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1 online resource
Provides: datasets from the U.S. Census 2000 for 50 states and the District of Columbia that are downloadable via FTP; technical documentation; and, record layout documentation for U.S. Census 2000 Summary Files 1 through 4, and Redistricting Data mandated by P.L. 94-171.
1 online resource (302 p.) : ill. (some col).
"Green Chemistry has evolved in response to several environmental issues in the second half of the last century, mostly due to the almost freely expanding chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. During the past two decades Green Chemistry grew rapidly and we can now consider this area as a mature and powerful field. Tremendous development has taken place in many important areas including renewable energy and resources, reaction environments, catalysis, synthesis, chemical biology, green materials, in situ monitoring and facile recycling. The combination of Green Chemistry with engineering, biology, toxicology, and physics will lead to novel interdisciplinary systems, which can now lift Green Chemistry to the next, advanced level. The editors of this book have assembled as authors among the best specialists of this growing area of research. This collection of reviews and perspectives provides an exciting vision of the more recent developments in Green Chemistry. It illustrates the breath of the field and its role to address environmental issues. This volume will serve as a book of reference showing a panoramic view of the field and a preview of its future direction as well as a book of inspiration for those aiming to further advance its frontiers."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (610 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This book represents the results of 45 years of research on a wide range of topics, including atomic physics, single-molecule enzymology, whole-cell metabolism, physiology, pharmacology, linguistics, semiotics, and cosmology. It describes the first comprehensive molecular theory of the genotype-phenotype coupling based on two key theoretical concepts: (i) the conformon, the conformational wave packet in biopolymers carrying both the free energy and genetic information; and (ii) the intracellular dissipative structures, the chemical concentration waves inside the cell that serve as the immediate drivers of all cell functions. Conformons provide the driving forces for all molecular machines in the cell, and intracellular dissipative structures coordinate intra- and intercellular processes such as gene expression and cell-cell communications. One of the predictions made by the cell language theory (CLT) is that there are two forms of genetic information — the Watson–Crick genes transmitting information in time (identified with DNA), and the Prigoginian genes transmitting information in space (identified with RNA expression profiles). The former is analogous to sheet music or written language and the latter is akin to audio music or spoken language, both being coupled by conformons acting as the analog of the pianist. The new theory of DNA structure and function constructed on the basis of CLT can rationally account for most of the puzzling findings recently unearthed by the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project. The Cell Language Theory has important applications in biomedical sciences including drug discovery research and personalized medicine on the one hand and in the mind-body research and consciousness studies on the other."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (448 p.) : ill. (some col).
"This volume consists of introductory lectures on the topics in the new and rapidly developing area of toric homotopy theory, and its applications to the current research in configuration spaces and braids, as well as to more applicable mathematics such as fr-codes and robot motion planning. The book starts intertwining homotopy theoretical and combinatorial ideas within the remits of toric topology and illustrates an attempt to classify in a combinatorial way polytopes known as fullerenes, which are important objects in quantum physics, quantum chemistry and nanotechnology. Toric homotopy theory is then introduced as a further development of toric topology, which describes properties of Davis–Januszkiewicz spaces, moment-angle complexes and their generalizations to polyhedral products. The book also displays the current research on configuration spaces, braids, the theory of limits over the category of presentations and the theory of fr-codes. As an application to robotics, the book surveys topological problems relevant to the motion planning problem of robotics and includes new results and constructions, which enrich the emerging area of topological robotics. The book is at research entry level addressing the core components in homotopy theory and their important applications in the sciences and thus suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (115 p.) : col. ill.
  • Vital statistics
  • Anatomy of the Sun
  • Blemishes on the Sun
  • The sphere of influence
  • Tools of the trade.
