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Book
xiii, 132 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Medical Library (Lane)
Book
xii, 296 pages : illustrations (some color), color portrait ; 25 cm
Medical Library (Lane)
Book
vi, 529 p. : ill., col. ports.
  • Challenges in advancing classical acupuncture.- Reflex arcs: basis of acupuncture.- Reflex zones: essence of the meridians.- Mechanisms of acupuncture functions.- Mechanisms of propagation of needling sensations.- Black box of the patient.- Gathering reflex information from the body surface.- Input of intervening information of acupuncture.- Feedback principle of treatment.- Factors influencing effectiveness of acupuncture.- Strategies to raise therapeutic effectiveness.- Advanced needling techniques.- Disorders of the musculoskeletal system.- Disorders of the nervous system.- Mental disorders.- Disorders of ophthalmology.- Disorders of otorinolaringology.- Dental disorders.- Disorders of circulatory system.- Disorders of respiratory system.- Disorders of digestive system.- Disorders of urogenital system.- Disorders of the skin.- Disorders of endocrine.- Other disorders.- Appendix A: The atlas of whole body reflex zones.- Appendix B: Index of acupoints and extraordinary points.- Appendix C: Frequently asked questions.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780387710280 20160528
This book aims to connect and integrate classical acupuncture therapy and contemporary medicine. Based on updated reviews and systematic analyses, the meridians are actually systems of physiological and pathological reflexes in the body, and acupuncture therapy is a type of reflexotherapy. Includes incisive and concrete theory and technique descriptions, a novel systems approach, and many case studies. An advanced, practical, and valuable resource for acupuncture practitioners interested in sharpening clinical skills; and an essential and comprehensive text for health care professionals interested in integrating medical acupuncture into their practice.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780387710280 20160528
Book
xxvi, 269 p. : ill.
  • Basic principles Definitions Differences between herbs and other drugs Herbal quality Paraherbalism Homeopathy Rational herbalism General guidelines in the use of herbal medicines Herbal dosage forms Herbal medicine information sources References Contents and use of subsequent chapters References Digestive system problems Nausea and vomiting (motion sickness) Herbal remedy for nausea and vomiting Appetite loss Constipation Diarrhea Indigestion-dyspepsia Hepatotoxicity (liver damage) Peptic ulcers References Kidney, urinary tract, and prostate problems Infections and kidney stones Benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate enlargement) References Respiratory tract problems Bronchial asthma Colds and flu Sore throat References Cardiovascular system problems Congestive heart failure Arteriosclerosis Peripheral vascular disease Cerebrovascular disease Venous disorders References Nervous system disorders Anxiety and sleep disorders Depression Pain (general) Headache Toothache Sexual impotence References Endocrine and metabolic problems Hormones in endocrine and metabolic disorders Gynecological disorders Hyperthyroidism Diabetes mellitus References Arthritic and musculoskeletal disorders Arthritis Muscle pain Gout References Problems of the skin, mucous membranes, and gingiva Dermatitis Contact dermatitis Burns, wounds, and infections Lesions and infections of the oral cavity and throat References Performance and immune deficiencies Performance and endurance enhancers Cancer Communicable diseases and infections References Appendix: The herbal regulatory system, Updated and expanded by Paula N Brown and Michael Chan Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780789028099 20160604
Does Echinacea fight the common cold? Does St. John's Wort (SJW) really counteract depression? What about chondroitin for joint health? Today's healthcare professionals are increasingly confronted with questions from patients who want to use herbal supplements to treat various conditions. A critical and scientific assessment of medicinal plant research by an internationally recognized researcher and writer in the field, Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals, Third Edition combines the scientific aspects of herbal medicine, phytomedicine, and pharmacognosy with the modern clinical trials that support the rationale for using plant products in healthcare. A Decade's Worth of Updates The original edition of this volume was authored by the late Professor Varro E. Tyler, a true giant in the field of pharmacognosy and pharmacy education. Following in Tyler's footsteps, Dennis V.C. Awang, co-editor of the journal Phytomedicine, recognized the need for a revised third edition, in light of how quickly the clinical literature surrounding the dietary supplement market is growing. Millions of consumers are demanding natural treatment options from their doctors and pharmacies in a variety of forms, from herbal teas to tinctures and capsules. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals, Third Edition effectively fosters understanding in patients and practitioners of the role that herbs and phytomedicinal products can play in both self-care and healthcare.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780789028099 20160604
