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1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • section 1. Asphalt materials
  • section 2. Non asphalt materials
  • section 3. Asphalt pavements
  • section 4. Pavement surface properties
  • section 5. Railways
  • section 6. Equipments
  • section 7. Case studies.
Worldwide there is a growing interest in efficient planning and the design, construction and maintenance of transportation facilities and infrastructure assets. The 3rd International Conference on Transportation Infrastructure ICTI 2014 (Pisa, April 22-25, 2014) contains contributions on sustainable development and preservation of transportation infrastructure assets, with a focus on eco-efficient and cost-effective measures. Sustainability, Eco-efficiency and Conservation in Transportation Infrastructure Asset Management includes a selection of peer reviewed papers on a wide variety of topics: * Advanced modeling tools (LCA, LCC, BCA, performance prediction, design tools and systems) * Data management (monitoring and evaluation) * Emerging technologies and equipments * Innovative strategies and practices * Environmental sustainability issues * Eco-friendly design and materials * Re-use or recycling of resources * Pavements, tracks, and structures * Case studies Sustainability, Eco-efficiency and Conservation in Transportation Infrastructure Asset Management will be particularly of interest to academics, researchers, and practitioners involved in sustainable development and maintenance of transportation infrastructure assets.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781315757124 20160614
ix, 146 p. : ill.
  • A Greater Sustainability is Possible (Carmine Nardone and Maria Luisa Varricchio)-- The "New" Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the World. A Potential Path Towards Global Sustainability (Carlo Sinatra)-- Global Sustainable and Integrated Development. The Case of Global Sustainable and Social Energy Program - GSSEP Onlus (Carlo Sinatra)-- A Proposal for Advanced Services and Data Processing Aiming at the Territorial Intelligence Development (Salvatore Rampone and Gianni D'Angelo)-- Visible-near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Field Scale Digital Soil Mapping. A Case Study (Antonio P Leone, Fulvio Fragnito, Giovanni Morelli, Maurizio Tosca, Natalia Leone, Massimo Bilancia and Maria Luisa Varricchio)-- Mediterranean Agency for Remote Sensing and Environmental Control: Satellite Monitoring and Mapping (Roberto Tartaglia Polcini)-- Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of E-commerce (Valerio Morfino, Alessandro Perrella and Salvatore Rampone)-- Pre-feasibility Study "Save the Camels" (Maria Luisa Varricchio and Carmine Nardone)-- A Food Safety and Traceability System Based on RFID Technology and Internet of Things (Gianni D'Angelo, Gianfranco De Luca and Salvatore Rampone)-- WTC (We Take Care) Experimental Smartphone App to Follow-up and Take Care of Patients with Chronic Infectious Disease: Which Impact on Patients Life Style? (Alessandro Perrella and Valerio Morfino)-- Global Sustainability for a World of 'Smart' Bio-territories (Donato Matassino)--.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9789814651318 20160618
This book contains the proceedings of the international workshop on global sustainability held in Benevento, Italy, on February 2014. The proceedings consist of 10 invited and contributed papers related to the broad range of aspects of sustainability in a global scenario including food safety, monitoring, soil mapping, healthcare, territorial intelligence, local food production, greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy sources, integrated development, sustainability strategies, "smart" bio-territories, replete with case studies. This book aims to provide the perspective of the diverse problems in global sustainability, and the many disciplines that could work together in achieving it. The workshop itself led to the signing of international agreements for the protection and enhancement of endangered species in the area of North Africa.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9789814651318 20160618
Long-term sustainability of fracture conductivity is critical for commercial success of engineered geothermal system (EGS) and hydrogeothermal field sites. The injection of proppants has been suggested as a means to enhance the conductivity in these systems. Several studies have examined the chemical behavior of proppants that are not at chemical equilibrium with the reservoir rock and water. These studies have suggested that in geothermal systems, geochemical reactions can lead to enhance proppant dissolution and deposition alteration minerals. We hypothesize that proppant dissolution will decrease the strength of the proppant and can potentially reduce the conductivity of the fracture. To examine the geomechanical strength of proppants, we have performed modified crushing tests of proppants and reservoir rock material that was subjected to geothermal reservoir temperature conditions. The batch reactor experiments heated crushed quartz monzonite rock material, proppants (either quartz sand, sintered bauxite or kryptospheres) with Raft River geothermal water to 250 ºC for a period of 2 months. Solid and liquid samples were shipped to University of Utah for chemical characterization with ICP-OES, ICP-MS, and SEM. A separate portion of the rock/proppant material was subjected to a modified American Petroleum Institute ISO 13503-2 proppant crushing test. This test is typically used to determine the maximum stress level that can be applied to a proppant pack without the occurrence of unacceptable proppant crushing. We will use the test results to examine potential changes in proppant/reservoir rock geomechanical properties as compared to samples that have not been subjected to geothermal conditions. These preliminary results will be used to screen the proppants for long term use in EGS and hot hydrogeothermal systems.
