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Book
xiv, 423 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm.
  • Acknowledgements
  • Prologue
  • Introduction : Sociolinguistic diversification
  • Diversification
  • Diversification : social stratification
  • Diversification : Stratification and popularization
  • Language traditions
  • Literary and popular language
  • Language reforms and standardization
  • Afterthe Warsof Independence
  • Schoolsofthought
  • The case of Spanish : from the beginning to New World Spanish
  • New World Spanish : spoken and written
  • The aim of this book
  • Thechapters
  • Explicative models
  • The origins of Spanish : Spain and the New World
  • The origins
  • The riseof Castilian
  • Repopulation of Andalusia
  • Toledano and Old Castilian
  • De-affrication, devoicing and inter-dentalization
  • De-patatalization
  • Yeísmo or de-latelarization
  • Aspiration and omission of/s/ in implosive position
  • Additional changes
  • Spanish initial F- : pastand přsent perspectives
  • Featuresof Judaeo-Spanish
  • Features from Spain transplanted to New Spain
  • The features of Andalusian Spanish
  • Spanish speakers in New Spain
  • Spanish speakers and the castes in the 16th century
  • Theories on the origins of New World Spanish
  • Koines and koineization in New World Spanish
  • The use of dialect features in New Spain
  • Conclusions
  • The first speakers of Mexican Spanish
  • The first Spanish speakers in Mesoamerica and social stratification
  • The Spanish Caribbean experiment
  • The encomienda in New Spain
  • The new System of social stratification
  • Origins of the first Spanish speakers
  • The new laws of 1542
  • Spanish speakers in the 16th century : numbers and regions
  • The new environment
  • The process of socialization and diffusion
  • Thecenter
  • The Inquisition
  • Mattersof routine in and around the Holy Office
  • Spanish and the Holy Office
  • The sins recorded by the Holy Office
  • Spanish speakers and ethnie groups in the Abecedario
  • Spanish speakers of African descent
  • Afro-Mexicans and the process of acculturation
  • Afro-Mexican enclaves
  • Conclusions
  • The Spanish language and its variations in New Spain
  • The earliest Spanish documents written in Mexico
  • The First Letter by Hernán Cortés
  • The Second Letter by Hernán Cortés
  • Salient features in Hernán Cortés' Cartas de Relación
  • Adaptation of Amerindian languages
  • Morphology and syntax
  • Common verbs in transition
  • Verbal clitics
  • Stylistic and dialect variations
  • Indicative and subjunctive
  • Imperfect subjunctive in adverbial clauses
  • Imperfect subjunctive in translation
  • Conditional sentences with -SE in translation
  • Conditional sentences with -RA in translation
  • Extinct and current lexical items and discourse markers
  • Use of Taino borrowings
  • Documentation of Taino borrowings in New Spain
  • Pronounsof address
  • General features of 16th Century Spanish pronunciation
  • General features of 16th Century Spanish : morpho-syntax
  • Conclusions
  • Koineization and the first generation of Spanish speakers
  • The first generation
  • Spanish space and Spanish institutions
  • The formation of the Mexican Spanish koine
  • The Spanish spoken and written in the 16th Century
  • Evidence of dialect contact and dialect change
  • Other documents related to Hernán Cortés
  • The features of Cortesian texts
  • Spellings of common verbs
  • Morpho-syntactic features of Cortesian texts
  • Position of verbal clitics
  • Pro-etymological and anti-etymologicat verbal clitics
  • Variable use of PARA and PA
  • The useof imperfect subjunctive
  • Pronounsof address : from Cortés' letters to 1555
  • Diffusion of Spanish, discourse markers, and lexical items
  • Loansfrom Taino and Nahuatl
  • The speech of Diego de Ordaz
  • Morpho-syntactic features of Diego de Ordaz
  • The origins of voseo
  • Nahuatl loans in the Vocabulario de la lengua castellana y mexicana
  • The explicative model of proto-Mexican Spanish
  • The Gulfof Mexico
  • The sibilants in the Gulf
  • Leísmo in the Gulf
  • Use of subject pronouns : vos, vosotros, vuestra merced
  • Imperfect subjunctive : variations in -SE and -RA
  • Lexicon
  • Conclusions
  • How Spanish diversified
  • Occupationalactivitiesand social networks
  • Mining and metallurgy
  • Mining centers and ethnie groups
  • Taxco
  • Pachuca
  • Sultepec
  • Puebla
  • Queretaro
  • San Luis Potosi
  • Guanajuato
  • Zacatecas
  • Forms of labor and language contact
  • Losingthetiestothe land
