2. Ethical Presuppositions of The Qur'an and the Hadith
3. Pre-Mu'tazilite Ethical Doctrines
4. Mu'tazilite Ethics: Moral Interpretation of the Five Principles
5. Ethics of 'Abd al-Jabbar: Presuppositions of Ethical Judgments
6. Analysis of Normative Ethical Judgments. Conclusion.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought. Examining the meaning, origin and development of "Divine Command Theory", it underscores the philosophical bases of religious fundamentalism that hinder social development and hamper dialogue between different cultures and nations. Challenging traditional stereotypes of Islam, the book refutes contemporary claims that Islam is a defining case of ethical voluntarism, and that the prominent theory in Islamic ethical thought is Divine Command Theory. The author argues that, in fact, early Arab-Islamic scholars articulated moral theories: theories of value and theories of obligation. She traces the development of Arabo-Islamic ethics from the early Islamic theological and political debates between the Kharijites and the Murji'ites, shedding new light on the moral theory of Abd al-Jabbar al-Mu'tazili and the effects of this moral theory on post-Mu'tazilite ethical thought. Highlighting important aspects in the development of Islamic thought, this book will appeal to students and scholars of Islamic moral thought and ethics, Islamic law, and religious fundamentalism. (source: Nielsen Book Data) 9780415555197 20160604
This dissertation explores the actual lives of women from the eighteenth century to the end of the Chosŏn dynasty, by examining the ideology, practice, and societal impact of chastity culture, one of the most distinct aspects of the late Chosŏn. It challenges the present scholarship on Chosŏn women, which has probed into the roles and discourse of elite women at the expense of their more numerous non-elite counterparts. It also questions the general assumption that the concept of chastity became increasingly popularized into the ring of lower-strata women in the latter half of the Chosŏn period, with the steady reinforcement of Neo-Confucian rituals from the seventeenth century on. Based on analysis of more than five hundred kŏm'an cases, the legal testimonies on various homicides and female suicides, I have discovered myriad sexual and familial practices existing outside of Neo-Confucian archetypal marriage patterns, especially among the non-elite population. Paying special attention to the interplay of ideas and practices about chastity among the state, local community, family, and individual, I conclude that women's chastity during the Chosŏn dynasty was neither a rigid ideology nor an exclusively female experience, but was often used in diverse ways in everyday power struggles involving both women and men. I argue that no matter how strong normative expectations of womanly conduct were in the late Chosŏn period, the ideal of chastity interacted with and was critically determined by women's sense of identity and by their socio-economic position. Therefore, this study reconsiders chastity culture as powerful evidence in assessing Neo-Confucianization in Chosŏn society by problematizing the actual perception and practice of chastity among ordinary people.
Foreword. Preface. Note on gender-inclusive language.-
2: Background to the Problem of Evil.-
3: Rowe's Evidential Arguments from Evil.-
4: What No Eye Has Seen: The Epistemic Foundations of Wykstra's CORNEA Critique.-
5: CORNEA Applied to Rowe's Evidential Argument.-
6: Further Objections to Rowe's Noseeum Assumption.-
7: In Support of the Inference from Inscrutable to Pointless Evil.-
8: The Problem of Divine Hiddenness.-
9: Meta-Theodicy: Adequacy Conditions for Theodicy.-
10: Theodicy Proper, or Casting Light on the Ways of God: Horrendous Moral Evil.-
11: Theodicies for Natural Evil.-
12: The Compatibility of Gratuitous Evil with Theism.-
13: Conclusion: Is Rowe's Evidential Argument Successful?.- Bibliography.- Index.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Why would a loving God who is all-powerful and all-knowing create a world like ours which is marred by all manner of evil, suffering and injustice? This question has come to be known as 'the problem of evil' and has troubled both ordinary folk and specialist philosophers and theologians for centuries, with no answer seemingly in sight. However, in a series of publications from the late 1970s onwards, Professor William Rowe - one of the leading philosophers of religion today - has put forward a powerful case in support of the view that the horrors littering our planet constitute strong evidence against the existence of God. In this book, the first extended study of Rowe's defense of atheism on the basis of evil, Nick Trakakis comprehensively assesses the large body of literature that has developed in response to Rowe's work, paying particular attention to two strategies employed by critics: firstly, the appeal to mystery - the idea that God may well have reasons for permitting evil that lie beyond our comprehension; and secondly, the appeal to theodicies, where this involves offering explanations as to why God allows evil to abound in his creation (free will theodicies, for example, argue that God could not prevent us from acting wrongly without at the same time curtailing or removing our free will). Trakakis unearths significant difficulties in both strategies, and concludes that - absent any evidence in support of theism - the God of theism must be judged to be "beyond belief". (source: Nielsen Book Data) 9781402051449 20160528