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xii, 293 pages, 16 pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. AN INTRODUCTION INTO BIRDS, THE GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS OF THEIR EVOLUTION, AND THE AVIAN SKELETON 4 Birds are evolutionary nested within theropod dinosaurs 4 The geological settings of avian evolution in a nutshell 6 Characteristics of the avian skeleton 7 2. THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS 13 Archaeopteryx: The German urvogel and its bearing on avian evolution 13 The closest maniraptoran relatives of birds 15 Feather evolution 21 The origin of avian flight 25 3. THE MESOZOIC FLIGHT WAY TOWARDS MODERN BIRDS 29 Jeholornithids: Early Cretaceous long-tailed birds 30 Confuciusornis, Sapeornis, and kin: Basal birds with a pygostyle 31 Ornithothoraces and the origin of sustained flapping flight capabilities 34 The Ornithuromorpha: Refinement of modern characteristics 37 Ornithurae and the origin of modern birds 40 4. MESOZOIC BIRDS: INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND CHARACTER EVOLUTION 43 The interrelationships of Mesozoic birds controversial phylogenetic placements and well-supported clades 43 Character evolution in Mesozoic birds 45 Ontogenetic development of Mesozoic birds 53 5. THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND ORIGIN OF CROWN GROUP BIRDS (NEORNITHES) 55 Phylogenetic interrelationships of neornithine birds 56 The Mesozoic fossil record of neornithine-like and neornithine birds 58 6. PALAEOGNATHOUS BIRDS (OSTRICHES, TINAMOUS, AND ALLIES) 61 The interrelationships of extant Palaeognathae 62 Early Cenozoic palaeognathous birds of the Northern Hemisphere 63 The long-winged ostriches, rheas, and tinamous 64 The short-winged palaeognathous birds 67 Biogeography: A textbook example of Gondwanan vicariance has become dismantled 70 7. GALLOANSERES: FOWL AND KIN 71 Galliformes from herbivorous forest dwellers to seed eaters of open landscapes 72 The waterfowl 75 Gastornithids: Giant herbivorous birds in the early Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere 79 Dromornithids (mihirungs or thunderbirds): Gastornis-like birds from Australia 80 Pelagornithids: The bony-toothed birds 81 8. THE DIFFICULT-TO-PLACE GROUPS : BIOGEOGRAPHIC SURPRISES AND AERIAL SPECIALISTS 83 The columbiform birds: Doves, sandgrouse, and mesites? 84 The Hoatzin a South American relict species 85 Turacos and cuckoos 86 Bustards 87 The wonderful Mirandornithes, or how different can sister taxa be? 88 Strisores: The early diversification of nocturnal avian insectivores 91 9. SHOREBIRDS, CRANES, AND RELATIVES 97 Charadriiformes: One of the most diverse groups of extant birds 97 From rail to crane 103 10. AEQUORNITHES: AQUATIC AND SEMI-AQUATIC CARNIVORES 107 Loons: Foot-propelled divers of the Northern Hemisphere 107 The pelagic tubenoses and albatrosses 108 Penguins: More than 60 million years of flightlessness 111 The polyphyletic Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes 115 Late Cenozoic turnovers in marine avifaunas 125 11. CARIAMIFORMS AND DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY 126 Seriemas and allies: Two species now, a lot more in the past 127 Diurnal birds of prey: Multiple cases of convergence among raptorial birds 131 12. THE CENOZOIC RADIATION OF SMALL ARBOREAL BIRDS 137 The Courol and mousebirds: Two African relict groups 137 The long evolutionary history of owls 140 Parrots and passerines: An unexpected sister group relationship and its potential evolutionary implications 142 Trogons, rollers, and woodpeckers: Cavity-nesters with diverse foot morphologies 148 13. INSULAR AVIFAUNAS NOW AND THEN, ON VARIOUS SCALES 153 Islands and isolated continents as refugia 154 The evolution of flightlessness in predator-free environments 155 Insular gigantism and islands as cradles of unusual morphologies 160 GLOSSARY 163 REFERENCES 165 INDEX.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Knowledge of the evolutionary history of birds has much improved in recent decades. Fossils from critical time periods are being described at unprecedented rates and modern phylogenetic analyses have provided a framework for the interrelationships of the extant groups. This book gives an overview of the avian fossil record and its paleobiological significance, and it is the only up-to-date textbook that covers both Mesozoic and more modern-type Cenozoic birds in some detail. The reader is introduced to key features of basal avians and the morphological transformations that have occurred in the evolution towards modern birds. An account of the Cenozoic fossil record sheds light on the biogeographic history of the extant avian groups and discusses fossils in the context of current phylogenetic hypotheses. This review of the evolutionary history of birds not only addresses students and established researchers, but it may also be a useful source of information for anyone else with an interest in the evolution of birds and a moderate background in biology and geology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xv, 323 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780198717416 20170313