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface. Contributors. 1 Introduction ( Corinne Kay ). 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Voyage Through The Digestive System. 1.3 The Liver Metabolism. 1.4 The Kidneys. 1.5 Conclusions. 2 In Silico ADME/Tox Predictions ( David Lagorce, Christelle Reynes, Anne-Claude Camproux, Maria A. Miteva, Olivier Sperandio, and Bruno O. Villoutreix ). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Key Computer Methods for ADME/Tox Predictions. 2.3 Preparation of Compound Collections and Computer Programs, Challenging ADME/Tox Predictions and Statistical Methods. 2.4 ADME/Tox Predictions within Pharmaceutics Companies. 2.5 Challenging ADME/Tox Predictions. 2.6 Statistical Methods. 2.7 Conclusions. 3 Absorption and Physicochemical Properties of the NCE ( Jon Selbo and Po-Chang Chiang ). 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Physicochemical Properties. 3.3. Stability. 3.4. Dissolution and Solubility. 3.5. Solid State. 4 ADME ( Martin E. Dowty, Dean M. Messing, Yurong Lai, and Leonid (Leo) Kirkovsky ). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Absorption. 4.3 Distribution. 4.4 Elimination. 4.5 Drug Interactions. 4.6 Strategies for Assessing ADME Properties. 4.7 Tool Summary for Assessing ADME Properties. 5 Pharmacokinetics for Medicinal Chemists ( Leonid (Leo) Kirkovsky and Anup Zutshi ). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 ADME. 5.3 The Mathematics of Pharmacokinetics. 5.4 Drug Administration and PK Observations. 5.5 Human PK Projection. 5.6 PK Practices. 5.7 Engineering Molecules with Desired ADME Profile. 6 Cardiac Toxicity ( Ralf Kettenhofen and Silke Schwengberg ). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Ion Channel-Related Cardiac Toxicity. 6.3 Nonarrhythmic Cardiac Toxicity. 7 Genetic Toxicity: In Vitro Approaches for Medicinal Chemists ( Richard M. Walmsley and David Elder ). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Limitations in the Regulatory In Vitro Genotoxicity Tests. 7.3 Practical Issues for Genotoxicity Profiling. 7.4 Computational Approaches to Genotoxicity Assessment: The In Silico Methods. 7.5 Genotoxicity Assays for Screening. 7.6 The "Omics". 7.7 Using Data from In Vitro Profiling: Confirmatory Tests, Follow-Up Tests, and the Link to Safety Assessment and In Vivo Models. 7.8 What to Test, When, and How. 7.9 Changes to Regulatory Guidelines Can Influence Screening Strategy. 7.10 Summary. 8 Hepatic Toxicity ( Jinghai James Xu and Keith Hoffmaster ). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Mechanisms of DILI. 8.3 Assays and Test Systems to Measure Various Types of DILI. 8.4 Medicinal Chemistry Strategies to Minimize DILI. 8.5 Future Outlooks. 9 In Vivo Toxicological Considerations ( John P. Devine, Jr ). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Route of Administration. 9.3 Formulation Issues. 9.4 Compound Requirements. 9.5 Animal Models. 9.6 IND-Supporting Toxicology Studies. 9.7 Study Result Interpretation. 9.8 Genetic Toxicology Studies. 9.9 Conclusion. 10 Preclinical Candidate Nomination and Development ( Nils Bergenhem ). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Investigational New Drug Application and Clinical Development. 10.3 Strategic Goals for the Preclinical Development. 10.4 Selection of Preclinical Development Candidate. 10.5 CMC. 10.6 Preclinical Studies. 10.7 Conclusions. 11 Fragment-Based Drug Design: Considerations for Good ADME Properties ( Haitao Ji ). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Fragment-Based Screening. 11.3 Case Studies of Fragment-Based Screening for Better Bioavailability. 11.4 De Novo Design. 11.5 Case Studies of De Novo Design for Better Bioavailability. 11.6 Minimal Pharmacophoric Elements and Fragment Hopping. 11.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives. Acknowledgments. References. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470915110 20160608
This book guides medicinal chemists in how to implement early ADMET testing in their workflow in order to improve both the speed and efficiency of their efforts. Although many pharmaceutical companies have dedicated groups directly interfacing with drug discovery, the scientific principles and strategies are practiced in a variety of different ways. This book answers the need to regularize the drug discovery interface; it defines and reviews the field of ADME for medicinal chemists. In addition, the scientific principles and the tools utilized by ADME scientists in a discovery setting, as applied to medicinal chemistry and structure modification to improve drug-like properties of drug candidates, are examined.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470915110 20160608
dx.doi.org Wiley Online Library
Book
xxiii, 629 p. : ill.
