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1. Exposure analysis [2007]

Book
533 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
  • Exposure Concepts Exposure Analysis: A Receptor-Oriented Science, W.R. Ott Basic Concepts and Definitions of Exposure and Dose, V. Zartarian, W. Ott, and N. Duan Probability-Based Sampling for Human Exposure Assessment Studies, R. Whitmore Inhalation Inhalation Exposure, Uptake, and Dose, A.R. Ferro and L.M. Hildemann Personal Monitors, L. Wallace Exposure to Carbon Monoxide (CO), P. Flachsbart Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), L.A. Wallace and S.M. Gordon Exposure to Particles, L.A. Wallace and K. Smith Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, J.L. Repace Intake Fraction, J.D. Marshall and W.W. Nazaroff Dermal Exposure Dermal Exposure, Uptake, and Dose, A.C. Ferguson, R.A. Canales, and J.O. Leckie Dermal Exposure to VOCs while Bathing, Showering, or Swimming, L.A. Wallace and S.M. Gordon Ingestion Ingestion Exposure, P.B. Ryan Multimedia Exposure Exposure to Pollutants from House Dust, J.W. Roberts and W. Ott Exposure to Pesticides, R.G. Lewis Exposure to Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds, D.J. Stralka and H.A. Ball Biomarkers of Exposure, L. Wallace Models Mathematical Modeling of Indoor Air Quality, W. Ott Modeling Human Exposure to Air Pollution, N.E. Klepeis Models of Exposure to Pesticides, R.A. Canales and J.O. Leckie Policy Environmental Laws and Exposure Analysis, A.C. Steinemann and N.J. Walsh Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566706636 20160528
Written by experts, "Exposure Analysis" is the first complete resource in the emerging scientific discipline of exposure analysis. A comprehensive source on the environmental pollutants that affect human health, the book discusses human exposure through pathways including air, food, water, dermal absorption, and, for children, non-food ingestion. The book summarizes existing definitions of exposure, dose, and related concepts and provides the mathematical framework at the heart of these conceptual definitions.Using secondhand smoke as an example, the book illustrates how exposure analysis studies can change human behavior and improve public health. An extensive section on air pollutants considers volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), fine and ultrafine particles, and the latest personal air quality monitors for measuring individual exposure. Another detailed section examines exposures to pesticides, metals such as lead, and dioxin that may occur through multiple routes such as air, food, and dust ingestion.The book explores important aspects of dermal exposure such as the absorption of volatile organic compounds while showering or bathing and exposure through multiple carrier media. The authors describe quantitative methods that have been validated for predicting the concentrations in enclosed everyday locations, such as automobiles and rooms of the home. They also discuss existing laws and examine the relationship between exposure and national policies. Defining the new field of exposure analysis, this book provides the basic tools needed to identify sources, understand causes, measure exposures, and develop strategies for improving public health.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566706636 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman), eReserve
CEE-178-01, CEE-276-01
Book
xvii, 281 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
The authors describe a wide range of approaches to hygiene promotion that can be used in different settings. Central to these approaches is a commitment to working in collaboration with people and encouraging them to take more control over the factors that influence their lives. The authors stress the need for a form of hygiene promotion that fosters capacity-building rather than the provision of information alone. The opening chapter of the manual introduces the reader to the context of emergency relief and development projects and provides insights into current hygiene promotion theory. The main body of the text then goes on to consider the four phases of the project cycle namely, assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring & evaluation each of which is assigned a chapter for discussion. These chapters draw together the experience of hygiene promotion fieldworkers in many emergency and rehabilitation, water, sanitation, and hygiene programmes undertaken by CARE and other agencies. The annex comprises other useful material including a series of concise "how-to-do" guides, pictures for use or adaptation in the field, information about hygiene-related diseases and how to prevent them, and an annotated bibliography.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781853396410 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
xvi, 269 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm.
