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Book
xix, 695 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
  • Preface xiii Part 1 Strategies of Affinity Materials 1 Recent Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based Methods for Sample Preparation 3 Antonio Martin-Esteban 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction 6 1.3 Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Microextraction 14 1.4 Molecularly Imprinted Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction 17 1.5 Other Formats 18 1.6 Conclusions 20 References 21 2 A Genuine Combination of Solvent-free Sample Preparation Technique and Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterials 29 Santanu Patra, Ekta Roy, Rashmi Madhuri and Prashant K. Sharma 2.1 Introduction 30 2.2 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Modified Fiber for Solid-phase Microextraction 40 2.3 In-tube Solid-phase Microextraction Technique 55 2.4 Monolithic Fiber 58 2.5 Micro-solid-phase Extraction 70 2.6 Stir-bar Sorptive Extraction 73 2.7 Conclusion and Future Scope 76 Acknowledgments 76 Abbreviations 77 References 78 3 Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Polymers 89 Kornelia Gawlitza, Wei Wan, Sabine Wagner and Knut Rurack 3.1 Introduction 89 3.2 Classes of Emitters to Endow MIPs with Fluorescence 91 3.3 Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Silica 108 3.4 Post-imprinting of MIPs 111 3.5 fMIPs as Labels 113 3.6 Formats for fMIPs 115 3.7 Conclusion 119 References 120 4 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based Micro- and Nanotraps for Solid-phase Extraction 129 R dvan Say, Rustem Kecili and Arzu Ersoz 4.1 Introduction 130 4.2 MIPs as SPE Materials 130 4.3 Conclusions 149 References 153 5 Imprinted Carbonaceous Nanomaterials: A Tiny Looking Big Thing in the Field of Selective and Secific Analysis 165 Ekta Roy, Santanu Patra, Rashmi Madhuri and Prashant K. Sharma 5.1 Introduction 166 5.2 Graphene-modified Imprinted Polymer 179 5.3 Carbon Nanotubes-modified Imprinted Polymer 190 5.4 Combination of graphene, CNTs, and MIPs 197 5.5 Graphene Quantum Dots and/or Carbon Dots 198 5.6 Fullerene 201 5.7 Activated carbon 202 5.8 Conclusions 203 Acknowledgments 204 List of abbreviations 204 References 205 6 Molecularly Imprinted Materials for Fiber-optic Sensor Platforms 217 Yavuz Orhan Yaman, Necdet Ba aran, Kubra Karayagiz, Zafer Vatansever, Cengiz Yegin, Onder Haluk Tekba and Mufrettin Murat Sari 6.1 Introduction 218 6.2 Material Aspect: Morphology and Physical Forms of MIPs in FO Sensors 223 6.3 Molecularly Imprinting Technology for Fiber-optic Sensors 231 6.4 State-of-the-art Fiber-optic Sensors Applications Using Molecularly Imprinted Materials 268 6.5 Conclusion 273 References 274 Part 2 Rational Design of MIP for Advanced Applications 7 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based Sensors for Biomedical and Environmental Applications 285 Anca Florea, Oana Hosu, Bianca Ciui and Cecilia Cristea 7.1 Introduction 285 7.2 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Analytes of Biomedical Interest 296 7.3 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Analytes of Environmental Interest 306 7.4 Conclusion 314 Acknowledgments 316 References 316 8 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: The Affinity Adsorbents for Environmental Biotechnology 327 Bo Mattiasson and Gizem Erturk 8.1 Introduction 327 8.2 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers 329 8.3 Monomers 329 8.4 Cross-linking Agents 331 8.5 Mode of Polymerization 332 8.6 Cryogels 334 8.7 Process Technology 336 8.8 Applications 338 References 345 9 Molecular Imprinting Technology for Sensing and Separation in Food Safety 353 Baran Onal Ulusoy, Mehmet Odaba i and Ne e Hayat Aksoy 9.1 Food Safety 354 9.2 Food Analysis 355 9.3 Current Separation Methods Used for Food Safety Purposes 356 9.4 What Is MIP? 357 9.5 MIP Applications Used for Food Safety Purposes 359 References 377 10 Advanced Imprinted Materials for Virus Monitoring 389 Zeynep Altintas 10.1 Introduction 390 10.2 Virus Imprinting 393 10.3 Artificial MIP Receptors for Viruses 398 10.4 Virus Monitoring and Detection Using Biomimetic Sensors 399 10.5 Virus Imprinting for Separation Technologies 401 10.6 Conclusions 405 References 406 11 Design and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Drug Delivery Systems 413 Andre Luis Morais Ruela and Gislaine Ribeiro Pereira 11.1 Introduction 414 11.2 Synthesis and Characterization of MIPs Intended for Drug Release Using Non-covalent Approaches 418 11.3 Design and Evaluation of Drug Delivery Systems Based on MIPs 436 11.4 Conclusions 445 References 446 12 Molecularly Imprinted Materials for Controlled Release Systems 455 Yagmur Yegin, Gokhan Yilmaz, Omer Karakoc, Cengiz Yegin, Servet Cete, Mustafa Akbulut and Mufrettin Murat Sari 12.1 Introduction 456 12.2 Selectivity, Release Mechanism and Functionality of MIPs-based CR Systems 459 12.3 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Production for Controlled Release 482 12.4 Controlled Release Applications Using Molecularly Imprinted Materials-based Controlled Release 491 12.5 Conclusion 506 References 507 13 Molecular Imprinting: The Creation of Biorecognition Imprints on the Biosensor Surfaces 523 Gizem Erturk and Bo Mattiasson 13.1 Introduction 523 13.2 Molecular Imprinting 524 13.3 Microcontact Imprinting 525 13.4 Capacitive Biosensors 529 13.5 Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors 541 13.6 Concluding Remarks 549 References 550 14 Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Body Odor 561 Sunil Kr. Jha 14.1 Introduction 562 14.2 MIP-QCM Sensor Array Preparation 573 14.3 Chemical Vapor Sensing 576 14.4 Analysis Outcomes 603 14.5 Conclusion 624 Acknowledgments 624 References 624 15 Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based Microcantilever Sensor System 637 Meltem Okan and Memed Duman 15.1 Introduction to Mass Sensors 637 15.2 Principles of Mass Sensors 640 15.4 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology 655 15.5 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based QCM Sensors 658 15.6 Ongoing Studies on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers-based Microcantilevers 661 Acknowledgments 669 References 669.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119336297 20161213
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are an important functional material because of their potential implications in diverse research fields. The materials have been developed for a range of uses including separation, environmental, biomedical and sensor applications. In this book, the chapters are clustered into two main sections: Strategies to be employed when using the affinity materials, and rational design of MIPs for advanced applications. In the first part, the book covers the recent advances in producing MIPs for sample design, preparation and characterizations. In the second part, the chapters demonstrate the importance and novelty of creation of recognition imprinted on the materials and surfaces for a range of microbial detection sensors in the biomedical, environmental and food safety fields as well as sensing human odor and virus monitoring systems. Part 1: Strategies of affinity materials * Molecularly imprinted polymers * MIP nanomaterials * Micro- and nanotraps for solid phase extraction * Carbonaceous affinity nanomaterials * Fluorescent MIPs * MIP-based fiber optic sensors Part 2: Rational design of MIP for advanced applications * MIP-based biomedical and environmental sensors * Affinity adsorbents for environmental biotechnology * MIP in food safety * MIP-based virus monitoring * MIP-based drug delivery and controlled release * Biorecognition imprints on the biosensor surfaces * MIP-based sensing of volatile organic compounds in human body odour * MIP-based microcantilever sensor system.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119336297 20161213
Science Library (Li and Ma)
Book
1 online resource (358 pages) : illustrations.
  • Ion channels, nanomechanics, and nanomedicine / Keka Talukdar
  • Analysis of the bacterial vesicles' enhanced toxicological threat via electron microscopy / Roberta Curia [and 5 others]
  • Applications of polymeric micro- and nano-particles in dentistry / Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini, Nileshkumar Dubey
  • Sensing the presence and amount of microbes using double walled carbon nanotubes / Anand Y Joshi, Ajay M Patel
  • CNS targeted nanoparticle drug delivery: CNS drug delivery / Dimple Sethi Chopra
  • Silver oxide-copper oxide nanocomposite preparation and antimicrobial activity as a source for the treatment of fish diseases: silver oxide-copper oxide nanocomposite preparation and antimicrobial activity / Sayed Reza Shaffiey, Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey
  • Performance analysis of FET-based nanoiosensors by computational method / Keka Talukdar, Anil Shantappa Malipatil
  • Self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement preparation, characterization and drug delivery for skeletal system / Sayed Reza Shaffiey, Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey
  • Mineralized nanofibers for bone tissue engineering / Ozan Karaman
  • Recent advances in synthesis and biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles: magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications / Irshad Ahmad Wani
  • Stratagems of nanotechnology augmenting the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of traditional medicine to formulate smart herbal drugs combating / Anita Margret.
