercially important chemical production processes. Computational software tools like MATLABïŽ, Excel, and Chemcad are used throughout to aid process analysis.
xxvi, 392 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm.
  • Preface-- Table of contents-- Lists of symbols-- Part I. Use of Experimental Data: 1. Properties, dimensions, and scales-- 2. Pipe flow: friction factor and pressure drop-- 3. Drag, particles, and porous media-- Part II. Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics: 4. Fluid statics: pressure, gravity, and surface tension-- 5. Fluid kinematics-- 6. Stress and momentum-- Part III. Microscopic Analysis: 7. Unidirectional flow-- 8. Approximations for viscous flows-- 9. Laminar flow with inertia-- 10. Turbulent flow-- Part IV. Macroscopic Analysis-- 11. Macroscopic balances for mass, momentum, and energy-- 12. Pipe flow: entrance effects, fittings, and compressibility-- Appendix A. Vectors, tensors and coordinate systems.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107123779 20160928
Designed for introductory undergraduate courses in fluid mechanics for chemical engineers, this stand-alone textbook illustrates the fundamental concepts and analytical strategies in a rigorous and systematic, yet mathematically accessible manner. Using both traditional and novel applications, it examines key topics such as viscous stresses, surface tension, and the microscopic analysis of incompressible flows which enables students to understand what is important physically in a novel situation and how to use such insights in modeling. The many modern worked examples and end-of-chapter problems provide calculation practice, build confidence in analyzing physical systems and help develop engineering judgment. The book also features a self-contained summary of the mathematics needed to understand vectors and tensors, and explains solution methods for partial differential equations. Including a full solutions manual for instructors available at, this balanced textbook is the ideal resource for a one-semester course.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107123779 20160928
Science Library (Li and Ma)
xxxv, 266 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
  • LIST OF TABLES xv LIST OF FIGURES xvii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxi GLOSSARY xxv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxiii PREFACE xxxv 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose of this Handbook 1 1.2 Target Audience 1 1.3 Process Safety What Is It? 1 1.4 Organization of the Book 3 1.5 References 4 2. Process Safety Basics 5 2.1 Risk Based Process Safety 5 Pillar: Commit to Process Safety 12 2.2 Process Safety Culture 12 2.3 Compliance with Standards 15 2.4 Process Safety Competency 17 2.5 Workforce Involvement 18 2.6 Stakeholder Outreach 19 Pillar: Understand Hazards and Risks 20 2.7 Process Knowledge Management 20 2.8 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 22 Pillar: Manage Risk 25 2.9 Operating Procedures 25 2.10 Safe Work Practices 26 2.11 Asset Integrity and Reliability 28 2.12 Contractor Management 30 2.13 Training And Performance Assurance 32 2.14 Management of Change 33 2.15 Operational Readiness 35 2.16 Conduct of Operations 37 2.17 Emergency Management 38 Pillar: Learn from Experience 42 2.18 Incident Investigation 42 2.19 Measurement and Metrics 45 2.20 Auditing 46 2.21 Management Review and Continuous Improvement 48 2.22 Summary 49 2.23 References 50 3. The Need for Process Safety 53 3.1 Process Safety Culture: BP Refinery Explosion, Texas City, 2005 58 3.1.1 Summary 58 3.1.2 Detailed Description 58 3.1.3 Causes 59 3.1.4 Key Lessons 61 3.1.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 63 3.2 Asset Integrity and Reliability: ARCO Channelview, Texas Explosion, 1990 64 3.2.1 Summary 64 3.2.2 Detailed Description 64 3.2.3 Causes 65 3.2.4 Key Lessons 65 3.2.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 65 3.3 Process Safety Culture: NASA Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster, 2003 66 3.3.1 Summary 66 3.3.2 Detailed Description 66 3.3.3 Causes 68 3.3.4 Key Lessons 69 3.3.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 70 3.4 Process Knowledge Management: Concept Sciences Explosion, Hanover Township PA, 1999 70 3.4.1 Summary 70 3.4.2 Detailed Description 70 3.4.3 Cause 72 3.4.4 Key Lessons 73 3.4.5 References and links to Investigation Reports 73 3.5 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment: Esso Longford Gas Plant Explosion, 1998 73 3.5.1 Summary 73 3.5.2 Detailed Description 74 3.5.3 Cause 76 3.5.4 Key Lessons 76 3.5.