  • Preface. List of Contributors. 1 Introduction. 1.1 The History of Magnetism in Medicine (Urs Hafeli). 1.1.1 Origins. 1.1.2 First Medical Uses of Magnets. 1.1.3 Use of Attracting Forces of Magnets in Medicine. 1.1.4 Treatment of Nervous Diseases and Mesmerism. 1.1.5 Other Medical Uses of Magnets and Magnetism. 1.1.6 The In.uence of Magnetic Fields on Man. References. 1.2 Basic Physical Principles (Dmitri Berkov). 1.2.1 Introduction. 1.2.2 The Electromagnetic Field Concept and Maxwell Equations. 1.2.3 Magnetic Field in Condensed Matter: General Concepts. 1.2.4 Magnetic Field in Condensed Matter: Special Topics. Appendix. References. 1.3 Creating and Measuring Magnetic Fields (Wilfried Andra and Hannes Nowak). 1.3.1 Introduction. 1.3.2 The Generation of Magnetic Fields. 1.3.3 The Measurement of Magnetic Fields. 1.3.4 Discussion. References. 1.4 Safety Aspects of Magnetic Fields (Jurgen H. Bernhardt and Gunnar Brix). 1.4.1 Introduction. 1.4.2 Risk Evaluation and Guidance on Protection. 1.4.3 Static and Extremely Slowly Time-Varying Magnetic Fields. 1.4.4 Time-Varying Magnetic Fields. 1.4.5 Electromagnetic Fields. 1.4.6 Protection of Patients and Volunteers Undergoing MR Procedures. References. 2 Biomagnetism. 2.1 Introduction (Hannes Nowak). 2.2 Biomagnetic Instrumentation (Hannes Nowak). 2.2.1 History. 2.2.2 Biomagnetic Fields. 2.2.3 SQUID Sensor. 2.2.4 Shielding: Magnetically and Electrically Shielded Rooms. 2.2.5 Gradiometers. 2.2.6 Dewar/Cryostat. 2.2.7 Commercial Biomagnetic Measurement Devices. 2.2.8 Special Biomagnetic Measurement Devices. 2.2.9 High-Temperature Superconductivity. 2.2.10 Perspectives. References. 2.3 Cardiomagnetism (Gerhard Stroink, Birgit Hailer, and Peter Van Leeuwen). 2.3.1 Introduction. 2.3.2 Forward Solutions. 2.3.3 Inverse Solutions. 2.3.4 Validation. 2.3.5 Clinical Applications of Magnetocardiography. 2.3.6 Ischemic Heart Disease. 2.3.7 Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease. 2.3.8 Cardiomyopathy. 2.3.9 Cardiac Arrhythmias. 2.3.10 Clinical Conclusions. References. 2.4 Neuromagnetism (Thomas R. Knosche, Nobukazu Nakasato, Michael Eiselt, and Jens Haueisen). 2.4.1 Introduction. 2.4.2 The Generation of Magnetic Signals by the Brain. 2.4.3 Analysis of Neuromagnetic Fields. 2.4.4 The Investigation of the Primary Sensory and Motor Systems. 2.4.5 Neuromagnetic Fields and Brain Science: Cognitive Functions. 2.4.6 Clinical Applications. References. 2.5 Fetal Magnetography (Uwe Schneider and Ekkehard Schleussner). 2.5.1 Fetal Magnetocardiography. 2.5.2 Fetal Magnetoencephalography. References. 3 Magnetic Resonance. 3.1 Introduction (Werner A. Kaiser). 3.2 Physical Principles and Technology of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Arnulf Oppelt). 3.2.1 Historical Overview. 3.2.2 Basic Physical Principles of NMR. 3.2.3 The NMR Signal. 3.2.4 Nuclear Relaxation. 3.2.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratio. 3.2.6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3.2.7 Selective Excitation. 3.2.8 Partial Acquisition Techniques. 3.2.9 Pulse Sequence and Contrast. 3.2.10 Imaging of Flow. 3.2.11 Di.usion Imaging. 3.2.12 MR Spectroscopy. 3.2.13 System Design Considerations. 3.2.14 Magnets. 3.2.15 Shimming. 3.2.16 Gradient System. 3.2.17 RF-System. 3.2.18 Conclusions. References. 3.3 Modern Applications of MRI in Medical Sciences. 3.3.1 New MRI Techniques for Cardiovascular Imaging (Debiao Li and Andrew C. Larson). 3.3.2 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) (Oliver Speck, Axel Schreiber, Clemens Janz, and Ju rgen Hennig). 3.3.3 New MRI Techniques for the Detection of Acute Cerebral Ischemia (Michael E. Moseley, Roland Bammer, and Joachim Rother) 3.3.4 Clinical Applications at Ultrahigh Fields (Petra Schmalbrock and Donald W. Chakeres). 3.3.5 Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Concepts, Systems, and Applications (Cli.ord R. Weiss and Jonathan S. Lewin). 3.3.6 New Approaches in Diagnostic and Therapeutic MR Mammography (Werner A. Kaiser, Stefan O.R. P.eiderer, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, and Jurgen R. Reichenbach). 3.3.7 MR Spectroscopy (Peter Bachert). Conclusions and Perspectives. References. 4 Magnetic Substances and Externally Applied Fields. 4.1 Introduction (Wilfried Andra) 4.2 Magnetic Monitoring as a Diagnostic Method for Investigating Motility in the Human Digestive System (Hendryk Richert, Olaf Kosch, and Peter Gornert) 4.2.1 Introduction. 4.2.2 Conventional Investigation Methods of the Human GI Tract. 4.2.3 Magnetic Markers. 4.2.4 Magnetic Monitoring Systems. 4.2.5 Conclusion and Outlook. 4.3 Remote-Controlled Drug Delivery in the Gastrointestinal Tract (Wilfried Andra and Christoph Werner). 4.3.1 Introduction. 4.3.2 Physical Principles Used or Proposed for Remote Controlled Release. 