 Kubo, Isoroku, 1942
 Washington, D.C. : National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; [Springfield, Va. : For sale by the National Technical Information Service], 1972.
 Description
 Book — 34 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
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NASA CR 2138  Available 
 Boyd, Oliver S., author.
 Reston, Virginia : U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2020
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource (vi, 23 pages) : color illustrations, color maps
44. ElasticWaveform Inversion with Compressive Sensing for Sparse Seismic Data [electronic resource] [2015]
 Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2015
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource (7 p.) : digital, PDF file.
 Summary

Accurate velocity models of compressional and shearwaves are essential for geothermal reservoir characterization and microseismic imaging. Elasticwaveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data can provide highresolution inversion results of subsurface geophysical properties. However, the method requires seismic data acquired using dense source and receiver arrays. In practice, seismic sources and/or geophones are often sparsely distributed on the surface and/or in a borehole, such as 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) surveys. We develop a novel elasticwaveform inversion method with compressive sensing for inversion of sparse seismic data. We employ an alternatingminimization algorithm to solve the optimization problem of our new waveform inversion method. We validate our new method using synthetic VSP data for a geophysical model built using geologic features found at the Raft River enhancedgeothermalsystem (EGS) field. We apply our method to synthetic VSP data with a sparse source array and compare the results with those obtained with a dense source array. Our numerical results demonstrate that the velocity models produced with our new method using a sparse source array are almost as accurate as those obtained using a dense source array.
 Online
45. Homogeneous turbulence dynamics [2018]
 Sagaut, Pierre, 1967 author.
 Second edition.  Cham, Switzerland : Springer, 2018.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource Digital: text file.PDF.
 Summary