"This book is an attempt to demystify the activities of a celestial object such as the Sun appealing to basic physics already available to high school students. Building on simple logic, the contents begin with measurements of the gross properties of the Sun like size (volume) and mass from which the average density of solar material is shown to be almost equal to water's density. Then the temperature is obtained using the colour of sunlight, and the gravitational force is discussed to indicate how the solar material is compressed at the centre of the Sun leading to heating which further causes nuclear reactions. The roles of all the forces of nature, viz. strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitation are shown in the construction of the Sun. The generation of magnetic fields by solar rotation and the eruptions of solar atmospheric material are also included. To further demystify the methods of obtaining all such facts about the Sun, a chapter is solely devoted to the different kinds of solar telescopes operating at different wavelengths and also at different locations ranging from outer space to deep underground, where solar neutrino flux is measured. The entire discussion is interspersed with historical encounters between giants of science to show the human face of scientific research."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (471 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"In the 21st century, digitalization is a global challenge of mankind. Even for the public, it is obvious that our world is increasingly dominated by powerful algorithms and big data. But, how computable is our world? Some people believe that successful problem solving in science, technology, and economies only depends on fast algorithms and data mining. Chances and risks are often not understood, because the foundations of algorithms and information systems are not studied rigorously. Actually, they are deeply rooted in logics, mathematics, computer science and philosophy. Therefore, this book studies the foundations of mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, in order to guarantee security and reliability of the knowledge by constructive proofs, proof mining and program extraction. We start with the basics of computability theory, proof theory, and information theory. In a second step, we introduce new concepts of information and computing systems, in order to overcome the gap between the digital world of logical programming and the analog world of real computing in mathematics and science. The book also considers consequences for digital and analog physics, computational neuroscience, financial mathematics, and the Internet of Things (IoT)."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (176 p.) : ill. (chiefly col.)
"Sensors for measuring and detecting chemical and biological substances are comprehensively used and are, for the most part, unobtrusive. They can help monitor our health through alerting us to chemical or biological changes in our bodies, our environment through checking air quality or pollution levels and they can contribute towards a more sustainable future. Polymer-based sensors are the subject of much attention due to their ability to collect molecules on their flexible sensory surfaces. However, most petroleum-based polymers are not renewable, leading to problems of waste-disposal. By using renewable materials, such as paper, cotton or starch, these problems can be overcome. This book reviews the current state-of-play in renewable-material-based chemical sensors and biosensors, and suggests applications in industry, environment and biomedicine."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (391 p.) : ill. (some col).
"With the alarming increase in cancer diagnoses and genetic illnesses, traditional drug agents and their delivery media need to be re-evaluated to address a quickly evolving field. With newer smart materials for the controlled release of macromolecules, peptides, genetic material, etc. further complications arise, such as material performance, synthesis, functionalization and targeting, biological identity, and biocompatibility. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments on "smart" targeting and drug delivery systems with a variety of carriers like nanoparticles, membranes, and hydrogels. It contains detailed descriptions on the recent trends in this field in the ongoing battle with catastrophic diseases like cancer. This field of research has been in its infancy and continues to face growth, and with it, further challenges and difficulties along the way toward maturity, which are accurately introduced in this book."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (449 p.) : ill. (some col).
"This book documents Professor Jacques Simonet's contribution to building new electrode materials and their related catalytic reactions. Research includes synthesis of new alloys of palladium, discovery of new composite electrodes (including gold- and silver-graphene) and the creation of new materials through judicious cathodic or anodic doping. Additionally, studies demonstrate the malleability and reactivity of previously unused precious and semi-precious metals for the creation of 2D and 3D catalytic materials. Studies key to innovative research show how transition metals may reversibly cathodically insert small size electro-active molecules such as CO2 and O2, and be applied to methods of depollution brought by carbon and nitrogen oxides. Written for practical use, Simonet has provided both theory and tools needed for those aiming to recreate and develop his experiments in electrochemical catalysis and surface modifications. This full publication of research gives graduate and post-graduate students of chemistry, electrochemistry and catalysis an in-depth insight into key historical and modern developments in the field."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (314 p.) : ill. (chiefly col.), col. map, ports. (some col.)
"Fermilab — originally called the National Accelerator Laboratory — began operations in Illinois on June 15, 1967. Operated and managed by The University of Chicago and Universities Research Association, LLC for the US Department of Energy, it has the distinction of being the only US national laboratory solely dedicated to the advancement of high-energy particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. It has been the site of major discoveries and observations: the top and bottom quarks; the tau neutrino; direct CP violation in kaon decays; a quasar 27 billion light years away from us; origin of high-energy cosmic rays; and confirmation of the evidence of dark energy, among others. For 25 years it operated the world's highest energy particle collider, the Tevatron. Fermilab contributed collaboratively to the Tevatron's successor, the Large Hadron Collider, which discovered the Higgs boson in 2012. Fermilab's core competencies in accelerators, superconducting technologies, detectors and computing have positioned the laboratory for a bright future at the frontiers of science. Today Fermilab scientists, engineers, technicians together with partners from 50 countries are working to explore the nature of the elusive neutrino, enable future x-ray photon science facilities, and construct and exploit higher-energy and higher-intensity particle accelerators. Fermilab is a designated "American Physical Society Historic Site". In this commemorative volume, scientific leaders from around the world celebrate Fermilab's 50th anniversary with thoughts on the laboratory's past, present and future."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (235 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • Prologue: String theory and the debate around it
  • Part I: Not even wrong: The blog of Peter Woit
  • Part II: n-Category Café
  • Part III: Asymptotia
  • Epilogue: The real border.
