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Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (93 p.) : ill., ports.
"Coping with the complexities of the social world in the 21st century requires deeper quantitative and predictive understanding. Forty-three internationally acclaimed scientists and thinkers share their vision for complexity science in the next decade in this invaluable book. Topics cover how complexity and big data science could help society to tackle the great challenges ahead, and how the newly established Complexity Science Hub Vienna might be a facilitator on this path."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (248 p.) : ill.
"This volume contains short courses and recent papers by several specialists in different fields of Mathematical Analysis. It offers a reasonably wide perspective of the current state of research, and new trends, in areas related to Geometric Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Functional Analysis and History of Mathematics. Often the contributions are presented with a remarkable expository nature although there are also some new unpublished results and this makes the discussed topics accessible to a more general audience."--Publisher's website.
Collection
Stanford Research Data
AudExpCreator is a GUI-based Matlab tool for designing and creating auditory experiments. It allows users to generate auditory experiments that run on Matlab's Psychophysics Toolbox without having to write any code; rather, users simply follow instructions in GUIs to specify desired design parameters. The software comprises five auditory study types, including behavioral studies and integration with EEG and physiological response collection systems. Advanced features permit more complicated experimental designs as well as maintenance and update of previously created experiments. AudExpCreator alleviates programming barriers while providing a free, open-source alternative to commercial experimental design software.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (701 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"All coordination between cells, organs, and organisms depends on successful biocommunicative processes. There are abundant cases of communication in the biological world, both within (intraspecific) and between (interspecific) single-cell and multicellular microorganisms and higher animal forms. Split into two parts, this book first looks at the history, development and progress within the field of biocommunication. The second part presents real-life case studies and investigation into examples of biocommunication in the biological world. Among the organisms covered are bacteria, fungi, plants, terrestrial and marine animals, including bonobos, chimpanzees and dolphins, as well as a new theory of communication between parts in developing embryos (cybernetic embryos). Contributions from international experts in the field provide up-to-date research and results, while in depth analysis expands on these findings to pave the way for future discoveries. As the first comprehensive review of its kind, it is perfect for undergraduates, graduates, professionals and researchers in the field of life sciences."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (335 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"It has been over 100 years since the presentation of the Theory of General Relativity by Albert Einstein, in its final formulation, to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. To celebrate 100 years of general relativity, World Scientific publishes this volume with a dual goal: to assess the current status of the field of general relativity in broad terms, and discuss future directions. The volume thus consists of broad overviews summarizing major developments over the past decades and their perspective contributions."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (294 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"The main goal is to offer to readers a panorama of recent progress in nonlinear physics, complexity and transport with attractive chapters readable by a broad audience. It allows to gain an insight into these active fields of research and notably promotes the interdisciplinary studies from mathematics to experimental physics. To reach this aim, the book collects a selection of contributions to the third edition of the CCT conference (Marseilles, 1–5 June 2015)."--Publisher's website.
Collection
Stanford Research Data
We draw a random subset of $k$ rows from a frame with $n$ rows (vectors) and $m$ columns (dimensions), where $k$ and $m$ are proportional to $n$. For a variety of important deterministic equiangular tight frames (ETFs) and tight non-ETF frames, we consider the distribution of singular values of the $k$-subset matrix. We observe that for large $n$ they can be precisely described by a known probability distribution -- Wachter's MANOVA spectral distribution, a phenomenon that was previously known only for two types of random frames. In terms of convergence to this limit, the $k$-subset matrix from all these frames is shown to be empirically indistinguishable from the classical MANOVA (Jacobi) random matrix ensemble. Thus empirically the MANOVA ensemble offers a universal description of the spectra of randomly selected $k$-subframes, even those taken from deterministic frames. The same universality phenomena is shown to hold for notable random frames as well. This description enables exact calculations of properties of solutions for systems of linear equations based on a random choice of $k$ frame vectors out of $n$ possible vectors, and has a variety of implications for erasure coding, compressed sensing, and sparse recovery. When the aspect ratio $m/n$ is small, the MANOVA spectrum tends to the well known Mar\u cenko-Pastur distribution of the singular values of a Gaussian matrix, in agreement with previous work on highly redundant frames. Our results are empirical, but they are exhaustive, precise and fully reproducible.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (271 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"The success of spintronics — the science and technology of storing, processing, sensing and communicating information using the quantum mechanical spin degree of freedom of an electron — is critically dependent on the ability to inject, detect and manipulate spins in semiconductors either by incorporating ferromagnetic materials into device architectures or by using external magnetic and electric fields. In spintronics, the controlled generation and manipulation of spin polarization in nonmagnetic semiconductors is required for the design of spin-sensitive devices ranging from spin-qubit hosts, quantum memory and gates, quantum teleporters, spin polarizers and filters, spin-field-effect-transistors, and spin-splitters, among others. One of the major challenges of spintronics is to control the creation, manipulation, and detection of spin polarized currents by purely electrical means. Another challenge is to preserve spin coherence in a device for the longest time or over the longest distance in order to produce reliable spintronic processors. These challenges remain daunting, but some progress has been made recently in overcoming some of the steepest obstacles. This book covers some of the recent advances in the field of spintronics using semiconductors."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (212 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • Classical cosmology
  • Early modern cosmology
  • Modern cosmology
  • Contemporary cosmology
  • Looking into the future.
