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1 online resource.
  • Part 1. Background and Setting.- Chapter 1. Geographic Extent and Characteristics of the World's Drylands and Their Peoples.- Chapter 2. Recent Trends in Drylands and Future Scope for Advancement.- Chapter 3. Global Change and its Consequences for the World's Arid Lands.- Part 2. Arid lands under a global change regime.- Chapter 4. Humans as Change Agents in Drylands (With Special Reference to Qinghai- Tibet Plateau).- Chapter 5. Climate Variability and Impact on Livelihoods in the Cold Arid Tibet Plateau.- Chapter 6. Iran's Arid Zone Watershed Protection Initiative.- Chapter 7. Thar Desert -- Its Land Management, Livelihoods and Prospects in a Global Warming Scenario.- Part 3. Northern Hemisphere Aridlands: Selected Examples.- Chapter 8. Dry Lands of North America - Current Status and Future Prospects.- Chapter 9. Desertification and Land Degradation in Indian Sub Continent: Issues, Present Status and Future Challenges. Chapter 10. China's Drylands -Problems Prospects.- Chapter 11. Aridlands of North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin - Current Status and Future Prospects.- Part 4. Southern Hemisphere Aridlands: Selected Examples.- Chapter 12. Southern African Drylands -- Current Status and Future Prospects.- Chapter 13. Arid and Semiarid Rangelands of Argentina.- Chapter 14. The Impact of Climate Variability on Land use and Livelihoods in Australia's Rangelands.- Part 5. Summary, Synthesis and Concluding Remarks.- Chapter 15. Drylands Under a Climate Change Regime: Implications for the Land and the Pastoral People they Support.- Chapter 16. Unifying concepts, synthesis and conclusions.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319566801 20180122
This edited volume is devoted to the examination of the implications of the inevitable changes wrought by global change on the welfare and livelihoods of tens of millions of people who live in dryland regions. Global change is more than just climate change and the ramifications of changing trade patterns (geopolitical and economic aspects), the shift to the market economy, demographic factors (population growth, urbanization and re-settlement), receive attention here. Land use change specialists, policy makers and natural resource management agencies will find the book very useful.Chapters focus on examples that are drawn from a number of sources including previously unpublished studies on the impact of climate change, markets and economics on pastoralist and dryland farming households. The key focus is to provide readers with insights into the real world implications of change (including an analysis of the drivers of change) on these vulnerable groups within dryland societies. The role of humans as agents of these changes is canvassed. A regional analysis of the world's drylands is also performed including those in Australia, Argentina, India, North America, China, North Africa, Central Asia and Southern Africa.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319566801 20180122
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource ( xi, 305 pages) : illustrations (some color). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Part I. EDML Facts and Physics
  • 1 Getting Started
  • 2 Antarctica and EPICA
  • 3 The EDML Drilling Site
  • 4 Multiscale Structure of the EDML Core
  • 5 EDML Line-Scan Images. Part II. EDML Visual Stratigraphy Record.
The line-scan images collected in this book represent the most accurate optical record of Antarctic ice cores ever presented, providing an invaluable resource for glaciologists and climate modellers, as well as a fascinating compilation of ice core images for Antarctica enthusiasts. Global warming and the Earth's past climate are the two main reasons for extracting deep ice cores from Antarctica. Indeed, dust particles, aerosols and other climatic traces deposited on the snow surface, as well as the air trapped in bubbles by compacted snow, produce chronologically ordered strata, making the ice from Antarctica the most accurate and valuable archive of the Earth's climate over the last million years. In addition, the layered structure produced by these strata, when revealed by appropriate methods, provides indispensable information concerning the flow and mechanical stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, allowing us to assess the current and future impact of global warming on the melting of polar ice caps with much greater precision.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783662553060 20180122
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource ( xiv, 422 pages) : illustrations (some color).
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource (pages ; cm.) :
  • Introduction and characteristics of permafrost. Definition and description. Cryogenic processes where temperatures dip below 0C. Factors affecting permafrost distribution. Distribution of permafrost. Permafrost landforms. Frost cracking, ice-wedges, sand, loess and rock tessellons. Massive ice in lowlands. Permafrost mounds. Mass wasting of granular and fine-grained materials in cold climates. Mass wasting of blocky materials in colder climates. Cryogenic patterned ground. Thermokarst and thermal erosion. Use of permafrost areas. The mechanics of frozen soil. Foundations in permafrost regions: Building stability. Roads, Railway and Airfields. Oil and Gas industry. Mining in permafrost areas. Provision of utilities. Agriculture and forestry. References. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781138054165 20180122
