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SAL3 (off-campus storage)
1 online resource (50 p.)
This study carries out a thorough investigation of the potential sources of mismatch in poverty and inequality levels and trends between the Tanzania National Panel Survey and Household Budget Survey. The main findings of the study include the following. First, the difference in poverty levels between the Household Budget Survey and the National Panel Survey is essentially explained by the differences in the methods of estimating the poverty line. Second, the discrepancy in poverty trends can be mainly attributed to the difference in inter-year temporal price deflators, and, to a lesser extent, spatial price deflators. The use of the consumer price index for adjusting consumption variation across years would show a decline in poverty during the past five years for the Household Budget Survey and the National Panel Survey. Third, despite noticeable differences in the methods of household consumption data collection, the Household Budget Survey and National Panel Survey show close mean household consumption levels in the last rounds, when using the consumer price index to adjust for inter-year price variations. Mean household consumption levels in the Household Budget Survey 2011/12 and National Panel Survey 2010/11 are comparable, and the mean consumption level in the National Panel Survey 2012/13 is around 10 percent higher. The difference is driven by higher levels of aggregate and food consumption by the better-off groups in the National Panel Survey. Fourth, the mismatch in inequality trends and pro-poor growth patterns between the two surveys could not be resolved and is a subject for further analysis.
1 online resource (33 p).
This paper presents new empirical evidence on how fiscal space in Sub-Saharan Africa has evolved over the past 15 years. Fiscal space is a multi-dimensional concept that is proxied by indicators capturing aspects of fiscal sustainability, balance sheet vulnerabilities, external debt positions, and market perception. The analysis relies on a new comprehensive database developed on a wide array of indicators (28) for a large set of countries in the world-of which 48 are in Sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis finds that, breaking with history, Sub-Saharan African countries were able to conduct countercyclical policies amid the 2008-09 global financial crisis, thanks to built-up liquidity and policy buffers. The evidence shows that fiscal adjustment efforts in the region were reversed amid the 2014-16 plunge in commodity prices, and oil and minerals and metals exporters saw a sharp deterioration in their primary balance sustainability gap. The paper finds a great deal of heterogeneity in the post-global financial crisis evolution of the fiscal space in the region. In countries with reduced fiscal space, the increase in the number of tax years to repay the debt fully was 1.1 years for the representative country, and in over one-third of the countries, this increase was more than one standard deviation above the median.
1 online resource (50 p).
This paper shows that Eastern Orthodox believers are less happy compared with Catholics and Protestants using data covering more than 100 countries around the world. Consistent with the happiness results, the paper also finds that relative to Catholics, Protestants, and non-believers, those of Eastern Orthodox religion have less social capital and prefer old ideas and safe jobs. In addition, Orthodoxy is associated with left-leaning political preferences and stronger support for government involvement in the economy. Compared with non-believers and Orthodox adherents, Catholics and Protestants are less likely to agree that government ownership is a good thing, and Protestants are less likely to agree that getting rich can only happen at the expense of others. These differences in life satisfaction and other attitudes and values persisted despite the fact that communist elites sought to eradicate church-going in Eastern Europe, since communists maintained many aspects of Orthodox theology which were useful for the advancement of the communist doctrine. The findings are consistent with Berdyaev's hypothesis that communism is a successor of Orthodoxy.
1 online resource (39 p).
The methods to select safety net beneficiaries are the subject of frequent policy debates. This paper presents the results from a randomized experiment analyzing how efficiency, legitimacy, and short-term program effectiveness vary across widely used targeting methods. The experiment was embedded in the roll-out of a national cash transfer program in Niger. Eligible villages were randomly assigned to have beneficiary households selected through community-based targeting, a proxy-means test, or a formula designed to identify the food-insecure. Proxy-means testing is found to outperform other methods in identifying households with lower consumption per capita. The methods perform similarly against other welfare benchmarks. Legitimacy is high across all methods, but local populations have a slight preference for formula-based approaches. Manipulation and information imperfections are found to affect community-based targeting, although triangulation across multiple selection committees mitigates the related risks. Finally, short-term program impacts on food security are largest among households selected by proxy-means testing. Overall, the differences in performance across targeting methods are small relative to the overall level of exclusion stemming from limited funding for social programs.
1 online resource (29 p).