"Cooking Cosmos is an exciting book that traces the history of men's endeavor to understand the Universe, and answers the eternal questions: "Who made this World?" "Where did it come from?" "How and why did it begin?" Thousands of years of continual interaction with nature has brought mankind to the present stage when we have some inkling about the working of nature. We now know that the Earth, our habitat, is only one of the planets orbiting the Sun. The Sun itself is a star among billions of stars in the Universe. We know that our solar system came into existence some 4.5 billion years ago and it is but only a tiny component of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Our Universe contains some 100 billion of galaxies. We know that the Universe itself came into existence with the Big Bang some 13.7 billion years ago and even now galaxies are receding from each other with ever increasing speed. This book takes you through the intellectual journey of mankind, unraveling the mysteries of the Cosmos. Starting from Aristotle's Earth-centered Universe, it will take you step by step to the Copernican Sun-centered Universe, to Hubble's expanding Universe, to the Big Bang, to the currently accepted accelerating Universe. In the process, the book explores the origin of space-time, black hole, black hole radiation, dark matter, dark energy, quantum gravity, string theory, all in terms comprehensible to general audiences."--Publisher's website.
Collection
Stanford Project for Open Knowledge in Epidemiology (SPOKE)
A diet high in fruits and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One strategy to incentivize FV consumption among low-income households is to make them more affordable through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study aims to identify the cost effectiveness of subsidizing FV purchases among the one in seven Americans who participate in SNAP. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective to estimate lifetime costs and health gains associated with subsidizing FV purchases. A stochastic microsimulation model of obesity, type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke in the 2015 U.S. population was used. Model parameters were based on nationally representative SNAP participation and dietary consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012), and data from a randomized trial of FV subsidies among SNAP users. RESULTS: Despite cycling of participants in and out of SNAP, expanding an FV subsidy nationwide through SNAP would be expected to reduce incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.7% (95% CI=1.2, 2.2), myocardial infarction by 1.4% (95% CI=0.9, 1.9), stroke by 1.2% (95% CI=0.8, 1.6), and obesity by 0.2% (95% CI=0.1, 0.3), and be cost saving from a societal perspective. The saved costs would be largely attributable to long-term reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The model suggests nationwide SNAP FV subsidies would reduce chronic disease morbidity, mortality, and costs over long time horizons that are unlikely to be observed in short-term community-based trials.