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
xiii, 339 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • INTRODUCTION Study of environmental toxicology Worldwide development in recent decades Environmental pollution and law Importance of environmental toxicology Toxicity testing - a brief review ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND HEALTH Our changing environment Our changing disease pattern Examples of environmental diseases OCCURRENCE OF TOXICANTS Introduction Smoke or smog Offensive odors Agricultural damage Intoxication of animals Injuries to humans Acute and chronic effects DAMAGE PROCESS AND ACTION OF TOXICANTS Introduction Plants Mammalian organism Mechanism of action FACTORS AFFECTING XENOBIOTIC ACTION Introduction Physicochemical properties Dose/concentration Duration and mode of exposure Environmental factors Interaction Biological factors Nutritional factors METABOLISM OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS Introduction Types of biotransformation Mechanism of biotransformation Consequence of biotransformation Factors influencing biotransformation Characteristics of the cytochrome P450s DEFENSE RESPONSES TO TOXICANTS Introduction Responses of humans/animals Responses of plants AIR POLLUTION -- INORGANIC GASES Introduction Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Ozone Carbon monoxide AIR POLLUTION -- PARTICULATE MATTER Introduction Characteristics Formation of particulates Health effects Silica Beryllium Asbestos ENVIRONMENTAL FLUORIDE Introduction Occurrence and forms of fluoride Sources of environmental fluoride Industrial sources of fluoride in the environment Effects on plants Effects on animals Effects on humans VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Introduction Sources Petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons SOIL AND WATER POLLUTION - ENVIRONMENTAL METALS AND METALLOIDS Introduction Lead Cadmium Mercury Nickel Arsenic PESTICIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS Introduction Insecticides Herbicides Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polybrominated biphenyls Dioxin ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION Introduction Review of hormonal function Characteristics of endocrine disrupters Mode of action Examples of endocrine disruption Hormonal cancers Testing estrogenicity MUTAGENIC POLLUTANTS Introduction Types of mutation Effect of mutations Induction of mutation ENVIRONMENTAL CANCER Introduction Causes of cancer Stages in the development of cancer Metastasis Classification of carcinogens Metabolism of chemical carcinogens DNA repair RISK ASSESSMENT/TESTING Introduction Basic components of a risk assessment Use of ecological risk assessment Importance of ecological risk assessment Frameworks for ecological risk assessment Usefulness of ecological risk assessment predictions.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566706704 20160528
This is an indispensable reference of air, soil, and water pollutants. This second edition of "Environmental Toxicology" focuses on the biological and health effects toxins have on living organisms. It also stresses the relationship between human activity and the environment, relating changes in the environment with the changing patterns of human diseases, and exploring the parallels between developing economies and pollution-related health problems. The book deals with a large number of environmental toxicants, discussing their damage process, metabolism (biotransformation), and metabolism, toxicants and their damage process, and environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It also describes several natural defense systems and the mechanisms for detoxification, including endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes on a cellular level.The book continues its comprehensive analysis of EPA Criteria Air Pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, particulate matter), and volatile organic compounds, as well as soil and water pollution, and expands the chapters on fluoride, environmental metals and metalloid (lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, and arsenic), pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins, and their relationship with endocrine disruption (a new chapter) and environmental cancer, offering more insight on the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA. Based on research from nearly 30 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, the author concludes this text with an introduction to ecological risk assessment and its role in regulation and policymaking.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566706704 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
xiv, 812 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm.