1 online resource (xiv, 232 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"The book and the Forum from which it is derived are about global sustainability. The first section discusses climate change and adaptation. The second section discusses the international drivers as aspects of sustainability. The third section discusses the issues relative to the development of sustainable communities. The Afterword brings the focus to water as the key underlying worldwide sustainability issue"--From volume detail page.
1 online resource (817 pages) : illustrations.
99 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm.
Green Library

9. SusTech 2015 [2015]

1 online resource (various pagings) : illustrations (some color)
994 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm.
  • Contents: Michael Shriberg: Building Sustainability Leaders: A Framework to Prepare Students to Thrive on Complexity and Lead Transformative Changes - Cheryl J. Desha/Karlson 'Charlie' Hargroves: Fostering Rapid Transitions to Education for Sustainable Development through a Whole-System Approach to Curriculum and Organizational Change - Paul Pace: Promoting Education for Sustainable Development through Grassroots Action in Malta: An Example of NGO-University Collaboration - Jennifer Thompson/Amelia Mayahi: Convergence and Confluence: A Systems Thinking Approach to Integrated Sustainability in Higher Education - Anne Sibbel: Bridging the Gaps to Develop Graduate Capabilities for Sustainability - Jennie Winter/Debby Cotton/Vivien Grant: Experiencing Transformation in Sustainability: A Student Perspective - Chris Shiel: Enabling University Leaders to Serve as Role Models for Sustainable Development - Michael A. Reiter/Will J. Focht/Paul A. Barresi/Susan Gill/Richard C. Smardon/Susan L. Baker/Kimberly D. Reiter/Eric Fitch/Terry Rolfe/Sue Bumpous: Making Education for Sustainability Work on Campus: The Proposals of the Roundtable on Environmental Systems and Sustainability - Kerry Shephard/John Harraway/Brent Lovelock/Sheila Skeaff/Liz Slooten/Mick Strack/Tim Jowett: Monitoring Changes in the Sustainability Attributes of Higher Education Students in a New Zealand University - Andelka Mihajlov: Needs for Tailored Knowledge and Skill-Based Education for Sustainable Development: Balkan Environment Life Leadership Standards Courses - Anupama Pasricha: Student Expectations on Content and Pedagogy for Sustainability within Textiles and Apparel Curricula - Mariano Ramirez: Inclusion of Environmental and Social Aspects of Sustainability in Industrial Design Education - Tatiana Teslenko: Using Sustainability in the Integrative Training of Engineering Students in Canada - Rudi Pretorius: The Value of Authentic Learning Spaces to Facilitate Education for Sustainable Development in Open and Distance Learning - Tamara Savelyeva/Jae Park: Complexity of Campus Sustainability Discourse - William M. Stigliani/Catherine Zeman/Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi: Faculty Enrichment Program for Infusing Sustainability Education across the University Curriculum - Patricia E. Perkins/Ana Louise Tavares Leary: Climate Justice Partnership Linking Universities and Community Organizations in Toronto, Durban, Maputo and Nairobi - Kelly A. Parker: Ecohumanities and Service Learning: New Directions in Pedagogy - Mark Giltrow: The Development of a Multidisciplinary Sustainable Business Leadership Degree in a Post-Secondary Institute - Adriano Ciani: The Sustainable Management and Promotion of Territory: A Strategic Operative Education Plan and Training as a Result of Collaboration between Perugia University, Todi's State Technical Agricultural College and the Local Municipality - Jurgis Kazimieras Staniskis: International MSc Programme Environmental Management and Cleaner Production: A Success Story - Tove Holm/Kaisu Sammalisto/Timo Vuorisalo/Thomas S. Grindsted: A Model for Enhancing Education for Sustainable Development with Management Systems: Experiences from the Nordic Countries - Gisela Cebrian/Marcus Grace/Debra Humphris: Developing People and Transforming the Curriculum: Action Research as a Method to Foster Professional and Curriculum Development in Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education - Kira Giesecke: Introducing the Methodology Background of the Lifestyle Index of Sustainability - Menno de Lind van Wijngaarden/Julia Planko: Impacts of Sustainability Courses on the Behavior of Business School Students - Fayyaz Vellani/Naveed Nanjee: Sustainable Development in Higher Education in the Muslim World - Matthew Rockall: Incorporating Sustainability in Curricula while Meeting Entrenched Traditional Learning Outcomes - Diana C. Cooper: Teaching Sustainable Management to US Undergraduates: Learning to be Change Leaders - Antje Disterheft/Sandra Sofia F.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783631625606 20160612
