24,799 women are said to be in trade in Mauritania. Facing this increased female participation in trading and more specifically the growing number of influential businesswomen, we cannot but wonder about the emerging of a female business class. Indeed, as soon as the 80's reached an end, a few "batrounnes" (baronesses), specialized in the trading of Western and Asian imported products, took up the front scene of public life. Our work casts the light on the dazzling rise of such women: which basis did these female fortunes build up on? What are the means to attain financial as well as social success? Do men and women share such qualities of upward mobility and adaptability, or can we pick out distinctive features according to gender? Thus, not only women are concerned, our study also wills to focus on the importance, if not the predominance, of gender relationships in this process of "making women visible" in those economic circles where their part is barely highlighted.