  • 1. Medical Geology: Perspective and Prospective I. Environmental Biology 2. Natural Distribution and Abundance of Elements 3. Anthropogenic Sources 4. Uptake of Elements from a Chemical Point of View 5. Uptake of Elements from a Biological Point of View 6. Biological Functions of the Elements 7. Geological Impacts on Nutrition 8. Biological Responses of Elements II. Pathways and exposures 9. Volcanic Emissions and Health 10. Radon in Air and Water 11. Arsenic in Groundwater and the Environment 12. Fluoride in Natural Waters 13. Water Hardness and Health Effects 14. Bioavailability of Elements in Soil 15. Selenium Deficiency and Toxicity in the Environment 16. Soils and Iodine Deficiency 17. Geophagy and the Involuntary Ingestion of Soil 18. Natural Aerosolic Mineral Dusts and Human Health 19. The Ecology of Soil-borne Human Pathogens 20. Animals and Medical Geology III. Environmental Toxicology, Pathology and Medical Geology 21. Environmental Epidemiology 22. Environmental Medicine 23. Environmental Pathology 24. Toxicology 25. Speciation of Trace Elements IV. Techniques and Tools 26. GIS in Human Health Studies 27. Investigating Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases with Remote Sensing and GIS 28. Mineralogy of Bone 29. Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry Techniques 30. Histochemical and Microprobe Analysis in Medical Geology 31. Modeling Ground Water Flow and Quality APPENDICES.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780126363418 20160528
This authoritative reference volume emphasizes the importance and interrelationships of geological processes to the health and diseases of humans and animals. Its accessible format fosters better communication between the health and geoscience communities by elucidating the geologic origins and flow of toxic elements in the environment that lead to human exposure through the consumption of food and water. For example, problems of excess intake from drinking water have been encountered for several inorganic compounds, including fluoride in Africa and India; arsenic in certain areas of Argentina, Chile, and Taiwan; selenium in seleniferous areas in the U.S., Venezuela, and China; and nitrate in agricultural areas with heavy use of fertilizers. Environmental influences on vector borne diseases and stormflow water quality influences are also featured. Numerous examples of the environmental influences on human health from across the globe are also presented and discussed in this volume. It covers recent advances and future research topics at the intersection of environmental science and public health. It is developed by 60 experts from 20 countries and edited by professionals from the International Working Group on Medical Geology. It includes 200 plus color photographs and illustrations. It organizes information in a highly structured format for easy reference. It is written for a broad audience, ranging from students, researchers, and medical professionals to policymakers and the general public.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780126363418 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
xvii, 334 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Preface to the First Edition-- Preface to the Second Edition-- Preface to the Third Edition-- 1. Environment: Past and Present-- 2. Review of Pharmacologic Concepts-- 3. Metabolism of Xenobiotics-- 4. Factors That Influence Toxicity-- 5. Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis-- 6. Endocrine Disrupters-- 7. Risk Assessment-- 8. Occupational Toxicology-- 9. Air Pollution-- 10. Pollution of the Atmosphere-- 11. Water and Land Pollution-- 12. Pollution Control-- 13. Radioactive Pollution-- 14. Population, Environment and Women's Issues-- 15. Regulatory Policies and International Treaties-- Appendix: Subject for Student Seminars-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780195148114 20160528
The fundamental principles of environmental toxicology are clearly presented here for university students and professionals in related fields. This book consists of two parts. In the first part basic metabolic, physiological, and pharmacological concepts are used to explain the fate of toxic chemicals in the body, with emphasis on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This part also contains a chapter on chemicals disrupting the endocrine system and a chapter on risk assessment and the precautionary principle. The second section deals with specific environmental problems - air pollution, alteration of the earth's atmosphere, water and land pollution, including sections on wetlands, organic agriculture and genetically modified crops. It also deals with health and environmental effects of ionized radiation, and the effect of a rapid population growth on the environmental and human welfare. Chapter on pollution control and regulatory policies are also included.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780195148114 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