This book, prepared in the context of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), also known as Rio+20, contains the papers submitted to the World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities (WSSD-U-2012), which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 5 and 6 June 2012. It pursues the following main aims: to document and disseminate experiences from universities all round the world regarding education for sustainable development; to foster the exchange of information, ideas and experiences acquired in the execution of projects; and to introduce methodological approaches and projects which aim to integrate the topic of sustainable development in the curriculum of universities. Last but not least, a further aim is to document and disseminate the wealth of experiences available today, providing a truly global coverage. "Sustainable Development at Universities: New Horizons" is a highly comprehensive publication on sustainability in higher education. It is meant to go beyond a description of the current state of knowledge, and shall open the way for new thinking and new horizons in what is a rapidly expanding field, of central interest to both industrialised and developing countries.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783631625606 20160612
Education Library (Cubberley)
xix, 490 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Preface. Contributors. Section I. Improvement of Agronomic and Microbial Traits. 1.Insights into the Structure and Function of Acyl-CoA: Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (Rodrigo M.P. Siloto, Qin Liu, Randall J. Weselake, Xiaohua He, and Thomas McKeon). 2. Improving Enzyme Character by Molecular Breeding: Preparation of Chimeric Genes (Kiyoshi Hayashi, Motomitsu Kitaoka, and Mamoru Nishimoto). 3. Production and Accumulation of Unusual Fatty Acids in Plant Tissues (D. Hildebrand, J.R, Thoguru, S. Rao, R Li, and T. Hatanaka). 4. Preparation of Oleaginous Yeast by Genetic Modification and Its Potential Applications (Yasushi Kamisaka). 5. Improving Value of Oil Palm Using Genetic Engineering (Ghulam Kadir Admad Parveez, Abrizah Othman, Umi Salamah Ramli, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, Abdul Masani Mat Yunus, Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim, Ahmad Kushairi Din, and Mohd Basri Wahid). 6. Potential in Using Arabidopsis Acyl-Coenzyme-A-Binding Proteins in Engineering Stress-Tolerant Plants (Mee-Len Chye, Shi Xiao, Qin-Fang Chen, and Wei Gao). 7. Modification of Lipid Composition by Genetic Engineering in Oleaginous Marine Microorganism, Thraustochytrid (Tsunehiro Aki, Hiroaki Iwasaka, Hirofumi Adachi, Maya Nanko, Hiroko Kawasaki, Seiji Kawamoto, Toshihide Kakizono, and Kazuhisa Ono). 8. Integrated Approaches to Manage Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Viruses (R. C, de la Pena, P. Kadirvel, S. Venkatesan, L. Kenyon, and J. Hughes). 9. Carbohydrate Acquisition During Legume Seed Development (Jocelyn A. Ozga, Dennis M. Reinecke, and Pankaj K. Bhowmik). 10. Biotechnology Enhancement of Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Seed Oils (Qilin Chen and Jitao Zou). Section II: Functional Foods and Biofuels. 11. Dietary Phosphatidylinositol in Metabolic Syndrome (Bungo Shirouchi, Koji Nagao, and Teruyoshi Yanagita). 12. Biotechnological Enrichment of Cereals with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Milan Certik, Zuzana Adamechova, and Lucia Slavikova). 13. Lipophilic Ginsenoside Derivatives Production (Jiang-Ning Hu and Ki-Teak Lee). 14. Brown Seaweed Lipids as Possible Source for Nutraceuticals and Functonal Foods (M. Airanthi K. Widjaja-Adhi, Takayuki Tsukui, Masashi Hosokawa, and Kazuo Miysahita). 15. Processes for Production of Biodiesel Fuel (Yomi Watanabe and Yuji Shimada). 16. Noncatalytic Alcoholysis Process for Production of Biodiesel Fuel: Its Potential in Japan and Southeast Asia (Hiroshi Nabetani, Shoji Hagiwara, and Mitsutoshi Nakajima). 17. Use of Coniochaeta ligniaria to Detoxify Fermentation Inhibitors Present in Cellulosic Sugar Streams (Nancy N. Nichols, Bruce S. Dien, Maria J. Lopez, and Joaquin Moreno). 18. Omics Applications to Biofuel Research (Tzi-Yuan Wang, Hsin-Liang Chen, Wen-Hsiung Li, Huang-Mo Sung, and Ming-Che Shih). Section III: Renewable Bioproducts. 19. Biotechnological Uses of Phospholipids (Jeong Jun Han, Jae Kwang Song, Joon Shick Rhee, and Suk Hoo Yoon). 20. Application of Partition Chromatographic Theory on the Routine Analysis of Lipid Molecular Species (Koretaro Takahashi and Tsugihiko Hirano). 21. Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Chiral Intermediates for Drugs (Ramesh N. Patel). 22. Engineering of Bacterial Cycochrome P450 Monooxygenase as Biocatalysts for Chemical Synthesis and Environmental Bioremedication (Jun Ogawa, Quin-Shan Li, Sakayu Shimizu, Vlada Urlancher, and Rolf D. Schmid). 23. Glycosynthases from Inverting Hydrolases (Motomitsu Kitaoka). 24. Molecular Species of Diacylglycerols and Triacylglycerols Containing Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil (Jiann-Tsyh Lin). 25. Biocatalytic Production of Lactobionic Acid (Hirofumi Nakano, Takaaki Kiryu, Taro Kiso, and Hiromi Murakami). 26. Recent Advances in Aldolase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unnatural Sugars and Iminocyclitols (Masakazu Sugiyama, Zhangyong Hong, William A. Greenberg, and Chi-Huey Wong). 27, Production of Value-Added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria (Siqing Liu, Kenneth M. Bischoff, Yebo Li, Fengjie Cui, Hassan Azaizeh, and Ahmed Tafesh). 28. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glycosides Using Alpha-Amylase Family Enzymes (Kazuhisa Sugimoto, Takahisa Nishimura, Koji Nomura, Hiromi Nishiura, and Takashi Kuriki). 29. Biological Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Plant Leaf Extracts and Antimicrobial Application (Beom Soo Kim and Jae Yong Song). 30. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Vivek K. Bajpai, Sun-Chul Kang, Hak-Ryul Kim, and Ching T. Hou). Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470487594 20160604
Bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of bio-based industrial products and agricultural biotechnology, Biocatalysis and Molecular Engineering examines the recent energy and food crises and points out the importance of using bio-based products from renewable resources and agricultural biotechnology. Exploring the use of most modern tools such as molecular engineering on plants to solve these issues, as well as methods employed, global experts from academia, industry, and government research institutes to show how construction of the sustainable manufacturing industry is critical for the future wellness of our planet.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470487594 20160604
site.ebrary.com ebrary
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
231 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 21 cm
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
xiii, 532 p. : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 24 cm.
Humanity faces immense hurdles as it struggles to define the path toward a sustainable future. The multiple components of sustainability, all of which demand attention, make understanding the very concept of sustainability itself a challenge. Information about whether global agriculture can be made sustainable, for example, or calculations of the global need for water are useless unless we understand how these issues connect to each other and to other components of sustainability. In this book, experts engage in an extended dialogue concerning these linkages, arguing for a comprehensive view of sustainability. They emphasize the constraints imposed by the relationships among the components--for example, how the need for clean, easily accessible water intersects with the need for the energy required to provide it--and distinguish those constraints that may pose severe limitations on humanity's future from those of less concern. The book also highlights areas for future research and debate.Linkages of Sustainability urges a transformation in the way we view sustainability--a transformation that is necessary if we are to plan responsibly for a more sustainable world.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262013581 20160603
Green Library
xiv, 121 p. : col. ill. ; 23 cm.
Natural environments provide enormously valuable, but largely unappreciated, services that aid humans and other earthlings. It is becoming clear that these life-support systems are faltering and failing worldwide due to human actions that disrupt nature's ability to do its beneficial work. Ecosystem Services: Charting a Path to Sustainability documents the National Academies' Keck Futures Initiative Conference on Ecosystem Services. At this conference, participants were divided into 14 interdisciplinary research teams to explore diverse challenges at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine. The teams needed to address the challenge of communicating and working together from a diversity of expertise and perspectives as they attempted to solve a complicated, interdisciplinary problem in a relatively short time. Ecosystem Services: Charting a Path to Sustainability describes how ecosystem services scientists work to document the direct and indirect links between humanity's well-being and the many benefits provided by the natural systems we occupy. This report explains the specific topics the interdisciplinary research teams addressed at the conference, including the following: -how ecosystem services affect infectious and chronic diseases -how to identify what resources can be produced renewably or recovered by developing intense technologies that can be applied on a massive scale -how to develop social and technical capabilities to respond to abrupt changes in ecosystem services -how to design agricultural and aquacultural systems that provide food security while maintaining the full set of ecosystem services needed from landscapes and seascapes -how to design production systems for ecosystem services that improve human outcomes related to food and nutrition -how to develop appropriate methods to accurately value natural capital and ecosystem services -how to design a federal policy to maintain or improve natural capital and ecosystem services within the United States, including measuring and documenting the effectiveness of the policy -how to design a system for international trade that accounts for impacts on ecosystem services -how to develop a program that increases the American public's appreciation of the basic principles of ecosystem services.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780309252423 20160608
Science Library (Li and Ma)
1 online resource (607 KB ): digital, PDF file.