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 77 3.6 Operating Procedures: Port Neal, IA, Ammonium Nitrate Explosion, 1994 77 3.6.1 Summary 77 3.6.2 Detailed Description 77 3.6.3 Causes 79 3.6.4 Key Lessons 80 3.6.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 80 3.7 Safe Work Practices: Piper Alpha, North Sea, UK, 1988 80 3.7.1 Summary 80 3.7.2 Detailed Description 81 3.7.3 Causes 83 3.7.4 Key Lessons 84 3.7.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 85 3.8 Contractor Management: Partridge Raleigh Oilfield Explosion, Raleigh, MS, 2006 85 3.8.1 Summary 85 3.8.2 Detailed Description 85 3.8.3 Cause 86 3.8.4 Key Lessons 86 3.8.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 88 3.9 Asset Integrity and Reliability: Explosion at Texaco Oil Refinery, Milford Haven, UK, 1994 88 3.9.1 Summary 88 3.9.2 Detailed Description 88 3.9.3 Causes 89 3.9.4 Key Lessons 90 3.9.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 91 3.10 Conduct of Operations: Formosa Plastics VCM Explosion, Illiopolis, IL, 2004 91 3.10.1 Summary 91 3.10.2 Detailed Description 91 3.10.3 Causes 94 3.10.4 Key Lessons 94 3.10.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 95 3.11 Management of Change: Flixborough Explosion, UK, 1974 95 3.11.1 Summary 95 3.11.2 Detailed Description 95 3.11.3 Cause 98 3.11.4 Key Lessons 98 3.11.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 99 3.12 Emergency Management: Sandoz Warehouse Fire, Switzerland, 1986 99 3.12.1 Summary 99 3.12.2 Key Lessons 101 3.12.3 References and links to investigation reports 102 3.13 Conduct of Operations: Exxon Valdez, Alaska, 1989 102 3.13.1 Summary 102 3.13.2 Detailed Description 102 3.13.3 Causes 105 3.13.4 Key Lessons 105 3.13.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 106 3.14 Compliance with Standards: Mexico City, PEMEX LPG Terminal, 1984 106 3.14.1 Summary 106 3.14.2 Detailed Description 106 3.14.3 Causes 109 3.14.4 Key Lessons 109 3.14.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 109 3.15 Process Safety Culture: Methyl Isocyanate Release, Bhopal, India, 1984 110 3.15.1 Summary 110 3.15.2 Detailed Description 110 3.15.3 Key Lessons 111 3.15.4 References and Links to Investigation Reports 112 3.16 Failure to Learn, BP Macondo Well Blowout, Gulf of Mexico, 2010 113 3.16.1 Summary 113 3.16.2 Detailed Description 113 3.16.3 Key Lessons 118 3.16.4 References and Links to Investigation Reports 119 3.17 Summary 119 3.18 References 120 4. Process Safety for Engineering Disciplines 121 4.1 Introduction 121 4.2 Process Knowledge Management 121 4.3 Compliance with Standards 124 4.4 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis, Management Of Change 126 Management of Organizational Change 127 4.5 Asset Integrity and Reliability 128 4.6 Safe Work Practices 129 4.7 Incident Investigation 130 4.8 Resources for Further Learning 130 4.8 Summary 132 4.9 References 132 5. Process Safety in Design 133 5.1 Process Safety Design Strategies 133 5.2 General Unit Operations and Their Failure Modes 134 5.2.1 Pumps, Compressors, Fans 134 5.2.2 Heat Exchange Equipment 141 5.2.3 Mass Transfer-- Distillation, Leaching and Extraction, Absorption 146 5.2.4 Mechanical Separation / Solid-Fluid Separation 152 5.2.5 Reactors and Reactive Hazards 158 5.2.6 Fired Equipment 163 5.2.7 Storage 167 5.3 Petroleum Processing 179 5.3.1 General Process Safety Hazards in a Refinery 180 5.3.2 Crude Handling and Separation 182 5.3.3 Light Hydrocarbon Handling and Separation 183 5.3.4 Hydrotreating 184 5.3.5 Catalytic Cracking 185 5.3.6 Reforming 187 5.3.7 Alkylation 188 5.3.8 Coking 190 5.4 Transient Operating States 192 5.4.1 Overview 192 5.4.2 Example Process Safety Incidents 192 5.4.3 Design Considerations 194 5.5 References 194 6. Course Material 199 6.1 Introduction 199 6.2 Inherently Safer Design 199 6.3 Process Safety Management and Conservation of Life 199 6.4 Process Safety Overview and Safety in the Chemical Process Industries 200 6.5 Process Hazards 201 6.5.1 Chemical Reactivity Hazards 201 6.5.2 Fires and Explosions 202 6.5.3 Other Hazards 203 6.6 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 203 6.7 Emergency Relief Systems 205 6.8 Case Histories 206 6.8.1 Runaway Reactions 206 6.8.2 Other Case Histories 207 6.9 Other Modules 209 6.10 Summary 209 6.11 References 209 7. Process Safety in the Workplace 211 7.1 What to Expect 211 7.1.1 Formal Training 211 7.1.2 Interface with Operators, Craftsmen 214 7.2 New Skills 215 7.2.1 Non-Technical 215 7.2.2 Technical 216 7.3 Safety Culture 217 7.4 Conduct of Operations 218 7.4.1 Operational Discipline 218 7.4.2 Engineering Discipline 230 7.4.3 Management Discipline 232 7.4.4 Other Conduct of Operations Topics for the New Engineer 237 7.5 Summary 238 7.6 References 238 APPENDIX A EXAMPLE RAGAGEP LIST 241 APPENDIX B LIST OF CSB VIDEOS 245 APPENDIX C REACTIVE CHEMICALS CHECKLIST 249 C.1 Chemical Reaction Hazard Identification 249 C.2 Reaction Process Design Considerations 252 C.3 Resources and Publications 254 APPENDIX D LIST OF SACHE COURSES 257 APPENDIX E Reactivity Hazard Evaluation Tools 259 E.1 Screening Table and Flowchart 259 E.2 Reference 262 INDEX 263.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118949504 20161003
