Egyptian myths and trade of perfumes and spices from Punt and Africa / Sydney H. Aufrère -- Piove su Punt / Franco Crevatin -- The scents of Punt (and elsewhere): trade and functions of snt̲.r and ʻntw during the Old Kingdom / Andrés Diego Espinel -- African aromata in Egypt: the "ti-shepes" / Ilaria Incordino -- Uresh-nefer's image of the world / Dieter Kurth -- "They shall come to trade at Iken." Ports and river in Second Millennium BCE Nubia / Andrea Manzo.
In recent decades, study of the ancient Egyptian natural world and its classification has adopted innovative approaches involving new technologies of analysis and a multidisciplinary general view. This collection of papers focuses on one particularly important aspect of foreign trade: the importation of aromatic products. Contributors present the results of the latest researches into the origin and meaning of foreign aromatic products imported in Egypt from the south (Nubia, Punt, Arabia, Horn of Africa) from the beginning of the Dynastic period. The quest for aromata has been of a crucial importance in Egypt, since it was closely connected with economic, political, ideological, religious and mythic spheres. Through archaeological research, epigraphic analysis and iconographic investigations new evidence is explored supporting the most likely hypothesis about the sources of these raw materials. The study of related documents has revealed possible linguistic links between ancient Egyptian and other African ancient languages, and a strong link between aromata and the divine world through the creation of many Egyptian myths. The references to some specific aromatic products (ti-shepes, snetjer, antyw, hesayt) have been subject to careful lexicographic analysis, with special reference to Old Kingdom occurrences. Iconographic and field investigations documented here seek to better define the Egyptian way of representing the 'foreign' world and the value of its products in the spheres of Egyptian religiosity and rising Pharaonic ideology. (source: Nielsen Book Data)