 Introduction. Scope of the book. Structure and contents of the second edition of the book. Governing equations, from dynamics to statistics. Background deterministic equations. Briefs about statistical and probabilistic approaches. Reynolds Stress tensor and related equations. Anisotropy in physical space. Singlepoint correlations. Spectral analysis, from random fields to twopoint correlations. Local frame, helical modes. Anisotropy for multipoint correlations. A synthetic scheme of the closure problem: nonlinearity and nonlocality. On the use of Lagrangian formalism. Additional reminders: compressible turbulence description. NavierStokes equations for compressible flows and shock jump conditions. Introduction to modal decomposition of turbulent fluctuations. Mean flow equations, Reynolds Stress Tensor and energy balance in compressible flows. Incompressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Observations and measures in forced and freely decaying turbulence. Classical statistical analysis: energy cascade, local isotropy, usual characteristic scales. Models for singletime and twotime energy spectra and velocity correlation functions. Free decay theories: selfsimilarity, selfpreservation, symmetries and invariants. Recent results about decay regimes. Reynolds Stress tensor and analysis of related equations. Differential models for energy transfer. Advanced analysis of energy transfers in Fourier space. Pressure field: spectrum, scales and time evolution. Topological analysis, coherent events and related dynamics. Nonlinear dynamics in the physical space. What are the proper features of threedimensional NavierStokes turbulence?. Isotropic turbulence with coupled microstructures: Viscoelastic turbulence. Introduction to turbulence in dilute polymer solutions. Governing equations. Description of turbulence with FENEP model. Turbulence regimes in dilute polymer solution. Viscoelastic effects on flow topology. Isotropic turbulence with coupled microstructures. Quantum Turbulence. Introductory phenomenology to Quantum Turbulence. The three levels of description and physical modelling. Quantized vortices and Kelvin Waves: facts and models. Quantum Turbulence dynamics at zero or nearlyzero temperature. The decay of isotropic Quantum Turbulence. Mutual friction: microscopic origin and models. Incompressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence: pure rotation. Physical and numerical experiments. Governing equation. Advanced analysis of energy transfer via DNS. Balance of RST equations. A case without "production". New tensorial modeling. Inertial waves. Linear regime. Nonlinear theory and modeling: Wave Turbulence and EDQNM. Fundamental issues: solved and open questions. Coherent structures, description and dynamics. Scalebyscale anisotropy. Incompressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence: With strain. Main observations. Experiments for turbulence in the presence of mean strain. Kinematics of the mean flow. First approach in physical space to irrotational mean flows. The fundamentals of homogeneous RDT. Final RDT results for mean irrotational strain. Towards a fully nonlinear approach. Return to isotropy. Nonhomogeneous flow cases. Coherent structures in strained homogeneous turbulence
 Incompressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence: pure shear. Physical and numerical experiments: kinetic energy, RST, lengthscales, anisotropy. Reynolds Stress tensor and analysis of related equations. Rapid Distortion Theory: equations, solutions, algebraic growth. Nonlinear spectral analysis, simplified closure and selfsimilarity. Return to isotropy in shearreleased homogeneous turbulence.Models for space and spacetime correlations. Pressure field: theory and models. Vortical structures dynamics in homogeneous shear turbulence. Selfsustaining turbulent cycle in quasihomogeneous sheared turbulence. Selfsustaining processes in nonhomogeneous sheared turbulence: exact coherent states and travelling wave solutions. Incompressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence: buoyancy force and mean stratification. Observations, propagating and nonpropagating motion. Collapse of vertical motion and layering. Simplified equations, using NavierStokes and Boussinesq approximations, with uniform density gradient. Eigenmode decomposition. Physical interpretation. The toroidal cascade as a strong nonlinear mechanism explaining the layering. The viewpoint of modelling and theory: RDT, WaveTurbulence, EDQNM. Coherent structures : dynamics and scaling of the layered flow, "pancake" dynamics, instabilities. Unstable Stratified Homogeneous Turbulence. Extension to the mixing zone resulting from RayleighTaylor instability and beyond. Coupled effects : rotation, stratification, strain and shear. Governing equations for the dynamics of coupled effects. Rotating stratified turbulence. Rotation or stratification with mean shear. Shear, rotation and stratification. Approach to baroclinic instability. The elliptical flow instability from \homogeneous" RDT. Axisymmetric strain with rotation. Relevance of RDT and WKB RDT variants for analysis of transient growth and exponential instabilities. Incompressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence: Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Generalities, analogies and differences with respect to the purely hydrodynamic case. Governing equations. Alfven waves and Ohmic damping. Linear regime. The QuasiStatic regime, from linear to nonlinear dynamics. A first statistical approach, KolmogorovMonin laws, without mean magnetic field. Refined analysis: Triadic interactions in MHD without mean magnetic field. MHD turbulence and interactions with other body forces and mean gradients. Homogeneous incompressible MHD turbulence and beyond. Compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Different regimes in compressible turbulence. Structures in the physical space. Compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Different regimes in compressible turbulence. Quasiisentropic turbulent regime. LowMach thermal regimes. Nonlinear subsonic regimes. Supersonic regime. Structures in the physical space. Compressible homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. Effects of compressibility in free shear flows. Observations. A general quasiisentropic approach to homogeneous compressible shear flows. Incompressible turbulence with compressible mean flow effects: compressed turbulence. Compressible turbulence in the presence of pure plane shear. Perspectives and open issues. Topological analysis, coherent events and related dynamics. Canonical isotropic turbulence/shock interaction and beyond. Brief survey of existing interaction regimes. Wrinkled shock regime: Linear interaction. Wrinkled shock regime: Nonlinear interaction. Broken shock regime. Beyond canonical case. I: Spherical shock waves. Beyond canonical case. II: Planar shock interacting with turbulence in a nonreacting binary mixture. Beyond canonical case. III: Planar detonation interacting with turbulence. Linear Interaction Approximation for shock/perturbation interaction. Shock description and emitted fluctuating field. Calculation of wave vectors of emitted waves. Calculation of amplitude of emitted waves. Distinguishing between poloidal and toroidal vorticity modes. Reconstruction of the second order moments. Further analytical work: exact and asymptotic LIA solutions based on Laplace transform. A posteriori assessment of LIA in the canonical interaction case. Extending LIA: I. Interaction with rarefaction waves. Extending LIA: II. Case of nonreacting binary mixtures of perfect gas. Extending LIA: III. Thin strong detonation/turbulence interaction. The essentials of linear and nonlinear theories and models. Rapid Distortion Theory for homogeneous turbulence. Zonal RDT and shortwave stability analysis. Application to statistical modeling of inhomogeneous turbulence. Other perspectives in extended linearized approaches. Generalities on triadic closures. Solving the linear operator to account for strong anisotropy. A general EDQN closure. Different levels of markovianization. Detailed equations from EDQNM1 in the model by Mons, Cambon and Sagaut. Application of three EDQNM(123) versions to the rotating turbulence. Other cases of flows with and without production. Connection with selfconsistent theories: singletime or twotime?. Applications to weak or moderate anisotropy. Open numerical problems. Conclusions and perspectives. Homogenization of turbulence. Local or global homogeneity? Physical space or Fourier space?. Linear theory, `homogeneous' RDT, WKB variants, and LIA. Multipoint closures for weak and strong turbulence. Structure formation, structuring effects and individual coherent structures. Anisotropy including dimensionality, a main theme. Deriving practical models. Bibliography. Index.
 (source: Nielsen Book Data)
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
 Ames, Iowa : Ames Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1985
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of microstructural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnetelectromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.
 Online
 Renneisen, John D.
 [Washington, D.C.] : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1988.
 Description
 Book — 1 volume.
 Online
Green Library
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NAS 1.26:4153  Unknown 
48. Surface wave tomography [1983]
 Anderson, Don L. author.
 Pasadena, California : Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology ; [Washington, District of Columbia] : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, [1983]
 Description
 Book — 1 microfiche (4, 1 unnumbered pages) : negative, illustrations ; 11 x 15 cm.
 Summary