This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates (derived either via thermochemical or biochemical conversion steps). The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates, followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. We show that the emerging pathways via oxygenated intermediates have the potential to be cost competitive with the conventional Fischer-Tropsch process. The evaluated pathways and the benchmark process generally exhibit similar fuel yields and carbon conversion efficiencies. The resulting minimum fuel selling prices are comparable to the benchmark at approximately $3.60 per gallon-gasoline equivalent, with potential for two new pathways to be more economically competitive. Additionally, the coproduct values can play an important role in the economics of the processes with oxygenated intermediates derived via syngas fermentation. Major cost drivers for the integrated processes are tied to achievable fuel yields and conversion efficiency of the intermediate steps, i.e., the production of oxygenates/alcohols from syngas and the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to hydrocarbon fuels.
1 online resource (1.2 MB ): digital, PDF file.
Climate change is a problem that must be solved. The primary cause of this problem is burning of fossil fuels to generate energy. A dramatic reduction in carbon emissions must happen soon, and a significant fraction of this reduction must come from the transportation sector. This paper reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80 percent reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries. potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80 percent reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries.
1 online resource.
Since the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office has funded $33.7 million for multiple data digitization and aggregation projects focused on making vast amounts of geothermal relevant data available to industry for advancing geothermal exploration. These projects are collectively part of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed, networked system for maintaining, sharing, and accessing data in an effort to lower the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Determining “who owns” and “who maintains” the NGDS and its data nodes (repositories in the distributed system) is yet to be determined. However, the invest- ment in building and populating the NGDS has been substantial, both in terms of dollars and time; it is critical that this investment be protected by ensuring sustainability of the data, the software and systems, and the accessibility of the data. Only then, will the benefits be fully realized. To keep this operational system sustainable will require four core elements: continued serving of data and applications; maintenance of system operations; a governance structure; and an effective business model. Each of these presents a number of challenges. Data being added to the NGDS are not strictly geothermal but data considered relevant to geothermal exploration and develop- ment, including vast amounts of oil and gas and groundwater wells, among other data. These are relevant to a broader base of users. By diversifying the client base to other users and other fields, the cost of maintaining core infrastructure can be spread across an array of stakeholders and clients. It is presumed that NGDS will continue to provide free and open access to its data resources. The next-phase NGDS operation should be structured to eventually pursue revenue streams to help off-set sustainability expenses as necessary and appropriate, potentially including income from: grants and contracts (agencies, foundations, pri- vate sector), membership, fees for services (consulting, training, customization, ‘app’ development), repository services (data, services, apps, models, documents, multimedia), advertisements, fees for premier services or applications, subscriptions to value added services, licenses, contributions and donations, endow- ments, and sponsorships.
1 online resource (1:25:35 ) : digital, PDF file.
This lecture provides an overview of what Transsolar is doing in the field of sustainable buildings and cities. Topics covered include: Why sustainability for buildings and cities; What does sustainability mean for buildings and cities; The company's "KlimaEngineering" approach; and Project examples.
1 online resource.
The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.
viii, 266 pages : illustrations, maps ; 23 cm.