* Familiarizes the student or an engineer new to process safety with the concept of process safety management * Serves as a comprehensive reference for Process Safety topics for student chemical engineers and newly graduate engineers * Acts as a reference material for either a stand-alone process safety course or as supplemental materials for existing curricula * Includes the evaluation of SACHE courses for application of process safety principles throughout the standard Ch.E. curricula in addition to, or as an alternative to, adding a new specific process safety course * Gives examples of process safety in design.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118949504 20161003
Science Library (Li and Ma)
xii, 429 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications is a new reference demonstrating the implementation of multiscale modeling techniques on process safety applications. It is a valuable resource for readers interested in theoretical simulations and/or computer simulations of hazardous scenarios. As multi-scale modeling is a computational technique for solving problems involving multiple scales, such as how a flammable vapor cloud might behave if ignited, this book provides information on the fundamental topics of toxic, fire, and air explosion modeling, as well as modeling jet and pool fires using computational fluid dynamics. The book goes on to cover nanomaterial toxicity, QPSR analysis on relation of chemical structure to flash point, molecular structure and burning velocity, first principle studies of reactive chemicals, water and air reactive chemicals, and dust explosions. Chemical and process safety professionals, as well as faculty and graduate researchers, will benefit from the detailed coverage provided in this book. * Provides the only comprehensive source addressing the use of multiscale modeling in the context of process safety* Bridges multiscale modeling with process safety, enabling the reader to understand mapping between problem detail and effective usage of resources* Presents an overall picture of addressing safety problems in all levels of modeling and the latest approaches to each in the field* Features worked out examples, case studies, and a question bank to aid understanding and involvement for the reader.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780123969750 20160619
Science Library (Li and Ma)
1 online resource.
  • Membrane Processes.- The Optimal Control Problem.- Solution of Optimal Control Problems.- Operation at Limiting Flux.- Perfect Rejection of Both Solutes.- Perfect Rejection of Macro-Solute.- Constant Incomplete Rejection of Solutes.- General Membrane Model.- Conclusions and Future Research.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319204741 20160619
This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from the limiting flux model through increasingly generalized models to propose a simple numerical approach to the general case of optimal operation for batch diafiltration processes. Researchers interested in the modelling of batch processes or in the potential industrial applications of optimal control theory will find this monograph a valuable source of inspiration, instruction and ideas.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319204741 20160619
1 online resource (x, 336 pages) : illustrations (some color)
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Process Intensification: A Process Systems Engineering View
  • Chapter 3 Systematic Synthesis of Intensified Distillation Systems
  • Chapter 4 Process Intensification in Heat and Mass Exchanger Networks
  • Chapter 5 Heat-Integrated Intensified Distillation Processes
  • Chapter 6: Process Intensification by Reactive Distillation
  • Chapter 7 Process intensification in Biotechnology Applications
  • Chapter 8 Process Intensification: Industrial Applications
  • Chapter 9 Stochastic Optimization for Process Intensification
  • Chapter 10 Process Intensification in the Production of Liquid Biofuels: Strategies to Minimize Environmental Impact
  • Chapter 11 Dynamics, Controllability and Control of Intensified Processes.