The application of nanotechnology within the medical sphere has had a significant influence on how diseases and conditions are treated and diagnosed. While many strides have been made, there is still continuous research on nanotechnology being performed in the field. Advancing Medicine through Nanotechnology and Nanomechanics Applications highlights emergent trends and empirical research on technological innovations in medicine and healthcare. Investigating the impact of nanotechnology and nanomechanics on the treatment of diseases, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery systems, this publication is a vital reference source for professionals, researchers, medical students, and engineering students.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522510437 20161213
Book
1 online resource.
  • Functional Nanocomposites Based on Fibrous Clays-- Fibrillar Attapulgite-Rubber Nanocomposites-- Rubber-Rectorite Composites with High Gas Barrier Properties-- Design and Physiochemical Characterization of Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrids from Natural Aluminosilicate Nanotubes-- Surface Modification of Halloysite-- Halloysite Based Smart Hybrid Nanomaterials for the Solubilization of Hydrophobic Compounds in Aqueous Media-- Halloysite and Related Mesoporous Carriers for Advanced Catalysis and Drug Delivery-- Application of Clay Materials as Nanocontainers for Self-Healing Coatings-- Flame Retardant Polymer-Halloysite Nanocomposites-- Polymer-Halloysite Composite Membranes for Ultrafiltration and Proton Exchange Applications-- Rubber Functionalized with Halloysite Loaded with Antioxidants and Antibacterials-- Halloysite-Dopamine Hybrid Nanotubes to Immobilize Biomacromolecules-- Halloysite Clay Nanotubes for Long Acting Controlled Release of Drugs and Proteins-- Biocompatible Electrospun Polymer-Halloysite Nanofibers for Sustained Release-- Toxicological Evaluation of Clay Nanomaterials and Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781782624226 20170213
Polymer-clay nanocomposites have flame-retardant, antimicrobial, anticorrosion and self-healing properties, they are biocompatible and environmentally benign. Multiple types of clay minerals may be exfoliated or individually dispersed and then used as natural nanoparticle additives of different size and shape for composite formation. Loading polymers with clays increases their strength, however, it is only recently that such composites were prepared with controlled nanoscale organization allowing for the enhancement of their mechanical properties and functionality. Edited by pioneers in the field, this book will explain the great potential of these materials and will bring together the combined physico-chemical, materials science and biological expertise to introduce the reader to the vibrant field of nanoclay materials. This book will provide an essential text for materials and polymers scientists in industry and academia.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781782624226 20170213
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface; Contents; Abstract; 1 Introduction into the Field of Conducting Polymers; 2 Basic Features During the Redox Transformation of CPs and the Coupled Phenomena; 2.1 Electrochemical Perturbation, Leading to Phenomenological Changes; 2.2 Color Change; 2.3 Mass Change; 2.4 Conductance Change; 2.5 Diamagnetic/Paramagnetic Changes; 2.6 Volume Changes; 2.7 Structural Changes; 2.8 Transport Processes in the Adjacent Solution Layer; References; 3 Overview of in situ Combined Electrochemical Techniques; 3.1 Single in situ Electrochemical Methods
  • 3.1.1 Coupled Color Changes-Spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-VIS-NIR Region3.1.2 Changes in the Chemical Bonds' Nature-in situ FTIR and RAMAN Spectroscopy; 3.1.3 Diamagnetic/Paramagnetic Changes-in situ ESR Spectroscopy; 3.1.4 In situ NMR Spectroscopy; 3.1.5 Coupling with Mass Change-the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Micro/Nanogravimetry (EQCM or EQCN) and the Radiotracer Technique; 3.1.6 Resulted Conductance Change-a.c. Conductance, Electrochemical Impedance Measurements; 3.1.7 Effects Monitored in the Solution-Laser Beam Deflection; 3.1.8 Subsequent Volume Change
  • 3.1.9 Visualization of Structural Changes: Ellipsometry, Surface Plasmon Resonance, X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS)3.2 Combination of Two Single in situ Electrochemical Techniques in a Hyphenated Mode; 3.2.1 Simultaneous Combination of the Electrochemical Electron Spin Resonance (SEESR) and the in situ a.c. Conductance Techniques; 3.2.2 Simultaneously Applied Electron Spin Resonance (SEESR) and in situ Spectroelectrochemistry; 3.2.3 Combination of in situ UV-Vis-NIR Spectroelectrochemical and in situ a.c. Conductance Measurements
  • 3.2.4 In situ Piezoelectric Spectroelectrochemisty3.2.5 In situ FTIR Spectroelectrochemistry and Ellipsometry; 3.2.6 Combined Scanning Electrochemical-Atomic Force Microscopy AFM; 3.2.7 Current-Sensing Atomic Force Microscopic (CS-AFM) and Spectroscopic Measurements; 3.2.8 Combining Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy with Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy; 3.2.9 Combined Electrochemical Impedance EIS and FTIR-ATR; References; 4 Applications of the in situ Combined Electrochemical Techniques: Problems and Answers Attempted by the in situ Combined Methods; 4.1 Electrodeposition
  • 4.2 Chain-Growth Process4.3 Nucleation and Growth Steps; 4.4 Mechanistic Isuues; 4.5 Regular/Irregular Behavior of the Deposited Film; 4.6 Specific Dopant-Polymer Interactions; 4.7 Monitoring the Formation of CP Composites; 4.8 Details of the Redox Switching; 4.9 Development of the Conductance; 4.10 p-Type and n-Type Doping; 4.11 Identification of the Charge Carriers; 4.12 Overoxidation; 4.13 Structural Questions; 4.14 Miscellaneous Issues; References; 5 Outlook; References; Index
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource ( pages cm.) :
EBSCOhost Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface xi 1 Introduction to Coordination Polymers 1 1.1 Coordination Space 1 1.2 Coordination Polymer 3 1.3 Development of Coordination Polymer 7 1.4 Synthetic Methods 9 1.5 Design of Coordination Polymer 13 References 18 2 Application of Coordination Polymers 23 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Gas Storage 24 2.3 Catalysis 26 2.4 Luminescence 28 2.5 Redox Activity 29 2.6 Magnetism 29 2.6.1 Long-range Magnetic Ordering 29 2.6.1.1 Molecule-based Magnets 32 2.6.1.2 Single-chain Magnets 33 2.6.2 Spin Crossover 33 2.7 Acentric and Chiral Networks 35 References 39 3 Zinc(II) Coordination Polymers 43 3.1 Introduction to Zinc(II) Coordination Polymers 43 3.1.1 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Rigid Two-connecting Ligands 45 3.1.1.1 Rod-type Ligands 45 3.1.1.2 Angular, Rigid Two-connectors 49 3.1.2 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Rigid, Trigonal Three-connectors 52 3.1.3 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Carboxylates, Pyridine Carboxylates and Pyrazine Carboxylates 54 3.1.4 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Secondary Building Blocks (SBUs) 57 3.1.5 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Conformational Flexible Ligands 59 3.1.6 Coordination Polymers Constructed from Phosphate and Phosphonate Ligands 63 3.2 Nano Zinc(II) Coordination Polymers 64 3.3 Conclusion 70 References 71 4 Cadmium(II) Coordination Polymers 81 4.1 Introduction to Cadmium (II) Coordination Polymers 81 4.1.1 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers 82 4.1.2 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers 86 4.1.3 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 93 4.2 Nano Cadmium(II) Coordination Polymers 96 4.3 Conclusion 102 References 103 5 Mercury(II) Coordination Polymers 113 5.1 Introduction Mercury(II) Coordination Polymers 113 5.1.1 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers 115 5.1.2 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers 120 5.1.3 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 124 5.2 Nano Mercury(II) Coordination Polymers 126 5.3 Conclusion 131 References 131 6 Lead(II) Coordination Polymers 137 6.1 Introduction 137 6.2 Mono-donor Coordination Mode 139 6.2.1 Discrete Complexes 139 6.2.2 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers 141 6.2.3 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers 142 6.2.4 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 142 6.3 Bi-donor Coordination Polymers 143 6.3.1 Bridging ( 2 1: 1) Mode 143 6.3.1.1 Discrete Complexes 143 6.3.1.2 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers 144 6.3.1.3 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers 144 6.3.1.4 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 145 6.4 Tri-donor Coordination Polymers 148 6.4.1 Bridging ( 3 1: 2) Mode 148 6.4.1.1 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymer 148 6.4.1.2 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 148 6.5 Tetra-donor Coordination 148 6.5.1 Chelating, Bridging ( 3 1: 2: 1) Mode 148 6.5.1.1 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers 150 6.5.1.2 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers 151 6.5.1.3 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers 152 6.6 Nano Lead(II) Coordination Polymers 152 6.7 Conclusion 164 References 165 7 Thallium(I) Coordination Polymers 177 7.1 Introduction to Thallium(I) Coordination Polymers 177 7.2 Thallium(I) Coordination Polymers 182 7.2.1 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers with Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 183 7.2.2 One-dimensional Coordination Polymers without Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 186 7.2.3 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers with Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 187 7.2.4 Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers without Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 189 7.2.5 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers with Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 190 7.2.6 Three-dimensional Coordination Polymers without Secondary Interactions in TlI Coordination Sphere 192 7.3 Nano Thallium(I) Coordination Polymers 193 7.4 Conclusion 198 References 199 8 Bismuth(III) Coordination Polymers 207 8.1 Introduction to Bismuth Coordination Polymers 207 8.2 Bismuth(III) Complexes with Monoaminopoly Carboxylate 211 8.2.1 Bi(III) Complexes with Iminodiacetate Ligands 211 8.2.2 Bi(III) Complexes with Nitrilotriacetate 212 8.2.3 Bi(III) Complexes with 2-hydroxy- ethyliminodiacetate 214 8.2.4 Bi(III) complexes with Pyridinedicarboxylate Ligands 215 8.3 Bismuth(III) Complexes with Diaminopolycarboxylate Ligands 217 8.3.1 Bi(III) Complexes with Ethylenediaminetetraacetate 217 8.3.1.1 Protonated Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complexes 217 8.3.1.2 Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complexes with Alkali Metal and Ammonium Cations 218 8.3.1.3 Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complexes with Divalent Metal Cations 221 8.3.1.4 Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complexes with Protonated Organic Base Cations 222 8.3.1.5 Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetates with Metal Complex Cations 222 8.3.1.6 Mixed-ligand Bi(III) Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complexes 224 8.3.2 Bi(III) Complexes with other than edta4 diaminopolycarboxylate Ligands 226 8.4 Bismuth Complexes with Polyaminopolycarboxylate Ligands 228 8.4.1 Bi(III) Complexes with Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate Ligands and its Analogues 228 8.4.2 Bi(III) Complexes with Triethylenetetraaminehexaacetate Ligands 229 8.4.3 Bi(III) Complexes with Macrocyclic Polyaminopolycarboxylate Ligands 231 8.5 Applications 232 8.6 Nano Bismuth(III) Coordination Polymers 232 8.7 Conclusion 238 References 240 9 Porous Main Group Coordination Polymers 247 References 270 10 S-block Coordination Polymers (Group1) 279 10.1 Introduction 279 10.2 Group 1(Alkali) Metal Coordination Polymers 280 10.2.1 Neutral Oxygen Donor Lligands 280 10.2.2 Anionic Oxygen Donor Ligands 283 10.2.2.1 Alkoxides and Aryloxides 283 10.2.2.2 Carboxylates 284 10.2.2.3 Sulfonates and Nitro-derivatives 284 10.2.2.4 Amino Acids 285 10.2.2.5 Mixed O- and N-donors 286 10.2.3 N-donor Ligands 287 10.2.4 Carbon Donor Ligands 288 10.2.5 Sulfur Donor Ligands 289 10.3 Conclusion 291 References 292 11 S-block Coordination Polymers (Group2) 297 11.1 Introduction 297 11.2 Group 2(Alkaline Earth) Metal Coordination Polymers 299 11.2.1 Neutral Oxygen Donor Ligands 300 11.2.2 Anionic Oxygen Donor Ligands 301 11.2.2.1 Beta-diketonates 301 11.2.2.2 Alkoxides 302 11.2.2.3 Carboxylates 302 11.2.2.4 Phosphonates 304 11.2.2.5 Sulfonates 305 11.2.3 Mixed N- and O-donors 305 11.2.4 N-donor Ligands 306 11.2.5 Carbon Donor Ligands 308 11.2.6 Sulfur Donor Ligands 309 11.3 Conclusion 310 References 311.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119370239 20170403
Coordination polymer is a general term used to indicate an infinite array composed of metal ions which are bridged by certain ligands among them. This incorporates a wide range of architectures including simple one-dimensional chains with small ligands to large mesoporous frameworks. Generally, the formation process proceeds automatically and, therefore, is called a self-assembly process. In general, the type and topology of the product generated from the self-assembly of inorganic metal nodes and organic spacers depend on the functionality of the ligand and valences and the geometric needs of the metal ions used. In this book the authors explain main group metal coordination polymer in bulk and nano size with some of their application, synthesis method and etc, The properties of these efficient materials are described at length including magnetism (long-range ordering, spin crossover), porosity (gas storage, ion and guest exchange), non-linear optical activity, chiral networks, reactive networks, heterogeneous catalysis, luminescence, multifunctional materials and other properties.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119370239 20170403
Book
1 online resource.
  • Permeability of Polymers / Yuri Yampolskii
  • Organosiloxanes (Silicones), Polyorganosiloxane Block Copolymers / Igor Raygorodsky, Victor Kopylov, Alexander Kovyazin
  • Polysilalkylenes / Nikolay V Ushakov, Stepan Guselnikov, Eugene Finkelshtein
  • Polyvinylorganosilanes / Nikolay V Ushakov
  • Substituted Polyacetylenes / Toshikazu Sakaguchi, Yanming Hu, Toshio Masuda
  • Polynorbornenes / Eugene Finkelshtein, Maria Gringolts, Maksim Bermeshev, Pavel Chapala, Yulia Rogan
  • Polycondensation Materials Containing Bulky Side Groups / Susanta Banerjee, Debaditya Bera
  • Gas and Vapor Transport Properties of Si-Containing and Related Polymers / Yuri Yampolskii
  • Modeling of Si-Containing Polymers / Joel R Fried, Timothy Dubbs, Morteza Azizi
  • Pervaporation and Evapomeation with Si-Containing Polymers / Tadashi Uragami
  • Si-Containing Polymers in Membrane Gas Separation / Adele Brunetti, Leonardo Melone, Enrico Drioli, Giuseppe Barbieri.
Book
1 online resource (xv, 215 pages).
  • Introduction: modifiable characteristics and applications
  • Filled polymer composites
  • Nanofillers in polymers
  • Additives in polymers
  • Surface modification of polymers: chemical, physical, and biological routes
  • Smart polymers
  • Blends and alloys
  • Gradients in homopolymers, blends, and copolymers.
Book
1 online resource.
  • List of contributors, xiii Preface, xix Topic 1: Characterization of modified polymers and their use in encapsulation processes, 1 1 Tailor made novel polymers for hydrogel encapsulation processes, 3 Artur Bartkowiak, Katarzyna Sobecka, and Agnieszka Krudos 1.1 Introduction, 3 1.2 Well known and commonly used polymers, 16 1.3 Novel polymers, 16 Acknowledgments, 29 References, 29 2 High pressure treated corn starch as an alternative carrier of molecules of nutritional interest for food systems, 35 Lorena Deladino, Aline Schneider Teixeira, Antonio Diego Molina Garcia, and Alba Sofia Navarro 2.1 Introduction, 35 2.2 Trends in nutraceutical foods, 36 2.3 Starch as a carrier for bioactive compounds, 40 2.4 Conclusions, 52 References, 53 3 Protein based nanoparticles as matrices for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals, 59 Adrian A. Perez, Osvaldo E. Sponton, and Liliana G. Santiago 3.1 General aspects of encapsulating lipophilic nutraceuticals, 59 3.2 Polyunsaturated fatty acid encapsulation systems, 60 3.3 Conclusions, 67 Acknowledgments, 68 References, 68 4 Surface modifications that benefit protein based nanoparticles as vehicles for oral delivery of phenolic phytochemicals, 73 Zheng Li 4.1 Overview, 73 4.2 Fabrication of protein based nanoparticles, 75 4.3 Obstacles to protein based nanoparticles as oral delivery vehicles, 79 4.4 Surface modifications of protein based nanoparticles for better delivery, 84 4.5 Summary, 92 References, 92 Topic 2: Stability of nutraceutical compounds encapsulated with modified polymers, 97 5 Novel polymer systems and additives to protect bioactive substances applied in spray drying, 99 Artur Bartkowiak, Wioletta Krawczyn ska, and Alicja Federowicz 5.1 Introduction, 99 5.2 Spray drying process, 100 5.3 Nutraceuticals in the food industry, 107 5.4 Polymers and novel polymers used in the spray drying process, 109 Acknowledgements, 115 References, 115 6 The use of encapsulation to guarantee the stability of phenolic compounds, 121 Maria Ines Dias, Cristina Caleja, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, and Maria Filomena Barreiro 6.1 Introduction, 121 6.2 Phenolic compounds, 122 6.3 Microencapsulation process, 126 6.4 Concluding remarks and future perspectives, 135 References, 136 7 Fortification of dairy products by microcapsules of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peels, 145 Wissam Zam 7.1 Extraction procedure, 145 7.2 Formulation of pomegranate peels polyphenol microbeads and their in vitro release, 146 7.3 Fortification of dairy products with polyphenol microcapsules, 153 References, 156 Topic 3: Application of encapsulated compounds with modified polymers in functional food systems, 159 8 Encapsulation technologies for resveratrol in functional food, 161 Maria Chavarri and Maria Carmen Villaran 8.1 