Crop yields in smallholder systems are traditionally assessed using farmer-reported information in surveys, occasionally by crop cuts for a sub-section of a farmer's plot, and rarely using full-plot harvests. Accuracy and cost vary dramatically across methods. In parallel, satellite data is improving in terms of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution needed to discern performance on smallholder plots. This study uses data from a survey experiment in Uganda, and evaluates the accuracy of Sentinel-2 imagery-based, remotely-sensed plot-level maize yields with respect to ground-based measures relying on farmer self-reporting, sub-plot crop cutting (CC), and full-plot crop cutting (FP). Remotely-sensed yields include two versions calibrated to FP and CC yields (calibrated), and an alternative based on crop model simulations, using no ground data (uncalibrated). On the ground, self-reported yields explained less than 1 percent of FP (and CC) yield variability, and while the average difference between CC and FP yields was not significant, CC yields captured one-quarter of FP yield variability. With satellite data, both calibrated and uncalibrated yields captured FP yield variability on pure stand plots similarly well, and both captured half of FP yield variability on pure stand plots above 0.10 hectare. The uncalibrated yields were consistently 1 ton per hectare higher than FP or CC yields, and the satellite-based yields were less well correlated with the ground-based measures on intercropped plots compared with pure stand ones. Importantly, regressions using CC, FP and remotely-sensed yields as dependent variables all produced very similar coefficients for yield response to production factors.
iii, 35 pages ; 24 cm.
Green Library
1 online resource (29 p).
In the past 10 years, Ethiopia experienced high and consistent growth, invested in public goods provision to poor households, and saw impressive gains in well-being for many households. This paper exploits variation in sectoral growth and public goods provision across zones and time, to examine whether poverty reduction was driven by growth and provision of public goods and what type of growth-growth in agriculture, manufacturing, or services-was more effective at reducing poverty. The paper pays particular attention to controlling for other drivers of poverty reduction and instrumenting growth in a sector of particular policy focus-agriculture-to identify causal effects. The analysis finds that reductions in poverty were largest in places where agricultural output growth has been higher, safety nets have been introduced, and improvements in market access have been made. Agricultural output growth caused reductions in poverty of 2.2 percent per year on average post-2005, and 0.1 percent per year prior to 2005. The government's policy focus on stimulating productivity gains in smallholder cereal farmers contributed to this growth, but only when the weather was good, and prices were high. Access to markets was essential: agricultural growth reduced poverty in places close to urban centers, but not in remote parts of the country.
iii, 254 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Green Library
1 online resource (104 p).
Drylands account for three-quarters of Sub-Saharan Africa's cropland, two-thirds of cereal production, and four-fifths of livestock holdings. Today frequent and severe shocks, especially droughts, limit the livelihood opportunities available to millions of households and undermine efforts to eradicate poverty in the drylands. Prospects for sustainable development of drylands are assessed in this book through the lens of resilience, understood here to mean the ability of people to withstand and respond to droughts and other shocks. An original model was developed expressly to consistently and coherently evaluate different type of interventions on the ground, which provided a common framework to anticipate thescale of the challenges likely to arise in drylands, as well as to generate insights into opportunities for addressing those challenges.Such modeling framework consisted in a) estimating the baseline vulnerability profiles of people living in drylands (2010), b) estimate the evolution of vulnerability by 2030 under a range of assumptions, c) calculated the number of people affectedby drought in the different administrative units of each country, and d) evaluate different types of interventions in agriculture and livestock for mitigating drought impact by calculating the potential for reducing the number of people affected for each scenario and conducting a simplified - benefit/cost (B/C) analysis for each type of intervention.For livestock, simulation models were used to estimate the impacts of feed balances, livestock production, and household income resilience interventions under different climate scenarios). For agriculture, the DSSAT (Decision Support System for-Agrotechnology Transfer) framework was used to assess the potential impact on yields likely to result from adoption of five crop farming technologies: (1) drought-tolerant varieties, (2) heat-tolerant varieties, (3) additional fertilizer, (4) agroforestry practices, (S) irrigation (6) water-harvesting techniques and selected combinations thereof.
2 volumes : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
  • pt. 1. Conservation policy / Subcommittee on Conservation and Forestry February 28, 2017
  • International market development / Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture February 28, 2017
  • Rural development and energy programs / Subcommittee on Commodity Exchange, Energy, and Credit March 9, 2017
  • Agricultural research / Subcommittee on Biotechnology, Horticulture, and Research March 16, 2017
  • Forestry initiatives / Subcommittee on Conservation and Forestry March 16, 2017
  • Nutrition distribution programs / Subcommittee on Nutrition March 21, 2017
  • Livestock producer perspectives / Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture March 21, 2017
  • Dairy policy / Committee on Agriculture March 22, 2017
  • Commodity policy, part 1 / Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management March 28, 2017
  • The future of SNAP / Subcommittee on Nutrition March 28, 2017
  • Commodity policy, part 2 / Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management April 4, 2017
  • Credit programs / Subcommittee on Commodity Exchanges, Energy, and Credit April 4, 2017
  • The future of international food aid on agriculture development / Committee on Agriculture June 7, 2017
  • SNAP technology and modernization / Subcommittee on Nutrition June 8, 2017
  • University research / Committee on Agriculture June 22, 2017
  • Technology and innovation in specialty crops / Committee on Agriculture July 12, 2017
  • Pathways to success for SNAP households / Subcommittee on Nutrition July 18, 2017.
