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xii, 211 p. : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 25 cm.
  • Prelude.- Why LEP and why at CERN?.- The Difficult Decision of LEP's Size and Energy.- The Approval or How to Persuade Governments.- The Tunnelling Adventure.- The Environment - People and Nature.- The Technical Challenge of the Machine.- The "Experiments" - International Institutions by Themselves.- What Have we Learned - Physics Results.- Creating New Technologies.- Unloved But Necessary - Management and Finances.- How to Invite the Pope?.- CERN - Bringing Nations Together.- The Complicated Relation Betwen LEP and LHC.- The Dramatic End of LEP.- Acknowledgments.- Annexes.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783540893004 20160528
Housed by a 4 m diameter tunnel of 27 km circumference, with huge underground labs and numerous surface facilities, and set up with a precision of 0.1 mm per kilometer, the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) was not only the largest but also one of the most sophisticated scientific research instruments ever created by Man. Located at CERN, near Geneva, LEP was built during the years 1983 - 1989, was operational until 2000, and corroborated the standard model of particle physics through continuous high precision measurements. The Author, director-general of CERN during the crucial period of the construction of LEP, recounts vividly the convoluted decision-making and technical implementation processes - the tunnel alone being a highly challenging geo and civil engineering project - and the subsequent extremely fruitful period of scientific research. Finally he describes the difficult decision to close down LEP, at a time when the discovery of the Higgs boson seemed within reach. LEP was eventually dismantled in 2000, enabling the tunnel to be reused for building the next generation machine, the much more powerful Large Hadron Collider (LHC), an upgrade then called LEP3 and foreseen from the beginning. It became operational just as this account was being completed. Written by the main protagonist responsible for making LEP a reality, this is the definitive inside story of a remarkable machine and the many thousands of scientists and engineers from around the world, whose efforts contributed to the new knowledge it produced.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783540893004 20160528
dx.doi.org SpringerLink
Green Library
276 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • 1. Prologue -- I: A MATTER OF PARTICLES -- 2. Dissecting Matter -- 3. Forces of Nature -- 4. Sublime Marvel -- II:THE STARSHIP OF ZEPTOSPACE -- 5. Stairway to Heaven -- 6. The Lord of the Rings -- 7. Telescopes Aimed at Zeptospace -- III: MISSIONS IN ZEPTOSPACE -- 8. Breaking Symmetries -- 9. Dealing with Naturalness -- 10. Supersymmetry -- 11. From Extra Dimensions to New Forces -- 12. Exploring the Universe with a Microscope -- 13. Epilogue.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199581917 20160603
At this very moment the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time is beginning, and yet its precise aims are little understood by the general public. This book aims to provide an everyman's guide for understanding and following the discoveries that will take place within the next few years at the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. The reader is invited to share an insider's view of the theory of particle physics, and is equipped to appreciate the scale of the intellectual revolution that is about to take place. The technological innovations required to build the LHC are among the most astonishing aspects of this scientific adventure, and they too are described here as part of the LHC story. The book culminates with an outline of the scientific aims and expectations at the LHC. Does the mysterious Higgs boson exist? Does space hide supersymmetry or extend into extra dimensions? How can colliding protons at the LHC unlock the secrets of the origin of our universe? These questions are all framed and then addressed by an expert in the field. While making no compromises in accuracy, this highly technical material is presented in a friendly, accessible style. The book's aim is not just to inform, but to give the reader the physicist's sense of awe and excitement, as we stand on the brink of a new era in understanding the world in which we all live.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199581917 20160603
Green Library
1 online resource (vii, 200 pages) : illustrations
  • Wideroe on Wideroe - family, youth and Lord Rutherford-- Karlsuhe - the ray transformer-- Aachen- the first linac ever built-- cyclotrons and other developments-- relays are interesting too-- and they turn the same!-- the Hamburg betatron-- inventing the storage ring-- Oslo - the theory of synchrotron-- Baden - betatrons for BBC-- Turin - the beta synchrotron-- ETH Zurich, CERN and DESY-- how rays kill cells - the two componenets theory-- retrospective and dreams - for the future.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783528065867 20160527
The investigation of the smallest components of matter has made remarkable progress in the 20th century and would not have been possible without the extensive use of particle accelerators of high energy. The Norwegian, Rolf Wideroe, who obtained his degree in engineering in Aachen in 1927 by building the first operational linear accelerator, was a pioneer of this development. Wideroe is a multitalented person. For several years he was successful in developing relays for power plants. He subsequently worked for the BBC in Switzerland, building betatrons which were used for materials testing, although mainly for the medical treatment of cancer. This activity led him to study the effects of radiation on living cells. His "two components" theory on this subject attracted a great deal of attention. He was one of the first to introduce the treatment of deeply situated tumours with high-energy electrons and X-rays. Besides many other honours, Wideroe was awarded an honorary doctorate in engineering at the Aachen Technical University in 1962. In 1964, he received an honorary medical doctorate from Zurich University and in 1992, he was the winner of the Robert Wilson Prize of the American Physical Society. This autobiography recounts Wideroe's ideas, drawbacks and successes. In the course of the story, the reader is given an overview of all the interesting fields of research with which he was involved.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783528065867 20160527
xxvi, 454 pages : illustrations (black and white, and color) ; 26 cm.