  • Part I Introduction and characteristics of permafrost 1 Definition and description 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Additional terms originating in Russia 1.3 History of permafrost research 1.4 Measurement of ground temperature 1.5 Conduction, convection and advection 1.6 Thermal regimes in regions based on heat conduction 1.7 Continentality index 1.8 Moisture movement in the active layer during freezing and thawing 1.9 Moisture conditions in permafrost grond 1.10 Results of freezing moisture 1.11 Strength of ice 1.12 Cryosols, gelisols, and leptosols 1.13 Fragipans 1.14 Salinity in permafrost regions 1.15 Organic matter 1.16 Micro-organisms in permafrost 1.17 Gas and gas hydrates 1.18 Thermokarst areas 1.19 Offshore permafrost 2 Cryogenic processes where temperatures dip below 0â ¦C 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The nature of ice and water 2.3 Effects of oil pollution on freezing 2.4 Freezing and thawing of the active layer in permafrost in equilibrium with a stable climate 2.5 Relation of clay mineralogy to the average position of the permafrost table 2.6 Ground temperature envelopes in profiles affected by changes in mean annual ground surface temperature (MASGT) 2.7 Needle ice 2.8 Frost heaving 2.9 Densification and thaw settlement 2.10 Cryostratigraphy, cryostructures, cryotextures and cryofacies 2.11 Ground cracking 2.12 Dilation cracking 2.13 Frost susceptibility 2.14 Cryoturbation, gravity processes and injection structures 2.15 Upheaving of objects 2.16 Upturning of objects 2.17 Sorting 2.18 Weathering and frost comminution 2.19 Karst in areas with permafrost 2.20 Seawater density and salinity 3 Factors affecting permafrost distribution 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Climatic factors 3.3 Terrain factors 4 Permafrost distribution 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Zonation of permafrost 4.3 Permafrost mapping 4.4 Examples of mapping units used 4.5 Modeling permafrost distribution 4.6 Advances in geophysical methods 4.7 Causes of variability reducing the reliability of small-scale maps 4.8 Maps of permafrost-related properties based on field observations 4.9 Use of remote sensing and aiborne platforms in monitoring environmental conditions and distubances 4.10 Sensitivity to climate change: Hazard zonation 4.11 Classification of permafrost stability based on mean annual ground temperature Part II Permafrost landforms II.1 Introduction 5 Frost cracking, ice-wedges, sand, loess and rock tessellons 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Primary and secondary wedges 6 Massive ground ice in lowlands 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Distribution of massive icy beds in surface sediments 6.3 Sources of the sediments 6.4 Deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet 6.5 Methods used to determine the origin of the massive icy beds 6.6 Massive icy beds interpreted as being formed by cryosuction 6.7 Massive icy beds that may represent stgnant glacial ice 6.8 Other origins of massive icy beds 6.9 Ice complexes including Yedoma deposits 6.10 Conditions for growth of thick ice-wedges 6.11 The mechanical condition of the growth of ice-wedges and its connection to the properties of the surrounding sediments 6.12 Buoyancy of ice-wedges 6.13 Summary of the ideas explaining yedoma evolution 6.14 Aufeis 6.15 Perennial ice caves 6.16 Types of ice found in perennial ice caves 6.17 Processes involved in the formation of perennial ice caves 6.18 Cycles of perennial cave evolution 6.19 Ice caves in subtropical climates 6.20 Massive blocks of ice in bedrock or soil 7 Permafrost mounds 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Mounds over 2.5m diameter 7.3 Cryogenic mounds less than 2.5m in diameter 8 Mass wasting of fine-grained materials in cold climates 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Classification of mass wasting 8.3 Slow flows 8.4 Cryogenic fast flows 8.5 Relative effect in moving debris downslope in the mountains 9 Landforms consisting of blocky materials in cold climates 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Source of the blocks 9.3 Influence of rock type 9.4 Weathering products 9.5 Biogenic weathering 9.6 Fate of the sloluble salts produced by chemical and biogenic weathering 9.7 Rate of cliff retreat 9.8 Landforms resulting from the accumulation of predominantly blocky materials in cryogenic climates 9.9 Talus containing significant amounts of finer material 9.10 Cryogenic block streams 9.11 Surface appearance of blocky landforms 10 Cryogenic patterned ground 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Forms of cryogenic patterned ground 10.3 Factors affecting the development of cryogenic patterned ground 10.4 Macroforms of cryogenic patterned ground 10.5 Cryogenic sorted patterned ground 10.6 Identification of active versus inactive forms of macro-sorted patterns 10.7 Microforms of cryogenic patterned ground 11 Thermokarst and thermal erosion 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Causes of thermokarst 11.3 Cavity development in permafrost 11.4 Effect of thermokarst on soil 11.5 Thermokarst landforms 11.6 Thermokarst and thermal erosion along river banks 11.7 Thermal erosion and thermokarst processes along sea coasts 11.8 Processes involved in the erosion of ice-rich arctic coastal sediments 11.9 Importance of coastal erosion of sediments containing permafrost Part III Use of permafrost areas III.1 Introduction 12 The mechanics of frozen soils 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Strains and stresses in the freezing and thawing of soils resulting in frost heaving 12.3 Rheological processes 12.4 Frost susceptibility 13 Foundations in permafrost regions: building stability 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The effect of construction on permafrost stability 13.3 Choice of method of construction 13.4 Building materials 13.5 Timing of construction 13.6 Types of foundations 14 Roads, railways and airfields 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The problems 14.3 Types of roads 14.4 Experimental embankments 14.5 Winter roads 14.6 Environmental effects of winter roads 14.7 Embankment heights 14.8 Unpaved embankments 14.9 Main problems with embankment stability 14.10 Concrete versus ballast railway tracks 14.11 Paving of road and airfield runways 14.12 Use of white paint 14.13 Bridges 14.14 Icings 14.15 Cut slopes 14.16 Airfield construction 15 Oil and gas industry 