  • Table of Contents Preface Introduction Bridging the Boundaries by Edward Edgerton, Ombretta Romice, and Kevin Thwaites I Environment, Health, and Well-Being Recreational Forests: Use, Experience, and Motivation at Selected Sites in Selangor, Malaysia by Norhuzailin Hussain and Anna Jorgensen Objectively Healthy Cities: Urban Design for the 21st Century by George Weeks Dementia-Friendly Architecture: Integrating Evidence in Architectural Design by Gesine Marquardt Objective and Subjective Impressions of an Environmental Intervention in Dementia by Louise Ritchie and Edward Edgerton II Environmental Perception, Behavior, and Place-Identity A Customization of Urbanites: Boosting Place-Identity by Lineu Castello Young People's Attachment to Place by Maria Nordstrom Urban Parks in Curitiba, Brazil: Visibility and Permeability Analyses of Internal and External Configurational Properties by Renato Tibirica de Saboya, Sofia Arrias Bittencourt, Mariana Colin Stelzner, and Vera Helena Moro Bins Ely Degrees of Environmental Diversity for Pedestrian Thermal Comfort in the Urban Continuum: A New Methodological Approach by Carolina Vasilikou and Marialena Nikolopoulou Influence of Chromatic Complexity and Coherence on Evaluation of Urban Scenes by Natalia Naoumova III Human Experience in Urban Sustainability Towards a Theoretical Basis for Anthropological People-Environment Studies by Ray Lucas Participatory Public Policy, Public Housing, and Community Sustainability: A Venezuelan Experience by Esther Wiesenfeld, Euclides Sanchez, and Fernando Giuliani Programming for Behavior in Educational Environments by Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski, Daniel de Carvalho Moreira, Marcella S. Deliberador, and Paula R. P. Pereira Complexity and Order in Commercial Streetscapes: How to Maintain User Satisfaction With Visual Quality in Contemporary Cities by Adriana Portella and Sinval Xavier IV Global Environment Challenges The Local Impact of Encountering Global Environmental Problems: Rural Residents' Appraisal of Changes as to the Better or the Worse by Eja Pedersen and Maria Johansson Newspaper Coverage of Water Restrictions in Melbourne, Australia, in Relation to Climate Change Adaptation From 2006 to 2010 by Simon Chun Kwan Chui Vulnerability Assessment of Urban Populations in Africa: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by Regina John, Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, and Sigrun Kabisch Is Urban Sustainability Possible in the Face of Accelerated Property Development by and Major Public Works? The Case of Recife, Brazil by Fatima Furtado, Edinea Alcantara, and Onilda Bezerra.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780889374669 20160617
Current interdisciplinary research and practice in human - environment interactions This volume outlines current interdisciplinary research on the reciprocal relations between humans and the built and natural environments. The expert contributors investigate topics such as environmental impact on health and well-being, identity and place attachment, urban sustainability, and challenges linked to global or national environmental phenomena. Some chapters reflect on theoretical contributions that offer alternative ways of thinking about human - environment interactions, while others focus on methodological challenges and innovations. The quality and interdisciplinary diversity of the chapters make the book a unique contribution to understanding present and future human - environment challenges at all scales and in all global contexts. It will be valuable to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers across a range of related disciplines, including psychology, architecture, urban design and planning, education, sociology, human and social ecology, interior design, and geograph.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780889374669 20160617
Green Library
133 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm.
  • Nachhaltigkeiten / Stefanie Baumert, Kathleen Schlutter, Sebastian Stoppe, Marc Zlotowski
  • Gedanken zur Nachhaltigkeit : eine Einleitung / Kristin Heenemann, Sebastian Koch, Justine Walter
  • Nachhaltige Entwicklung als gesellschaftliche Herausforderung : Perspektiven der Soziologie / Karl-Werner Brand
  • Nachhaltigkeit im rechtswissenschaftlichen Diskurs / Markus Kotzur
  • Nachhaltigkeit in der veterinärmedizinischen Forschung / Thomas W. Vahlenkamp
  • Nachhaltigem Human Resource Management auf den Zahn gefühlt / Irma Rybnikova
  • Landkarte einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung von Hochschulen / Georg Müller-Christ
  • Nachhaltigkeit im Bologna-Prozess : eine Zwischenbilanz der Umsetzung der europäischen Studienreform in Deutschland / Peter A. Zervakis
  • Autorinnen und Autoren.
Green Library
1 online resource (963 KB ): digital, PDF file.
The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.
2.7 MB : digital, PDF file.
This presentation addresses the recognition that the sustainability of the bioeconomy requires strong interlinkages between existing and developing industries in agriculture (terrestrial and aquatic); forestry; waste and residue management in rural, industrial, and urban environments; the chemicals and biotechnology industry in terms of production of substitutes or better performing materials and chemicals; and in the fuels and power sectors. The transition to a low-carbon intensity economy requires the integration of systems and uses circular economy concepts to increase resource use efficiency and security for all biomass and other resources used as well. It requires innovation along the whole supply chains as well as research, development, and demonstration of the integrated systems with strong partnerships from the landscapes and watersheds where biomass is planted all the way to the many applications.
Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.
Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.