  • ContentsForeword by The Rev. Dr James Collins-- Preface: In appreciation of Lord Kelvin-- Editorial introductionPersonal Chapter 1: Lord Kelvin1 Introduction-- 2 The Thomson family-- 3 Young William-- 4 William Thomson, a Cambridge student-- 5 William Thomson, a professor-- 6 Academia-- 7 The Atlantic telegraph and knighthood-- 8 Lalla Rookh-- 9 Family life-- 10 Glasgow and Cambridge-- 11 Netherhall-- 12 Navigation-- 13 Politics and peerage-- 14 Jubilee-- 15 Retirement-- 16 Industry-- 17 Electricity generation-- 18 Beliefs and controversies-- 19 Health and death-- 20 Honours-- 21 Patents-- 22 Notes-- ReferencesChapter 2: Kelvin and his world: a cultural overview1 A complex challenge-- 2 An intellectual colossus-- 3 Kelvin and the industrial world-- 4 The telegraph and Empire-- 5 Kelvin's reputation-- ReferencesRelationships Chapter 3: James and William Thomson: the creation of thermodynamics1 James Thomson and the Belfast notebooks: the air engine-- 2 The Belfast notebooks: lowering of the freezing point of water-- 3 The Belfast notebooks: reconciling Carnot and Joule-- 4 The denouement-- 5 James Thomson and thermodynamics-- Acknowledgements-- ReferencesChapter 4: James Thomson, an engineer and scientist: the path to thermodynamics1 Introduction-- 2 A sketch of the life of James Thomson-- 3 James Thomson's achievements in engineering and science-- 4 James and William: early dilemmas and discussions-- 5 Ideas of heat in the first half of the nineteenth century-- the caloric theory-- 6 The theory of Sadi Carnot and its reception by the Thomsons-- 7 The work of Joule, and the response of James and William Thomson-- Acknowledgements-- ReferencesChapter 5: Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius and Tait: the correspondence of James Clerk Maxwell1 Introduction-- 2 Saturn's rings and the Adams Prize: Maxwell and Kelvin-- 3 Molecular model for a gas: Maxwell and Clausius-- 4 Two laws of thermodynamics: Maxwell, Clausius, Kelvin and Tait-- 5 Conclusion-- Appendix: Transcript of words on postcard of Fig. 1-- Bibliography-- ReferencesChapter 6: Sir William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs and theInstitution of Engineering and Technology1 Introduction-- 2 Lord Kelvin-- 3 The institution after Lord Kelvin-- Conclusion-- ReferencesThe Laws of ThermodynamicsChapter 7: Engineering Thermodynamics and the Carnot Cycle-- 1 Introduction: the Carnot Cycle-- 2 Timelines of characters-- 3 Watt's thermodynamic family tree and place in history-- 4 The p-v diagram: James Watt and the Indicator Diagram-- 5 The Carnot cycle: Carnot's great achievement-- 6 The Carnot cycle: diagrams of Clapeyron and Clausius-- 7 The Carnot cycle for a gas-- 8 From p-v to T-s: Kelvin's absolute scale of temperature-- 9 The 'representational' approach of J Willard Gibbs and the T-s diagram-- 10 The Carnot cycle for steam-- 11 The reversed Carnot cycle: refrigerators and heat pumps-- 12 Contributions to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Carnot, Kelvin and Clausius-- 13 The perfect heat engine: is thermodynamics Platonic in character?-- 14 Conclusion-- Acknowledgements-- ReferencesChapter 8a: The first law of thermodynamics: Kelvin's relationshipwith Joule1 Introduction-- 2 William Thomson's fascination with Carnot's theory of heat-- 3 Enter James Prescott Joule-- 4 Rudolf Clausius finds the solution-- 5 William Thomson's answer-- 6 Concluding remarks-- ReferencesChapter 8b: The first law of thermodynamics: The Joule-Mayer Controversy1 Introduction-- 2 Joule, Mayer and the First Law: their peer assessment problems-- 3 Joule, Mayer and the First Law: the X-club controversy-- 4 Conclusion: honour satisfied-- ReferencesChapter 9: The emergence and evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics1 Introduction-- 2 Heat and temperature: conceptualised and applied-- 3 Towards the laws of thermodynamics-- 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics-- 5 Thermodynamic properties and processes-- 6 Statistical thermodynamics-- 7 Later developments: Keenan-- 8 Myron Tribus's thermodynamics: an alternative understanding-- 9 Conclusions-- ReferencesChapter 10: The teaching of thermodynamics today1 Introduction-- 2 The technological context of Thomson's 1851 paper-- 3The 'scientific' context of Thomson's 1851 paper-- 4 Enter Thomson-- 5 Death of the Caloric-- 