"Vertically polarized shear wave velocity (VSV), determined primarily from fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, and the difference between the velocity of horizontally polarized shear waves (VSH) and VSV, therefore a measure of anisotropy, are shown."NTIS abstract.
 Online
Green Library
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Find it US Federal Documents  
NAS 1.26:175373  Unknown 
 Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1978
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

The anisotropic nature of a material is determined by measuring the velocity of an ultrasonic longitudinal wave and a pair of perpendicular ultrasonic shear waves through a sample of the material each at a plurality of different angles in three planes orthogonal to each other. The determined anisotropic nature is used as a correction factor in a spectral analyzing system of flaw determination.
 Online
50. Seismic sources [electronic resource]. [1992]
 Berkeley, Calif. : Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1992
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.
 Online
 Argonne, Ill. : Argonne National Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1994
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a twointerface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.
 Online
 Washington, D.C. : United States. Bureau of Mines ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1960
 Description
 Book — Pages: 57 : digital, PDF file.
 Summary

Strain gage instrumentation is reported of three Cowboy shots to measure the strain produced in salt by coupled and decoupled detonations. Linear array tests were made to develop a propagation law for strain, to determine particle velocity and acceleration in salt, to compare explosives, to determine the effect of impedance coupling between explosive and rock, and to investigate other seismic effects. Crater tests were made to determine the dynamic tensile breaking strength of salt. Tests were made to measure in situ, longitudinal (P) and shear (S) wave velocities and to calculate the dynamic elastic constants therefrom. Laboratory tests on core were made to determine the dynamic compressive and tensile breaking strength of salt. Physical properties tests were made under laboratory conditions for comparison with dynamic results. (W.L.H.)
 Online
 [Washington, D.C.] : United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Nonproliferation and National Security ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2006
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