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Oil and gas exploration 15.3 Drilling rigs 15.4 Production and keeper wells 15.5 Sump problems 15.6 Pipelines 15.7 Monitoring 15.8 Compressor stations 15.9 Pipeline crossings 15.10 Effects of heat advection from producing wells 15.11 Gas hydrates in permafrost ice 16 Mining in permafrost areas 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Placer mining 16.3 Open cast/pit mining 16.4 Underground mining 16.5 Waste materials and tailings ponds 16.5.1 Toxic wastes 17 Provision of utilities 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Water supply 17.3 Waste disposal 17.4 Electric transmission lines 18 Agriculture and forestry 18.1 Introduction18.2 Zonation of natural vegetation across Siberia18.3 Zonation of natural vegetation in North America 18.4 Southern and Eastern Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 18.5 The Eichfeld zones 18.6 Asian steppe grasslands and deserts 18.7 The development of modern agriculture in permafrost areas 18.8 Forestry 18.9 Potential effects of climate changes.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781351681612 20180122
This book provides a general survey of Geocryology, which is the study of frozen ground called permafrost. Frozen ground is the product of cold climates as well as a variety of environmental factors. Its major characteristic is the accumulation of large quantities of ice which may exceed 90% by volume. Soil water changing to ice results in ground heaving, while thawing of this ice produces ground subsidence often accompanied by soil flowage. Permafrost is very susceptible to changes in weather and climate as well as to changes in the microenvironment. Cold weather produces contraction of the ground, resulting in cracking of the soil as well as breakup of concrete, rock, etc. Thus permafrost regions have unique landforms and processes not found in warmer lands. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the characteristics of permafrost. Four chapters deal with its definition and characteristics, the unique processes operating there, the factors affecting it, and its general distribution. Part 2 consists of seven chapters describing the characteristic landforms unique to these areas and the processes involved in their formation. Part 3 discusses the special problems encountered by engineers in construction projects including settlements, roads and railways, the oil and gas industry, mining, and the agricultural and forest industries. The three authors represent three countries and three language groups, and together have over 120 years of experience of working in permafrost areas throughout the world. The book contains over 300 illustrations and photographs, and includes an extensive bibliography in order to introduce the interested reader to the large current literature.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781351681612 20180122
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource.
  • Introduction.- Classification of thermal springs.- Thermal springs in China.- Geological setting of the southwest China.- General survey of thermal springs of Qinghai-Tibet (hereinafter called Qingzang) Plateau and the surroundings.- Boiling springs in the southwest China.- Hot springs in southwest China.- Warm springs and tepid springs in the southwest China.- The hydrothermal convection system in the southwest.-Hot Dry Rock geothermal resources in the southwest China.- The Future of Geothermal Energy in Qingzang Plateau and its Surrounding.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9789811034848 20180115
This book introduces readers to the rich and varied thermal springs of the Tibetan Plateau, which is steadily rising due to the collision of two continental plates. Readers will discover a wealth of information on boiling springs and hot springs, including their location and elevation, temperature, geological characteristics, and water chemical data, as well as tables on warm and tepid springs. Shedding new light on this vital supplement to hydroelectric resources in remote southwest China, the book will appeal to a broad relationship, from experts researching the Tibetan Plateau to companies specializing in geothermal exploration.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9789811034848 20180115
Book
x, 350 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Green Library
Book
1 online resource (xi, 435 pages) : digital, PDF file(s).
  • Preface-- 1. Basic equations-- 2. Steady flow in a single aquifer-- 3. Steady interface flow-- 4. Two-dimensional flow in the vertical plane-- 5. Steady flow in leaky aquifer systems-- 6. Three-dimensional flow-- 7. Transient flow-- 8. Complex variable methods-- 9. Fluid particle paths and solute transport-- 10. Finite differences and finite elements-- Appendix A. Sinusoidal tidal fluctuation-- Appendix B. Numerical integration of the Cauchy integral-- References-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107148833 20171030
Groundwater mechanics is the study of fluid flow in porous media. Focusing on applications and case studies, this book explains the basic principles of groundwater flow using mathematical expressions to describe a wide range of different aquifer configurations. Emphasis is placed throughout on the importance of developing simplified models that can be solved analytically to provide insight into complex groundwater flow scenarios and to allow better interpretation of the full numerical solution. Focusing first on identifying the important features of a problem, the book explains how to translate practical questions into mathematical form and discusses the interpretation of the results. Illustrated with numerous real-world examples and graphical results, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate Earth science, geological engineering, and environmental engineering courses, as well as a useful reference for researchers and professionals.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107148833 20171030
Book
1 online resource.
