### 1. Green communications [electronic resource] : theoretical fundamentals, algorithms and applications [2013]

- Book
- 1 online resource (xxvi, 808 p.) : ill.

Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone's head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction. Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques. Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as: Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781466501089 20160711

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781466501089 20160711

Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone's head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction. Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques. Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as: Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781466501089 20160711

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781466501089 20160711

- Book
- xix, 379 p. : ill.

- Power-Efficient Last Mile Access Using Fiber-Connected Massively Distributed Antenna System Evolution of Cellular Networks and Power Efficiency Considerations Power Consumption Traffic Density Equipment Cost The Goals and Organization of This Chapter BWA-FMDA Architecture A Brief Background on RoF Solutions Antenna Elements Optical Communication Medium Central Processing Entity Power Consumption and Simulation Models Power Consumption Model Signaling Overhead Simulation Model Numerical Results Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz) Energy Efficiency (bit/Joule) Tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency Conclusions Bibliography Wireless Networks Resources Trading for QoS Performance Guaranteed Green Communications Demanding-Based Communications Model Resources Trading in Wireless Networks Wireless Resource Trading The Tradeoff between Energy and Bandwidth/Delay The Tradeoff between Energy and the Number of Antennas The Tradeoff between Energy and Coding Schemes Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Cellular Networks Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Femtocell Networks System Model Model for Energy Consumption in Downlink Channels Spectrum Allocation for Green Radio Simulations Results and Performance Analyses Conclusions Bibliography Green Relay Techniques in Cellular Systems Introduction Spectrum and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Relay-assisted Systems System Model Spectrum Efficiency Analysis Energy Efficiency Analysis Insights and discussions H-ARQ Relaying and H2-ARQ Relaying H2-ARQ Relaying Strategy Performance Analysis Insights and Discussions Energy Efficient RNs in Cellular Networks Cellular System and Power Model Optimization of RN Deployment Outdoor-to-Indoor Relaying Bibliography Cross-layer Design and Optimization for Green Wireless Communications and Networking Energy Efficient Design at Different Layers Energy Efficient Hardware Platforms Energy Efficient OS Energy Efficient MAC Energy Efficient Networking Energy Efficient Application Cross-layer Optimization in Energy Static Networks Network Model Network Protocols Cross-layer Designs in Energy Dynamic Networks Hardware and Communication Sensing Bibliography Energy-Efficient Rate Adaptation in Long-Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Introduction Background: Long Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Inter-link interference model 2PMAC Protocol Overview: Rate Adaptation in Wireless Networks ERAA: Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Outdoor Long Distance 802.11 Links Network Model and Operations Design Overview The Probing Stage The Adapting Stage Path Loss Calculation and RSSI Prediction Energy Efficient Bit Rate Selection CNP-CUSUM to Handle External Interference Performance Evaluation CNP-CUSUM: Interference Intensity Change Detection Rate Adaptation Performance Concluding Remarks Bibliography Graph-Theoretic Algorithms for Energy Saving in IP Networks Elements of the Graph Theory Used in GES Shortest Path Tree Edge between Algebraic connectivity ESACON algorithm ESTOP algorithm EAR algorithm A practical example of GES application Performance behavior of the GES algorithms Path length increase Percentage of links that are switched off Power saving Impact in terms of traffic utilization Practical