4.3.3 Discussion and Outlook. 4.4 Magnetic Stimulation (Shoogo Ueno and Minoru Fujiki). 4.4.1 Introduction. 4.4.2 History. 4.4.3 Principle of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. 4.4.4 Clinical and Preclinical Application of TMS. 4.5 Liver Iron Susceptometry (Roland Fischer and David E. Farrell). 4.5.1 Introduction. 4.5.2 Iron Metabolism and Iron Overload. 4.5.3 Technical Developments of Biomagnetic Liver Susceptometry. 4.5.4 Physical and Biochemical Basics. 4.5.5 Magnetostatic Principles. 4.5.6 Calibration and Validation. 4.5.7 Magnetic Background and Noise Problems. 4.5.8 Alternative Methods. 4.5.9 Medical Applications. 4.5.10 Summary and Outlook. References. 4.6 Magnetic Hyperthermia and Thermoablation (Rudolf Hergt and Wilfried Andra) 4.6.1 Introduction. 4.6.2 Physical Principles of Magnetic Particle Heating. 4.6.3 Physical-Technical Implementation of the Therapy. 4.6.4 Biomedical Status of Magnetic Particle Hyperthermia. 4.7 Magnetic Cell Separation for Research and Clinical Applications (Michael Apel, Uwe A.O. Heinlein, Stefan Miltenyi, Ju rgen Schmitz, and John D.M. Campbell). 4.7.1 Introduction. 4.7.2 MACS4 Technology. 4.7.3 Magnetic Cell Sorting for Clinical Applications. References. 4.8 Magnetic Drug Targeting (Christoph Alexiou and Roland Jurgons). 4.8.1 Background and History of Magnetic Drug Targeting. 4.8.2 Regional Chemotherapies for Cancer Treatment. 4.8.3 Current Applications of Magnetic Drug Targeting. 4.8.4 Outlook. References. 4.9 New Fields of Application (Wilfried Andra and Urs Hafeli). 4.9.1 Introduction. 4.9.2 Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI). 4.9.3 Magnetically Modulated Optical Nanoprobes. 4.9.4 Magnetic Guidance. References. 5 Conclusions and Perspectives (Jens Haueisen). Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527405589 20160605
Progress in medicine has often been initiated by discoveries and results from various disciplines of natural science. One of the most famous examples is the X-ray. In this case, its importance with respect to medical applications was immediately recognized and its development was propelled by fruitful cooperation between physicians and physicists. In other cases, e.g. that of NMR, the period between discovery and subsequent application in medicine was longer. Sometimes, a method has become established in clinical practice only after having passed through a long period of in vitro investigations and preclinical trials, while there are also applications that could only be seriously developed once crucial parts had been invented. Such cooperation between physicians, scientists, and engineers has proven effective and is certainly also a prerequisite for the continuing development of new methods or more sophisticated techniques and instruments. This is of particular concern for the application of magnetism in medicine. This second, completely updated and extended edition of the only reference work in this growing field of medical physics focuses on biomagnetic instrumentation as well as applications in cardiology and neurology. New chapters have been added on fetal magnetography and magnetic field therapy, as well as the safety aspects of magnetic fields. Following an introductory section, the well-known specialist authors from Germany, USA, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands and Scandinavia go on to cover biomagnetism, magnetic resonances, as well as magnetic substances and externally applied magnetic fields, before rounding the text off with a set of conclusions. The result is a manual for researchers in this field as well as for those who apply modern methods based on magnetism in medical practice. It equally provides a detailed overview for newcomers to the field as well as for experts familiar with only one part of the area.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527405589 20160605
This second, completely updated and extended edition of the only reference work in this growing field of medical physics focuses on biomagnetic instrumentation as well as applications in cardiology and neurology. New chapters have been added on fetal magnetography and magnetic field therapy, as well as the safety aspects of magnetic fields. Written by well known specialists from Germany, USA, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, the result is a manual for researchers in this field as well as for those who apply modern methods based on magnetism in medical practice. It equally provides a detailed overview for newcomers to the field as well as for experts familiar with only one part of the area.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783527610174 20160605
dx.doi.org Wiley Online Library
Book
xxi, 512 p. : ill.
