[Washington, D.C.] : Congressional Research Service, November 30, 2016.
Book — 1 online resource (21 pages). Digital: text file.
"Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide discretionary funding for numerous activities--for example, national defense, education, and homeland security--as well as general government operations. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of this process. Appropriations measures are under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees. In recent years these measures have provided approximately 35% to 39% of total federal spending. The remainder of federal spending comprises direct (or mandatory) spending, controlled by House and Senate legislative committees, and net interest on the public debt. The annual appropriations cycle is initiated with the President's budget submission, which is due on the first Monday in February. This is followed by congressional consideration of a budget resolution that, in part, sets spending ceilings for the upcoming fiscal year. The target date for completion of the budget resolution is April 15. Committee and floor consideration of the annual appropriations bills occurs during the spring and summer months and may continue through the fall and winter until annual appropriations are enacted. Floor consideration of appropriations measures is subject to procedural rules that may limit the content of those measures and any amendments thereto. Congress has established a process that provides for two separate types of measures associated with discretionary spending: authorization bills and appropriation bills. These measures perform different functions. Authorization bills establish, continue, or modify agencies or programs. Appropriations measures subsequently provide funding for the agencies and programs authorized. There are three types of appropriations measures. Regular appropriations bills provide most of the funding that is provided in all appropriations measures for a fiscal year and must be enacted by October 1, the beginning of the fiscal year. If regular bills are not enacted by the beginning of the new fiscal year, Congress adopts continuing resolutions to continue funding, generally until regular bills are enacted. Supplemental appropriations bills provide additional appropriations to become available during a fiscal year. Budget enforcement for appropriations measures under the congressional budget process has both statutory and procedural elements. The statutory elements are derived from the Budget Control Act of 2011, which imposes limits on discretionary spending for each of the fiscal years between FY2012 and FY2021. The procedural elements generally stem from requirements under the Congressional Budget Act that are normally associated with the budget resolution. Through this Budget Act process, the Appropriations Committee in each chamber, as well as each of their subcommittees, receives procedural limits on the total amount of budget authority for the upcoming fiscal year (referred to as 302(a) and 302(b) allocations). Enforcement of the statutory limits occurs primarily through sequestration, while enforcement of the procedural limits occurs through points of order. Discretionary appropriations may be designated or otherwise provided so that they are effectively exempt from statutory and procedural budget enforcement. Such designations include "emergency requirements, " "overseas contingency operations/global war on terrorism, " and for "disaster relief." Rescissions are provisions of law that cancel previously enacted budget authority. As budget authority providing the funding must be enacted into law, so too a rescission cancelling the budget authority must be enacted into law. Rescissions can be included either in separate rescission measures or any of the three types of appropriations measures."--PDF page 2.
Dataset — 1 online resource (3 data files, 1 text file) Digital: data file.
The Loan Level Market Analytics data set is comprised of detailed loan prime and subprime loan data. It includes data on loan origination, loan performance, and inferred and contributed loan modification data. Data covers 1990-2014.
Washington, DC : Police Executive Research Forum, 
Book — 1 online resource (vii, 40 pages) : portraits
"This report from the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) examines the impact of Compstat on police performance and accountability. Compstat is a “performance management system that is used to reduce crime and achieve other police department goals.” The system has four core components and emphasizes information-sharing, responsibility and accountability, and improving effectiveness. The components are: 1) timely and accurate information or intelligence; 2) rapid deployment of resources; 3) effective tactics; and 4) relentless follow-up. The report has three major sections. The first section details what Compstat is and how it was developed and adopted, first by the New York City Police Department and subsequently by other law enforcement and non-law enforcement agencies. The second section of the report discusses what is known about Compstat in today’s criminal justice system. The third section of the report discusses the future of Compstat and presents the views of agency officials on their plans for the use of Compstat"--NCJRS website.
Book — 1 online resource (x, 560 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Members of the Constitution Projects's Task Force on Detainee Treatment.
A word on reading this report.
Statement of the Task Force.
Findings and recommendations.
Detention at Guantanamo.
The legal process of the Federal Government after September
Rendition and the "black sites".
The role of medical professionals in detention and interrogation operations.
True and false confessions: the efficacy of torture and brutal interrogations.
Effects and consequences of U.S. policies.
The Obama Administration.
The role of Congress.
Memo in support of Finding #1.
Memo in support of finding #2.
Guide to acronyms.
This report by the Constitution Project's blue ribbon Task Force on Detainee Treatment is the most comprehensive, bipartisan investigation into the detention and treatment of suspected terrorists yet published. The product of more than two years of research, analysis and deliberation by the Task Force members and staff, it provides the American people with a broad understanding of what is known, and what may still be unknown, about the past and current treatment of suspected terrorists detained by the U.S. government during the Clinton, Bush and Obama administrations, and across multiple geographic theatres, including Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantánamo and the so-called "black sites." Its conclusion: "It is indisputable that the United States engaged in the practice of torture" after September 11, 2001 "and that the nation's highest officials bore ultimate responsibility for it."
Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, 2012.
Book — 1 online resource (128 pages) : PDF, color illustrations
"The APEX Assessment Tools Protocol includes the APEX Screener, the APEX Organizational Profile, and the APEX Inventory. These tools provide correctional agencies with processes to assess their internal and external environments, their readiness for change, and their performance on key indicators from the APEX Public Safety Model domains. These self-assessment tools are designed specifically for correctional agencies to use in a variety of ways: (1) sequentially: Screener--Organizational Profile--Inventory, (2) one or two of the tools as chosen by the agency, (3) as a checkup to see how the agency is performing, and (4) as a pretest or posttest to measure progress as a whole organization or by one department only. The assessment tool reports are designed to guide discussions of the results and how the agency wants to use the results to create a performance improvement plan"--Page 39.
[Washington, D.C.] : [U.S. Census Bureau], [2002?]
Book — 1 online resource (24 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
This is a profile of California's population with some comparisons to the United States population. It is based on recently released demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics collected in the 2000 census