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viii, 302 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
  • Best explanations : an introduction / Kevin McCain and Ted Poston
  • Inference to the best explanation : what is it? And why should we care? / Igor Douven
  • Peirce and Ramsey : truth, pragmatism, and inference to the best explanation / Cheryl Misak
  • Inference to the best explanation, cleaned up and made respectable / Jonah N. Schupbach
  • Reasoning to the best explanation / Richard Fumerton
  • Inference to the best explanation : fundamentalism's failures / Kareem Khalifa, Jared Millson, and Mark Risjord
  • Inference to the best explanation, Bayesianism, and knowledge / Alexander Bird
  • The evidential impact of explanatory considerations / Kevin McCain and Ted Poston
  • Inference to the best explanation and epistemic circularity / J. Adam Carter and Duncan Pritchard
  • In defense of rationalism about abductive inference / Ali Hasan
  • Does skepticism presuppose explanationism? / James R. Beebe
  • Scepticism about inference to the best explanation / Ruth Weintraub
  • External world skepticism and inference to the best explanation / Susanna Rinard
  • Explanation, confirmation, and Hempel's paradox / William Roche
  • The spirit of Cromwell's rule / Timothy McGrew
  • Bayesianism and IBE : the case of individual vs. group selection / Leah Henderson
  • Inference to the best explanation and the receipt of testimony : testimonial reductionism vindicated / Elizabeth Fricker.
Explanatory reasoning is ubiquitous. Not only are rigorous inferences to the best explanation used pervasively in the sciences, this kind of reasoning is common in everyday life. Despite its widespread use, inference to the best explanation is still in need of precise formulation, and it remains controversial. On the one hand, supporters of explanationism take inference to the best explanation to be a justifying form of inference; some even take all justification to be a matter of explanatory reasoning. On the other hand, critics object that inference to the best explanation is not a fundamental form of inference, and some argue that we should be skeptical of inference to the best explanation in general. This volume brings together twenty philosophers to explore various aspects of inference to the best explanation and the debates surrounding it. These specially commissioned essays constitute the cutting edge of research on the role explanatory considerations play in epistemology and philosophy of science.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780198746904 20180416
Law Library (Crown)
xxiii, 334 pages ; 22 cm
  • Introduction: A game of chess in times of plague
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Lucretius
  • Augustine
  • Montaigne
  • Hobbes
  • Hegel
  • Nietzsche
  • Lukacs
  • Heidegger
  • Wittgenstein
  • Adorno
  • Conclusion: The end and the future.
For Raymond Geuss, philosophers' attempts to bypass normal ways of thinking-to point out that the question being asked is itself misguided-represents philosophy at its best. By provoking people to think differently, philosophers make clear that we are not fated to live within the stifling systems of thought we inherit. We can change the subject.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780674545724 20171121
Law Library (Crown)
ix, 383 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
  • Introduction / Bradley Armour-Garb
  • From no people to no language : a nihilistic response to the liar family of semantic paradoxes / Bradley Armour-Garb and Peter Unger
  • Thinking about the liar, fast and slow / Robert Barnard, Joseph Ulatowski, and Jonathan M. Weinberg
  • Gestalt shifts in the liar or why KT4M is the logic of semantic modalities / Susanne Bobzien
  • Toward resolving the liar paradox / Gilbert Harman
  • Microlanguages, vagueness, and paradox / Peter Ludlow
  • I-languages and T-sentences / Paul M. Pietroski
  • The liar without truth / Ian Rumfitt
  • Semantics for semantics / James R. Shaw
  • Revising inconsistent concepts / Kevin Scharf and Stewart Shapiro
  • Truth and transcendence : turning the tables on the liar paradox / Gila Sher
  • Truth, hierarchy, and incoherence / Bruno Whittle
  • Semantic paradoxes and abductive methodology / Timothy Williamson
  • Pluralism and the liar / Cory Wright.
