Book
xi, 292 pages : illustrations, maps, charts ; 24 cm
  • Introduction: Thinking, critically
  • Part one: Evaluating numbers. Plausibility ; Fun with averages ; Axis shenanigans ; Hijinks with how numbers are reported ; How numbers are collected ; Probabilities
  • Part two: Evaluating words. How do we know? ; Identifying expertise ; Overlooked, undervalued alternative explanations ; Counterknowledge
  • Part three: Evaluating the world. How science works ; Logical fallacies ; Knowing what you don't know ; Bayesian thinking in science and in court ; Four case studies
  • Conclusion: Discovering your own
  • Appendix: Application of Bayes' Rule.
Outlines recommendations for critical thinking practices that meet the challenges of the digital age's misinformation, demonstrating the role of science in information literacy while explaining the importance of skeptical reasoning in making decisions based on online information.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
ix, 252 pages ; 24 cm
  • Fairness
  • Reasonableness
  • Political morality
  • Proper functioning and practical judgement
  • A historical theory of reasons
  • Naturalism and moral history
  • The history of political morality.
"We all know, or think we know, what it means to say that something is 'reasonable' or 'fair', but what exactly are these concepts and how have they evolved and changed over the course of history? In this book, Christopher McMahon explores reasonableness, fairness, and justice as central concepts of the morality of reciprocal concern. He argues that the basis of this morality evolves as history unfolds, so that forms of interaction that might have been morally acceptable in the past are judged unacceptable today. The first part of his study examines the notions of reasonableness and fairness as they are employed in ordinary practical thought, and the second part develops a constructivist theory to explain why and how this part of morality can undergo historical development without arriving at any final form."-- Back cover.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
viii, 320 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • Part I. Thinking about thought: Everything's an inference
  • The power of the situation
  • The rational unconscious
  • Part II. The formerly dismal science: Should you think like an economist?
  • Spilt milk and free lunch
  • Foiling foibles
  • Part III. Coding, counting, correlation, and causality: Odds and Ns
  • Linked up
  • Part IV. Experiments: Ignore the HiPPO
  • Experiments natural and experiments proper
  • Eekonomics
  • Don't ask, can't tell
  • Part V. Thinking, straight and curved: Logic
  • Dialectical reasoning
  • Part VI. Knowing the world: KISS and tell
  • Keeping it real
  • Conclusion: The tools of the lay scientist.
Scientific and philosophical concepts can change the way we solve problems by helping us to think more effectively about our behavior and our world. Surprisingly, despite their utility, many of these tools remain unknown to most of us. In Mindware, psychologist Richart E. Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail. Nisbett has made a career of studying and teaching such powerful problem-solving concepts as the law of large numbers, statistical regression, cost-benefit analysis, sunk costs and opportunity costs, and causation and correlation, probing the best methods for teaching others how to use them effectively in their daily lives. In this book, Nisbett shows how to frame common problems in such a way that these scientific and statistical principles can be applied to them. The result is a practical guide to the most essential tools of reasoning ever developed--tools that can easily be used to make better professional, business, and personal decisions.-- From publisher description.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
x, 273 p. ; 24 cm.
  • pt. 1. Understanding (yourself). The scientific method of the mind
  • The brain attic : what is it and what's in there?
  • pt. 2. From observation to imagination. Stocking the brain attic : the power of observation
  • Exploring the brain attic : the value of creativity and imagination
  • pt. 3. The art of deduction. Navigating the brain attic : deduction from the facts
  • Maintaining the brain attic : education never stops
  • pt. 4. The science and art of self-knowledge. The dynamic attic : putting it all together
  • We're only human.