  • Introduction A Brief History of Chinese Medicine The Cardiovascular System Herbs with Multiple Actions Cardiac Herbs Antiarrhythmic Herbs Antihypertensive Herbs Antianginal Herbs Antihypercholesteroliemic Herbs Antishock Herbs The Nervous System Anesthetics and Muscle-Relaxing Herbs Sedatives and Hypnotic Herbs Anticonvulsive Herbs Anti-Alzheimer and Nootropic Herbs Analgesic Herbs Antipyretic Herbs Antirheumatic Herbs Central Stimulating Herbs The Alimentary System Stomachic and "Wind"-Dispelling Herbs Herbs Promoting Digestion Antacid and Antiulcer Herbs Laxative Herbs Antidiarrheal Herbs Emetic and Antiemetic Herbs Choleretic and Antihepatitis Herbs Tonics and Supporting Herbs The Respiratory System Antitussives Expectorants Antiasthmatic Herbs The Genitourinary System Diuretic Herbs Herbs Affecting the Uterus Fertility and Contraceptive Herbs The Hematopoietic System Herbs Promoting Blood Formation Immunoenhancing and Immunosuppressing Herbs Hemostatic and Antistasic Herbs The Endocrine System Herbs Affecting the Thyroid Gland Herbs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex Antidiabetic Herbs Chemotherapy Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Antifungus Herbs Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Viral (HIV) Herbs Antitubercular Herbs Antiseptics and Disinfectants Anthelmintics Antiamebial and Antitrichomonial Herbs Antimalarial Herbs Anticancer Herbs Appendix Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780849316654 20160528
Records cataloging the healing powers of natural substances - plants, minerals, and animal byproducts - date back more than 4,000 years. There is no denying the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, yet - until recently - the roots of this knowledge were largely lost in superstition and folklore. However, the use of herbs as an alternative medical treatment for many illnesses has increased steadily over the last decade, particularly since such herbs are categorized as 'Natural Food Products' and are not yet subject to strict control by the FDA. Reports published in 1996 indicate that more than 10 percent of the US population has used herbal remedies. This book does not debate the value of Eastern or Western medicine but brings together Chinese herbal lore and Western scientific methods in a current, comprehensive treatise on the pharmacology of Chinese herbs.This second edition of "The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs" presents the chemical composition, pharmacological action, toxicity, and therapeutic value of 473 herbs. The book classifies herbs according to their therapeutic value; informs how active ingredients in herbs may adversely interact with other herbs or drugs; evaluates which herbs have the potential for more investigation and possible use as drugs; describes the pharmacological action of each herb based on recent scientific study and describes each herb according to Chinese pharmacopoeia and folk medicine; provides a review of Chinese medical history; and, presents information on how to use modern chemical techniques for enhancing or modifying herbal ingredients into better agents with more strength and activity.What's new in the Second Edition: Discussions on herbs and their specific effects on the immune system; herbs and fertility/infertility; anti-cancer herbs; anti-HIV herbs; anti-malarial herbs; ginseng and ginsenosides; anti-alzheimer herbs; and herbs affecting the nervous system.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780849316654 20160528
Book
303 p. : ill.
  • Applied Enzymology, an Overview, N. Shanley and G. Walsh Introduction Enzymes: Sources and Production Enzymes Used for Analytical Purposes Enzymes Used for Industrial Purposes The Future of Industrial Enzymes Enzyme Engineering, B.M. McGrath Introduction Improving Enzymes by Engineering Engineered Enzyme Properties Engineering Therapeutic Enzymes Conclusions Tissue Plasminogen Activator-Based Thrombolytic Agents, G. Walsh Thrombosis and Thrombolytic Therapy Alteplase Reteplase Tenecteplase Conclusions Activated Protein C, B.W. Grinnell, S.B. Yan, and W.L. Macias Structure of APC Development of rhAPC APC Mechanisms of Action APC Pharmacology and Therapeutic Rationale Clinical Development of Drotrecogin Alfa (Activated) for Severe Sepsis Summary and Conclusions Deoxyribonuclease I, N.N. Sanders, S.C. De Smedt, and J. Demeester Introduction Biochemical Aspects Catalytic Mechanism Determination of Activity Therapeutic Applications Production and Stability of rhDNase I Prospects b-Glucocerebrosidase Ceredase (R) and Cerezyme (R), T. Edmunds Introduction Gaucher's Disease Biochemistry Early Attempts at Therapy Development of Ceredase Development of Cerezyme Biochemical Comparison of Cerezyme and Ceredase Clinical Comparisons of Cerezyme and Ceredase Orphan Drug Development Challenges Acknowledgements b-Galactosidase, D. Barngrover Introduction Detailed Biochemical Characteristics of the Enzyme Fabry's Disease and the Role of Fabrazyme Enzyme Replacement Therapy Development History of the Product Details of Enzyme Product Manufacture Conclusion Acknowledgements Urate Oxidase, A. Bayol, F. Lascombes, D. Loyaux, J.