Introduction, 161 8.2 Functional foods, 162 8.3 Resveratrol, 163 8.4 Encapsulation technology, 165 8.5 Microencapsulation, 168 8.6 Nanoencapsulation, 172 8.7 Conclusions, 182 References, 183 9 Nutraceutical compounds encapsulated by extrusion spheronization, 195 Thi Trinh Lan Nguyen, Nicolas Anton, and Thierry F. Vandamme 9.1 Extrusion spheronization process application for nutraceuticals, 195 9.2 Nanoemulsions for nutraceutical applications, 207 9.3 Nano size nutraceutical emulsion encapsulated by extrusion spheronization, 211 9.4 Conclusion, 223 References, 223 10 Biopolymeric archetypes for the oral delivery of nutraceuticals, 231 Mershen Govender, Miles C. Braithwaite, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E. Choonara, and Viness Pillay 10.1 Introduction, 231 10.2 Monolithic matrix based systems, 232 10.3 Encapsulated systems, 238 10.4 Conclusion, 247 Acknowledgments, 247 References, 247 11 Application of microencapsulated vitamins in functional food systems, 251 Siew Young Quek and Cheng Peng 11.1 Introduction, 251 11.2 Common microencapsulation techniques for vitamins, 254 11.3 Applications of incorporating encapsulated vitamins in dairy products, 255 11.4 Application of microencapsulated vitamins in beverages, 259 11.5 Application of encapsulated vitamins in bakery products, 263 11.6 Conclusions, 264 References, 265 12 Application of encapsulated compounds in functional food systems, 269 M. K. Tripathi and S. K. Giri 12.1 Introduction, 269 12.2 Microencapsulation technologies and bioactive food ingredients, 270 12.3 Delivery of bioactive ingredients into foods and to the gastrointestinal tract, 272 12.4 Techniques of microencapsulation, 275 12.5 Materials used for encapsulation, 279 12.6 Selection and safety evaluation of encapsulation materials, 279 12.7 Nutritional and nutraceutical compounds and microencapsulation, 280 12.8 Spray drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients, 287 12.9 Nanoencapsulation of food ingredients using lipid based delivery systems, 290 12.10 New techniques and ingredients that improve effectiveness of encapsulation, 292 References, 294 13 Encapsulation of polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods, 301 Jorge Carlos Ruiz Ruiz and Maira Rubi Segura Campos 13.1 Introduction, 301 13.2 Functional effects of omega 3 fatty acids, 303 13.3 Susceptibility to oxidation, 304 13.4 Methods for encapsulating oil, 304 13.5 Nonconventional wall materials for encapsulating oil, 305 13.6 Properties of oil as omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids capsules, 309 13.7 Oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of encapsulated vegetable oils, 311 13.8 Incorporation of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods, 313 13.9 Conclusion, 314 Acknowledgments, 315 References, 315 Index, 321.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119228790 20170403
The incorporation of functional ingredients in a given food system and the processing and handling of such foods are associated with nutritional challenges for their healthy delivery. The extreme sensitivity of some components cause significant loss of product quality, stability, nutritional value and bioavailability, and the overall acceptability of the food product. Consequently, encapsulation has been successfully used to improve stability and bioavailability of functional ingredients. Encapsulation is one example of technology that has the potential to meet the challenge of successfully incorporating and delivering functional ingredients into a range of food types. The book will cover topics about 1) Characterization of novel polymers and their use in encapsulation processes. 2) Stability of nutraceutical compounds encapsulated with novel polymers. 3) Application of encapsulated compounds with novel polymers in functional food systems. This book provides a detailed overview of technologies for preparing and characterisation of encapsulates for food active ingredients using modified polymers. The use of modified polymers as coating materials it is a field that still needs study. The book is aimed to inform students and researchers in the areas of food science and food technology, and professionals in the food industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119228790 20170403
Book
1 online resource.
  • List of contributors, xiii Preface, xix Topic 1: Characterization of modified polymers and their use in encapsulation processes, 1 1 Tailor made novel polymers for hydrogel encapsulation processes, 3 Artur Bartkowiak, Katarzyna Sobecka, and Agnieszka Krudos 1.1 Introduction, 3 1.2 Well known and commonly used polymers, 16 1.3 Novel polymers, 16 Acknowledgments, 29 References, 29 2 High pressure treated corn starch as an alternative carrier of molecules of nutritional interest for food systems, 35 Lorena Deladino, Aline Schneider Teixeira, Antonio Diego Molina Garcia, and Alba Sofia Navarro 2.1 Introduction, 35 2.2 Trends in nutraceutical foods, 36 2.3 Starch as a carrier for bioactive compounds, 40 2.4 Conclusions, 52 References, 53 3 Protein based nanoparticles as matrices for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals, 59 Adrian A. Perez, Osvaldo E. Sponton, and Liliana G. Santiago 3.1 General aspects of encapsulating lipophilic nutraceuticals, 59 3.2 Polyunsaturated fatty acid encapsulation systems, 60 3.3 Conclusions, 67 Acknowledgments, 68 References, 68 4 Surface modifications that benefit protein based nanoparticles as vehicles for oral delivery of phenolic phytochemicals, 73 Zheng Li 4.1 Overview, 73 4.2 Fabrication of protein based nanoparticles, 75 4.3 Obstacles to protein based nanoparticles as oral delivery vehicles, 79 4.4 Surface modifications of protein based nanoparticles for better delivery, 84 4.5 Summary, 92 References, 92 Topic 2: Stability of nutraceutical compounds encapsulated with modified polymers, 97 5 Novel polymer systems and additives to protect bioactive substances applied in spray drying, 99 Artur Bartkowiak, Wioletta Krawczyn ska, and Alicja Federowicz 5.1 Introduction, 99 5.2 Spray drying process, 100 5.3 Nutraceuticals in the food industry, 107 5.4 Polymers and novel polymers used in the spray drying process, 109 Acknowledgements, 115 References, 115 6 The use of encapsulation to guarantee the stability of phenolic compounds, 121 Maria Ines Dias, Cristina Caleja, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, and Maria Filomena Barreiro 6.1 Introduction, 121 6.2 Phenolic compounds, 122 6.3 Microencapsulation process, 126 6.4 Concluding remarks and future perspectives, 135 References, 136 7 Fortification of dairy products by microcapsules of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peels, 145 Wissam Zam 7.1 Extraction procedure, 145 7.2 Formulation of pomegranate peels polyphenol microbeads and their in vitro release, 146 7.3 Fortification of dairy products with polyphenol microcapsules, 153 References, 156 Topic 3: Application of encapsulated compounds with modified polymers in functional food systems, 159 8 Encapsulation technologies for resveratrol in functional food, 161 Maria Chavarri and Maria Carmen Villaran 8.1 Introduction, 161 8.2 Functional foods, 162 8.3 Resveratrol, 163 8.4 Encapsulation technology, 165 8.5 Microencapsulation, 168 8.6 Nanoencapsulation, 172 8.7 Conclusions, 182 References, 183 9 Nutraceutical compounds encapsulated by extrusion spheronization, 195 Thi Trinh Lan Nguyen, Nicolas Anton, and Thierry F. Vandamme 9.1 Extrusion spheronization process application for nutraceuticals, 195 9.2 Nanoemulsions for nutraceutical applications, 207 9.3 Nano size nutraceutical emulsion encapsulated by extrusion spheronization, 211 9.4 Conclusion, 223 References, 223 10 Biopolymeric archetypes for the oral delivery of nutraceuticals, 231 Mershen Govender, Miles C. Braithwaite, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E. Choonara, and Viness Pillay 10.1 Introduction, 231 10.2 Monolithic matrix based systems, 232 10.3 Encapsulated systems, 238 10.4 Conclusion, 247 Acknowledgments, 247 References, 247 11 Application of microencapsulated vitamins in functional food systems, 251 Siew Young Quek and Cheng Peng 11.1 Introduction, 251 11.2 Common microencapsulation techniques for vitamins, 254 11.3 Applications of incorporating encapsulated vitamins in dairy products, 255 11.4 Application of microencapsulated vitamins in beverages, 259 11.5 Application of encapsulated vitamins in bakery products, 263 11.6 Conclusions, 264 References, 265 12 Application of encapsulated compounds in functional food systems, 269 M. K. Tripathi and S. K. Giri 12.1 Introduction, 269 12.2 Microencapsulation technologies and bioactive food ingredients, 270 12.3 Delivery of bioactive ingredients into foods and to the gastrointestinal tract, 272 12.4 Techniques of microencapsulation, 275 12.5 Materials used for encapsulation, 279 12.6 Selection and safety evaluation of encapsulation materials, 279 12.7 Nutritional and nutraceutical compounds and microencapsulation, 280 12.8 Spray drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients, 287 12.9 Nanoencapsulation of food ingredients using lipid based delivery systems, 290 12.10 New techniques and ingredients that improve effectiveness of encapsulation, 292 References, 294 13 Encapsulation of polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods, 301 Jorge Carlos Ruiz Ruiz and Maira Rubi Segura Campos 13.1 Introduction, 301 13.2 Functional effects of omega 3 fatty acids, 303 13.3 Susceptibility to oxidation, 304 13.4 Methods for encapsulating oil, 304 13.5 Nonconventional wall materials for encapsulating oil, 305 13.6 Properties of oil as omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids capsules, 309 13.7 Oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of encapsulated vegetable oils, 311 13.8 Incorporation of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods, 313 13.9 Conclusion, 314 Acknowledgments, 315 References, 315 Index, 321.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119228790 20170403