In this project we have addressed the problem of energy partitioning at distances ranging from very local to regional for various kinds of seismic sources. On the local and regional scale (20220 km) we have targeted events from the region offshore Western Norway where we have both natural earthquake activity as well as frequent occurrence of underwater explosions carried out by the Norwegian Navy. On the small scale we have focused on analysis of observations from an inmine network of 1618 sensors in the Pyhasalmi mine in central Finland. This analysis has been supplemented with 3D finite difference wave propagation simulations in a realistic mine model to investigate the physical mechanisms that partition seismic energy in the near source region in and around the underground mine. The results from modeling and analysis of local and regional data show that mean S/P amplitude ratios for explosions and natural events differ at individual stations and are in general higher for natural events and frequency bands above 3 Hz. However, the distributions of S/P ratios for explosions and natural events overlap in all analyzed frequency bands. Thus, for individual events in our study area, S/P amplitude ratios can only assist the discrimination between an explosion or a natural event. This observation is supported by synthetic seismograms calculated for simple 1D models which demonstrate that explosions also generate shearwave energy if they are fired close to an interface with a strong material contrast (as is the case for most explosions), e.g., free surface or the ocean bottom. The larger difference in S/P ratios between earthquakes and explosions for higher frequencies can be explained by the fact that at low frequencies (larger wavelengths), discontinuities and structural heterogeneities in the explosion source region are stronger generators of converted S energy. The S*phase, for example, is most efficiently generated whenever an explosion source is located close (within one wavelength) to a strong discontinuity. The Pyhasalmi explosions have generally lower S/P ratios than the rockbursts for all frequencies, but the difference is far too small to be significant for classification purposes. The maxima for the explosion distributions are all below 2, whereas they are all above 2 for the rockbursts. The rockbursts also have a wider distribution of S/P ratios, which can be explained by the variability of the radiation patterns from the rockburst sources. S/P ratios for explosions and rockbursts located in the same small area of the mine show results very similar to those for the full data set. This indicates that the observed differences in S/P ratios between explosions and rockbursts are due to differences in the source characteristics, and not due to propagation effects along paths in the mine. 3D finitedifference simulations were used to model seismic events within the Pyhasalmi mine. In particular, a January 26, 2003 rockburst was modeled at frequencies of 50 Hz (4 meter grid) and 100 Hz (2 meter grid). We were able to match the characteristics of the observed data at 50 Hz particularly well, and the characteristics of the 100 Hz data reasonably well. These results help validate the 3D geologic mine model and the reliability of our simulations. The simulations showed that significant shearenergy can be produced due to the geologic and structural heterogeneities within the mine. In fact, modeconverted shearenergy generated from mine heterogeneity can dominate the compressional energy from an explosive source. A strong correlation is observed between the distance of a source from a mine heterogeneity and the magnitude of generated shearenergy. The ratio of shear to compressional energy is about a factor of two larger when the source is located within one wavelength from a mine heterogeneity. The simulations also suggest that excavated mine volumes are significantly stronger contributors to shearenergy generation t...
 Online
 Argonne, Ill. : Argonne National Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1985
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.
 Online
 Washington, D.C. : United States. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2017
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource (Article No. 488) : digital, PDF file.
 Summary

Guided waves in platelike structures have been widely investigated for structural health monitoring. Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) waves, two commonly used types of waves in plates, provide different benefits for the detection of various types of defects and material degradation. However, there are few sensors that can detect both Lamb and SH waves and also resolve their modal content, namely the wavenumberfrequency spectrum. A sensor that can detect both waves is desirable to take full advantage of both types of waves in order to improve sensitivity to different discontinuity geometries. As a result, we demonstrate that polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film provides the basis for a multielement array sensor that detects both Lamb and SH waves and also measures their modal content, i.e., the wavenumberfrequency spectrum.
 Online
 Berlin : SpringerVerlag, 2008.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource
 Summary

 Introduction to asymmetric continuum : funadamental point deformations / Roman Teisseyre and Marek Górski
 Measurement of shortperiod weak rotation signals / Leszek R. Jaroszewicz and Jan Wiszniowski
 Buildings as sources of rotational waves / Mihailo D. Trifunac
 Twopendulum systems for measuring rotations / Vladimir Graizer
 Theory and observations : some remarks on rotational motions / Roman Teisseyre
 Field invariant representation : Dirac tensors / Jan Wiszniowski and Roman Teisseyre
 Asymmetric continuum : standard theory / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture processes : spin and twistshear coincidence / Roman Teisseyre, Marek Górski, and Krzysztof P. Teisseyre
 Inplane and antiplane fracturing in a multimode random sequence / Wojciech Boratyński
 Charged dislocations and various sources of electric field excitation / Krzysztof P. Teisseyre
 Friction and fracture induced anisotropy : asymmetric stresses / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture band thermodynamics / Roman Teisseyre
 Interaction asymmetirc continuum theory / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture physics based on a soliton approach / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Canonical approach to asymmetric continua / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Continuum theory of defects : advanced approaches / Hiroyuki Nagahama and Roman Teisseyre
 Spinors and torsion in a RiemannCartan approach to elasticity with a continuous defect distribution and analogies to the EinsteinCartan theory opf gravitation / Eugeniusz MajewskiTwistors as spin and twist solutions / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Potentials in asymmetric continuum : approach to complex relativity / Roman Teisseyre.
 Introduction to asymmetric continuum : funadamental point deformations / Roman Teisseyre and Marek Górski
 Measurement of shortperiod weak rotation signals / Leszek R. Jaroszewicz and Jan Wiszniowski
 Buildings as sources of rotational waves / Mihailo D. Trifunac
 Twopendulum systems for measuring rotations / Vladimir Graizer
 Theory and observations : some remarks on rotational motions / Roman Teisseyre
 Field invariant representation : Dirac tensors / Jan Wiszniowski and Roman Teisseyre
 Asymmetric continuum : standard theory / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture processes : spin and twistshear coincidence / Roman Teisseyre, Marek Górski, and Krzysztof P. Teisseyre
 Inplane and antiplane fracturing in a multimode random sequence / Wojciech Boratyn⁺ѓski
 Charged dislocations and various sources of electric field excitation / Krzysztof P. Teisseyre
 Friction and fracture induced anisotropy : asymmetric stresses / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture band thermodynamics / Roman Teisseyre
 Interaction asymmetirc continuum theory / Roman Teisseyre
 Fracture physics based on a soliton approach / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Canonical approach to asymmetric continua / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Continuum theory of defects : advanced approaches / Hiroyuki Nagahama and Roman Teisseyre
 Spinors and torsion in a RiemannCartan approach to elasticity with a continuous defect distribution and analogies to the EinsteinCartan theory opf gravitation / Eugeniusz MajewskiTwistors as spin and twist solutions / Eugeniusz Majewski
 Potentials in asymmetric continuum : approach to complex relativity / Roman Teisseyre.
 Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2011
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource (Article No. B05303 ): digital, PDF file.
 Summary

