[Washington, D.C.] : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2006.
Book — 1 online resource (32 pages) : PDF
The federal government has historically supported the open publication of federally funded research results. In cases where such results presented a challenge to national security concerns, several mechanisms have been employed. For fundamental research results, the federal policy has been to use classification to limit dissemination. For advanced technology and technological information, a combination of classification and export and anus trafficking regulation has been used to inhibit its spread. The terrorist attacks of 2001 have increased security of nonconventional weapons, including weapons of mass destruction, and publication of some research results have increased concerns over whether publication of federally funded extramural research results could threaten national security. The current% federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate mechanism. Other nonmechanisms restrict international information flow, such as Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) that control export of items is and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR do not apply to sharing fundamental research results, so long as they are not subject to any governmental prepublication review.
[Washington, D.C. : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress], 2006.
Book — 1 online resource (89 pages) : PDF
"Providing access to scientific and technical information (S&T) for legitimate uses while protecting it from potential terrorists poses difficult policy choices. Federally funded, extramural academic research is to be 'classified' if it poses a security threat; otherwise, it is to be 'unrestricted.' Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, controls increasingly have been placed on some unclassified research and S&T information, including that used to inform decision making and citizen oversight. These controls include 'sensitive but unclassified' (SBU) labels; restrictive contract clauses; visa controls; controlled laboratories; and wider legal restrictions on access to some federal biological, transportation, critical infrastructure, geospatial, environmental impact, and nuclear information. Some professional groups have supported voluntary controls on the conduct or publication of sensitive research ..."--Page 2.