-M. Bras, G. Loison, R. Couderc, and P. Ferrara Introduction Biochemical Characteristics of the Enzyme Indications for which the Enzyme is Approved Developmental History of the Enzyme Characteristics of the Enzyme's Producer Cell Line Enzyme Manufacture Process Main Quality Control Evaluations Undertaken during Production Final Enzyme Product Formulation L-Asparaginase Review of Pharmacology, Drug Resistance, and Clinical Applications, C. Mauz-Korholz, V. Wahn, and D. Korholz Historical Background Pharmacology of L-Asp Mechanism of Action, Drug Resistance, and In Vitro Testing Clinical Applications Adverse Effects Conclusions Recombinant Factor VIIa, E. Erhardtsen, N. Brun, N.K. Klausen, E. Persson, and P. Rexen Introduction Characteristics of the Enzyme Manufacturing Process Indications for which Factor VIIa is Approved Developmental History of the Enzyme Conclusions Factor IX (Protease Zymogen), B.M. McGrath Introduction Biochemical Properties and Characterization of FIX Hemophilia B Treatment of Hemophilia B rFIX Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B Conclusions The Development of Aldurazyme(R) (Laronidase), E. Kakkis Introduction and Overview Biochemistry and Genetics of Recombinant A -L-Iduronidase Clinical Deficiency of A -L-Iduronidase and MPS I Early Development of ERT Manufacturing of Aldurazyme for the Commercial Market Quality Control System and Assays Clinical Development of Aldurazyme Additional Therapeutic Enzymes, S. O'Connell Introduction Urokinase Streptokinase Staphylokinase Ancrod Acid A -Glucosidase Superoxide Dismutase Hyaluronidase Enzymes as Digestive Aids Debriding and Anti-Inflammatory Agents.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780849327148 20160528
Carefully crafted to provide tightly focused and authoritative information, the "Directory of Therapeutic Enzymes" covers all approved therapeutic enzymes currently used in medicine. Written mainly by industry experts, the book includes information sourced directly from the company that developed or manufactured the product. It explores major development issues, from manufacturing and marketing to delivery of the finished product. Chapter 1 reviews applied enzymology while chapter 2 delineates theory and applications. Between them, the first two chapters set the appropriate backdrop for the remaining chapters, which focus on actual enzyme products that have gained regulatory approval for general medical use. The chapter authors discuss the biochemistry of the enzymes, the reactions they catalyze, how they are produced or manufactured, and their medical applications. The book highlights the many applications of approved therapeutic enzymes, including use in the treatment of blood-clotting disorders, certain cancers, and a variety of genetic disorders. Illustrated with tables and figures that support the text, the book is a single source of in-depth technical information.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780849327148 20160528
Book
1 online resource (314 pages)
  • Preface xvii About the Editors xix List of Contributors xxi Acknowledgements xxv 1 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to Resistant Starch 1 Geetika Ahuja, Sarita Jaiswal and Ravindra N. Chibbar 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Starch components 1 1.1.2 Resistant starch 2 1.2 Factors Affecting Starch Digestibility 3 1.3 Starch Biosynthesis 4 1.4 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to RS 6 1.4.1 ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) 6 1.4.2 Starch synthases (SS) 6 1.4.3 Starch branching enzymes (SBE) 11 1.4.4 Starch debranching enzymes (DBE) 13 1.5 Concluding Remarks 13 Acknowledgements 15 References 15 2 Type 2 Resistant Starch in High-Amylose Maize Starch and its Development 23 Hongxin Jiang and Jay-lin Jane 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 RS Formation in High-Amylose Maize Starch 28 2.3 RS Formation During Kernel Development 29 2.4 Elongated Starch Granules of High-Amylose Maize Starch 31 2.4.1 Structures of elongated starch granules 31 2.4.2 Formation of elongated starch granules 33 2.4.3 Location of RS in the starch granule 35 2.5 Roles of High-Amylose Modifier (HAM) Gene in Maize ae-Mutant 36 2.6 Conclusions 37 References 38 3 RS4-Type Resistant Starch: Chemistry, Functionality and Health Benefits 43 Clodualdo C. Maningat and Paul A. Seib 3.1 Introduction 43 3.2 Historical Account of Starch Indigestibility 44 3.3 Starch Modification Yielding Increased Resistance to Enzyme Digestibility 47 3.3.1 Cross-linked RS4 starches 50 3.3.2 Substituted RS4 starches 54 3.3.3 Pyrodextrinized RS4 Starches 56 3.4 Physicochemical Properties Affecting Functionality 57 3.5 Physiological Responses and Health Benefits 60 3.6 Performance in Food and Beverage Products 65 3.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 68 References 68 4 Novel Applications of Amylose-Lipid Complex as Resistant Starch Type 5 79 Jovin Hasjim, Yongfeng Ai and Jay-lin Jane 4.1 Introduction 79 4.2 Enzyme Digestibility of Amylose-Lipid Complex 80 4.2.1 Effects of lipid structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 81 4.2.2 Effects of the crystalline structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 82 4.2.3 Effects of amylose-lipid complex on the enzyme resistance of granular starch 82 4.3 Production of Resistant Granular Starch Through Starch-Lipid Complex Formation 83 4.3.1 Effects of fatty-acid structure on the RS content 83 4.3.2 Effects of debranching on the RS content 85 4.4 Applications of the RS Type 5 86 4.5 Health Benefits of RS Type 5 87 4.5.1 Glycemic and insulinemic control 87 4.5.2 Colon cancer prevention 89 4.6 Conclusion 91 References 92 5 Digestion Resistant Carbohydrates 95 