In recent years there have been a number of books-both anthologies and monographs-that have focused on the Liar Paradox and, more generally, on the semantic paradoxes, either offering proposed treatments to those paradoxes or critically evaluating ones that occupy logical space. At the same time, there are a number of people who do great work in philosophy, who have various semantic, logical, metaphysical and/or epistemological commitments that suggest that they should say something about the Liar Paradox, yet who have said very little, if anything, about that paradox or about the extant projects involving it. The purpose of this volume is to afford those philosophers the opportunity to address what might be described as reflections on the Liar.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199896042 20170919
Law Library (Crown)
xi, 292 pages : illustrations, maps, charts ; 24 cm
  • Introduction: Thinking, critically
  • Part one: Evaluating numbers. Plausibility ; Fun with averages ; Axis shenanigans ; Hijinks with how numbers are reported ; How numbers are collected ; Probabilities
  • Part two: Evaluating words. How do we know? ; Identifying expertise ; Overlooked, undervalued alternative explanations ; Counterknowledge
  • Part three: Evaluating the world. How science works ; Logical fallacies ; Knowing what you don't know ; Bayesian thinking in science and in court ; Four case studies
  • Conclusion: Discovering your own
  • Appendix: Application of Bayes' Rule.
Outlines recommendations for critical thinking practices that meet the challenges of the digital age's misinformation, demonstrating the role of science in information literacy while explaining the importance of skeptical reasoning in making decisions based on online information.
Law Library (Crown)
ix, 252 pages ; 24 cm
  • Fairness
  • Reasonableness
  • Political morality
  • Proper functioning and practical judgement
  • A historical theory of reasons
  • Naturalism and moral history
  • The history of political morality.
We all know, or think we know, what it means to say that something is 'reasonable' or 'fair', but what exactly are these concepts and how have they evolved and changed over the course of history? In this book, Christopher McMahon explores reasonableness, fairness, and justice as central concepts of the morality of reciprocal concern. He argues that the basis of this morality evolves as history unfolds, so that forms of interaction that might have been morally acceptable in the past are judged unacceptable today. The first part of his study examines the notions of reasonableness and fairness as they are employed in ordinary practical thought, and the second part develops a constructivist theory to explain why and how this part of morality can undergo historical development without arriving at any final form. His book will interest scholars of ethics, political theory, and the history of ideas.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107177178 20170227
Law Library (Crown)
viii, 320 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • Part I. Thinking about thought: Everything's an inference
  • The power of the situation
  • The rational unconscious
  • Part II. The formerly dismal science: Should you think like an economist?
  • Spilt milk and free lunch
  • Foiling foibles
  • Part III. Coding, counting, correlation, and causality: Odds and Ns
  • Linked up
  • Part IV. Experiments: Ignore the HiPPO
  • Experiments natural and experiments proper
  • Eekonomics
  • Don't ask, can't tell
  • Part V. Thinking, straight and curved: Logic
  • Dialectical reasoning
  • Part VI. Knowing the world: KISS and tell
  • Keeping it real
  • Conclusion: The tools of the lay scientist.
Scientific and philosophical concepts can change the way we solve problems by helping us to think more effectively about our behavior and our world. Surprisingly, despite their utility, many of these tools remain unknown to most of us. In Mindware, psychologist Richart E. Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail. Nisbett has made a career of studying and teaching such powerful problem-solving concepts as the law of large numbers, statistical regression, cost-benefit analysis, sunk costs and opportunity costs, and causation and correlation, probing the best methods for teaching others how to use them effectively in their daily lives. In this book, Nisbett shows how to frame common problems in such a way that these scientific and statistical principles can be applied to them. The result is a practical guide to the most essential tools of reasoning ever developed--tools that can easily be used to make better professional, business, and personal decisions.-- From publisher description.
Law Library (Crown)
x, 273 p. ; 24 cm.
  • pt. 1. Understanding (yourself). The scientific method of the mind
  • The brain attic : what is it and what's in there?
  • pt. 2. From observation to imagination. Stocking the brain attic : the power of observation
  • Exploring the brain attic : the value of creativity and imagination
  • pt. 3. The art of deduction. Navigating the brain attic : deduction from the facts
  • Maintaining the brain attic : education never stops
  • pt. 4. The science and art of self-knowledge. The dynamic attic : putting it all together
  • We're only human.