  • List of Symbols xi Preface xv Acknowledgments xvii About the Companion Website xix 1 Modeling 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definitions 3 1.3 A Simple Model Darcy s Law and Flow Modeling 3 1.3.1 Darcy s Law 3 1.3.2 Flow Equation 5 1.3.3 Example Application of Darcy s Law and the Flow Equation 8 1.3.4 Note of Caution Know Model Assumptions and Applicable Conditions 9 1.3.5 Superposition (For a Fuller Discussion of Superposition Applied to Groundwater Flow, See Reilly et al., 1984) 13 1.3.6 Example Application of the Principle of Superposition 13 References 16 2 Contaminant Transport Modeling 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Fate and Transport Processes 19 2.2.1 Advection 19 2.2.2 Dispersion 20 2.2.3 Sorption 22 2.2.4 Chemical and Biological Reactions 24 2.3 Advective Dispersive Reactive (ADR) Transport Equation 25 2.3.1 Reaction Submodel 27 2.3.2 Sorption Submodel 28 2.3.2.1 Linear Equilibrium 28 2.3.2.2 Rate-Limited Sorption 28 2.4 Model Initial and Boundary Conditions 29 2.4.1 Initial Conditions 30 2.4.2 Boundary Conditions 31 2.5 Nondimensionalization 32 References 35 3 Analytical Solutions to 1-D Equations 37 3.1 Solving the ADR Equation with Initial/Boundary Conditions 37 3.2 Using Superposition to Derive Additional Solutions 38 3.3 Solutions 40 3.3.1 AnaModelTool Software 40 3.3.2 Virtual Experimental System 41 3.4 Effect of Advection 41 3.5 Effect of Dispersion 43 3.6 Effect of Sorption 48 3.6.1 Linear, Equilibrium Sorption 48 3.6.2 Rate-Limited Sorption 51 3.6.2.1 First-Order Kinetics 51 3.6.2.2 Diffusion-Limited 57 3.7 Effect of First-Order Degradation 60 3.8 Effect of Boundary Conditions 64 3.8.1 Effect of Boundary Conditions on Breakthrough Curves 64 3.8.2 Volume-Averaged Resident Concentration Versus Flux-Averaged Concentration 66 References 68 4 Analytical Solutions to 3-D Equations 71 4.1 Solving the ADR Equation with Initial/Boundary Conditions 71 4.2 Using Superposition to Derive Additional Solutions 72 4.3 Virtual Experimental System 72 4.4 Effect of Dispersion 73 4.5 Effect of Sorption 78 4.5.1 Linear, Equilibrium Sorption 78 4.5.2 Rate-Limited Sorption 80 4.6 Effect of First-Order Degradation 83 5 Method of Moments 87 5.1 Temporal Moments 87 5.1.1 Definition 87 5.1.2 Evaluating Temporal Moments 88 5.1.3 Temporal Moment Behavior 88 5.1.3.1 Advective Dispersive Transport with First-Order Degradation and Linear Equilibrium Sorption 88 5.1.3.2 Advective Dispersive Transport with First-Order Degradation and Rate-Limited Sorption 97 5.2 Spatial Moments 102 5.2.1 Definition 102 5.2.2 Evaluating Spatial Moments 103 5.2.3 Spatial Moment Behavior 104 5.2.3.1 Advective Dispersive Transport with First-Order Degradation and Linear Equilibrium Sorption 104 5.2.3.2 Advective Dispersive Transport with First-Order Degradation and Rate-Limited Sorption 105 References 120 6 Application of Analytical Models to Gain Insight into Transport Behavior 121 6.1 Contaminant Remediation 121 6.2 Borden Field Experiment 124 References 127 A Solution to One-Dimensional ADR Equation with First-Order Degradation Kinetics Using Laplace Transforms 129 Reference 132 B Solution to One-Dimensional ADR Equation with Zeroth-Order Degradation Kinetics Using Laplace Transforms 133 Reference 135 C Solutions to the One-Dimensional ADR in Literature 137 References 140 D User Instructions for AnaModelTool Software 141 E Useful Laplace Transforms 145 E.1 Laplace Transforms from van Genuchten and Alves (1982) 145 Reference 148 F Solution to Three-Dimensional ADR Equation with First-Order Degradation Kinetics for an Instantaneous Point Source Using Laplace and Fourier Transforms 149 References 151 G Solution to Three-Dimensional ADR Equation with Zeroth-Order Degradation Kinetics for an Instantaneous Point Source Using Laplace and Fourier Transforms 153 References 155 H Solutions to the Three-Dimensional ADR in Literature 157 References 160 I Derivation of the Long-Time First-Order Rate Constant to Model Decrease in Concentrations at a Monitoring Well Due to Advection, Dispersion, Equilibrium Sorption, and First-Order Degradation (Three-Dimensional Infinite System with an Instantaneous Point Source) 161 J Application of Aris Method of Moments to Calculate Temporal Moments 163 K Application of Modified Aris Method of Moments to Calculate Spatial Moments Assuming Equilibrium Sorption 165 L Application of Modified Aris Method of Moments to Calculate Spatial Moments Assuming Rate-Limited Sorption 167 L.1 Zeroth Spatial Moment 168 L.2 First Spatial Moment 168 L.3 Second Spatial Moment 168 M Derivation of Laplace Domain Solutions to a Model Describing Radial Advective/Dispersive/Sorptive Transport to an Extraction Well 171 References 173 N AnaModelTool Governing Equations, Initial and Boundary Conditions, and Source Code 175 N.1 Model 101 175 N.2 Model 102 176 N.3 Model 103 178 N.4 Model 104 179 N.5 Model 104M 180 N.6 Model 105 182 N.7 Model 106 184 N.8 Model 107 185 N.9 Model 108 187 N.10 Model 109 189 N.11 Model 201 191 N.12 Model 202 193 N.13 Model 203 195 N.14 Model 204 197 N.15 Model 205 200 N.16 Model 206 201 N.17 Model 207 203 N.18 Model 208 206 N.19 Model 301 207 N.20 Model 302 210 N.21 Model 303 212 N.22 Model 304 215 N.23 Model 305 217 N.24 Model 306 220 N.25 Model 401 222 N.26 Model 402 223 N.27 Model 403 225 N.28 Model 404 227 N.29 Model 405 229 N.30 Model 406 232 Index 235.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470242346 20170403
Teaches, using simple analytical models how physical, chemical, and biological processes in the subsurface affect contaminant transport * Uses simple analytical models to demonstrate the impact of subsurface processes on the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants * Includes downloadable modeling tool that provides easily understood graphical output for over thirty models * Modeling tool and book are integrated to facilitate reader understanding * Collects analytical solutions from many sources into a single volume and, for the interested reader, shows how these solutions are derived from the governing model equations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780470242346 20170403
Book
1 online resource (xii, 422 pages) : illustrations (some color), maps (some color.