The incorporation of functional ingredients in a given food system and the processing and handling of such foods are associated with nutritional challenges for their healthy delivery. The extreme sensitivity of some components cause significant loss of product quality, stability, nutritional value and bioavailability, and the overall acceptability of the food product. Consequently, encapsulation has been successfully used to improve stability and bioavailability of functional ingredients. Encapsulation is one example of technology that has the potential to meet the challenge of successfully incorporating and delivering functional ingredients into a range of food types. The book will cover topics about 1) Characterization of novel polymers and their use in encapsulation processes. 2) Stability of nutraceutical compounds encapsulated with novel polymers. 3) Application of encapsulated compounds with novel polymers in functional food systems. This book provides a detailed overview of technologies for preparing and characterisation of encapsulates for food active ingredients using modified polymers. The use of modified polymers as coating materials it is a field that still needs study. The book is aimed to inform students and researchers in the areas of food science and food technology, and professionals in the food industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119228790 20170403
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface xv 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Polymer Blends 2 1.2 Polymer Composites 2 1.3 Blends and Composites - Advantages 3 1.4 Summary 4 References 4 2 Polymers 7 2.1 Macromolecules 7 2.2 Types of Polymers 8 2.2.1 Thermoplastic Polymers 9 2.2.2 Thermoset Polymers 10 2.3 Polymerization 10 2.4 Polymerization Techniques 10 2.5 Synthetic Polymers 14 2.5.1 Thermoplastics 15 2.5.2 Polyolefins 16 2.5.3 Polyethylene (PE) 16 2.5.3.1 Physical Properties 17 2.5.3.2 Chemical Properties 18 2.5.3.3 Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 19 2.5.3.4 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) 20 2.5.3.5 High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 21 2.5.3.6 Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) 22 2.5.4 Polypropylene (PP) 22 2.5.5 Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 23 2.5.5.1 Rigid PVC 24 2.5.6 Polystyrene (PS) 24 2.5.7 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 25 2.6 Engineering Polymers 26 2.6.1 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) 27 2.6.2 Polyamide (PA) 28 2.6.3 Polycarbonate (PC) 29 2.6.4 Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) 30 2.6.5 Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) 32 2.6.6 Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) 33 2.7 Natural Polymers 33 2.7.1 Cellulose 34 2.7.2 Wood 34 2.7.3 Starch 35 2.7.4 Lignin 35 2.7.5 Chitosan 36 2.7.6 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) 36 2.7.7 Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) 37 2.8 Biodegradable Polymers 37 2.8.1 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) 38 2.8.2 Polycaprolactone (PCL) 39 2.8.3 Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 39 2.8.4 Thermosets 39 2.8.5 Phenolic Resins 40 2.8.6 Epoxy Resins 41 2.8.7 Polyurethanes 42 2.8.8 Silicone Resins 43 2.8.9 Amino Resins 43 2.8.10 Melamine Resins 43 2.8.11 Unsaturated Polyester Resins 43 2.8.12 Bismaleimide (BMI) 44 2.9 Trends 44 2.10 Summary 45 References 45 3 Polymer Properties 57 3.1 Chemistry 58 3.2 Polymer Properties 58 3.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) 60 3.2.2 Crystallinity 61 3.2.3 Tacticity 63 3.2.4 Intermolecular Forces 63 3.2.4.1 Dipole Moment 64 3.2.4.2 Phase Behavior 64 3.3 Surface Properties 65 3.3.1 Viscoelastic Properties 65 3.3.2 Mechanical Properties 67 3.3.3 Tensile Properties 67 3.3.4 Electrical Properties 68 3.3.5 Thermal Properties 68 3.3.6 Magnetic Properties 68 3.3.7 Barrier Properties 69 3.3.8 Rheological Properties 69 3.3.9 Elastic Properties 69 3.3.10 Thermodynamic Properties 70 3.4 Catalysis 70 3.5 Factors Affecting Polymer Properties 71 3.6 Summary 72 References 72 4 Additives 77 4.1 Polymer Additives 77 4.2 Additives Influencing Blends and Composites 78 4.2.1 Antioxidants 78 4.2.2 Light Stabilizers 80 4.2.3 Heat Stabilizers 80 4.2.4 Plasticizers 81 4.2.5 Lubricants 83 4.2.6 Silp Additives 84 4.2.7 Antiblocking Additives 85 4.3 Processing Aids 85 4.3.1 Viscosity Modifiers 86 4.3.2 Accelerators 86 4.3.3 Mold Release Agents 87 4.3.4 Coupling Agents 87 4.3.5 Fillers 88 4.3.6 Flame Retardants 90 4.3.7 Antistatic Agents 91 4.3.8 Colorants 92 4.3.9 Antimicrobial Agents (Biocides) 92 4.3.10 Crosslinking Agents 93 4.3.11 Peroxides 94 4.3.12 Foaming Agents 95 4.3.13 Coupling/Dispersing Agents 96 4.3.14 Comonomers 97 4.3.15 Impact Modifiers 97 4.3.16 Natural Fibers 98 4.3.17 Copolymers as Additives 99 4.3.17.1 Compatibilizers 99 4.3.18 Interfacial Agents 100 4.3.18.1 Block Copolymers 101 4.3.18.2 Random Copolymer 103 4.3.18.3 Graft Polymers 103 4.4 Summary 104 References 104 5 Polymer Blends and Composites 113 5.1 Properties of Polymer Blends 114 5.1.1 Physicochemical Properties 115 5.1.2 Morphological Properties 116 5.1.2.1 Blend Structure 116 5.1.2.2 Phase Morphology 117 5.1.2.3 Crystallization and Morphology 119 5.1.2.4 Molecular Weight 120 5.1.2.5 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution 121 5.1.3 Surface Properties 121 5.1.3.1 Surface Tension 121 5.1.3.2 Interfacial Modification 122 5.1.4 Rheological Properties 124 5.1.4.1 Copolymerization and Blending 125 5.1.5 Polymer Composite Properties 131 5.1.5.1 Structure 131 5.1.5.2 Crosslinking 133 5.1.5.3 Reinforcement 133 5.1.5.4 Crystalline Behavior 133 5.1.5.5 Mechanical Properties 134 5.1.5.6 Tribological Properties 134 5.1.5.7 Conductive Properties 135 5.2 Summary 135 References 136 6 Properties of Polymer Blends and Composites 145 6.1 Properties of Blends and Composites 146 6.1.1 Mechanical Properties 146 6.1.1.1 Tacticity 146 6.1.1.2 Interfacial Adhesion 147 6.1.1.3 Surface Composition and Concentration 147 6.1.2 Tensile Properties 149 6.1.3 Electrical Properties 149 6.1.4 Thermal Properties 149 6.1.5 Magnetic Properties 150 6.1.6 Viscoelastic Properties 150 6.1.7 Thermodynamic Properties 151 6.1.8 Barrier Properties 151 6.2 Summary 152 References 152 7 Polymer Blends 155 7.2.1 Interaction Parameters 157 7.2.2 Colloidal Properties 158 7.2.3 Morphology 158 7.2.4 Phase Separation 159 7.2.5 Crystallinity 159 7.2.6 Dispersion 160 7.2.7 Physicochemical Properties 160 7.3 Compatibilization 161 7.3.1 Reactive Compatibilizers 161 7.4 Classification 161 7.4.1 Miscible Blends 161 7.4.2 Immiscible Blends 162 7.4.3 Immiscible and Miscible Blends 163 7.4.4 Binary Blends 163 7.4.5 Ternary Blends 164 7.4.6 Homopolymer and Copolymer Blends 166 7.4.7 Thermoset-Thermoplastic Blends 166 7.4.8 Reactive Copolymer Blends 166 7.4.9 Commercial Blends 167 7.4.9.1 Polyolefin Blends 167 7.4.9.2 Polyethylene Blends 169 7.4.9.3 Polypropylene Blends 171 7.4.9.4 Poly(ethylene oxide) Blends 172 7.4.9.5 Polystyrene Blends 172 7.4.9.6 Polyvinylchloride Blends 173 7.4.9.7 Polyesters 175 7.4.9.8 Polyamide Blends 176 7.4.9.9 Acrylics Blends 178 7.4.10 Acrolonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Blends 180 7.4.11 Polycarbonate Blends 181 7.4.12 Chlorinated Polyethylene Blends 182 7.4.13 Biopolymer Blends 183 7.4.13.1 Poly(lactic acid) Blends 183 7.4.14 Poly(ε-caprolactone) Blends 184 7.4.15 Cyclic Polymer Blends 184 7.4.16 Polyethylene Oxide Blends 184 7.4.17 Other Polymer Blends 185 7.5 Advantage of Polymer Blends 186 7.6 Summary 186 References 187 8 Polymer Composites 199 8.1 Polymeric Phase 200 8.2 Reinforcing Phase 200 8.3 Classification 200 8.4 Characteristics 201 8.4.1 Physical Properties 202 8.5 Reinforcing Agents 203 8.5.1 Advantages 203 8.5.2 Shortcomings 203 8.6 Fillers 203 8.6.1 Surface Modification 205 8.6.2 Boron Trinitride 205 8.6.3 Carbon Black 205 8.6.4 Mineral Fillers 206 8.6.4.1 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) 206 8.6.4.2 Mica 207 8.7 Fibers 207 8.7.1 Fiber Length 208 8.7.2 Synthetic Fibers 208 8.7.2.1 Carbon Fiber 208 8.7.2.2 Fiberglass 209 8.7.2.3 Aromatic Polyamide Fibers 210 8.8 Composites Classification 210 8.8.1 Mechanical Properties 211 8.8.2 Thermoplastic Composites 212 8.8.3 Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites 212 8.8.4 Conducting Polymer Composites 212 8.8.5 Fiber