  • Labor and agriculture : indigenous vs. Spanish crops
  • The obrajes
  • Formal ̌ducation
  • Education for women
  • Additional activities promoting the use of Spanish
  • Spanish literature in Spain and in New Spain
  • Conclusions
  • Continuity and change : The second generation
  • The innovations of the second generation
  • Linguistic documents : the Central Highlands
  • Pronunciation traits
  • Other pronunciation features
  • Morpho-syntactic features
  • Imperfect subjunctive
  • Pronouns of address
  • Original letters by Alonso Ortiz
  • Mixing tú, vos and vuestra merced
  • Suárez de Peralta's Tratado del descubrimiento de las Yndias y su conquista
  • Relevant features in Sùrez de Peralta's Tratado
  • Object pronouns LES and LOS in the second-generation
  • Other object pronouns
  • Verb forms
  • Pronoun of address in the Tratado
  • Vuesa(s) merced(es)
  • Use of imperfect subjunctive
  • Conditional sentences ending with -RA
  • Discourse markers, idiomatic expressions and other features
  • References toethnicity
  • Linguistic documents : the Gulf
  • Miscellaneous traits in the Gulf
  • The system of pronouns of address : tú, vos, vosotros, vuestra merced, su merced
  • Ctitic pronouns as direct objects
  • Imperfect subjunctive : variations of -SE and -RA
  • Lexical items referring to ethnicity
  • More examptes from the second generation
  • Conclusions
  • Religion, bilingualism and acculturation
  • Religion as a driving force
  • Population losses and language shift
  • Factors contributing to maintenance : new politicai Organization
  • New religion and language maintenance and shift
  • Rescuing the past for the future
  • The second generation and the good memories about Tlatelolco
  • Strategies of Hispanizaron
  • Religion and the indigenous masses
  • Hispanicization of the indigenous
  • Transculturation and miscegenation
  • Language contact, bilingualism, and socio-ethnie groups
  • Bilingual individuais and bilingual groups
  • Ethnicity and socio-ethnie labels
  • Hispanization of the Afro-Mexican population
  • Conclusions
  • Diversification and stability : 17th century
  • Spanish speakers in the 17th century
  • Education of Spanish speakers
  • Uprooting and integration of the castes
  • Colonial Spanish in the oldest Spanish-speaking regions
  • The spellingof the sibilants in Castilian
  • The spelling of the sibilants in the Central Highlands
  • Sibilants in the Gulf
  • "Regular" seseo
  • Residual verb forms
  • Leísmo in the Central Highlands and in the Gulf
  • Inanimate objects and leísmo
  • Pronouns of address : tú, vuestra merced, su merced, Usted
  • Vuestra merced. Usted and vosotros
  • Change of pronouns in the personal domain
  • Imperfect subjunctive with -SE and -RA
  • Ethnie groups
  • Literature in Spanish
  • Conclusion
  • The end of the colonial period : 18th century
  • Attrition of peninsular Spanish variants
  • The growth and decline of the colony
  • Spanish emigrantsto NewSpain
  • Population of NewSpain
  • The revillagigedo census
  • The growth of the cities
  • Education
  • The Bourbon reforms, the economy and ethnicity
  • Language attrition in the Central Highlands and in the Gulf
  • Attrition of morpho-syntactic variants
  • Direct object pronouns LE and LO
  • Pronouns of address
  • Use of -SE and -RA in conditional clauses and imperfect subjunctive
  • The use of -SE and -RA in officiai documentation
  • Lexicon
  • Language reforms, journalism and literature
  • Spanish-accented Nahuatl
  • Conclusions
  • Diversification, attrition and residual variants
  • Attrition-focused variants
  • Optimal residual variants
  • The prepositions PARA and PA
  • Dissolution of hiatus
  • Addition of-s in the přťrit
  • Duplicate possessives
  • Amerindian loans
  • Residual variants belonging to the vernacular realm
  • The diphthong /we/ in various positions
  • Verb forms
  • The endings -RA and -RA in protasisand apodosis
  • Lexical items and idiomatic expressions in popular speech
  • The common denominator : residual variants
  • Infrequent variants in modem Mexican Spanish
  • Variants discarded in Mexican Spanish
  • Modem Usted
  • Conclusions
  • Conclusions
  • A tridimensional study
  • The role of history : direct external factors
  • Creole and semi-creole varieties
  • From the past to the present : indirect external factors
  • Peninsular, New World and Latin American Spanish
  • Stages of diversification
  • PARA and PA in Venezuela
  • Diversification of the New World Spanish tree
  • Final conclusions
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Index.