implementation of the GES algorithms Conclusions Bibliography Architectural Design of An Energy-Efficient Router Opportunities and Challenges Architecture of Green Reconfigurable Router Power Aware Routing through Green Traffic Engineering The General Problem Formulation A Practical Heuristic Rate Adaptive Processing inside Routers Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Adaptive Link Rate Interface A Multi-Frequency Scaling Prototype Power Efficient Architectures for Router Functions Routing Lookup Packet Classifier Packet Queuing Traffic Manager Summary Bibliography The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources in the CO2 Emissions of Converged Optical Network and Cloud Infrastructures Introduction Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure Optical Network Elements Energy consumption models for computing resources Energy aware VI planning VI Problem Formulation Numerical Results Conclusions Bibliography Low Power Dynamic Scheduling for Computing Systems Task Scheduling with Processing Rate Constraints Examples of Energy-Aware Processing Time Averages as Ratios of Frame Averages Relation to Frame Average Expectations An Example with One Task Class No constraints One Constraint The Linear Fractional Program for Task Scheduling Virtual Queues The Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio Bounding the Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio The Task Scheduling Algorithm Steps to minimize (9.24) Performance of the Task Scheduling Algorithm Simulation Optimization with General Attributes Mapping to the Task Scheduling Problem The General Algorithm Random Task Arrivals and Flow Control The Dynamic Algorithm for Random Task Arrivals Deterministic Queue Bounds and Constraint Violation Bounds Simulations and Adaptiveness of Random Task Scheduling Task Scheduling: Extensions and Further Reading Exercises for Section 9.2 Reacting to Randomly Observed Events Algorithm1 Algorithm2 Comparison of Algorithms 1 and 2 Efficient Computation and Transmission for a Wireless Smart Device Exercises for Section 9.3 Conclusions Bibliography Smart Grid Communication Network and Its Applications Introduction AMI and Its Applications Background The AMI Infrastructure The AMI Metering System AMI Communication Network The Meter Data Management System The Standardization of the AMI Infrastructure The Standardization of AMI Communication Protocols The Standardized AMI Information Model Advanced DMS Applications Distribution System State Estimation Advanced Outage Management Demand Response Dependency on the AMI System SCADA -The Utility Monitoring and Control Network and Its Applications Background Components of SCADA Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) Remote Terminal Units (RTU) Automation Controllers Communication Protocols in SCADA Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3) IEC 61850 Discussion Distribution Automation Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration Voltage and Var Control Conclusion Bibliography Demand and Response in Smart Grid Demand and Response Overview Significance of Demand Response Demand Response in Traditional Grid New Requirements in Smart Grid Representative DR Algorithms in Smart Grid Classifications Customer Profit Optimization Algorithms Operation Cost of Electric Utility Reduction Social Welfare Maximization Summarize the DR Methods and Future Directions Conclusion Bibliography Green Wireless Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid Environment Introduction Background GreenWireless Cellular Networks Energy-Efficient Solutions Key Trade-offs in the Network Smart Grid Demand-Side Management System Models Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Communication Service Blocking Probability Model in the Cellular Network Electricity Consumption Model for Base Stations Problem Formulation Cellular Network Level Game Smart Grid Level Game Analysis of the Proposed Two-Level Game Analysis of the Cellular Network Level Game Analysis of the Smart Grid Level Game Existence of Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Uniqueness of the Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Simulation Results and Discussions Conclusions Bibliography.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781439899137 20160612