Reinforced Composites 213 8.8.6 Continuous Fiber Composites 213 8.8.7 Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Polymers 214 8.8.8 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites 214 8.9 Thermoset Composites 215 8.9.1 Advantages 216 8.10 Thermoplastic vs Thermoset Composites 216 8.11 Summary 217 References 218 9 Biocomposites 223 9.1 Natural Fillers 223 9.1.1 Wood Flour 224 9.2 Natural Fibers 224 9.2.1 Treatments of Natural Fibers 225 9.2.1.1 Silanes 225 9.2.1.2 Benzoylation and Acrylation 226 9.2.1.3 Coupling Agents 226 9.2.1.4 Dispersing Agents 226 9.2.2 Wood Fibers 226 9.2.3 Cellulosic Fibers 227 9.2.4 Other Natural Fibers 228 9.2.5 Shortcomings 228 9.3 Thermoplastic Materials 228 9.4 Natural Polymer Composites 228 9.5 Wood-Polymer Composites 229 9.5.1 Properties 230 9.5.2 Advantages 230 9.5.3 Disadvantages 231 9.5.4 Applications 231 9.6 Biocomposites 231 9.6.1 Glucose-Based Biocomposites 231 9.6.2 Polylactide Composites 232 9.7 Future Trends 232 9.8 Summary 233 References 233 10 Processing Technology 237 10.1 Processing Technology 237 10.2 Processing Requirements 238 10.3 Processing Polymer Blends 239 10.3.1 Devolatilization 239 10.3.2 Mixing 239 10.4 Selection of Polymers 240 10.4.1 Immiscible Polymer Blends 241 10.5 Machine Selection 241 10.6 Processing Polymer Composites 242 10.6.1 Melt Mixing 242 10.7 Thermoset Polymers 243 10.8 Processing Technology for Polymer Blends and Composites 243 10.8.1 Injection Molding 243 10.8.2 Extrusion Technology 246 10.8.2.1 Single Screw Extrusion 246 10.8.2.2 Twin Screw Extrusion 248 10.8.3 Thermoforming 250 10.8.4 Reactive Blending 252 10.8.4.1 Reaction Extrusion 253 10.8.4.1 Prepolymer 254 10.8.5 Curing 254 10.8.5.1 Autoclave Curing 254 10.8.6 Lay-Up and Spray-Up Techniques 255 10.8.7 Pultrusion 255 10.8.8 Sheet Molding Compound 256 10.8.9 Compression Molding 258 10.8.9.1 Shortcomings 260 10.8.10 Resin Transfer Molding 260 10.9 Wood-Polymer Composites 261 10.9.1 Injection Molding 262 10.9.2 Extrusion 262 10.9.3 Microcellular Foam Process 264 10.10 Recycling 266 10.11 Summary 267 References 268 11 Blends, Composites and the Environment 275 11.1 Recycling of Polymer Wastes 276 11.2 Polymer Blends and Composites Recycling 277 11.2.1 Pyrolysis 277 11.2.2 Energy Conversion 278 11.2.3 Recycling of Polymer Composites 278 11.2.4 Grinding 278 11.2.5 Reinforcing Agent Separation 280 11.3 Shortcomings 280 11.4 Present Needs 281 11.5 Future Commitment 282 References 282 12 Future Trends 285 12.1 Blends and Composites 286 12.2 Blend and Composite Requirements 286 12.3 Future Benefits 287 12.3.1 Automobile Applications 287 12.3.2 Aerospace Applications 287 12.3.3 High Strength Particle 287 12.3.4 Tribological Performance 287 12.4 Greener Processing 288 12.4.1 Use of Recycled Polymer 288 12.4.2 Present Trends 289 12.5 Future Trends 290 12.6 Summary 290 References 291.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119383444 20170424
Because it is critically important to manufacture quality products, a reasonable balance must be drawn between control requirements and parameters for improved processing method with respect to plastics additives. An important contribution to the commercial polymer industry, Polymer Blends and Composites is one of the first books to combine plastics additives, testing, and quality control. The book is a comprehensive treatise on properties that provides detailed guidelines for selecting and using blends and composites for applications. A valuable resource for operators, processors, engineers, chemists, the book serves to stimulate those already active in natural polymer composites.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118118894 20170424
Book
xii, 373 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm
Polymer Materials for Energy and Electronic Applications is among the first books to systematically describe the recent developments in polymer materials and their electronic applications. It covers the synthesis, structures, and properties of polymers, along with their composites. In addition, the book introduces, and describes, four main kinds of electronic devices based on polymers, including energy harvesting devices, energy storage devices, light-emitting devices, and electrically driving sensors. Stretchable and wearable electronics based on polymers are a particular focus and main achievement of the book that concludes with the future developments and challenges of electronic polymers and devices. * Provides a basic understanding on the structure and morphology of polymers and their electronic properties and applications* Highlights the current applications of conducting polymers on energy harvesting and storage* Introduces the emerging flexible and stretchable electronic devices* Adds a new family of fiber-shaped electronic devices.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128110911 20161114
Science Library (Li and Ma)
Book
1 online resource
  • Front Cover; Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends; Related titles; Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends: Preparation and Characterization; Copyright; Contents; List of contributors; Editors' biographies; 1
  • Polymer blends: state of art; 1.1 General background on polymer blend/nanofiller composites; 1.2 Nanoparticles of the polymer composites; 1.3 Functionalized polymer with nanoparticles; 1.4 Composite material; 1.5 Preparation of polymer blend/nanofiller composites; 1.6 Characterization of polymer blend/nanocomposites
  • 1.7 Applications of polymer blend/nanocompositesReferences; 2
  • Thermoplastic-based nanoblends: preparation and characterizations; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Thermoplastic-based nanoblends; 2.2.1 Solution casting [131]; 2.2.2 Brabender mixing; 2.2.3 Melt-mixing process; 2.2.4 Extrusion molding; 2.2.5 Elongation flow mixer; 2.2.6 High-shear mixing; 2.3 Characterizations of thermoplastic-based nanoblends; 2.3.1 Tensile testing; 2.3.2 Differential scanning calorimetery; 2.3.3 Dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA); 2.3.4 Thermogravimetric analysis; 2.3.5 Scanning electron microscopy
  • 2.3.6 Transmission electron microscopy2.3.7 Atomic force microscopy; 2.3.8 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; 2.3.9 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 2.3.10 Raman spectroscopy; 2.3.11 Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; 2.3.12 Electron paramagnetic resonance or electron spin resonance spectroscopy; 2.3.13 X-ray diffraction analysis; 2.3.14 X-ray scattering and wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis; 2.3.15 Neutronscattering; 2.3.16 Rheology measurements; 2.4 Interface modification of nanoblends; 2.5 Conclusion; References
  • 3
  • Hybrid composites using natural polymer blends and carbon nanostructures: preparation, characterization, and applications3.1 Introduction; 3.1.1 Natural polymer blends; 3.1.2 Collagen; 3.1.3 Blends of collagen with other polymers; 3.1.4 Carbon-based polymer blends; 3.1.5 Collagen-nanotube blends; 3.2 Formation of conducting nanocomposite films using collagen-chitosan blends and nanocarbons; 3.2.1 Preparation of nanobiocomposite films; 3.2.2 Characteristics of collagen/guar gum/carbon nanotube hybrid films; 3.3 Formation of conducting nanocomposite films from collagen and carbon nanotubes
  • 3.3.1 Preparation of graphitic carbon from animal skin wastes3.3.2 Preparation of multifunctional nanobiocomposite films; 3.3.3 Characteristics of the developed nanobiocomposite films; 3.4 Conclusions; References; 4
  • Applications of rubber-based blends; 4.1 Introduction; 4.1.1 Medical device applications; 4.1.2 Biomedical applications; 4.1.3 Packaging applications; 4.1.4 Military applications; 4.1.5 Tire industry; 4.1.6 Aerospace applications; 4.1.7 Structural applications; 4.1.8 Other applications: recycling trend; 4.2 Conclusion; References; 5
  • Applications of thermoplastic-based blends
Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends: Preparation and Characterisation discusses the various types of techniques that are currently used for the characterization of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. It summarizes recent technical research accomplishments, emphasizing a broad range of characterization methods. In addition, the book discusses preparation methods and applications for various types of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. Chapters include thermoplastic-based polymer & nano blends, applications of rubber based and thermoplastic blends, micro/nanostructures polymer blends containing block copolymers, advances in polymer-inorganic hybrids as membrane materials, synthesis of polymer/inorganic hybrids through heterophase polymerizations, nanoporous polymer foams from nanostructured polymer blends, and natural polymeric biodegradable nano blends for protein delivery. * Describes the techniques pertaining to a kind (or small number) of blends, showing specific examples of their applications* Covers micro, macro, and nano polymer blends* Contains contributions from leading experts in the field.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081004081 20161010
Book
1 online resource : illustrations.