Annette Evans 5.1 Introduction 95 5.2 Starch Digestion 95 5.3 Physical Structures of Starch 97 5.3.1 Starch helices 98 5.3.2 Crystalline structures 99 5.3.3 Starch granule structure 99 5.4 Resistant Starch due to Physical Structure 100 5.5 Molecular Structure of Starch 102 5.6 Enzyme Resistance due to Molecular Structure 103 5.7 Conclusion 106 References 106 6 Slowly Digestible Starch and Health Benefits 111 Genyi Zhang and Bruce R. Hamaker 6.1 Introduction 111 6.2 SDS and Potential Beneficial Health Effects 112 6.2.1 Potential health benefit of SDS relative to RDS 113 6.3 The Process of Starch Digestion 115 6.3.1 Enzyme action 115 6.4 Structural and Physiological Fundamentals of SDS 116 6.4.1 Physical or food matrix structures related to SDS 117 6.4.2 Starch chemical structures leading to SDS 118 6.4.3 Other food factors that decrease digestion rate 120 6.4.4 Physiological control of food motility 121 6.5 Application-Oriented Strategies to Make SDS 121 6.5.1 Starch-based ingredients 121 6.5.2 SDS generation in a food matrix 122 6.6 Considerations 123 References 123 7 Measurement of Resistant Starch and Incorporation of Resistant Starch into Dietary Fibre Measurements 131 Barry V. McCleary 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Development of AOAC Official Method 2002.02 133 7.3 Development of an Integrated Procedure for the Measurement of Total Dietary Fibre 136 References 142 8 In Vitro Enzymatic Testing Method and Digestion Mechanism of Cross-linked Wheat Starch 145 Radhiah Shukri, Paul A. Seib, Clodualdo C. Maningat, and Yong-Cheng Shi 8.1 Introduction 145 8.2 Materials and Methods 148 8.2.1 Materials 148 8.2.2 General methods 148 8.2.3 Conversion of CL wheat starch to phosphodextrins and 31PNMR spectra of the phosphodextrins 148 8.2.4 Digestibility of CL wheat starch 149 8.2.5 Thermal properties 150 8.2.6 Microscopic observation 150 8.2.7 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 150 8.2.8 Statistical analysis 150 8.3 Results and Discussion 151 8.3.1 Effects of a-amylase/amyloglucosidase digestion on P content and chemical forms of the phosphate esters on starch 151 8.3.2 Thermal properties 152 8.3.3 Starch granular morphology before and after enzyme digestion 153 8.3.4 Digestibility 160 8.4 Conclusions 162 8.5 Acknowledgements 163 8.6 Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 163 References 163 9 Biscuit Baking and Extruded Snack Applications of Type III Resistant Starch 167 Lynn Haynes, Jeanny Zimeri and Vijay Arora 9.1 Introduction 167 9.2 Thermal Characteristics of Heat-Shear Stable Resistant Starch Type III Ingredient 168 9.3 Application to Biscuit Baking: Cookies 172 9.4 Cracker Baking 175 9.5 Extruded Cereal Application 178 9.5.1 Preparation of extruded RTE cereal and analysis 179 References 189 10 Role of Carbohydrates in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes 191 Thomas M.S. Wolever 10.1 Introduction 191 10.2 Background 191 10.2.1 Definition of diabetes 191 10.2.2 Types of diabetes 192 10.2.3 Complications of diabetes 192 10.2.4 Prevalence of diabetes 192 10.2.5 Risk factors for type 2 diabetes 193 10.3 Carbohydrates and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes 193 10.3.1 Markers of carbohydrate quality 193 10.4 Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes 195 10.5 Effect of Altering Source or Amount of Dietary Carbohydrate on Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion and Disposition Index 197 10.6 Mechanisms by Which Low-GI Foods Improve Beta-Cell Function 199 10.6.1 Glucose toxicity 199 10.6.2 Reduced serum free fatty acids (FFA) 200 10.6.3 Increased GLP-1 secretion 201 10.7 Conclusions 202 References 202 11 Resistant Starch on Glycemia and Satiety in Humans 207 Mark D. Haub 11.1 Introduction 207 11.2 Diet and Resistant Starch 208 11.3 Resistant Starch and Insulin Sensitivity 209 11.4 Current Theoretical Mechanism 209 11.5 Satiety 211 11.6 Fermentation and Gut Microbiota 212 11.7 Effect of RS Type 212 11.8 Summary 213 References 213 12 The Acute Effects of Resistant Starch on Appetite and Satiety 215 Caroline L. Bodinham and M. Denise Robertson 12.1 Appetite Regulation 215 12.2 Measurement of Appetite in Humans 216 12.3 Proposed Mechanisms for an Effect of Resistant Starch on Appetite 217 12.4 Rodent Data 218 12.5 Human Data 221 References 225 13 Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch 229 Martine Champ 13.1 Fermentation of RS and Its Impact on Colonic Metabolism 230 13.2 Resistant Starch, Glycemia, Insulinaemia and Glucose Tolerance 235 13.3 RS Consumption and Lipid Metabolism 236 13.4 RS Consumption, GIP, GLP-1 and PYY Secretion 238 13.5 RS Consumption, Satiety and Satiation and Fat Deposition 239 13.6 Conclusion 242 References 244 14 The Microbiology of Resistant Starch Fermentation in the Human Large Intestine: A Host of Unanswered Questions 251 Harry J. Flint 14.1 Introduction 251 14.2 Identifying the Major Degraders of Resistant Starch in the Human GI Tract 252 14.2.1 The human colonic microbiota 252 14.2.2 Cultural studies 252 14.2.3 16S rRNA-based studies 253 14.3 Systems for Starch Utilization in Gut Bacteria 254 14.3.1 Bacteroides spp. 255 14.3.2 Bifidobacterium spp. 255 14.3.3 Lachnospiraceae - Roseburia spp., Eubacterium rectale and relatives 256 14.3.4 Ruminococcaceae 256 14.4 Metagenomics 256 14.5 Factors Influencing Competition for Starch as a Growth Substrate 257 14.6 Metabolite Cross-Feeding 258 14.7 Impact of Dietary Resistant Starch upon Colonic Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in Humans 259 14.8 Conclusions and Future Prospects 260 Acknowledgements 262 References 262 15 Colon Health and Resistant Starch: Human Studies and Animal Models 267 Suzanne Hendrich, Diane F. Birt, Li Li and Yinsheng Zhao 15.1 RS Classification 267 15.2 RS and Colon Health: Overview 267 15.3 RS, Gut Microbes and Microbial Fermentation 268 15.3.1 RS and laxation 269 15.3.2 RS, IBS and diverticulosis 270 15.3.3 RS and IBD 270 15.3.4 RS and colon cancer risk -- human studies 271 15.4 Colon Cancer Prevention -- Animal Models 272 15.5 Conclusions 275 References 275 Index 279.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780813809519 20160612