  • Part 1. Distribution and Characteristics of Arctic Ice Shelves.- Chapter 1. Arctic Ice Shelves: an Introduction (Julian A. Dowdeswell).- Chapter 2. The Ellesmere ice shelves, Nunavut, Canada (Martin O. Jeffries).- Chapter 3. Eurasian Arctic Ice Shelves and Tidewater Ice Margins (Julian A. Dowdeswell).- Chapter 4. Greenland Ice Shelves and Ice Tongues (Niels Reeh).- Part 2. Physical Processes and Historical Changes of Arctic Ice Shelves.- Chapter 5. Changes in Canadian Arctic Ice Shelf Extent Since 1906 (Derek Mueller).- Chapter 6. The Surface Mass Balance of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and Ward Hunt Ice Rise, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada (Carsten Braun).- Chapter 7. Holocene History of Arctic Ice Shelves (John England).- Chapter 8. An Overview of Paleoenvironmental Techniques for the Reconstruction of Past Arctic Ice Shelf Dynamics (Dermot Antoniades).- Chapter 9. Arctic Ice Shelf Ecosystems (Anne D. Jungblut).- Part 3. Arctic Ice Shelf Calving Processes and Ice Islands.- Chapter 10. Factors Contributing to Recent Arctic Ice Shelf Losses (Luke Copland).- Chapter 11. Ice Island Drift Mechanisms in the Canadian High Arctic (Wesley Van Wychen).- Chapter 12. Recent Changes in Sea Ice Plugs along the Northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Luke Copland).- Chapter 13. The Military Importance and Use of Ice Islands During the Cold War (William F. Althoff).- Chapter 14. Russian Drifting Stations on Arctic Ice Islands (Igor M. Belkin).- Chapter 15. Risk Analysis and Hazards of Ice Islands (Mark Fuglem).
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9789402410990 20180122
This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of Arctic ice shelves, ice islands and related features. Ice shelves are permanent areas of ice which float on the ocean surface while attached to the coast, and typically occur in very cold environments where perennial sea ice builds up to great thickness, and/or where glaciers flow off the land and are preserved on the ocean surface. These landscape features are relatively poorly studied in the Arctic, yet they are potentially highly sensitive indicators of climate change because they respond to changes in atmospheric, oceanic and glaciological conditions. Recent fracturing and breakup events of ice shelves in the Canadian High Arctic have attracted significant scientific and public attention, and produced large ice islands which may pose a risk to Arctic shipping and offshore infrastructure. Much has been published about Antarctic ice shelves, but to date there has not been a dedicated book about Arctic ice shelves or ice islands. This book fills that gap.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9789402410990 20180122
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
278 pages ; 21 cm.
Green Library
Book
349 pages ; 24 cm
  • Imaginer le phénomène naturel extrême du XIIe au XVe siècle -- Construire une rationalité du phénomène naturel : les causes de l'événement -- Nommer les phénomènes extrêmes -- Les concepts : casus et signum -- Les affects : étonnement, puissance, terreur -- Expliquer les phénomènes extrêmes durant le bas Moyen Âge : la juxtaposition de la philosophie naturelle et de la théologie -- La surcote du 16 janvier 1219 par Emon de Wierum -- L'effondrement du mont Granier en novembre 1248 par Mathieu Paris -- L'inondation de l'Arno du 4 novembre 1333 par Giovanni Villani -- Le tremblement de terre à Naples du 4 décembre 1456 par Matteo dell'Aquila -- Une réflexion originale : le De terraemotu de Giannozzo Manetti -- Contra naturam : l'inexpliqué comme fondement du remarquable -- Le discours de la norme ou la conscience de la mécanique du monde -- Les notions de "casus" ou de "fortune" : les phénomènes extrêmes comme accidents de la nature -- La diffusion du savoir de la philosophie naturelle dans la société du bas Moyen Âge -- La culture des annalistes et chroniqueurs -- La culture des non lettrés -- Une perception active des causes physiques des phénomènes naturels -- Anthropisation et dégradation de l'environnement : une réflexivité environnementale à la fin du Moyen Âge -- Donner un sens au phénomène extrême -- Hiérarchie des phénomènes les plus significatifs -- Dans la synchronie : comètes, éclipses, foudres et tremblements de terre -- Dans la diachronie : valorisation de l'ici-bas -- La fonction sociale de l'événement : les deux sens du signum -- Le signe en aval du "fait social" : la fonction purificatrice de l'événement -- Le signe en amont du "fait social" : la fonction augurale de la catastrophe -- Les réflexions sur l'état du monde -- Réflexivité environnementale encore : les modalités d'une "crise" vécue (c. 1330-c. 1400) -- Catastrophes naturelles et eschatologie -- Réagir face aux phénomènes naturels extrêmes du XIIe au XVe siècle -- Absorption émotionnelle et construction sociale de l'urgence : le temps de l'événement -- Réactions primaires -- La situation d'urgence : le choc des consciences -- Les processions post-catastrophiques -- Encadrement et reconstruction matérielle : le temps de la réponse -- Le faible niveau d'intervention des autorités en faveur des sinistrés -- Le principe de "subsidiarité" -- Remises sur la fiscalité directe -- Concession du droit d'imposer -- Une assez grande précarité des victimes -- L'assistance matérielle d'urgence aux victimes : forme des initiatives de secours dans le cadre de la caritas médiévale -- Sensibilité médiévale et évolutions postérieures I : autorités et catastrophes au XVIe siècle -- Assimiler le phénomène extrême -- Le bilan humain comme notion secondaire dans la construction de l'imaginaire événementiel -- La quantification de l'événement : ambiguïtés et obstacles -- Sensibilité médiévale et évolution postérieure II : la "mort d'eux" -- Conclusion. Une préhistoire du désastre.