6 The second law of thermodynamics-- 7 Flawed lawmaking-- 8 Returning to Thomson's formulation-- ReferencesChapter 11: Entropy as thermal charge: an application of bondgraphs inspired by Carnot and his cycle1 Sadi Carnot-- 2 Bond graphs-- 3 Systemics-- 4 Icons for thermofluid machines-- 5 The Carnot cycle-- ReferencesChapter 12: Thermodynamic entropy and temperature rigorously defined without heuristic use of the concepts of heat and empirical temperature1 Introduction-- 2 Aims and structure of the present treatment-- 3 Basic definitions-- 4 Definition of energy for a closed system-- 5 Definition of thermodynamic entropy for a closed system-- 6 Fundamental relation, temperature, and Gibbs relation (for a closed system)-- 7 Proofs of Clausius and Caratheodory statements of the Second Law and of the Zeroth Law-- 8 Conclusions-- ReferencesThermodynamics in the wider context of science Chapter 13: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and thermoelectricity1 Introduction-- 2 On the events that preceded Thomson's discoveries in thermoelectricity-- 3 Fundamental thermoelectric Thomson relations-- 4 Experimental verification of Thomson thermoelectric effect-- 5 On the effect of thermodynamic reversibility on Thomson relation-- 6 Generalization of Thomson relations pursuant to thermodynamics of irreversible processes-- 7 First Thomson relation novel form-- 8 On practical applications of Thomson relations-- 9 Thomson transversal EMF: anisotropic thermoelements-- ReferencesChapter 14: Kelvin and the age of the earth1 Early estimates-- 2 The development of uniformitarianism-- 3 Lord Kelvin-- 4 Geological time-- 5 Growing opposition-- 6 Radioactivity as an additional source of heat-- Conclusions-- ReferencesPostscriptChapter 15: Kelvin in the twenty-first century1 'The Kelvin Problem': space-filling foam-- 2 Kelvin Waves and the El Nino effect-- 3 The Stirling engine-- 4 The Stirling engine in outer space-- 5 Atmospheric electricity-- 6 From the nineteenth to the twenty-first century-- ReferencesConclusion Chapter 16: Honoured by banknotes1 Introduction: the UK, its political history and its banknotes-- 2 Kelvin and the University of Glasgow-- 3 Queen's University of Belfast-- 4 Kelvin and the Giant's Causeway Tramway-- 5 King's College, Aberdeen (University of Aberdeen)-- 6 Boulton and Watt-- 7 Conclusion-- ReferencesAppendices Thomson, Brunel and the Atlantic cables of 1865 and 1866-- The Model Stirling Engine-- Maxwell's Demon-- Universities of the Heat Engine-- Honoured by monuments-- Lord Kelvin and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781845641498 20160619
This volume looks afresh at the life and works of Lord Kelvin including his standing and relationships with Charles Darwin, T. S Huxley and the X-club, thereby throwing new light on the nineteenth-century conflict between the British energy and biology specialists. It focuses on two principal issues. Firstly, there is the contribution made by Kelvin to the formulation of the Laws of Thermodynamics, both personal and in the content of the scientific communications exchanged with other workers, such as Joule and Clausius. Secondly, there is Kelvin's impact on the wider field of science such as thermoelectricity and geology (determination of the age of the earth). Of late a number of studies and initiatives, including the Centenary celebrations of Kelvin's death and exhibits such as that of the 'Revolutionary Scientist' in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, have been undertaken aiding the redefinition of Kelvin's greatness and achievements. The book also raises awareness to 'improve our approach to the teaching of elementary thermodynamics by attempting to empathise with Kelvin's perspective'.It is completed by a full biography, overviews of various monuments to his memory, and short 'Stories in Pictures' on the Atlantic cable, Maxwell's Demon, the universities associated with the development of thermodynamics and the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Scientists and engineers with an interest in thermodynamics and anyone interested in the work of Lord Kelvin will find benefit in Kelvin, Thermodynamics and the Natural World.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781845641498 20160619
Green Library


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