The "New York Times "bestselling guide to thinking like literature's greatest detective No fictional character is more renowned for his powers of thought and observation than Sherlock Holmes. But is his extraordinary intellect merely a gift of fiction, or can we learn to cultivate these abilities ourselves, to improve our lives at work and at home? We can, says psychologist and journalist Maria Konnikova, and in "Mastermind" she shows us how. Beginning with the "brain attic"--Holmes's metaphor for how we store information and organize knowledge--Konnikova unpacks the mental strategies that lead to clearer thinking and deeper insights. Drawing on twenty-first-century neuroscience and psychology, "Mastermind" explores Holmes's unique methods of ever-present mindfulness, astute observation, and logical deduction. In doing so, it shows how each of us, with some self-awareness and a little practice, can employ these same methods to sharpen our perceptions, solve difficult problems, and enhance our creative powers. For Holmes aficionados and casual readers alike, Konnikova reveals how the world's most keen-eyed detective can serve as an unparalleled guide to upgrading the mind.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780670026579 20160612
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xiv, 283 p. ; 24 cm.
  • The initial sketch
  • Authority
  • The rational significance of conversation
  • Norms of conversation
  • Reasoning as responsive conversation
  • Engaged reasoning
  • Responding reasonably
  • Reasonable responses
  • Intelligible responses.
Thinking about reasoning suffers from a failure of vision. Philosophers, social scientists, and others who discuss and analyze reasoning have a particular activity in view: reasoning to figure things out, solve problems, and reach judgments. But there is a different activity we engage in that we call reasoning. We reason in the course of living together, when we are responsive to those with whom we live and neither commanding nor deferring to them, neither manipulating nor ignoring them. Analysis of this second kind of activity has relied on the tools and frameworks developed to make sense of the first kind of activity. In this book, Anthony Simon Laden invites his readers to approach this activity of reasoning on its own terms. He claims that if we are to truly see and appreciate the role and value of reasoning in living together, we need a new, social picture of the activity of reasoning. According to the social picture of reasoning developed here, reasoning is a species of conversation, and like casual conversation is social and ongoing. It is neither defined nor determined by its end, although it is governed by a set of characteristic norms. It consists of inviting others to accept that our words can speak for them as well. Reasoning: A Social Picture proposes an attractive new approach to thinking about how to live together, reasonably.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199606191 20160609
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xi, 334 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Introduction: Lessons from procrastination and medical side effects
  • Paying more for less : why big bonuses don't always work
  • The meaning of labor : what Legos can teach us about the joy of work
  • The IKEA effect : why we overvalue what we make
  • The not-invented here bias : why "my" ideas are better than "yours"
  • The case for revenge : what makes us seek justice?
  • On adaptation : why we get used to things (but not all things, and not always)
  • Hot or not? : adaptation, assortative mating, and the beauty market
  • When a market fails : an example from online dating
  • On empathy and emotion : why we respond to one person who needs help but not to many
  • The long-term effects of short-term emotions : why we shouldn't act on our negative feelings
  • Lessons from our irrationalities : why we need to test everything.
Behavioral economist and New York Times bestselling author of Predictably Irrational Dan Ariely returns to offer a much-needed take on the irrational decisions that influence our dating lives, our workplace experiences, and our general behaviour, up close and personal. In The Upside of Irrationality, behavioral economist Dan Ariely will explore the many ways in which our behaviour often leads us astray in terms of our romantic relationships, our experiences in the workplace, and our temptations to cheat. Blending everyday experience with groundbreaking research, Ariely explains how expectations, emotions, social norms and other invisible, seemingly illogical forces skew our reasoning abilities. Among the topics Dan explores are: * What we think will make us happy and what really makes us happy; * How we learn to love the ones we are with; * Why online dating doesn't work, and how we can improve on it; * Why learning more about people make us like them less; * Why large bonuses can make CEOs less productive; * How to really motivate people at work; * Why bad directions can help us; * How we fall in love with our ideas; * How we are motivated by revenge; and * What motivates us to cheat. Drawing on the same experimental methods that made Predictably Irrational such a hit, Dan will emphasize the important role that irrationality plays in our day-to-day decisionmaking-not just in our financial marketplace, but in the most hidden aspects of our lives.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780007354771 20160604
Law Library (Crown)