  • pt. 2 (final) Appendix to the next farm bill hearings, farm bill listening sessions: conversations in the field / Committee on Agriculture June 24, 2017, Gainesville, FL July 31, 2017, San Angelo, TX August 3, 2017, Morgan, MN August 5, 2017, Modesto, CA August 30, 2017, Decatur, IL October 9, 2017, Cobleskill, NY.
Green Library
iv, 164 pages : illustrations, portraits ; 24 cm
Green Library
1 online resource (50 p.)
This paper combines district-level government spending data from Indonesia and natural disaster damage indices to analyze the extent to which districts are forced to reallocate their expenditures across categories after the incidence of floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The results reveal that district government spending is quite sensitive to the incidence of natural disasters at the local level. In the case of floods, districts reallocate spending away from the category of general administration to sectors such as health and infrastructure. Moreover, volcanic eruptions seem to lead to less investment in durable assets both in the year of the disaster as well as the following year. Overall, these results highlight the potentially useful role of a national disaster risk financing insurance program toward maintaining a relatively stable level of district-level spending in different sectors.
1 online resource (38 p.)
The reallocation of resources from low- to high-productivity firms can generate large aggregate productivity gains. The paper uses data from the Malaysian manufacturing census to measure the country's hypothetical productivity gains when moving toward the level of within-sector allocative efficiency in the United States to be between 13 and 36 percent. Across three census periods in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (the most recent available), the productivity gaps appear to have somewhat widened. This suggests that the "catching-up" process remains a challenge and a potential opportunity, particularly if total factor productivity is expected to be the dominant source of future economic growth. The simulations, based on different magnitudes of the realization of hypothetical productivity gains, show that Malaysia's gross domestic product growth can potentially increase by 0.4 to 1.3 percentage points per year over five years. The analysis accounts only for resource misallocation within sectors. There may be other, possibly large, resource misallocation across sectors. If so, closing those gaps could boost total factor productivity and gross domestic product growth even further.
1 online resource.
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and background
  • Chapter 2 Rocky outcrop values
  • Chapter 3 Australian rock-dwelling fauna
  • Chapter 4 Threatening processes
  • Chapter 5 Managing rocky outcrops for biodiversity conservation
  • Concluding comments
  • References
  • Appendix 1: Australian rock-dwelling fauna and their conservation status
  • Index.
Rocky outcrops are landscape features with disproportionately high biodiversity values relative to their size. They support specialised plants and animals, and a wide variety of endemic species. To Indigenous Australians, they are sacred places and provide valuable resources. Despite their ecological and cultural importance, many rocky outcrops and associated biota are threatened by agricultural and recreational activities, forestry and mining operations, invasive weeds, altered fire regimes and climate change. Rocky Outcrops in Australia: Ecology, Conservation and Management contains chapters on why this habitat is important, the animals that live and depend on these formations, key threatening processes and how rocky outcrops can be managed to improve biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes, state forests and protected areas. This book will be an important reference for landholders, Landcare groups, naturalists interested in Australian wildlife and natural resource managers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781486307906 20180326
1 online resource (35 p).
This paper examines the agricultural productivity-farm size relationship in the context of Bangladesh. Features of Bangladesh's agriculture help overcome several limitations in testing the inverse farm size-productivity relationship in other developing country settings. A stochastic production frontier model is applied using data from three rounds of a household panel survey to estimate simultaneously the production frontier and the technical inefficiency functions. The "correlated random effects" approach is used to control for unobserved heterogeneous household effects. Methodologically, the results suggest that the stochastic production frontier models that ignore the inefficiency function are likely mis-specified, and may result in misleading conclusions on the farm size-productivity relationship. Empirically, the findings confirm that the farm size and productivity relationship is negative, but with the inverse relationship diminishing over time. Total factor productivity growth, driven by technical change, is found to have been robust across the sample. Across farm size groups, the relatively larger farmers experienced faster technical change, which helped them to catch up and narrow the productivity gap with the smaller farmers.