The Anatolian plateauCaucasusCaspian region is an area of complex lithospheric structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region, little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 31 new, permanent broadband seismic stations along with results from a previous 29 temporary seismic stations and 3 existing global seismic stations in the region, a 3D velocity model is developed using joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Both group and phase dispersion curves (Love and Rayleigh) were derived from regional and teleseismic events. Additional Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves were determined using ambient noise correlation. Receiver functions were calculated using P arrivals from 789 teleseismic (30°–90°) earthquakes. The stacked receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves were jointly inverted to yield the absolute shear wave velocity to a depth of 100 km at each station. The depths of major discontinuities (sedimentbasement, crustmantle, and lithosphereasthenosphere) were inferred from the velocitydepth profiles at the location of each station. Distinct spatial variations in crustal and upper mantle shear velocities were observed. The Kura basin showed slow (~2.7–2.9 km/s) upper crustal (0–11 km) velocities but elevated (~3.8–3.9 km/s) velocities in the lower crust. The Anatolian plateau varied from ~3.1–3.2 in the upper crust to ~3.5–3.7 in the lower crust, while velocities in the Arabian plate (south of the Bitlis suture) were slightly faster (upper crust between 3.3 and 3.4 km/s and lower crust between 3.8 and 3.9 km/s). The depth of the Moho, which was estimated from the shear velocity profiles, was 35 km in the Arabian plate and increased northward to 54 km at the southern edge of the Greater Caucasus. Moho depths in the Kura and at the edge of the Caspian showed more spatial variability but ranged between 35 and 45 km. Upper mantle velocities were slow under the Anatolian plateau but increased to the south under the Arabian plate and to the east (4.3–4.4 km/s) under the Kura basin and Greater Caucasus. The areas of slow mantle coincided with the locations of Holocene volcanoes. Differences between Rayleigh and Love dispersions at long wavelengths reveal a pronounced variation in anisotropy between the Anatolian plateau and the Kura basin.
 Online
 Argonne, Ill. : Argonne National Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1980
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

An apparatus for checking the direction of polarization of shearwave ultrasonic transducers comprises a first planar surface for mounting the shearwave transducer, a second planar surface inclined at a predetermined angle to the first surface to generate longitudinal waves by mode conversion, and a third planar surface disposed at a second predetermined angle to the first for mounting a longitudinalwave ultrasonic transducer. In an alternate embodiment, two second planar surfaces at the predetermined angle are placed at an angle to each other. The magnitude of the shear wave is a function of the angle between the direction of polarization of the transducer and the modeconversion surface.
 Online
 Ames, Iowa : Ames Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1988
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its Caxis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.
 Online
 Ames, Iowa : Ames Laboratory ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1987
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its Caxis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.
 Online
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