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Book
xiv, 122 p. : ill.
African exporters suffer from low survival rates on international markets. They fail more often than others, incurring time and again the setup costs involved in starting new relationships. This high churning is a source of waste, uncertainty, and discouragement. However, this trend is not inevitable. The high "infant mortality" of African exports is largely explained by Africa's low-income business environment and, once properly benchmarked, Africa's performance in terms of exporter failure is no outlier. Moreover, African exporters show vigorous entrepreneurship, with high entry rates into new products and markets despite formidable hurdles created by poor infrastructure, landlocked boundaries for some, and limited access to major sea routes for others. African exporters experiment a lot, and they frequently pay the price of failure. What matters for policy is how to ensure that viable ventures survive. Research carried out for this book demonstrates that governments can and should help to reduce the rate of failure of African export ventures through a mixture of improvements in the business environment, as well as well-targeted proactive interventions. The business environment can be made more conducive to sustainable export entrepreneurship through traditional policy prescriptions such as reducing transportation costs, facilitating trade through better technology and workflow in border management, improving the effectiveness of banking regulations to ensure the availability of trade finance, and striving for regulatory simplicity and coherence. In addition, governments can help leverage synergies between exporters. Original research featured in this book shows that African exporters improve each other's chances of survival when a critical mass of them penetrates a given market together. They also benefit from diaspora presence in destination markets. With adequate donor support and private-sector engagement, export-promotion agencies and technical-assistance programs can help leverage those synergies.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780821395592 20160617
Book
xiv, 122 p. : ill.
Book
223 p. ; 21 cm.
Green Library
Book
2, 2, 187 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
East Asia Library
Book
331 p. ; 25 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
193 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
111 p. ; 21 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
53 p. ; 21 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
557 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Green Library
Book
xxi, 288 p. ; 24 cm.
  • CHAPTER ONE ESTABLISHING THE LINKAGE: THE TRADE--ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE, Introduction, Trade as a Means of Economic Growth, Environmental Impacts of Free Trade, Addressing the Relationship between Trade and the Environment, The Emergence of Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development: Equity and Responsibility, Understanding the Problems of the Trade--Environment Interface in Developing Countries: Confronting Their Economic Realities, Organization of the Book, CHAPTER TWO THE UNITED NATIONS' APPROACH TO TRADE, THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Introduction, Relevant Principles and Concepts Employed in the Context of Trade and Environment Interactions, The Environment in the United Nations, The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ('UNCED'), The Millennium Summit, The World Summit on Sustainable Development ('WSSD'), The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, North--South Aspects to the United Nations Approach to Trade and the Environment, Conclusion, CHAPTER THREE GATT/WTO APPROACHES TO TRADE, THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Introduction, Genesis of GATT/WTO, Trade Theory and the WTO, GATT's Core Principles Affecting Trade--Environment Issues, Environmentalism in GATT, Environmentalism in the WTO, The Concerns of Developing Countries, Conclusion, CHAPTER FOUR THE TRADE--ENVIRONMENT LINKAGE IN THE POST-URUGUAY ROUND CONTEXT, Introduction, Development of Trade--Environment Linkage in the WTO Ministerial Conferences, The Way Forward, Concluding Observations, CHAPTER FIVE REGIONAL APPROACHES TO FREE TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE EUROPEAN UNION, Introduction, Development of the Concept of Sustainable Development in the European Community, The Trade--Environment Interface in the European Community, The Harmonization of Environmental Standards and the Implications, Developed and Developing Countries within the European Union, The Situations of Developing Countries (Not Within The EU) in the Trade--Environment Interface of the European Union, Conclusion, CHAPTER SIX REGIONAL APPROACHES TO FREE TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, Introduction, Protecting the Environment under NAFTA Free Trading: Its Scope of Operation, Dispute Resolution, The Situations of Developing Countries at the Trade--Environment Interface under NAFTA, Conclusion, CHAPTER SEVEN REGIONAL APPROACHES TO FREE TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE ASIA-PACIFIC ECONOMIC COOPERATION, Introduction, The Environment, and North--South Dynamics in APEC's Institutional Structure, The Emergence of Sustainable Development in APEC, Recent Developments, The Achievements of APEC in the Trade--Environment Context, Continuing Trade and Environmental Issues in APEC and Recommendations for Reform, Conclusion, CHAPTER EIGHT TRADE RESTRICTIONS PURSUANT TO MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS, Introduction, MEA Trade Measures and Developing Countries, Specific MEA Trade Measures & Developing Countries, The Uneasy Relationship between MEAs and the WTO Free Trade Regime, Conclusion, CHAPTER NINE Free trade and sustainable development: challenges ahead, Introduction, Interlinkages Between Trade, the Environment and Sustainable Development, Why Do Developing Countries Need an Open and Equitable International Trading System? The Current State of Play, The Trade--Environment Nexus and Sustainable Development: Challenges Ahead.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415412940 20160527
Examining institutions rather than themes, this critical book provides a comprehensive survey of the inter-relationship between trade-induced economic growth and the environment and its impact on the global quest for sustainable development. Focusing on particular on the interests and concerns of developing countries and the skewing of international environmental policies into justifications for trade protectionism, Shawkat Alam argues that environmental protection issues are inextricably linked with the economic development of developing countries whilst offering arguments for reforming the current international trade and environmental paradigms. Covering contemporary developments on both a global and regional level in a systematic fashion and examining the United Nation's approach to sustainable development, this book is of interest to those studying in a range of disciplines, including development studies, environmental economics, the politics of international trade and environmental politics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415412940 20160527
Green Library

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