Collection
Reproducible Research Support for Statistics of the Microbiome
This item contains data, fitted models, and model evaluation data associated with the study "Latent Variable Modeling for the Microbiome." Further, we include a docker image with all dependencies preinstalled, so that analysis can be easily replicated. See the README.md for directions on using the image. The code used to generating these results are available at the github link, and inside the docker image. In addition to providing code for fitting models, our work describes ways to investigate modeling results, through relevant diagnostics and uncertainty assessments. Our experiments suggest that text modeling techniques can be a useful alternative to standard dimension-reduction methods when samples are collected with more complex dependence structure, as is often the case in microbiome data.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (681 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"Gold Nanoparticles for Physics, Chemistry and Biology offers an overview of recent research into gold nanoparticles, covering their discovery, usage and contemporary practical applications. This Second Edition begins with a history of over 2000 years of the use of gold nanoparticles, with a review of the specific properties which make gold unique. Updated chapters include gold nanoparticle preparation methods, their plasmon resonance and thermo-optical properties, their catalytic properties and their future technological applications. New chapters have been included, and reveal the growing impact of plasmonics in research, with an introduction to quantum plasmonics, plasmon assisted catalysis and electro-photon conversion. The growing field of nanoparticles for health is also addressed with a study of gold nanoparticles as radiosensibiliser for radiotherapy, and of gold nanoparticle functionalisation. This new edition also considers the relevance of bimetallic nanoparticles for specific applications. World-class scientists provide the most up-to-date findings for an introduction to gold nanoparticles within the related areas of chemistry, biology, material science, optics and physics. It is perfectly suited to advanced level students and researchers looking to enhance their knowledge in the study of gold nanoparticles."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (403 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at a recent international workshop in Singapore where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories including its historic background, as well as the latest accomplishments in understanding the foundational properties of higher spin physics."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (279 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"A unique individual with a fascinating life story, Ivar Giaever is a scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Experimental Physics in 1973. In his own words, Giaever relates an absorbing tale of how important luck and good fortune have been in shaping his life. He narrates the story of an ordinary childhood in Norway and an unremarkable undergraduate career at university. After finishing his engineering degree, he served in the Norwegian army and married his childhood sweetheart, Inger Skramstad. His desire to make a better life for his new family led Ivar to Canada and then to the United States. Even without an advanced degree in a scientific field, Ivar was given the opportunity to work with cutting-edge scientific researchers at General Electric R&D in Schenectady, New York. While there, he completed his PhD at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute — one of the United States' oldest technological universities. His work on superconductivity led to worldwide recognition and the Nobel Prize. This memoire is more than the story of an accomplished, world-renowned scientist: it is an engaging reminiscence of an independent, highly creative thinker and problem solver who loves games and puzzles, skiing and windsurfing, and time with friends and family. Dr Ivar Giaever's fascinating story intertwines his views on the nature of science, scientific processes, contemporary issues such as global warming, and the great benefits the Nobel Prize has afforded him. Written with humor and often tongue-in-cheek, "I am the Smartest Man I know" is one man's meditation on science, intellectual inquiry, and life itself."--Publisher's website.
Collection
Stanford Project for Open Knowledge in Epidemiology (SPOKE)
Intensive blood pressure treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but cause some serious adverse events. We sought to identify patients more likely to experience benefit or harm from intensive treatment. We additionally sought to improve upon standard methods for identifying heterogeneity in treatment effects within clinical trials, using regularization to reduce overfitting and improve external validity of trial-based models. Cox models were derived from SPRINT trial data and validated on ACCORD-BP trial data to estimate risk of CVD events and serious adverse events, including terms for intensive blood pressure treatment and heterogeneous response to intensive treatment. The Cox models were then used to estimate the absolute reduction in probability of CVD events (benefit) and absolute increase in probability of serious adverse events (harm) for each individual from intensive treatment. We compared the method of elastic net regularization, which uses repeated internal cross-validation to select variables and estimate coefficients in the presence of collinearity, to a traditional backwards variable selection approach. Data from 9,069 SPRINT participants were utilized for model development, and data from 4,498 ACCORD-BP participants were utilized for model validation. Subjects were exposed to Intensive (systolic pressure <120 mmHg) versus standard (<140 mmHg) treatment. Two composite primary outcome measures were evaluated: (i) CVD events (myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, congestive heart failure, CVD death), and (ii) severe adverse events (hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, bradycardia, or acute kidney injury/failure).Models for CVD and serious adverse events chosen through elastic net regularization (C-statistics of 0.71 for both, calibration slopes 1.06 and 1.10, respectively) included serum creatinine, pre-intensification blood pressure and medications, race/ethnicity, and Framingham score variables. SPRINT participants in the top predicted benefit tertile had a number needed to treat (NNT) of 24 to prevent one CVD event (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 0.042, 95% CI: 0.018, 0.066; P = 0.001), in the middle predicted benefit tertile had a NNT of 76 (ARR = 0.013, -0.0001 to 0.026; P = 0.053), and in the bottom tertile had no significant risk reduction (ARR = 0.006; 95% CI: -0.007, 0.018; P = 0.71). Those in the top predicted harm tertile had a number needed to harm (NNH) of 23 to induce one serious adverse event (absolute risk increase [ARI] = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.072; P = 0.004), in the middle predicted harm tertile had a NNH of 39 (ARI = 0.026, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.040; P = 0.001), and in the bottom tertile had no significant risk increase (ARI = 0.008; 95% CI: -0.023, 0.040; P = 0.60). Seven percent of subjects were in a risk group with high predicted benefit but no significant harm, and another 23% with high predicted harm but no significant benefit. In ACCORD-BP, CVD and adverse event models chosen through elastic net regularization validated well with C-statistics of 0.69 and 0.71 and calibration slopes of 0.96 and 1.01, respectively. ACCORD-BP participants in the top tertile of predicted benefit had significant absolute CVD risk reduction, but the overall ACCORD-BP participant sample was skewed towards subjects with less benefit and more risk than in SPRINT, explaining discordant results between the two trials. By contrast with the elastic net models, the models chosen through traditional backwards selection had worse discrimination (C-statistics of 0.70 and 0.71 for CVD and serious adverse events in SPRINT, respectively, and 0.68 and 0.60 in ACCORD-BP) and worse calibration (slopes 1.08 and 1.16 for CVD and adverse events in SPRINT, and 1.04 and 0.54 in ACCORD-BP).