"In the summer of 2006 two books attacking string theory, a prominent theory in physics, appeared: Peter Woit's "Not Even Wrong" and Lee Smolin's "The Trouble with Physics". A fierce public debate, much of it on weblogs, ensued. Gina is very curious about science blogs. Can they be useful for learning about or discussing science? What happens in these blogs and who participates in them? Gina is eager to learn the issues and to form her own opinion about the string theory controversy. She is equipped with some academic background, including in mathematics, and has some familiarity with academic life. Her knowledge of physics is derived mainly from popular accounts. Gina likes to debate and to argue. She is fascinated by questions about rationality and philosophy, and was exposed to various other scientific controversies in the past. This book uses the blog debate on string theory to discuss blogs, science, and mathematics. Meandering over various topics from children's dyscalculia to Chomskian linguistics, the reader may get some sense of the chaotic and often confusing scientific experience. The book tries to show the immense difficulty involved in getting the factual matters right, and interpreting fragmented and partial information"-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (165 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This book takes the reader from some elementary ideas about groups to the essence of the Standard Model of particle physics along a relatively straight and intuitive path. Groups alone are first used to arrive at a classical analog of the Dirac equation. Using elementary quantum mechanics, this analog can be turned into the actual Dirac equation, which governs the motion of the quarks and leptons of the Standard Model. After an introduction to the gauge principle, the groups introduced in the beginning of the book are used to give an introduction to the Standard Model. The idea is to give an Olympian view of this evolution, one that is often missing when absorbing the detailed subject matter of the Standard Model as presented in an historical approach to the subject."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (274 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • Zeta regularization for a scalar field
  • The zeta regularized stress-energy VEV in terms of integral kernels
  • Total energy and forces on the boundary
  • Some variations of the previous schemes
  • A massless field on the segment
  • A massless field between parallel hyperplanes
  • A massive field constrained by perpendicular hyperplanes
  • A massless field in a three-dimensional wedge
  • A scalar field with a harmonic background potential
  • A massless field inside a rectangular box.
"Zeta regularization is a method to treat the divergent quantities appearing in several areas of mathematical physics and, in particular, in quantum field theory; it is based on the fascinating idea that a finite value can be ascribed to a formally divergent expression via analytic continuation with respect to a complex regulating parameter. This book provides a thorough overview of zeta regularization for the vacuum expectation values of the most relevant observables of a quantized, neutral scalar field in Minkowski spacetime; the field can be confined to a spatial domain, with suitable boundary conditions, and an external potential is possibly present. Zeta regularization is performed in this framework for both local and global observables, like the stress-energy tensor and the total energy; the analysis of their vacuum expectation values accounts for the Casimir physics of the system. The analytic continuation process required in this setting by zeta regularization is deeply linked to some integral kernels; these are determined by the fundamental elliptic operator appearing in the evolution equation for the quantum field. The book provides a systematic illustration of these connections, devised as a toolbox for explicit computations in specific configurations; many examples are presented. A comprehensive account is given of the existing literature on this subject, including the previous work of the authors. The book will be useful to anyone interested in a mathematically sound description of quantum vacuum effects, from graduate students to scientists working in this area."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (285 p.) : ill., ports.
"This volume is the result of the author's many-years of research in this field. These results were presented in the author's two books, Introduction to the Algorithmic Measurement Theory (Moscow, Soviet Radio, 1977), and Codes of the Golden Proportion (Moscow, Radio and Communications, 1984), which had not been translated into English and are therefore not known to English-speaking audience. This volume sets forth new informational and arithmetical fundamentals of computer and measurement systems based on Fibonacci p-codes and codes of the golden p-proportions, and also on Bergman's system and "golden" ternary mirror-symmetrical arithmetic. The book presents some new historical hypotheses concerning the origin of the Egyptian calendar and the Babylonian numeral system with base 60 (dodecahedral hypothesis), as well as about the origin of the Mayan's calendar and their numeral system with base 20 (icosahedral hypothesis). The book is intended for the college and university level. The book will also be of interest to all researchers, who use the golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers in their subject areas, and to all readers who are interested to the history of mathematics."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (374 p.) : ill. (chiefly col).