The "New York Times "bestselling guide to thinking like literature's greatest detective No fictional character is more renowned for his powers of thought and observation than Sherlock Holmes. But is his extraordinary intellect merely a gift of fiction, or can we learn to cultivate these abilities ourselves, to improve our lives at work and at home? We can, says psychologist and journalist Maria Konnikova, and in "Mastermind" she shows us how. Beginning with the "brain attic"--Holmes's metaphor for how we store information and organize knowledge--Konnikova unpacks the mental strategies that lead to clearer thinking and deeper insights. Drawing on twenty-first-century neuroscience and psychology, "Mastermind" explores Holmes's unique methods of ever-present mindfulness, astute observation, and logical deduction. In doing so, it shows how each of us, with some self-awareness and a little practice, can employ these same methods to sharpen our perceptions, solve difficult problems, and enhance our creative powers. For Holmes aficionados and casual readers alike, Konnikova reveals how the world's most keen-eyed detective can serve as an unparalleled guide to upgrading the mind.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780670026579 20160612
Law Library (Crown)
xiv, 283 p. ; 24 cm.
  • The initial sketch
  • Authority
  • The rational significance of conversation
  • Norms of conversation
  • Reasoning as responsive conversation
  • Engaged reasoning
  • Responding reasonably
  • Reasonable responses
  • Intelligible responses.
Thinking about reasoning suffers from a failure of vision. Philosophers, social scientists, and others who discuss and analyze reasoning have a particular activity in view: reasoning to figure things out, solve problems, and reach judgments. But there is a different activity we engage in that we call reasoning. We reason in the course of living together, when we are responsive to those with whom we live and neither commanding nor deferring to them, neither manipulating nor ignoring them. Analysis of this second kind of activity has relied on the tools and frameworks developed to make sense of the first kind of activity. In this book, Anthony Simon Laden invites his readers to approach this activity of reasoning on its own terms. He claims that if we are to truly see and appreciate the role and value of reasoning in living together, we need a new, social picture of the activity of reasoning. According to the social picture of reasoning developed here, reasoning is a species of conversation, and like casual conversation is social and ongoing. It is neither defined nor determined by its end, although it is governed by a set of characteristic norms. It consists of inviting others to accept that our words can speak for them as well. Reasoning: A Social Picture proposes an attractive new approach to thinking about how to live together, reasonably.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780199606191 20160609
Law Library (Crown)
xi, 334 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Introduction: Lessons from procrastination and medical side effects
  • Paying more for less : why big bonuses don't always work
  • The meaning of labor : what Legos can teach us about the joy of work
  • The IKEA effect : why we overvalue what we make
  • The not-invented here bias : why "my" ideas are better than "yours"
  • The case for revenge : what makes us seek justice?
  • On adaptation : why we get used to things (but not all things, and not always)
  • Hot or not? : adaptation, assortative mating, and the beauty market
  • When a market fails : an example from online dating
  • On empathy and emotion : why we respond to one person who needs help but not to many
  • The long-term effects of short-term emotions : why we shouldn't act on our negative feelings
  • Lessons from our irrationalities : why we need to test everything.