"Comment comprendre la notion de catastrophe naturelle dans la pensée médiévale? Étonnement, puissance, terreur, fonction purificatrice, choc des consciences... Avec tous les fantasmes qu'ils drainent dans leur sillage et la stupeur qu'ils produisent sur les esprits, ces "accidents de la nature" ouvrent une fenêtre fascinante sur l'histoire des représentations au Moyen Âge. Revisitant les textes des chroniqueurs qui tentèrent d'en rendre compte, Thomas Labbé montre que le récit du phénomène extrême favorise toujours la déformation de la réalité vécue. La catastrophe apparaît comme une manière de donner un sens à l'extraordinaire, comme en attestent les récits de l'effondrement du mont Granier en 1248, de l'inondation de l'Arno en 1333 ou encore du tremblement de terre à Naples en 1456. Le processus d'"événementialisation" qui en découle s'opère plus à travers l'imaginaire et la sensibilité de la société que par ses capacités rationnelles d'objectivisation. Une grande étude à la croisée de l'histoire sociale et de l'histoire des émotions en Occident."--Page 4 of cover.
Green Library
Book
1 online resource.
  • Chapter 1: Introduction; References; Part I: Concepts and Model Approaches; Chapter 2: What Determines the Change of Coastlines in the Baltic Sea?; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Geological Compartments and Coastal Types; 2.3 The Model; 2.4 Relative Sea-Level Change and Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment; 2.5 Coastal Morphogenesis at the Southern and South-Eastern Baltic Sea; 2.6 Summary and Conclusions; References; Chapter 3: The Challenge of Baltic Sea Level Change; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 The Transdisciplinary of Sea-Level Science; 3.3 The Heterogeneity of Sea-Level Data
  • 3.4 The Detection of Acceleration in Long-Term Baltic Sea Level3.5 Outlook; References; Chapter 4: Recent Baltic Sea Level Changes Induced by Past and Present Ice Masses; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Interactions Between Ice, Ocean and Solid Earth; 4.2.1 The Sea-Level Equation; 4.2.2 GIA-Induced Mass Signals; 4.2.3 Mass Signals Due to Recent Cryospheric Changes; 4.3 Observation of Mass Signal; 4.3.1 Relative Sea-Level Changes
  • Tide Gauges; 4.3.2 Crustal Deformations
  • GPS; 4.3.3 Volumetric Sea-Level Changes
  • Tide Gauges and GPS; 4.4 Summary; References
  • Chapter 5: Factors and Processes Forming the Polish Southern Baltic Sea Coast on Various Temporal and Spatial Scales5.1 Introduction; 5.2 General Characteristics of the Southern Baltic Sea Coastline; 5.3 The Impact of Geological and Tectonic Setting on Coastline Shaping and Evolution (Millennia Scale; 1-st Order Coastal Syst...; 5.4 Holocene Transgression in the Southern Baltic Area, Eustatic Sea-Level Fluctuations, and Their Morphodynamic Effects (Cent...; 5.5 Sea-Level Changes and Morphodynamics on the Decadal Scale (3-rd Order Coastal Systems)
  • 5.6 Seasonal Changes (Occurring on the Annual Scale) and Short-Term Changes (Weeks, Days)
  • (4th
  • 6th Order Coastal Systems)5.7 Extreme Events and Anthropogenic Activities in the Marine Coastal Zone; 5.8 Summary; References; Chapter 6: The Dynamic Equilibrium Shore Model for the Reconstruction and Future Projection of Coastal Morphodynamics; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Dynamic Equilibrium Shore Model (DESM); 6.2.1 Modelling for the Past Reconstruction of Coastal Morphology; 6.2.2 Quantitative Estimation of Alongshore Sediment Transport Rate
  • 6.2.3 First-Order Future Projection of Coastline Recession6.3 Application of the Model at Open Oceanic Coasts; 6.3.1 Łeba Open Barrier Coast; 6.3.1.1 Geological Setting; 6.3.1.2 Model Setting; Relative Sea-Level Changes; Alongshore Sediment Transport Capacity; Recent DEM and Historical Coastline Changes; 6.3.1.3 Hindcast Scenarios and Future Projection; 6.3.2 Hel Sandy Spit; 6.3.2.1 Geological Setting; 6.3.2.2 Model Setting; Relative Sea-Level Changes; Along-Shore Sediment Transport Capacity; Recent DEM and Historical Coastline Changes; Hindcast Scenarios and Future Projection
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
1 online resource ( xiv, 343 pages) :
  • Human settlement of the coastal zone
  • Coastal tectonics and hazards
  • Tropical cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons
  • Storms, waves, coastal erosion and shoreline retreat
  • Climate change and sea-level rise.