  • 1. Biodegradable medical polymers: Fundamental sciences Part One. Biodegradable and bioresorbable syntheticmedical polymers 2. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters 3. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters: Poly-epsilon-caprolactone 4. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters: Poly(trimethylene carbonate) 5. Synthetic biodegradable medical polymer: Polyanhydrides 6. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyurethanes 7. Synthetic biodegradable medical polymers: Polymer blends Part Two. Biodegradable and bioresorbable naturalmedical polymers 8. Natural bacterial biodegradable medical polymers: Polyhydroxyalkanoates 9. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Cellulose 10. Natural bacterial biodegradable medical polymers: Bacterial cellulose 11. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Therapeutic peptides and proteins 12. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Silk Part Three. Properties of biodegradable medical polymers 13. Biocompatibility of biodegradable medical polymers 14. Degradation characterisation of biodegradable polymers 15. Modelling degradation of biodegradable polymers.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081003725 20170206
Science and Principles of Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Medical Polymers: Materials and Properties provides a practical guide to the use of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers for study, research, and applications within medicine. Fundamentals of the basic principles and science behind the use of biodegradable polymers in advanced research and in medical and pharmaceutical applications are presented, as are important new concepts and principles covering materials, properties, and computer modeling, providing the reader with useful tools that will aid their own research, product design, and development. Supported by practical application examples, the scope and contents of the book provide researchers with an important reference and knowledge-based educational and training aid on the basics and fundamentals of these important medical polymers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081003725 20170206
Book
1 online resource : illustrations.
  • 1. Biodegradable medical polymers: Fundamental sciences Part One. Biodegradable and bioresorbable syntheticmedical polymers 2. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters 3. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters: Poly-epsilon-caprolactone 4. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters: Poly(trimethylene carbonate) 5. Synthetic biodegradable medical polymer: Polyanhydrides 6. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyurethanes 7. Synthetic biodegradable medical polymers: Polymer blends Part Two. Biodegradable and bioresorbable naturalmedical polymers 8. Natural bacterial biodegradable medical polymers: Polyhydroxyalkanoates 9. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Cellulose 10. Natural bacterial biodegradable medical polymers: Bacterial cellulose 11. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Therapeutic peptides and proteins 12. Natural biodegradable medical polymers: Silk Part Three. Properties of biodegradable medical polymers 13. Biocompatibility of biodegradable medical polymers 14. Degradation characterisation of biodegradable polymers 15. Modelling degradation of biodegradable polymers.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081003725 20170206
Science and Principles of Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Medical Polymers: Materials and Properties provides a practical guide to the use of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers for study, research, and applications within medicine. Fundamentals of the basic principles and science behind the use of biodegradable polymers in advanced research and in medical and pharmaceutical applications are presented, as are important new concepts and principles covering materials, properties, and computer modeling, providing the reader with useful tools that will aid their own research, product design, and development. Supported by practical application examples, the scope and contents of the book provide researchers with an important reference and knowledge-based educational and training aid on the basics and fundamentals of these important medical polymers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081003725 20170206
Book
1 online resource.
Book
1 online resource.
  • 1. Introduction 2. Fiber-reinforced polymer composites 3. Composite mechanics 4. Design provisions 5. Provisions for installation, quality control, and maintenance 6. Laboratory testing 7. Field testing 8. Recommendations 9. Design examples.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081006368 20170410
Strengthening of Concrete Structures Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP): Design, Construction and Practical Applications presents a best practice guide on the structural design and strengthening of bridge structures using advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. The book briefly covers the basic concepts of FRP materials and composite mechanics, while focusing on practical design and construction issues, including inspection and quality control, paying special attention to the differences in various design codes (US, Japan, and Europe) and recommendations. At present, several design guides from the US, Japan, and Europe are available. These guidelines are often inconsistent and do not cover all necessary design and inspection issues to the same degree of detail. This book provides a critical review and comparison of these guidelines, and then puts forward best practice recommendations, filling a significant gap in the literature, and serving as an important resource for engineers, architects, academics, and students interested in FRP materials and their structural applications. Written from a practitioner's point-of-view, it is a valuable design book for structural engineers all over the world.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780081006368 20170410
Book
1 online resource
  • List of Contributors xi 1 Introduction 1Mitra S. Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, and Chang Y. Ryu 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Sustainable Polymers 2 1.3 Biomass Resources for Sustainable Polymers 4 1.4 Conclusions 8 References 8 2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Sustainability, Production, and Industrialization 11Ying Wang and Guo-Qiang Chen 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 PHA Diversity and Properties 14 2.3 PHA Production from Biomass 16 2.4 PHA Application and Industrialization 26 2.5 Conclusion 28 Acknowledgment 28 References 28 3 Polylactide: Fabrication of Long Chain Branched Polylactides and Their Properties and Applications 35Zhigang Wang and Huagao Fang 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Fabrication of LCB PLAs 36 3.3 Structural Characterization on LCB PLAs 38 3.4 The Rheological Properties of LCB PLAs 43 3.5 Crystallization Kinetics of LCB PLAs 46 3.6 Applications of LCB PLAs 48 3.7 Conclusions 51 Acknowledgments 51 References 51 4 Sustainable Vinyl Polymers via Controlled Polymerization of Terpenes 55Masami Kamigaito and Kotaro Satoh 4.1 Introduction 55 4.2 ss-Pinene 57 4.3 α-Pinene 63 4.4 Limonene 65 4.5 ss-Myrcene, α-Ocimene, and Alloocimene 69 4.6 Other Terpene or Terpenoid Monomers 76 4.7 Conclusion 80 Abbreviations 80 References 81 5 Use of Rosin and Turpentine as Feedstocks for the Preparation of Polyurethane Polymers 91Meng Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, and Jinwen Zhang 5.1 Introduction 91 5.2 Rosin Based Polyurethane Foams 92 5.3 Rosin-Based Polyurethane Elastomers 95 5.4 Terpene-Based Polyurethanes 95 5.5 Terpene-Based Waterborne Polyurethanes 97 5.6 Rosin-Based Shape Memory Polyurethanes 99 5.7 Conclusions 100 References 101 6 Rosin-Derived Monomers and Their Progress in Polymer Application 103Jifu Wang, Shaofeng Liu, Juan Yu, Chuanwei Lu, Chunpeng Wang, and Fuxiang Chu 6.1 Introduction 103 6.2 Rosin Chemical Composition 104 6.3 Rosin Derived Monomers for Main-Chain Polymers 105 6.4 Rosin-Derived Monomers for Side-Chain Polymers 112 6.5 Rosin-Derived Monomers for Three-Dimensional Rosin-Based Polymer 131 6.6 Outlook and Conclusions 140 Acknowledgments 141 References 141 7 Industrial Applications of Pine-Chemical-Based Materials 151Lien Phun, David Snead, Phillip Hurd, and Feng Jing 7.1 Pine Chemicals Introduction 151 7.2 Crude Tall Oil 151 7.3 Terpenes 153 7.4 Tall Oil Fatty Acid 159 7.5 Rosin 167 7.6 Miscellaneous Products 173 References 178 8 Preparation and Applications of Polymers with Pendant Fatty Chains from Plant Oils 181Liang Yuan, Zhongkai Wang, Nathan M. Trenor, and Chuanbing Tang 8.1 Introduction 181 8.2 (Meth)acrylate Monomers Preparation and Polymerization 182 8.3 Norbornene Monomers and Polymers for Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) 194 8.4 2-Oxazoline Monomers for Living Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization 195 8.5 Vinyl Ether Monomers for Cationic Polymerization 200 8.6 Conclusions and Outlook 203 References 204 9 Structure-Property Relationships of Epoxy Thermoset Networks from Photoinitiated Cationic Polymerization of Epoxidized Vegetable Oils 209Zheqin Yang, Jananee Narayanan, Matthew Ravalli, Brittany T. Rupp, and Chang Y. Ryu 9.1 Introduction 209 9.2 Photoinitiated Cationic Polymerization of Epoxidized Vegetable Oils 213 9.3 Conclusions 224 Acknowledgment 225 References 225 10 Biopolymers from Sugarcane and Soybean Lignocellulosic Biomass 227Delia R. Tapia-Blacido, Bianca C. Maniglia, and Milena Martelli-Tosi 10.1 Introduction 227 10.