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (309 p.) : ill.
"The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers with basic knowledge of Probability and Integration Theory. It introduces classical inequalities in vector and functional spaces with applications to probability. It also develops new extensions of the analytical inequalities, with sharper bounds and generalizations to the sum or the supremum of random variables, to martingales and to transformed Brownian motions. The proofs of many new results are presented in great detail. Original tools are developed for spatial point processes and stochastic integration with respect to local martingales in the plane. This second edition covers properties of random variables and time continuous local martingales with a discontinuous predictable compensator, with exponential inequalities and new inequalities for their maximum variable and their p-variations. A chapter on stochastic calculus presents the exponential sub-martingales developed for stationary processes and their properties. Another chapter devoted itself to the renewal theory of processes and to semi-Markovian processes, branching processes and shock processes. The Chapman–Kolmogorov equations for strong semi-Markovian processes provide equations for their hitting times in a functional setting which extends the exponential properties of the Markovian processes."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (1 map) : digital, JPG file.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (335 p.) : ill.
"Prime Numbers, Friends Who Give Problems is written as a trialogue, with two persons who are interested in prime numbers asking the author, Papa Paulo, intelligent questions. Starting at a very elementary level, the book advances steadily, covering all important topics of the theory of prime numbers, up to the most famous problems. The humorous conversations and the inclusion of a back-story add to the uniqueness of the book. Concepts and results are also explained with great care, making the book accessible to a wide audience."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (423 p.) : ill.
"The second edition of this book deals, as the first, with the foundations of classical physics from the "symplectic" point of view, and of quantum mechanics from the "metaplectic" point of view. We have revised and augmented the topics studied in the first edition in the light of new results, and added several new sections. The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics is discussed in detail. Phase space quantization is achieved using the "principle of the symplectic camel", which is a deep topological property of Hamiltonian flows. We introduce the notion of "quantum blob", which can be viewed as the fundamental phase space unit. The mathematical tools developed in this book are the theory of the symplectic and metaplectic group, the Maslov index in a rigorous form, and the Leray index of a pair of Lagrangian planes. The concept of the "metatron" is introduced, in connection with the Bohmian theory of motion. The short-time behavior of the propagator is studied and applied to the quantum Zeno effect."--Publisher's website.
Software/Multimedia
1 online resource (318 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This book contains the Proceedings of the Seventh Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, held at Indiana University in Bloomington on June 20-24, 2016. The meeting focused on tests of these fundamental symmetries and on related theoretical issues, including scenarios for possible violations. Topics covered at the meeting include experimental and observational searches for CPT and Lorentz violation involving: accelerator and collider experiments; astrophysical birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clock-comparison measurements; CMB polarization; decays of atoms, nuclei, and particles; equivalence-principle tests with matter and antimatter; exotic atoms, muonium, positronium; gauge and Higgs particles; gravimetry; gravitational waves; high-energy astrophysical observations; hydrogen and antihydrogen; matter interferometry; neutrino oscillations and propagation, neutrino-antineutrino mixing; oscillations and decays of K, B, D mesons; particle-antiparticle comparisons; post-Newtonian gravity in the solar system and beyond; resonant cavities lasers; second and third-generation particles; sidereal and annual time variations, compass asymmetries; space-based missions; spin-polarized matter; spin precession; tests of short-range gravity; and time-of-flight measurements. Theoretical and phenomenological discussions include: physical effects at the level of the Standard Model, General Relativity, and beyond; origins and mechanisms for violations; classical and quantum field theory, gravitation, particle physics, and strings; mathematical foundations; and Finsler geometry."--Publisher's website.