A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. II&C has been identified as a potential life-limiting issue for the domestic LWR fleet in addressing the reliability and aging concerns of the legacy systems in service today. The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless digital environment to enhance nuclear safety, increase productivity, and improve overall plant performance. Pilot projects are being conducted as the means for industry to gain confidence in these new technologies for use in nuclear plant work activities. The pilot projects introduce new digital technologies into the nuclear plant operating environment at host operating plants to demonstrate and validate them for production usage. In turn, the pilot project technologies serve as the stepping stones to the eventual seamless digital environment as described in the Future Vision. Initial project results confirm that the technologies can address provide substantial efficiency and human performance benefits while resolving the reliability and aging concerns.
The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.
The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.
124 p. : ill ; 24 cm.
Green Library
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.
1 online resource ([ii], 79 pages.) : color illustrations.
  • Futures research: a neglected dimension in environmental policy and planning / David N. Bengston
  • An approach to the future / Peter C. Bishop
  • A framework for developing foresight in natural resource management / Kay E. Strong
  • Global mega forces: implications for the future of natural resources / George H. Kubik
  • Scenarios and decisionmaking for complex environmental systems / Stephen R. Carpenter and Adena R. Rissman
  • The Northern Forest Futures Project: a forward look at forest conditions in the northern United States / W. Keith Moser and Stephen R. Shifley
  • Linking global scenarios to national assessments: experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) assessment / Linda L. Langner and Peter J. Ince
  • Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency / Robert L. Olson.
These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the future of complex social-ecological systems cannot be predicted, these papers show how futures research can offer perspectives and methods that help researchers, decisionmakers, and other stakeholders explore alternative futures and gain environmental foresight--insight that can inform decisionmaking on environmental challenges. One author points out that the study of the future can be thought of as the study of change. He discusses three types of futures: the expected future, a range of plausible alternatives, and the preferred future, which decisionmakers can shape depending on their choice of action. An example of the methodology of futures research is provided in another chapter, which illustrates the use of scenario development. Another chapter identifies global trends that could dramatically change social-ecological systems. The second half of the collection applies the methods and approaches of futures research to natural resource management. A global and a regional scenario illustrate scenario planning, a methodology that produces sets of plausible futures that could develop from current conditions depending on alternative human choices and drivers of change. Another example demonstrates how analysts can incorporate global scenarios and modeling, and scoping of trends and issues, into forest inventory data to gain insight into the regional forests of tomorrow. A chapter on linking global scenarios with assessments of U.S. natural resources as required under the Resources Planning Act considers both opportunities and challenges. Lessons learned from an analysis of futures research conducted since the 1970s at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are also offered. These papers suggest that the perspectives and methods of futures research hold great potential for developing the foresight needed to meet environmental challenges of the 21st century.
x, 105 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
  • Preface 1. The Lund Meeting and the Production of this Book 2. Developing a Vision for the Planet 3. The Starting Point - Planet 2010 4. The Vision of 2050 5. Pathways between 2010 and 2050 6. Back to the Reality of 2010 and the Challenges Ahead.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415590006 20160606
In 2050, the billions of people living on Earth have found a way to manage the planetary system effectively. Everyone has access to adequate food, shelter, and clean water. Human health is no longer considered outside of the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Ecological awareness is an integral part of education. People respond effectively to social and environmental hazards, and societies care for the most vulnerable amongst them. The economy, too, has shifted. Carbon dioxide management is under control, and energy efficiency is the norm. The remaining rainforests have been preserved. Coral reefs are recovering. Fish stocks are thriving. Is any of this really possible? How can our complex social and economic systems interact with a complex planetary system undergoing rapid change to create a future we all want? This book is a contextualised collation of ideas articulated by the 50 participants of the Planet 2050 workshop held in Lund in October 2008, as part of The Planet in 2050, an interdisciplinary Fast Track Initiative of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Participants were selected from academia and the sustainability practice community to give a wide-ranging, multi-cultural, trans-disciplinary set of perspectives. This collection explores four broad sectoral themes: energy and technologies; development, economies and culture; environment; and land use change. By doing so, this book emphasises the importance of a social dialogue on our collective future, and our responsibility to the Earth. It makes strong statements about what needs to happen to the global economy for a sustainable future and documents a new kind of scholarly discussion, engaging people from diverse knowledge communities in a spirit of exploration and reflexivity. The book provides a focus for dialogue and further study for postgraduates and researchers interested in global change as a multi-faceted, socio-environmental phenomenon, and as the book is written in an accessible scholarly style, assuming no prior specialist knowledge, it is also suitable for those involved in sustainability initiatives and policy.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415590006 20160606
Green Library
Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.
690-699 : digital, PDF file.