This book covers the analysis of Spanish written from the early 16th to the early 19th century, immediately before the Independent period in most Spanish-speaking colonies. It is based on manuscripts such as the Segunda Carta de Relacion (1522) by Hernan Cortes, a rare inquisitorial manuscript known as El Abecedario, old printed books, and published collections of linguistic documents.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781501512629 20170220
This book offers a diversification model of transplanted languages that facilitates the exploration of external factors and internal changes. The general context is the New World and the variety that unfolded in the Central Highlands and the Gulf of Mexico, herein identified as Mexican Colonial Spanish (MCS). Linguistic corpora provide the evidence of (re)transmission, diffusion, metalinguistic awareness, and select focused variants. The tridimensional approach highlights language data from authentic colonial documents which are connected to socio-historical reliefs at particular periods or junctions, which explain language variation and the dynamic outcome leading to change. From the Second Letter of Hernan Cortes (Seville 1522) to the decades preceding Mexican Independence (1800-1821) this book examines the variants transplanted from the peninsular tree into Mesoamerican lands: leveling of sibilants of late medieval Spanish, direct object (masc. sing.] pronouns LO and LE, pronouns of address (vos, tu, vuestra merced plus plurals), imperfect subjunctive endings in -SE and -RA), and Amerindian loans. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of variants derived from the peninsular tree show a gradual process of attrition and recovery due to their saliency in the new soil, where they were identified with ways of speaking and behaving like Spanish speakers from the metropolis. The variants analyzed in MCS may appear in other regions of the Spanish-speaking New World, where change may have proceeded at varying or similar rates. Additional variants are classified as optimal residual (e.g. dizque) and popular residual (e.g. vide). Both types are derived from the medieval peninsular tree, but the former are vital across regions and social strata while the latter may be restricted to isolated and / or marginal speech communities. Each of the ten chapters probes into the pertinent variants of MCS and the stage of development by century. Qualitative and quantitative analyses reveal the trails followed by each select variant from the years of the Second Letter (1520-1522) of Hernan Cortes to the end of the colonial period. The tridimensional historical sociolinguistic model offers explanations that shed light on the multiple causes of change and the outcome that eventually differentiated peninsular Spanish tree from New World Spanish. Focused-attrition variants were selected because in the process of transplantation, speakers assigned them a social meaning that eventually differentiated the European from the Latin American variety. The core chapters include narratives of both major historical events (e.g. the conquest of Mexico) and tales related to major language change and identity change (e.g. the socio-political and cultural struggles of Spanish speakers born in the New World). The core chapters also describe the strategies used by prevailing Spanish speakers to gain new speakers among the indigenous and Afro-Hispanic populations such as the appropriation of public posts where the need arose to file documents in both Spanish and Nahuatl, forced and free labor in agriculture, construction, and the textile industry. The examples of optimal and popular residual variants illustrate the trends unfolded during three centuries of colonial life. Many of them have passed the test of time and have survived in the present Mexican territory; others are also vital in the U.S. Southwestern states that once belonged to Mexico. The reader may also identify those that are used beyond the area of Mexican influence. Residual variants of New World Spanish not only corroborate the homogeneity of Spanish in the colonies of the Western Hemisphere but the speech patterns that were unwrapped by the speakers since the beginning of colonial times: popular and cultured Spanish point to diglossia in monolingual and multilingual communities. After one hundred years of study in linguistics, this book contributes to the advancement of newer conceptualization of diachrony, which is concerned with the development and evolution through history. The additional sociolinguistic dimension offers views of social significant and its thrilling links to social movements that provoked a radical change of identity. The amplitude of the diversification model is convenient to test it in varied contexts where transplantation occurred.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781501504440 20180521
Green Library

2. The French review [1927 - ]

Journal/Periodical
v. port. 24 cm.
Green Library, SAL3 (off-campus storage)

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