7. Arguing well [2000]

Book
viii, 103 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Argument is the primary way of discovering the truth and thinking freely for ourselves. But just knowing how to reason well is not enough to ensure that we do so, because often factors seduce us away from reasoning well or at all. This text provides an introduction to the nature of good reasoning, how to test and construct good arguments. It assumes no prior knowledge of logic or philosophy. The book includes an accessible introduction to basic symbolic logic, and goes on to introduce and explain: the nature and importance of arguments; what to look for in deciding whether arguments succeed or fail; how to construct good arguments; and how to make it more certain that we reason when we should. The book aims to be of interest to students embarking on academic study where arguments are what matter.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415166850 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
Book
i, 16 p. ; 28 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
i, 11 p. ; 28 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xii, 313 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
An exploration of situations where the argument from ignorance (default reasoning) functions as respectable reasoning, and those where it is fallacious. It draws on everyday conversation to show how the "argumentum ad ignorantiam" can be used appropriately/inappropriately to infer conclusions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780271014746 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xviii, 545 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Discourse on Evidence-- The Study of Evidence-- STRUCTURAL ISSUES I: Studying the Properties of Evidence-- STRUCTURAL ISSUES II: Inferences Based Upon a Mass of Evidence-- On the Inferential Force of Evidence-- The Analysis of Evidential Properties and Subtleties-- Analyses of Isolated Items of Evidence-- Analyses of Recurrent Combinations of Evidence-- Discovery and the Generation of Evidence-- End of Discourse.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780471579366 20160527
Inference, the basis for human and machine information processing, leads to decision-making in all situations involving probabilistic reasoning. This study applies the basis of this subject to the field of artificial intelligence, providing a balanced view of different approaches.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780471579366 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xv, 340 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Origins, preconceptions and problems-- contexts of dialogue argument diagramming-- shorter case studies-- longer case studies-- fallacies, faults, blunders and errors-- revising the textbooks-- a theory of begging the question.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780313275968 20160528
This book offers a new theory of begging the question as an informal fallacy, within a pragmatic framework of reasoned dialogue as a normative theory of critical argumentation. The fallacy of begging the question is analyzed as a systematic tactic to evade fulfillment of a legitimate burden of proof by the proponent of an argument. The technique uses a circular structure of argument to block the further progress of dialogue and, in particular, the capability of the respondent to ask legitimate critical questions in reply to the argument. Walton analyzes the concept of burden of proof in argument, and provides chapters on the use of argument diagramming as a technique of argument reconstruction. This powerful method of argument analysis developed therein is then applied to more than 100 case studies of circular argumentation where the charge of begging the question is or has been thought to be an appropriate criticism. Throughout this work, Walton throws light on the relationship between the problem of circular reasoning and broader issues in the critical analysis of argumentation. Ground-breaking use is made of the pragmatic theory of argument as interactive dialogue. Rules for several kinds of dialogue framework provide standards of good reasoning to validate or to refute the criticism that a particular argument begs the question. This book is directed to students and professionals in the fields of speech communication, philosophy, linguistics, logic, dispute mediation, and education.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780313275968 20160528
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xxix, 210 p. ; 24 cm.
John Wisdom was Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge University through the 1950s and 1960s, holding the chair that had been Wittgenstein's. Later he taught in America and was elected President of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division. This book is based on previously unpublished lectures that Wisdom delivered at the University of Virginia. Its context goes significantly beyond that of his other books. Here he is concerned with how misunderstandings about what it is to prove something or what it is to explain something can infect our thinking in many different fields. Wisdom develops a controversial account of what he calls "case-by-case procedures" as he tries to dispel those misunderstandings and illuminate the nature of proof and explanation, as these occur in physics, psychology, ethics and everyday situations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780819180414 20160528
Law Library (Crown)
Book
x, 324 p. ; 24 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xx, 185 p. ; 21 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
113 p. 24 cm.
Law Library (Crown)

17. The logic of power [1970]

Book
xiii, 86 p. illus. 23 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
xv, 167 p. illus. 24 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
Book
188 p. 23 cm.
Law Library (Crown)

20. The uses of argument [1964 - ]

Book
vi, 264 p. 22 cm.
  • Preface-- Introduction-- 1. Fields of argument and modals-- 2. Probability-- 3. The layout of arguments-- 4. Working logic and idealised logic-- 5. The origins of epistemological theory-- Conclusion-- References-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780521092302 20160528
Traditionally, logic has been claimed to be 'the science of rational argument', but the relevance to our everyday disputes of the formal logician's results has remained unclear. The abstract character of traditional logic cuts the subject off from practical considerations; Mr Toulmin enquires why this is so, and shows how an alternative conception can be of more general value. Starting from an examination of the actual procedures in different fields of argument - the practice, as opposed to the theory, of logic - he discloses a richer variety than is allowed for by any available system. He argues that jurisprudence rather than mathematics should be the logician's model in analysing rational procedures, and that logic should be a comparative and not a purely formal study. These suggestions lead to conclusions which many will consider controversial; though they will also be widely recognized as interesting and illuminating. This book extends into general philosophy lines of enquiry already sketched by Mr Toulmin in his earlier books on ethics and the philosophy of science. The ordinary reader will find in it the same clarity and intelligibility; and the professional philosopher will acknowledge the same power to break new ground (and circumvent old difficulties) by posing fresh and stimulating questions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780521092302 20160528
Law Library (Crown)