xv, 352 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Dedication.- Preface.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Human Exposure to Chemicals.- 3. Principles and Concepts in Risk Assessment.- 4. Principal Elements of a Public Health Risk Assessment for Chemical Exposure Problems.- 5. Chemical Hazard Determination.- 6. Exposure Assessment: Analysis of Human Intake of Chemicals.- 7. Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity.- 8. Chemical Risk Characterization and Uncertainty Analyses.- 9. Determination of "Acceptable" and "Safe" Levels of Chemical Exposure.- 10. Design of Public Health Risk Management Programs.- 11. The Role of Risk Assessment in Public Health Policy Decisions. List of References and Bibliography.- Appendix A: Glossary of Selected Terms and Definitions.- Appendix B: Selected Tools, Chemical Exposure Models, and Chemical Databases for Public Health Risk Policy Decision-Making.- Appendix C: Toxicity Index Parameters for Selected Chemicals.- Appendix D: Selected Units of Measurement & Noteworthy Expressions.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781402009211 20160528
Risks to humans as a consequence of chemical exposures are a complex issue with worldwide implications, especially in our modern societies. The effective management of human exposure to a variety of chemicals present in various sectors of society has indeed become a very important public health policy issue - and risk assessment promises a systematic way for developing appropriate strategies to aid public health risk management decisions. Risk assessment generally serves as a tool that can be used to organize, structure, and compile scientific information in order to help identify existing hazardous situations or problems, anticipate potential problems, establish priorities, and provide a basis for regulatory controls and/or corrective actions. In fact, with the control and containment of most infectious conditions and diseases of the past millennium having been achieved in most developed countries, and with the resultant increase in life expectancies, much more attention seems to have shifted to degenerative health problems. Many of the degenerative health conditions have been linked to thousands of chemicals regularly encountered in human living and occupational/work environments. It is important, therefore, that human health risk assessments are undertaken on a consistent basis - in order to determine the potential impacts of the target chemicals on public health. This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets/aspects relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems. It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective way. Overall the book represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that pertain to human exposures to chemicals in the human living and work environments. It offers an understanding of the scientific basis of risk assessment and its applications to public health policy decisions. The subject matter of this book should be of interest to many a professional encountering risk assessment in relation to environmental contamination and public health risk management programs - especially public and occupational health practitioners; environmental consultants; environmental attorneys; public policy analysts; and, various health, environmental, and consumer advocacy interest groups. The book is also expected to serve as a useful educational and training resource for both students and professionals in the health-related and environmental fields - who have to deal with human exposures to chemicals, public health risk assessment issues, and/or environmental health management problems.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781402009211 20160528
This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets/aspects relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems. It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective way. Overall the book represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that pertain to human exposures to chemicals in the human living and work environments. It offers an understanding of the scientific basis of risk assessment and its applications to public health policy decisions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781402009204 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Part 1: Introduction. Chapter 1: Introduction to the IAQ Handbook. Chapter 2: The History and Future of Ventilation. Chapter 3: Sick Building Syndrome Studies and the Compilation of Normative and Comparative Values. Chapter 4: Estimates of Potential Nationwide Productivity and Health Benefits from Better Indoor Environments: An Update. Chapter 5: Indoor Air quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building. Part 2: Building Systems. Chapter 6: An Overview of the U.S. Building Stock. Chapter 7: HVAC Systems. Chapter 8: HVAC Subsystems. Chapter 9: Air Cleaning Particles. Chapter 10: Removal of Gases and Vapors. Chapter 11: Disinfecting Air. Chapter 12: Controlling Building Functions. Chapter 13: Ventilation Strategies. Chapter 14: Building Fires and Smoke Management. Part 3: Human Responses. Chapter 15: Thermal Comfort Concepts and