This book will provide researchers and graduate students with an overview of the recent developments and applications of process intensification in chemical engineering. It will also allow the readers to apply the available intensification techniques to their processes and specific problems. The content of this book can be readily adopted as part of special courses on process control, design, optimization and modelling aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students. This book will be a useful resource for researchers in process system engineering as well as for practitioners interested in applying process intensification approaches to real-life problems in chemical engineering and related areas.
xv, 375 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
  • Preface. 1. Process Technology Today. 2. Jobs in Process Technology. 3. John's Twelve-Hour Shift. 4. Safety. 5. Environmental Compliance and Title V. 6. Emergency Response Teams. 7. Process Physics for Operators. 8. Quality for Operators. 9. Economics for Operators. 10. Communication for Operators. 11. Instrumentation. 12. Routine Technician Duties. 13. Process Samples and common Analytical Tests. 14. Operator Maintenance Duties. 15. Material Handling of Bulk Liquids. 16. Material Handling of Bulk Solids. 17. Material Handling: Oil Movement and Storage. 18. Process Unit Shutdown. 19. Process Unit Turnaround. 20. Process Unit Startup. 21. Abnormal Situations. 22. Process Troubleshooting. Glossary.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781133950158 20160618
Addressing modern process plant operations in an easy-to-understand format, this comprehensive text reveals the important role technicians play in the function of a business unit. The author thoroughly examines operator responsibilities and functions, from recognizing opportunities that improve process operations, to detecting and removing threats to steady-state operation. The text also systematically explores business fundamentals and the importance of quality, as well as the chemistry and physics of process operations, maintenance duties, material handling, and process troubleshooting techniques. Now thoroughly expanded and updated, the Second Edition of this trusted text includes new chapters on jobs in process technology, environmental compliance, emergency response, and instrumentation. With numerous new and revised tables and photos, as well as additional learning resources to promote Internet research and critical thinking, the text is an even more useful and effective resource for current and future process plant technicians.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781133950158 20160618
Science Library (Li and Ma)
xiv, 419 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Science Library (Li and Ma)
viii, 177 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Scaling Chemical Processes: Practical Guides in Chemical Engineering is one of a series of short texts that each provides a focused introductory view on a single subject. The full library spans the main topics in the chemical process industries for engineering professionals who require a basic grounding in various related topics. They are 'pocket publications' that the professional engineer can easily carry with them or access electronically while working. Each text is highly practical and applied, and presents first principles for engineers who need to get up to speed in a new area fast. The focused facts provided in each guide will help you converse with experts in the field, attempt your own initial troubleshooting, check calculations, and solve rudimentary problems. This book discusses scaling chemical processes from a laboratory through a pilot plant to a commercial plant. It bases scaling on similarity principles and uses dimensional analysis to derive the dimensionless parameters necessary to ensure a successful chemical process development program. This series is fully endorsed and co-branded by the IChemE, and they help to promote the series. * Offers practical, short, concise information on the basics to help you get an answer or teach yourself a new topic quickly* Includes industry examples to help you solve real world problems* Provides key facts for professionals in convenient single subject volumes* Discusses scaling chemical processes from a laboratory through a pilot plant to a commercial plant.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128046357 20160928
Science Library (Li and Ma)
1 online resource (xxxii, 239 pages) : illustrations (some color)
  • Introduction
  • ChE SE Design Approach
  • Material and Energy SE sources and Sinks
  • Efficiency of All Things
  • New Product Design and lternative Process Chemistry
  • Environment, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) Regulations
  • ChE SE Technology Equipment Toolbox
  • ChE SE Process Examples
  • Total Quality Management and Sustainability Engineering
  • Government Regulatory Development for Sustainability Engineering
  • Sustainability Engineering in the Various Engineering Disciplines and Industry Segments
  • Sustainability Engineering in the Various Engineering Disciplines and Industry Segments
  • Sustainability Engineering Design Resolution Roadmap
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Appendix C.