Materials issues are a key concern for the existing nuclear reactor fleet in the United States as material degradation can lead to increased maintenance, increased downtime, and increased risk. Extending reactor life to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of both known and new forms of degradation. A multitude of concrete-based structures are typically part of a light water reactor plant to provide foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. The size and complexity of nuclear power plant containment structures and the heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. This paper examines the benefits of using time-frequency analysis with Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT). By using wavelet packet decomposition, the original ultrasound signals are decomposed into various frequency bands that facilitates highly selective analysis of the signal’s frequency content and can be visualized using the familiar SAFT image reconstruction algorithm.
This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.
1 online resource (p. 300-301 ): digital, PDF file.
The presentation provides an overview of the Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center). It summarizes the project history, timeline, budget, partners, objectives, goals, future plans and in closer detail reviews the used approaches and technical accomplishments. The main project goals were (1) developing strategies and tools that assist in the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy industries within ecologically-sensitive regions such as South Florida and, in particular, the greater Everglades, (2) using these bioenergy strategies and tools in evolving the existing agricultural, urban, and ecological sectors towards more sustainable structures and practices and (3) using bioenergy as a focal point in the larger effort to mitigate climate change and sea level rise, realities with particularly catastrophic consequences for South Florida. The project started on Oct 1, 2010 and ended on Feb 28, 2013. It yearly average budget was $369,770, with the Dept. of Energy annual cost share of $317,167. The main project partners were Hendry County, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Intelligentsia International, Inc., Edison State College and University of South Florida. Used approaches, main accomplishments and results in the categories of (1) technical research, (2) education and (3) business development are presented in detail. The project uniqueness is mainly related to the use of system approaches and integrating several systems analyses. Relevance of the project applicable to sustainability of bioenergy, food production, & restoration is explained, critical success factors are challenges are outlined and future work drafted. Finally, the main publications and presentations catalogue list is presented.
1 online resource (40 pp. ) : digital, PDF file.
This presentation on solar technologies and sustainability was given at the 17th Annual Rocky Mountain Land-Use Institute (RMLUI) Land-Use Conference.
What does Sustainability mean, and why should people in the thermophysical properties business care? This paper will describe sustainability in the context of product development, which is where much of the buzz is currently being generated. Once described, it will discuss how expectations for Sustainability are changing product lines, and then discuss the controversial issues now emerging from trying to measure Sustainability. One of the most organized efforts in the U.S. is the U.S. Green Building Council revolutionizing how the built environment is conceptualized, designed, built, used, and disposed of - and born again. The appeal of the US Green Building Council is that it has managed to checklist how to "do" Sustainability. By following this checklist, better described as a rating system, a more Sustainable product should be achieved. That is, a product that uses less energy, less water, is less noxious to the user, and consumes fewer resources. We care because these Sustainable products are viewed as preferable by a growing number of consumers and, consequently, are more valuable. One of the most interesting aspects of the Sustainability movement is a quantitative assessment of how sustainable a product is. Life Cycle Assessment techniques (not to be confused with life cycle economic costs) developed since the early 1990s are gaining ground as a less biased method to measure the ultimate "bad" consequences of creating a product (depletion of natural resources, nutrification, acid rain, air borne particulates, solid waste, etc.). For example, one assertion is that these studies have shown that recycling can sometimes do more environmental harm than good.
1 online resource (vp. ) : digital, PDF file.
In addition to impacting non-renewable energy supplies, buildings world wide contribute to climate change by being responsible for the release of carbon dioxide, either directly through combustion of carbon-based fuels or indirectly through electricity consumption from carbon fuels. Engineers and architects have an obligation to design for sustainability. This paper addresses each step in the building design process from inception to occupancy. Recommendations and examples of how sustainability can be achieved are given using two examples of actual buildings that have low energy use and minimal impact on the environment. In addition, these buildings have life cycle costs comparable to conventional buildings and provide comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environments.
1 online resource (vp. ) : digital, PDF file.
Throughout the western mountainous regions, wildfire risks are elevated due to both fire suppression activities which have changed the forest structure making it more susceptible to stand-killing fires and the expansion of human structures (houses, light commercial) into these same forests, By providing a market for currently noncommercial but flammable materials (small trees, tops, and branches), new and existing bioenergy industries could be a key factor in reducing the regional forest fuel loads. Although bioenergy would appear to be an ideal answer to the problem in many ways, the situation is complicated and numerous issues need resolution. A public fearful of logging in these regions needs assurance that harvesting for bioenergy is an environmentally and socially responsible solution to the current fuel build up in these forests. This is especially important given that biomass harvesting cannot pay its own way under current energy market conditions and would have to be supported in some fashion.
294 p. : ill. maps ; 25 cm.
Green Library
Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.
A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.


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