Behavioral economist and New York Times bestselling author of Predictably Irrational Dan Ariely returns to offer a much-needed take on the irrational decisions that influence our dating lives, our workplace experiences, and our general behaviour, up close and personal. In The Upside of Irrationality, behavioral economist Dan Ariely will explore the many ways in which our behaviour often leads us astray in terms of our romantic relationships, our experiences in the workplace, and our temptations to cheat. Blending everyday experience with groundbreaking research, Ariely explains how expectations, emotions, social norms and other invisible, seemingly illogical forces skew our reasoning abilities. Among the topics Dan explores are: * What we think will make us happy and what really makes us happy; * How we learn to love the ones we are with; * Why online dating doesn't work, and how we can improve on it; * Why learning more about people make us like them less; * Why large bonuses can make CEOs less productive; * How to really motivate people at work; * Why bad directions can help us; * How we fall in love with our ideas; * How we are motivated by revenge; and * What motivates us to cheat. Drawing on the same experimental methods that made Predictably Irrational such a hit, Dan will emphasize the important role that irrationality plays in our day-to-day decisionmaking-not just in our financial marketplace, but in the most hidden aspects of our lives.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780007354771 20160604
Law Library (Crown)

10. Arguing well [2000]

viii, 103 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Argument is the primary way of discovering the truth and thinking freely for ourselves. But just knowing how to reason well is not enough to ensure that we do so, because often factors seduce us away from reasoning well or at all. This text provides an introduction to the nature of good reasoning, how to test and construct good arguments. It assumes no prior knowledge of logic or philosophy. The book includes an accessible introduction to basic symbolic logic, and goes on to introduce and explain: the nature and importance of arguments; what to look for in deciding whether arguments succeed or fail; how to construct good arguments; and how to make it more certain that we reason when we should. The book aims to be of interest to students embarking on academic study where arguments are what matter.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415166850 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
i, 16 p. ; 28 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
i, 11 p. ; 28 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
xii, 313 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
An exploration of situations where the argument from ignorance (default reasoning) functions as respectable reasoning, and those where it is fallacious. It draws on everyday conversation to show how the "argumentum ad ignorantiam" can be used appropriately/inappropriately to infer conclusions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780271014746 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
xviii, 545 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Discourse on Evidence-- The Study of Evidence-- STRUCTURAL ISSUES I: Studying the Properties of Evidence-- STRUCTURAL ISSUES II: Inferences Based Upon a Mass of Evidence-- On the Inferential Force of Evidence-- The Analysis of Evidential Properties and Subtleties-- Analyses of Isolated Items of Evidence-- Analyses of Recurrent Combinations of Evidence-- Discovery and the Generation of Evidence-- End of Discourse.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780471579366 20160527
Inference, the basis for human and machine information processing, leads to decision-making in all situations involving probabilistic reasoning. This study applies the basis of this subject to the field of artificial intelligence, providing a balanced view of different approaches.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780471579366 20160527
Law Library (Crown)
xv, 340 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Origins, preconceptions and problems-- contexts of dialogue argument diagramming-- shorter case studies-- longer case studies-- fallacies, faults, blunders and errors-- revising the textbooks-- a theory of begging the question.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780313275968 20160528
This book offers a new theory of begging the question as an informal fallacy, within a pragmatic framework of reasoned dialogue as a normative theory of critical argumentation. The fallacy of begging the question is analyzed as a systematic tactic to evade fulfillment of a legitimate burden of proof by the proponent of an argument. The technique uses a circular structure of argument to block the further progress of dialogue and, in particular, the capability of the respondent to ask legitimate critical questions in reply to the argument. Walton analyzes the concept of burden of proof in argument, and provides chapters on the use of argument diagramming as a technique of argument reconstruction. This powerful method of argument analysis developed therein is then applied to more than 100 case studies of circular argumentation where the charge of begging the question is or has been thought to be an appropriate criticism. Throughout this work, Walton throws light on the relationship between the problem of circular reasoning and broader issues in the critical analysis of argumentation. Ground-breaking use is made of the pragmatic theory of argument as interactive dialogue. Rules for several kinds of dialogue framework provide standards of good reasoning to validate or to refute the criticism that a particular argument begs the question. This book is directed to students and professionals in the fields of speech communication, philosophy, linguistics, logic, dispute mediation, and education.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780313275968 20160528
Law Library (Crown)
xxix, 210 p. ; 24 cm.
John Wisdom was Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge University through the 1950s and 1960s, holding the chair that had been Wittgenstein's. Later he taught in America and was elected President of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division. This book is based on previously unpublished lectures that Wisdom delivered at the University of Virginia. Its context goes significantly beyond that of his other books. Here he is concerned with how misunderstandings about what it is to prove something or what it is to explain something can infect our thinking in many different fields. Wisdom develops a controversial account of what he calls "case-by-case procedures" as he tries to dispel those misunderstandings and illuminate the nature of proof and explanation, as these occur in physics, psychology, ethics and everyday situations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780819180414 20160528
Law Library (Crown)
x, 324 p. ; 24 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
xx, 185 p. ; 21 cm.
Law Library (Crown)
113 p. 24 cm.
Law Library (Crown)

20. The logic of power [1970]

xiii, 86 p. illus. 23 cm.
Law Library (Crown)