This book explores sustainability engineering through the lens of the manufacturing and chemical process industries to elucidate the safe, and economic implementation of process designs used to transform raw materials into useful finished products. The author applies the tenets of sustainability science to develop an engineering methodology that supports the perpetual availability of raw materials through recycling/reuse/repurposing, while incorporating inexhaustible supplies, such as: solar energy, municipal waste, that encompasses the husbandry of these resources in a manner that minimizes negative environmental impacts. Anyone involved in the design or manufacturing of chemicals, or the upgrade of existing manufacturing processes, will benefit from this book's suggestions for identifying improvement options, while adding the pivotal aspect of sustainability to the usual cost and safety equation optimization elements. .
1 online resource.
  • Intro; Title page; Table of Contents; Copyright; Dedication; About the Authors; Acknowledgment; Foreword; Preface; Chapter One. Towards More Sustainable Chemical Engineering Processes: Integrating Sustainable and Green Chemistry Into the Engineering Design Process; Chapter Two. Separations Versus Sustainability: There Is No Such Thing As a Free Lunch; Chapter Three. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability; Chapter Four. Process Integration for Sustainable Design; Chapter Five. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems
  • Chapter Six. Sustainable Engineering Economic and Profitability AnalysisChapter Seven. Managing Conflicts Among Decision Makers in Multiobjective Design and Operations; Chapter Eight. Sustainable System Dynamics: A Complex Network Analysis; Chapter Nine. Process Synthesis by the P-Graph Framework Involving Sustainability; Chapter Ten. Sustainability Assessment and Performance Improvement of Electroplating Process Systems; Chapter Eleven. Strategic Sustainable Assessment of Retrofit Design for Process Performance Evaluation
  • Chapter Twelve. Chemical Engineering and Biogeochemical Cycles: A Techno-Ecological Approach to Industry SustainabilityChapter Thirteen. Challenges for Model-Based Life Cycle Inventories and Impact Assessment in Early to Basic Process Design Stages; Chapter Fourteen. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: A Holistic Evaluation of Social, Economic, and Environmental Impacts; Chapter Fifteen. Embedding Sustainability in Product and Process Development-The Role of Process Systems Engineers; Index; Underpinnings of Green Chemistry; The Principles and Implications
  • Problems With Chemicals and Reaction SpacesThinking About What More Sustainable Chemistry and Chemical Manufacturing Might Look Like; Tying It All Together; The Separations Dilemma and Imperative; Methods of Analysis; Separation Alternatives; Examples; Concluding Thoughts; Conceptual Chemical Process Design; Sustainability Approach for Chemical Processes; Example: Chlor-Alkali Production with Human Toxicity Potential Analysis; Discussion; Conclusions; Introduction; Mass Integration; Property Integration; Energy Integration; Multiscale Approaches; Conclusions
  • Introduction to Sustainable Process SystemsProposed Approach: Modeling, Advanced Control, and Sustainability Assessment; Case Study: Fermentation for Bioethanol Production System; Sustainability Assessment and Process Control; Conclusions and Future Directions; Nomenclature; Introduction; Economic Sustainability Analysis; Environmental Sustainability Analysis; Social Sustainability Analysis; Evaluation of Design Alternatives by Considering Various Sustainability Measures; Example: Bioethanol Process; Concluding Remarks; Nomenclature; Introduction; Approach; Illustrative Examples; Conclusions
Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes is an edited collection of contributions from leaders in their field. It takes a holistic view of sustainability in chemical and process engineering design, and incorporates economic analysis and human dimensions. Ruiz-Mercado and Cabezas have brought to this book their experience of researching sustainable process design and life cycle sustainability evaluation to assist with development in government, industry and academia. This book takes a practical, step-by-step approach to designing sustainable plants and processes by starting from chemical engineering fundamentals. This method enables readers to achieve new process design approaches with high influence and less complexity. It will also help to incorporate sustainability at the early stages of project life, and build up multiple systems level perspectives. Ruiz-Mercado and Cabezas' book is the only book on the market that looks at process sustainability from a chemical engineering fundamentals perspective. * Improve plants, processes and products with sustainability in mind; from conceptual design to life cycle assessment* Avoid retro fitting costs by planning for sustainability concerns at the start of the design process* Link sustainability to the chemical engineering fundamentals.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128020326 20160815

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