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781439899137 20160612

- Power-Efficient Last Mile Access Using Fiber-Connected Massively Distributed Antenna System Evolution of Cellular Networks and Power Efficiency Considerations Power Consumption Traffic Density Equipment Cost The Goals and Organization of This Chapter BWA-FMDA Architecture A Brief Background on RoF Solutions Antenna Elements Optical Communication Medium Central Processing Entity Power Consumption and Simulation Models Power Consumption Model Signaling Overhead Simulation Model Numerical Results Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz) Energy Efficiency (bit/Joule) Tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency Conclusions Bibliography Wireless Networks Resources Trading for QoS Performance Guaranteed Green Communications Demanding-Based Communications Model Resources Trading in Wireless Networks Wireless Resource Trading The Tradeoff between Energy and Bandwidth/Delay The Tradeoff between Energy and the Number of Antennas The Tradeoff between Energy and Coding Schemes Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Cellular Networks Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Femtocell Networks System Model Model for Energy Consumption in Downlink Channels Spectrum Allocation for Green Radio Simulations Results and Performance Analyses Conclusions Bibliography Green Relay Techniques in Cellular Systems Introduction Spectrum and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Relay-assisted Systems System Model Spectrum Efficiency Analysis Energy Efficiency Analysis Insights and discussions H-ARQ Relaying and H2-ARQ Relaying H2-ARQ Relaying Strategy Performance Analysis Insights and Discussions Energy Efficient RNs in Cellular Networks Cellular System and Power Model Optimization of RN Deployment Outdoor-to-Indoor Relaying Bibliography Cross-layer Design and Optimization for Green Wireless Communications and Networking Energy Efficient Design at Different Layers Energy Efficient Hardware Platforms Energy Efficient OS Energy Efficient MAC Energy Efficient Networking Energy Efficient Application Cross-layer Optimization in Energy Static Networks Network Model Network Protocols Cross-layer Designs in Energy Dynamic Networks Hardware and Communication Sensing Bibliography Energy-Efficient Rate Adaptation in Long-Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Introduction Background: Long Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Inter-link interference model 2PMAC Protocol Overview: Rate Adaptation in Wireless Networks ERAA: Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Outdoor Long Distance 802.11 Links Network Model and Operations Design Overview The Probing Stage The Adapting Stage Path Loss Calculation and RSSI Prediction Energy Efficient Bit Rate Selection CNP-CUSUM to Handle External Interference Performance Evaluation CNP-CUSUM: Interference Intensity Change Detection Rate Adaptation Performance Concluding Remarks Bibliography Graph-Theoretic Algorithms for Energy Saving in IP Networks Elements of the Graph Theory Used in GES Shortest Path Tree Edge between Algebraic connectivity ESACON algorithm ESTOP algorithm EAR algorithm A practical example of GES application Performance behavior of the GES algorithms Path length increase Percentage of links that are switched off Power saving Impact in terms of traffic utilization Practical implementation of the GES algorithms Conclusions Bibliography Architectural Design of An Energy-Efficient Router Opportunities and Challenges Architecture of Green Reconfigurable Router Power Aware Routing through Green Traffic Engineering The General Problem Formulation A Practical Heuristic Rate Adaptive Processing inside Routers Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Adaptive Link Rate Interface A Multi-Frequency Scaling Prototype Power Efficient Architectures for Router Functions Routing Lookup Packet Classifier Packet Queuing Traffic Manager Summary Bibliography The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources in the CO2 Emissions of Converged Optical Network and Cloud Infrastructures Introduction Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure Optical Network Elements Energy consumption models for computing resources Energy aware VI planning VI Problem Formulation Numerical Results Conclusions Bibliography Low Power Dynamic Scheduling for Computing Systems Task Scheduling with Processing Rate Constraints Examples of Energy-Aware Processing Time Averages as Ratios of Frame Averages Relation to Frame Average Expectations An Example with One Task Class No constraints One Constraint The Linear Fractional Program for Task Scheduling Virtual Queues The Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio Bounding the Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio The Task Scheduling Algorithm Steps to minimize (9.24) Performance of the Task Scheduling Algorithm Simulation Optimization with General Attributes Mapping to the Task Scheduling Problem The General Algorithm Random Task Arrivals and Flow Control The Dynamic Algorithm for Random Task Arrivals Deterministic Queue Bounds and Constraint Violation Bounds Simulations and Adaptiveness of Random Task Scheduling Task Scheduling: Extensions and Further Reading Exercises for Section 9.2 Reacting to Randomly Observed Events Algorithm1 Algorithm2 Comparison of Algorithms 1 and 2 Efficient Computation and Transmission for a Wireless Smart Device Exercises for Section 9.3 Conclusions Bibliography Smart Grid Communication Network and Its Applications Introduction AMI and Its Applications Background The AMI Infrastructure The AMI Metering System AMI Communication Network The Meter Data Management System The Standardization of the AMI Infrastructure The Standardization of AMI Communication Protocols The Standardized AMI Information Model Advanced DMS Applications Distribution System State Estimation Advanced Outage Management Demand Response Dependency on the AMI System SCADA -The Utility Monitoring and Control Network and Its Applications Background Components of SCADA Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) Remote Terminal Units (RTU) Automation Controllers Communication Protocols in SCADA Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3) IEC 61850 Discussion Distribution Automation Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration Voltage and Var Control Conclusion Bibliography Demand and Response in Smart Grid Demand and Response Overview Significance of Demand Response Demand Response in Traditional Grid New Requirements in Smart Grid Representative DR Algorithms in Smart Grid Classifications Customer Profit Optimization Algorithms Operation Cost of Electric Utility Reduction Social Welfare Maximization Summarize the DR Methods and Future Directions Conclusion Bibliography Green Wireless Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid Environment Introduction Background GreenWireless Cellular Networks Energy-Efficient Solutions Key Trade-offs in the Network Smart Grid Demand-Side Management System Models Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Communication Service Blocking Probability Model in the Cellular Network Electricity Consumption Model for Base Stations Problem Formulation Cellular Network Level Game Smart Grid Level Game Analysis of the Proposed Two-Level Game Analysis of the Cellular Network Level Game Analysis of the Smart Grid Level Game Existence of Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Uniqueness of the Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Simulation Results and Discussions Conclusions Bibliography.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781439899137 20160612

(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781439899137 20160612

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