Coastal regions around the world have become increasingly crowded, intensively developed, and severely exploited. Hundreds of millions of people living in these low-lying areas are subject to short-term coastal hazards such as cyclones, hurricanes, and destruction due to El Nino, and are also exposed to the long-term threat of global sea-level rise. These massive concentrations of people expose often-fragile coastal environments to the runoff and pollution from municipal, industrial, and agricultural sources as well as the impacts of resource exploitation and a wide range of other human impacts. Can environmental impacts be reduced or mitigated and can coastal regions adapt to natural hazards? Coasts in Crisis is a comprehensive assessment of the impacts that the human population is having on the coastal zone globally and the diverse ways in which coastal hazards impact human settlement and development. Gary Griggs provides a concise overview of the individual hazards, risks, and issues threatening the coastal zone.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780520293618 20170703
ProQuest Ebook Central Access limited to 1 user
Book
xliv, 382 pages : color illustrations ; [ca. 23-29] cm
  • Foreword. Preface. Acknowledgments. About the Authors. Introduction to Glacial Phenomena. A-Z Atlas. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482234411 20171218
Considering that glaciers and ice sheets cover about 10% of the Earth's land surface in a world where human civilization is increasingly impacted by the effects of changing glacial activity, Colour Atlas of Glacial Phenomena presents itself as an indispensable guide for students, professionals, and researchers who want to be better informed while studying and tracking the future influences of glaciers and ice sheets on the global environment. While stressing both the beauty and utility of glaciers, the authors cover critical features of glaciers and their landforms and provide useful explanations of the key concepts in glaciology and glacial geology. The authors expand to demonstrate how our lives are influenced by the Cryosphere, a key component of the Earth system and how this heightens the vulnerability of glaciers and ice sheets to deterioration. This illustrated book also helpfully maps out regions of mountain glaciers and ice caps around the world for a practical reference and discusses the products of glacial erosion and deposition integral to understanding rising global sea levels.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482234411 20171218
Book
1 online resource (780 p.) : ill., maps.
"The book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the physical processes which, according to the present state of knowledge, determine the evolution of coastal systems and their response to human interventions. This response depends to a large degree on the self-organising properties of coastal dynamics, which form a leading theme throughout the book. The basic theoretical ideas are explained in text and figures and also in formulas for the more mathematically inclined reader. Theories are illustrated with examples from estuaries, coastal lagoons, beaches and tidal flat systems from all over the world. The rules and simple models can be used directly without relying on complex computations; much attention is given to the strengths and weaknesses of the underlying theories and their limits of applicability. The book is fully self-contained; some knowledge of basic physics and mathematics is recommended. The book is an upgrade of the first edition. Most parts are rewritten and chapters are added to incorporate research results, new insight and experience of the past ten years. This book is intended for everyone interested in coastal systems for professional or educational reasons."--Publisher's website.
Book
xxxvii, 654 pages ; 28 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
1 online resource (x, 351 pages) : digital, PDF file(s).
  • 1. Estuarine and coastal hydrography and sediment transport R. J. Uncles and S. B. Mitchell-- 2. Bathymetric and tidal measurements and their processing V. J. Abbott-- 3. Acoustic seabed survey methods, analysis and applications G. E. Jones, V. J. Abbott, A. J. Manning and M. Jakt-- 4. Temperature, salinity, density and current measurements and analysis A. J. Souza-- 5. Measurement and analysis of waves in estuarine and coastal waters J. Wolf-- 6. Estuarine deposited sediments: sampling and analysis K. L. Spencer-- 7. Suspended particulate matter: sampling and analysis S. B. Mitchell, R. J. Uncles and J. A. Stephens-- 8. Suspended particulate matter: the measurement of flocs A. J. Manning, R. J. S. Whitehouse and R. J. Uncles-- 9. Sediment transport: instrumentation and methodologies K. Black, J. Poleykett, R. J. Uncles and M. R. Wright-- 10. The use of autonomous sampling platforms with particular reference to moored data buoys J. R. Fishwick and J. Turton-- 11. Satellite and aircraft remote sensing S. J. Lavender-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107040984 20171030
A practical guide to the latest remote and in situ techniques used to measure sediments, quantify seabed characteristics, and understand physical properties of water and sediments and transport mechanisms in estuaries and coastal waters. Covering a broad range of topics from global reference frames and bathymetric surveying methods to the use of remote sensing for determining surface-water variables, enough background is included to explain how each technology functions. The advantages and disadvantages of each technology are explained, and a review of recent fieldwork experiments demonstrates how modern methods apply in real-life estuarine and coastal campaigns. Clear explanations of physical processes show links between different disciplines, making the book ideal for students and researchers in the environmental sciences, marine biology, chemistry and geology, whose work relies on an understanding of the physical environment and the way it is changing as a result of climate change, engineering and other influences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107040984 20171030

19. Field hydrogeology [2017]

Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface xi Acknowledgements xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Groundwater Systems 1 1.2 Conceptual Model 5 1.3 Groundwater Computer Modelling 11 1.4 Hydrogeological Report Writing 12 1.5 Expert Witness 14 2 Desk Study 17 2.1 Defining the Area 18 2.2 Identifying the Aquifers 18 2.3 Groundwater Levels 20 2.4 Surface Water 21 2.5 Recharge 21 2.6 Groundwater Use 23 2.7 Groundwater Chemistry 24 2.8 Aerial Photographs and Satellite Imagery 25 2.9 Planning a Fieldwork Programme 28 3 Field Evaluation of Aquifers 29 3.1 Grain Size Analysis 29 3.2 Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers 32 3.3 Hydraulic Properties and Rock Types 35 3.4 Assessing Hydraulic Properties 42 3.5 Using Hydraulic Property Information 44 4 Groundwater Levels 49 4.1 Water-Level Dippers 49 4.2 Continuous Water-Level Recorders 55 4.3 Measuring Ground Levels and Locations 60 4.4 Tool-Box 64 4.5 Well Catalogue 66 4.6 Field Surveys for Wells, Boreholes and Springs 66 4.7 Interpretation of Abstraction Borehole Water Levels 73 4.8 Groundwater-Level Monitoring Networks 82 4.9 Groundwater-Level Fluctuations 84 4.10 Managing Groundwater-Level Data 93 4.11 Constructing Groundwater Contour Maps and Flow Nets 94 4.12 Interpretation of Contour Maps and Flow Nets 96 4.13 Using Other Groundwater Information 99 5 Rainfall, Springs and Streams 102 5.1 Precipitation 102 5.2 Evaporation 107 5.3 Springs 109 5.4 Stream-Flow Measurement 117 5.5 Stage Discharge Relationships 130 5.6 Choosing the Best Method 132 5.7 Processing Flow Data 132 6 Pumping Tests 135 6.1 What Is a Pumping Test? 135 6.2 Planning a Pumping Test 136 6.3 Pumps and Pumping 136 6.4 On-Site Measurements 142 6.5 Pre-Test Monitoring 148 6.6 Test Set-up 149 6.7 Step Tests 150 6.8 Constant Rate Tests 152 6.9 Recovery Tests 153 6.10 Pumping Test Analysis 154 6.11 Tests on Single Boreholes 164 6.12 Packer Tests 169 7 Groundwater Chemistry 172 7.1 Analytical Suites and Determinands 172 7.2 Sampling Equipment 174 7.3 Sampling Protocols 188 7.4 Monitoring Networks 199 7.5 Using Chemical Data 200 8 Recharge Estimation 205 8.1 Water Balance 205 8.2 Rainfall Recharge 206 8.3 Induced Recharge 211 8.4 Other Sources of Recharge 213 9 Specialist Techniques 215 9.1 Borehole and Piezometer Installation 215 9.2 Down-Hole Geophysics 223 9.3 Using Artificial Tracers 229 10 Practical Applications 237 10.1 Borehole Prognoses 237 10.2 Groundwater Supplies 238 10.3 Wells in Shallow Aquifers 244 10.4 Contaminated Land Investigations 245 10.5 Landfills and Leachate 248 10.6 Geothermal Energy 251 10.7 Groundwater Lowering by Excavation 253 10.8 Rising Water Tables 258 10.9 Soakaways 260 10.10 Investigating Wetland Hydrology 260 A. Good Working Practice 263 A1.1 Safety Codes 263 A1.2 Safety Clothing and Equipment 263 A1.3 Distress Signals 265 A1.4 Exposure or Hypothermia 265 A1.5 Heat Exhaustion 265 A1.6 Working Near Wells, Boreholes and Monitoring Piezometers 266 A1.7 Hygiene Precautions for Water Supplies 266 A1.8 Trial Pits 267 A1.9 Electrical Equipment 267 A1.10 Filling Fuel Tanks 267 A1.11 Waste Disposal Sites 267 A1.12 Stream Flow Measurement 268 B. Conversion Factors 269 References and Further Reading 274 Index 281.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118397404 20170403
The fourth edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully revised in order to present the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to completing a hydrogeological study. Beautifully presented with full colour photos and diagrams throughout, Field Hydrogeology retains its practical pocket size for easy use in the field. This new edition includes all the recent developments in the environmental regulations, with particular focus on the use of innovative technology. New topics include geothermal energy, soakaways, marrying manual water level readings with logger records, prediction of long-term drawdown and lateral extent of impacts, and flow measurement in locations with small head gradients. With case studies and text boxes to aid comprehension, and a particular emphasis on practical application, this is an essential tool for students taking Hydrogeology and/or field course modules in Geology, Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology and Engineering courses.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118397404 20170403
Book
164 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm.
  • Introduction: studying rivers in the Roman world / T. V. Franconi
  • Watery perspectives: a Roman view on rivers / B. Campbell
  • River adjustment to change: the Rhône in France during the Roman period / J.-P. Bravard
  • Environmental risk in the lower Rhône valley: high water levels and floods / Ph. Leveau
  • High chrono-stratigraphical resolution of the harbour sequence of Ostia: palaeo-depth of the basin, ship draught and dredging / J.-P. Goiran [and 11 others]
  • Pater Rhenus: the hydrological history of Rome's German frontier
  • Geoarchaeology of ancient harbours in lagoonal contexts: an introduction / C. Morhange [and 5 others]
  • Rivers, wadis and climate in North Africa: torrents and drought / A. Wilson
  • Gift of the Orontes: fluvial landscapes of northwest Syria in late antiquity / M. Whiting
  • 360 days of summer: experiencing the fluvial in Egypt's Fayyūm / B. Haug
  • A second Nature? The riverine landscapes of the Romans / N. Purcell.
This volume is the result of a conference organized with the Oxford Roman Economy Project held at All Souls College at the University of Oxford in June, 2014. The conference aimed to explore the social and environmental context of rivers in the Roman world, especially how Roman activity influenced hydrological activity and how, in turn, hydrological activity influenced Roman life. Specialists in the history, archaeology and environment of the Roman world came together and discussed their research and methods in order to foster discussions about the future direction of interdisciplinary research on ancient rivers. The results of this discussion, presented here, demonstrate a variety of approaches to the study of ancient rivers as well as their historical significance.
Green Library