Guidelines. Chapter 16: Thermal Effects on Performance. Chapter 17: The Irritated Eye in Indoor Environment. Chapter 18: Lighting Recommendations. Chapter 19: The Acoustic Environment Responses to Sound. Chapter 20: Physicochemical Basis for Odor and Irritation Potency of VOCs. Chapter 21: Response to Odors. Chapter 22: Perceived Air Quality and Ventilation Requirements. Chapter 23: Animal Bioassays for Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality. Chapter 24: Computorized Animal Bioassay to Evaluate the Effects of Airborne Chemicals on the Respiratory Tract. Chapter 25: Sensory Irritation in Humans Casued by Valative Organic Compounds (VOCs) as Indoor Air Pollutants: A Summary of 12 Exposure Experiments. Chapter 26: Methods for Assessing Irritation Effects in AIQ Field and Laboratory Studies. Chapter 27: Multiple Chemical Intolerance and Indoor Air Quality. Chapter 28: Environmentally Induced Skin Disorders. Part 4: Indoor Pollutants. Chapter 29: Combustion Products. Chapter 30: Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Chapter 31: Volatile Organic Compounds. Chapter 32: Aldehydes. Chapter 33: Assessing Human Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds. Chapter 34: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Phthalates, and Phenols. Chapter 35: Pesticides. Chapter 36: Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Chapter 37: Fibers. Chapter 38: Asbestos. Chapter 39: Synthetic Vitreous Fibers. Chapter 40: Radon. Chapter 41: Latex. Chapter 42: Endotoxins. Chapter 43: Allergens Derived from Arthropods and Domestic Animals. Chapter 44: Pollen in Indoor Air: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects. Chapter 45: The Fungi. Chapter 46: Toxigenio Fungi in the Indoor Environment. Chapter 47: Tuberculosis. Chapter 48: Legionella. Part 5: Assessing IAQ. Chapter 49: Strategies and Methodologies to Investigate Buildings. Chapter 50: Tracking Ultrafine Particles in Building Investigations. Chapter 51: Instruments and Methods for Measuring Indoor Air Quality. Chapter 52: Measuring Ventilation Performance. Chapter 53: Assessing occupant Reaction to Indoor Air Quality. Chapter 54: Building-Related Disease. Chapter 55: Methods to Assess Workplace Stress and Psychosocial Factors. Chapter 56: Cost of Responding to Complaints. Chapter 57: Modeling IAQ and Building Dynamics. Chapter 58: Indoor Air Quality Modeling. Chapter 59: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Indoor Air Quality Studies. Part 6: Preventing Indoor Environmental Problems. Chapter 60: Indoor Air Quality by Design. Chapter 61: Building Commissioning for Mechanical Systems. Chapter 62: Prevention during Remodeling Restoration. Chapter 63: Prevention and Maintenance Operations. Chapter 64: Prevention with Cleaning. Part 7: Special Indoor Environments. Chapter 65: Indoor Environmental Quality in Hospitals. Chapter 66: Residential Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds from Nearby Commercial Facilities. Chapter 67: Recreation Buildings. Chapter 68: Transporation. Chapter 69: Day-Care Centers and Health. Part 8: Risk Assessment and Litigation. Chapter 70: The Risk Analysis Framework: Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication. Chapter 71: IAQ and the Law.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780074455494 20160527
This book tackles the complex environmental issue of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) for industrial hygienists, HVAC engineers, architects and anyone else concerned with the air quality of interiors. It is infused with charts, tables, and all the major formulas and calculations necessary to monitor and characterize a particular environment. It includes all relevant codes, standards and guidelines.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780074455494 20160527
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
467 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Introduction Background Indoor Air Contaminants Mainstream and Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Properties and Measures of Environmental Tobacco Smoke General Sampling and Analysis Considerations Field Studies - Particulate Matter Field Studies - Nicotine Field Studies - Carbon Monoxide Field Studies - Oxides of Nitrogen Field Studies - Formaldehyde Field Studies - Volatile Organic Compounds Field Studies - Trace Constituents Appendices.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566705097 20160528
Written by experts in the field, "The Chemistry of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Composition and Measurement, Second Edition" compiles data on the properties of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and on concentrations of its constituents in indoor air. The authors focus on common natural indoor environments and environments associated with chronic exposure. They stress measurement methods and competing sources of indoor air contaminants commonly attributed to ETS.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781566705097 20160528
Engineering Library (Terman)
Book
1 v. (various pagings) : ill., 28 cm.
Engineering Library (Terman)