The discovery of resistant starch is considered one of the major developments in our understanding of the importance of carbohydrates for health in the past twenty years. Resistant starch, which is resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine, is naturally present in foods. Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits covers the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of resistant starch in foods, and compares different methods of measuring resistant starch and their strengths and limitations. Applications in different food categories are fully covered, with descriptions of how resistant starch performs in bakery, dairy, snack, breakfast cereals, pasta, noodles, confectionery, meat, processed food and beverage products.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780813809519 20160612
Book
xiv, 477 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Part I. Introduction. The Antibody Molecule, Andrew J. T. George. Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies, Mary A. Ritter. Engineering Antibody Molecules, Rakesh Verma and Ekaterini Boleti. Phage Display Technology, Michael Johns. Part II. Antibodies in Medicine. Prospects for the Application of Antibodies in Medicine, Herman Waldmann. Antibodies for Neoplastic Disease: Solid Tumors, Ian T. W. Matthews. The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Treatment of Lymphoma, Martin J. Glennie, Jamie Honeychurch, Ruth R. French, and Alison L. Tutt. Antibodies for Inflammatory Disease: Effector Cells, Richard Smith. Antibodies for Inflammatory Disease: Cytokines, Peter C. Taylor. Antibodies for Transplantation, Denise L. Faustman. Antibody-Based Therapies in Infectious Diseases, H. Barbaros Oral and Cezmi A. Akdis. Antibodies in Nuclear Medicine, A. Michael Peters. Animal Models for Tumor Localization, Gail Rowlinson-Busza. Antibodies for Immunoassays, David J. Newman. Part III. Ethics and Industry. Intellectual Property, William M. Brown. From Laboratory to Clinic: The Story of CAMPATH-1, Geoff Hale and Herman Waldmann. Part IV. Production and Purification. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies, Jona Freysdottir. Purification of Monoclonal Antibodies Using Protein A/G, Bridget Heelan. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Using Ion Exchange Chromatography, Maureen Power. Quality Control of Raw Materials, Patrick Harrison and Geoff Hale. Cell Banks and Stability of Antibody Production, Pru Bird and Geoff Hale. Measurement of Endotoxin, Jenny Phillips, Patrick Harrison, and Geoff Hale. Aseptic Vial Filling, Kuldip Bhamra, Patrick Harrison, and Geoff Hale. Measurement of Antibody Concentrations by Hemagglutination, Jenny Phillips and Geoff Hale. Part V. Modification of Antibodies. Enzymatic Digestion of Monoclonal Antibodies, Sarah M. Andrew. How to Make Bispecific Antibodies, Ruth R. French. Radiolabeling Monoclonal Antibodies, Calvin S. R. Gooden. Determination of the Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies, Gail Rowlinson-Busza. Use of Biosensors to Measure the Kinetics of Antibody Antigen Interactions, Andrew J. T. George. Part VI. Application of Antibodies In Vitro. How to Set Up an ELISA, Bill Jordan. Measurement of HAMA and Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies, Steve Nicholson. SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting, Abdulhamid A. Al-Tubuly. Flow Cytometric Analysis, Paul F. McKay. Immunocytochemistry, Susan Van Noorden. Immunolabeling for Electron Microscopy, Catherine E. Sarraf. Part VII. Antibody Engineering. PCR of the V-Region, Rakesh Verma. Phage Display Technology: Protocols, Michael Johns and Donald B. Palmer. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780896037984 20160528
A team of experts comprehensively review the theoretical and practical aspects of applying antibodies in both the laboratory and clinic. For general understanding, the book thoroughly introduces the basic science of the antibody molecule, including recombinant engineering. Several novel in vivo applications of therapeutic antibodies are then presented to illustrate their special value in varied clinical settings. For those new to the field, there are readily reproducible methods for generating and purifying antibodies and for modifying them for clinical application. Timely and comprehensive, "Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies" offers today's researchers a concise introduction to the field, as well as a highly useful compendium of practical protocols that will greatly facilitate the application of these powerful new diagnostic and therapeutic agents.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780896037984 20160528

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