This book is an introductory text to a range of numerical methods used today to simulate time-dependent processes in Earth science, physics, engineering, and many other fields. The physical problem of elastic wave propagation in 1D serves as a model system with which the various numerical methods are introduced and compared. The theoretical background is presented with substantial graphical material supporting the concepts. The results can be reproduced with the supplementary electronic material provided as python codes embedded in Jupyter notebooks. The book starts with a primer on the physics of elastic wave propagation, and a chapter on the fundamentals of parallel programming, computational grids, mesh generation, and hardware models. The core of the book is the presentation of numerical solutions of the wave equation with six different methods: 1) the finite-difference method; 2) the pseudospectral method (Fourier and Chebyshev); 3) the linear finite-element method; 4) the spectral-element method; 5) the finite-volume method; and 6) the discontinuous Galerkin method. Each chapter contains comprehension questions, theoretical, and programming exercises. The book closes with a discussion of domains of application and criteria for the choice of a specific numerical method, and the presentation of current challenges.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780198717416 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xvi, 451 pages, 88 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm
  • List of contributors, xi About the companion websites, xvii 1 Introduction, 1 Tom Gleeson and Steven Ingebritsen 2 DigitalCrust a 4D data system of material properties for transforming research on crustal fluid flow, 6 Ying Fan, Stephen Richard, R. Sky Bristol, Shanan E. Peters, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Nils Moosdorf, Aaron Packman, Tom Gleeson, I. Zaslavsky, S. Peckham, Lawrence Murdoch, Michael Fienen, Michael Cardiff, David Tarboton, Norman Jones, Richard Hooper, Jennifer Arrigo, D. Gochis, J. Olson and David Wolock Part I: The physics of permeability, 13 3 The physics of permeability, 15 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen 4 A pore-scale investigation of the dynamic response of saturated porous media to transient stresses, 16 Christian Huber and Yanqing Su 5 Flow of concentrated suspensions through fractures: small variations in solid concentration cause significant in-plane velocity variations, 27 Ricardo Medina, Jean E. Elkhoury, Joseph P. Morris, Romain Prioul, Jean Desroches and Russell L. Detwiler 6 Normal stress-induced permeability hysteresis of a fracture in a granite cylinder, 39 A. P. S. Selvadurai 7 Linking microearthquakes to fracture permeability evolution, 49 Takuya Ishibashi, Noriaki Watanabe, Hiroshi Asanuma and Noriyoshi Tsuchiya 8 Fractured rock stress permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical mechanical couplings, 65 Jonny Rutqvist Part II: Static permeability, 83 9 Static permeability, 85 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part II(A): Sediments and sedimentary rocks 10 How well can we predict permeability in sedimentary basins? Deriving and evaluating porosity permeability equations for noncemented sand and clay mixtures, 89 Elco Luijendijk and Tom Gleeson 11 Evolution of sediment permeability during burial and subduction, 104 Hugh Daigle and Elizabeth J. Screaton Part II(B): Igneous and metamorphic rocks 12 Is the permeability of crystalline rock in the shallow crust related to depth, lithology, or tectonic setting?, 125 Mark Ranjram, Tom Gleeson and Elco Luijendijk 13 Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: Insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, United States, 137 Erick R. Burns, Colin F. Williams, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Clifford I. Voss, Frank A. Spane and Jacob DeAngelo 14 Deep fluid circulation within crystalline basement rocks and the role of