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass Composition and Pretreatment 229 10.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass from Soybean 233 10.4 Production of Polymers from Soybean Biomass 234 10.5 Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane 242 10.6 Production of Polymers from Sugarcane Bagasse 242 10.7 Conclusion and Future Outlook 246 Acknowledgments 247 References 247 11 Modification of Wheat Gluten-Based Polymer Materials by Molecular Biomass 255Xiaoqing Zhang 11.1 Introduction 255 11.2 Modification of Wheat Gluten Materials by Molecular Biomass 257 11.3 Biodegradation of Wheat Gluten Materials Modified by Biomass 269 11.4 Biomass Fillers for WG Biocomposites 271 11.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives of WG-Based Materials 272 References 273 12 Copolymerization of C1 Building Blocks with Epoxides 279Ying-Ying Zhang and Xing-Hong Zhang 12.1 Introduction 279 12.2 CO2/Epoxide Copolymerization 280 12.3 CS2/Epoxide Copolymerization 295 12.4 COS/Epoxide Copolymerization 299 12.5 Properties of C1-Based Polymers 304 12.6 Conclusions and Outlook 307 References 307 13 Double-Metal Cyanide Catalyst Design in CO2/Epoxide Copolymerization 315Joby Sebastian and Darbha Srinivas 13.1 Introduction 315 13.2 Polycarbonates and Their Synthesis Methods 317 13.3 Copolymerization of CO2 and Epoxides 318 13.4 Double-Metal Cyanides and Their Structural Variation 319 13.5 Methods of DMC Synthesis 322 13.6 Factors Influencing Catalytic Activity of DMCs 323 13.7 Role of Co-catalyst on the Activity of DMC Catalysts 332 13.8 Copolymerization in the Presence of Hybrid DMC Catalysts 334 13.9 Copolymerization with Nano-lamellar DMC Catalysts 335 13.10 Effect of Crystallinity and Crystal Structure of DMC on Copolymerization 337 13.11 Effect of Method of Preparation of DMC Catalysts on Their Structure and Copolymerization Activity 337 13.12 Reaction Mechanism of Copolymerization 340 13.13 Conclusions 342 References 343 Index 347.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527340170 20170403
Offering a unique perspective summarizing research on this timely important topic around the globe, this book provides comprehensive coverage of how molecular biomass can be transformed into sustainable polymers. It critically discusses and compares a few classes of biomass - oxygen-rich, hydrocarbon-rich, hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon (including carbon dioxide) as well as natural polymers - and equally includes products that are already commercialized. A must-have for both newcomers to the field as well as established researchers in both academia and industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527340170 20170403
Book
1 online resource
  • List of Contributors ix 1 Stille Polycondensation: A Versatile Synthetic Approach to Functional Polymers 1 Tianyue Zheng, Alexander M. Schneider, and Luping Yu 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 History of the Stille Reaction (and Polycondensation) 2 1.2 Reaction Mechanism 3 1.2.1 Simplified Mechanism 3 1.3 Reaction Conditions 6 1.3.1 Catalyst and Ligand 7 1.3.2 Solvent 9 1.3.3 Additive 10 1.3.4 Temperature 11 1.4 Examples of Functional Materials Synthesized by Stille Polycondensation 12 1.4.1 Nonlinear Optical (NLO) polymers 13 1.4.1.1 Background 13 1.4.1.2 Examples of NLO Polymers Synthesized by Stille Polycondensation 13 1.4.2 Organic Photovoltaic Polymers 16 1.4.2.1 Background 16 1.4.2.2 Examples of Donor Polymers 17 1.4.2.3 Examples of Acceptor Materials 23 1.4.3 Organic Field Effect Transistor (OFET) Polymers 28 1.4.3.1 Background 28 1.4.3.2 Examples of FET Polymers Synthesized by Stille Polycondensation 32 1.4.4 Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Polymers 35 1.4.4.1 Background 35 1.4.4.2 Examples of OLED Polymers Synthesized by Stille Polycondensation 36 1.4.5 Other Functional Materials 38 1.5 Challenge and Outlook 42 1.5.1 Advantages of the Stille Reaction 42 1.5.2 Disadvantages of Stille Reaction 44 1.6 Summary 47 References 48 2 Suzuki Polycondensation 59 Anurag Krishna, Andrey V. Lunchev, and Andrew C. Grimsdale 2.1 Introduction 59 2.2 Mechanism of Suzuki Coupling and Suzuki Polycondensation 60 2.3 Catalysts 62 2.4 Reaction Conditions for Suzuki Coupling 65 2.4.1 Bases, Water, Solvents 66 2.4.2 Microwave-Assisted Reactions 67 2.5 Side Reactions 67 2.6 AB versus AA/BB Suzuki Polycondensation 71 2.7 Monomer Purity, Stoichiometry, and Solvents 73 2.8 Monomers for SPC 75 2.8.1 Boron Monomers 75 2.8.2 Halide and Other Monomers 80 2.9 Chain Growth SPC 81 2.10 Scope and Applications of SPC 82 2.11 Conclusion 85 References 86 3 Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers and Block Copolymers 97 Tine Hardeman, Marie-Paule Van Den Eede, Lize Verheyen, and Guy Koeckelberghs 3.1 Introduction 97 3.2 Approaches to Controlled Polymerizations 97 3.2.1 Catalyst Transfer Polymerizations 97 3.2.1.1 Mechanism 97 3.2.1.2 Kumada Catalyst Transfer Polycondensation 99 3.2.1.3 Negishi Catalyst Transfer Polycondensation 102 3.2.1.4 CTP Based on Suzuki Miyaura Couplings 102 3.2.1.5 CTP Based on Other Coupling Reactions 103 3.2.2 Controlled Polymerizations Based on Deactivation of the Monomer 103 3.2.2.1 Mechanism 103 3.2.2.2 Pd(RuPhos) Protocol 104 3.2.2.3 Miscellaneous 104 3.3 End-Functionalized Polymers 106 3.3.1 Introduction 106 3.3.2 External Functionalized Initiators 106 3.3.2.1 Principle 106 3.3.2.2 External Initiators with Ni as Catalyst 106 3.3.2.3 External Initiators with Pd as Catalyst 109 3.3.2.4 Grafting-from 110 3.3.3 End-Capping 111 3.3.3.1 Principle 111 3.3.3.2 End-Capping with Ni as Catalyst 111 3.3.3.3 End-Capping with Pd as Catalyst 112 3.3.4 Heterobifunctional Conjugated Polymers 112 3.4 Block Copolymers 112 3.4.1 Grafting-to Method 112 3.4.2 End-Functional Polymer Copolymerization Method 113 3.4.3 Grafting-from Method 114 3.4.4 Sequential Monomer Addition 114 3.5 Other Copolymers 117 References 117 4 Direct (Hetero)arylation Polymerization 131 Mario Leclerc and Serge Beaupre 4.1 Introduction 131 4.2 First Examples of Direct (Hetero) arylation Polymerization 134 4.3 Selectivity and Reactivity Problems 138 4.4 En Route to Defect-Free Conjugated Polymers 142 4.5 Outlook 150 References 150 5 Continuous Flow Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers and Carbon Materials 159 Valerie D. Mitchell and Wallace W. H. Wong 5.1 Introduction to Flow Chemistry 159 5.2 Conjugated Polymers 161 5.3 Carbon Materials 173 5.4 Material Processing 177 5.5 Summary 178 References 178 6 Synthesis of Structurally Defined Nanographene Materials through Oxidative Cyclodehydrogenation 183 Akimitsu Narita 6.1 Introduction 183 6.2 Synthesis of Nanographene Molecules through Oxidative Cyclodehydrogenation 186 6.2.1 Solution Synthesis of Extended Nanographene Molecules with FeCl3 and AlCl3 186 6.2.2 Complementary Cyclodehydrogenation Methods for the Solution Synthesis of Nanographene Molecules 188 6.2.3 Synthesis of Nanographene Molecules with Seven- and Eight-Membered Rings 195 6.2.4 Synthesis of Heteroatom-Doped Nanographene Molecules 198 6.2.5 Nanographene Molecules through Surface-Assisted Cyclodehydrogenation 202 6.3 Bottom-Up Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons 204 6.3.1 Graphene Nanoribbons from Solution-Mediated Cyclodehydrogenation 205 6.3.2 Graphene Nanoribbons from Surface-Assisted Cyclodehydrogenation 208 6.4 Conclusions 217 References 218 7 Photochemical and Direct C H Arylation Routes toward Carbon Nanomaterials 229 Jean-Francois Morin, Maxime Daigle, and Maude Desroches 7.1 Introduction 229 7.2 Photochemical Routes toward PAHs and Carbon Nanomaterials 231 7.2.1 Photochemical Dehydrogenation 231 7.2.2 Photochemical Dehydrohalogenation (CDH) 237 7.2.3 Miscellaneous Photocyclization Reaction 242 7.3 Intramolecular Direct Arylation C H 243 7.3.1 Conclusion and Perspective 249 References 250 8 Carbon-Rich Materials fromsp-Carbon Precursors 255 Dominik Prenzel and Rik R. Tykwinski 8.1 Introduction 255 8.2 Carbyne 256 8.3 Solid-State Reactions of Polyynes: Topochemical Polymerizations 261 8.4 Diyne Polymerization 261 8.5 Tubular Structures 264 8.6 Beyond Diynes Topochemical Polymerization of Polyynes 268 8.7 Toward Nanographene 272 8.8 Pentalenes 274 8.9 Modification of sp-Precursors with Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) 275 8.10 Thermal Dimerization of Cumulenes 278 8.11 Outlook: From Solution to Surface? 278 8.12 Summarizing Comments 282 Acknowledgments 286 References 286 Index 293.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527339983 20170403
A concise and practical overview of the most important modern synthetic aspects of conjugated polymers and carbon materials, including their properties and applications. Well structured, this book summarizes recent achievements, outlines the current state and reviews research trends. As such, a wide variety of polymerization techniques are included on both a strategic as well as a practical level, including Stille, Suzuki , and direct (hetero)arylation polymerizations. Furthermore, it covers various carbon-rich materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by a look at how the different synthetic pathways and strategies influence their final properties, for example, for use in organic electronic devices. The whole is rounded off with a discussion of future technology advances. An essential reference for newcomers as well as experienced researchers in the field.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527339983 20170403
Book
xiv, 210 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Science Library (Li and Ma)

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