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • Comet dynamics
  • Physical evolution in observable comets
  • Capture of comets
  • Formation of comet reservoirs
  • Origin of comet nuclei
  • Outlook.
"Since several decades, comets have been considered as key witnesses of solar system formation. Their nature has been explored using the modern arsenal of Earth- and space-based observations, and they hold a central place as dynamical arbiters of the planetary system in the new paradigm of solar system evolution known as the Nice Model. Thus, they have the potential to test the various ideas, using the detailed data recently gathered by the ESA/Rosetta mission. This requires an understanding of their origin and evolution, which form the subject of the present book. All the relevant issues are covered2, describing both the background and the current frontiers of research."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (153 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"Systems biology combines computational and experimental approaches to analyze complex biological systems and focuses on understanding functional activities from a systems-wide perspective. It provides an iterative process of experimental measurements, data analysis, and computational simulation to model biological behavior. This book provides explained protocols for high-throughput experiments and computational analysis procedures central to cancer systems biology research and education. Readers will learn how to generate and analyze high-throughput data, therapeutic target protein structure modeling and docking simulation for drug discovery. This is the first practical guide for students and scientists who wish to become systems biologists or utilize the approach for cancer research."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (138 p.) : ill.
"This is a book of elementary probability theory that includes a chapter on algorithmic randomness. It rigorously presents definitions and theorems in computation theory, and explains the meanings of the theorems by comparing them with mechanisms of the computer, which is very effective in the current computer age. Random number topics have not been treated by any books on probability theory, only some books on computation theory. However, the notion of random number is necessary for understanding the essential relation between probability and randomness. The field of probability has changed very much, thus this book will make and leave a big impact even to expert probabilists. Readers from applied sciences will benefit from this book because it presents a very proper foundation of the Monte Carlo method with practical solutions, keeping the technical level no higher than 1st year university calculus."--Publisher's website.
1 online resource (217 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This book presents an innovative unified approach to the statistical foundations of entropy and the fundamentals of equilibrium statistical mechanics. These intimately related subjects are often developed in a fragmented historical manner which obscures the essential simplicity of their logical structure. In contrast, this book critically reassesses and systematically reorganizes the basic concepts into a simpler sequential framework which reveals more clearly their logical relationships. The inherent indistinguishability of identical particles is emphasized, and the resulting unification of classical and quantum statistics is discussed in detail. The discussion is focused entirely on fundamental concepts, so applications are omitted. The book is written at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, and will be useful as a concise supplement to conventional books and courses in statistical mechanics, thermal physics, and thermodynamics. It is also suitable for self-study by those seeking a deeper and more detailed analysis of the fundamentals."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (541 p.) : ill. (some col.)
"This unique story offers an introductory conversation to genetics, embryology and evolution, taking us on a historical journey of biology through the ages. Using a series of dialogues between the Greek philosopher Democritus and his disciple Alkimus, we travel through time visiting eminent scientists throughout the centuries, from Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodor Boveri to Francis Crick, Max Perutz and Christiane Nüsslein–Volhard. We find ourselves at the intersection of competing theories in biology and witness the progression from the debunking the theory of spontaneous generation to the mapping of the genome. Attention is given not only to the great successes in the field but also to the equally important and exciting failures. Originally published in Hungarian, The Story of Genetics, Development and Evolution provides a historical background to the life sciences, with complex scientific concepts stripped down and explained carefully for academics and anyone interested in going back to the roots and philosophies of scientific progress."-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (325 p).
"The limit-point/limit-circle problem had its beginnings more than 100 years ago with the publication of Hermann Weyl's classic paper in Mathematische Annalen in 1910 on linear differential equations. This concept was extended to second-order nonlinear equations in the late 1970's and later, to higher order nonlinear equations. This monograph traces the development of what is known as the strong nonlinear limit-point and limit-circle properties of solutions. In addition to bringing together all such results into one place, some new directions that the study has taken as well as some open problems for future research are indicated."--Publisher's website.