hydrologic windows in the formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature geothermal system, 155 Jeffrey Pepin, Mark Person, Fred Phillips, Shari Kelley, Stacy Timmons, Lara Owens, James Witcher and Carl W. Gable 15 Hydraulic conductivity of fractured upper crust: insights from hydraulic tests in boreholes and fluid rock interaction in crystalline basement rocks, 174 Ingrid Stober and Kurt Bucher Part III: Dynamic permeability, 189 16 Dynamic permeability, 191 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part III(A): Oceanic crust 17 Rapid generation of reaction permeability in the roots of black smoker systems, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, 195 Johnson R. Cann, Andrew M. Mccaig and Bruce W. D. Yardley Part III(B): Fault zones 18 The permeability of active subduction plate boundary faults, 209 Demian M. Saffer 19 Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes, 228 Simon C. Cox, Catriona D. Menzies, Rupert Sutherland, Paul H. Denys, Calum Chamberlain and Damon A. H. Teagle 20 Transient permeability in fault stepovers and rapid rates of orogenic gold deposit formation, 249 Steven Micklethwaite, Arianne Ford, Walter Witt and Heather A. Sheldon 21 Evidence for long-timescale (>103 years) changes in hydrothermal activity induced by seismic events, 260 Trevor Howald, Mark Person, Andrew Campbell, Virgil Lueth, Albert Hofstra, Donald Sweetkind, Carl W. Gable, Amlan Banerjee, Elco Luijendijk, Laura Crossey, Karl Karlstrom, Shari Kelley and Fred M. Phillips Part III(C): Crustal-scale behavior 22 The permeability of crustal rocks through the metamorphic cycle: an overview, 277 Bruce Yardley 23 An analytical solution for solitary porosity waves: dynamic permeability and fluidization of nonlinear viscous and viscoplastic rock, 285 James A. D. Connolly and Y. Y. Podladchikov 24 Hypocenter migration and crustal seismic velocity distribution observed for the inland earthquake swarms induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in NE Japan: implications for crustal fluid distribution and crustal permeability, 307 T. Okada, T. Matsuzawa, N. Umino, K. Yoshida, A. Hasegawa, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, M. Kosuga, Tetsuya Takeda, A. Kato, T. Igarashi, K. Obara, S. Sakai, A. Saiga, T. Iidaka, T. Iwasaki, N. Hirata, N. Tsumura, Y. Yamanaka, T. Terakawa, H. Nakamichi, T. Okuda, S. Horikawa, H. Katao, T. Miura, A. Kubo, T. Matsushima, K. Goto and H. Miyamachi 25 Continental-scale water-level response to a large earthquake, 324 Zheming Shi, Guang-Cai Wang, Michael Manga and Chi-Yuen Wang Part III(D): Effects of fluid injection at the scale of a reservoir or ore-deposit 26 Development of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection, 337 Giona Preisig, Erik Eberhardt, Valentin Gischig, Vincent Roche, Mirko van der Baan, Benoit Valley, Peter K. Kaiser, Damien Duff and Robert Lowther 27 Modeling enhanced geothermal systems and the essential nature of large-scale changes in permeability at the onset of slip, 353 Stephen A. Miller 28 Dynamics of permeability evolution in stimulated geothermal reservoirs, 363 Joshua Taron, Steve E. Ingebritsen, Stephen Hickman and Colin F. Williams 29 The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic hydrothermal systems, 373 Philipp Weis Part IV: Conclusion, 393 30 Toward systematic characterization, 395 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen References, 398 Index, 447.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures. The practical importance of permeability and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production ( fracking ), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment. This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
vii, 256 pages : maps (some color), illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • Archaean granitoids: an overview and significance from a tectonic perspective
  • Hafnium isotope constraints on the origin of Mesoarchaean andesites in southern West Greenland, North Atlantic Craton
  • The tectonomagmatic significance of Neoarchaean variably alkali-enriched gabbro and diorite intrusions of the western Karelia Province
  • Alkaline-rich quartz syenite intrusions of the Western Karelia subprovince
  • Geochronology of Neoarchaean granitoids of the NW eastern Dharwar craton: implications for crust formation
  • The diversification of granitoids and plate tectonic implications at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in the Bundelkhand Craton, Central India
  • Petrogenesis of mafic magmatic enclaves of the Bundelkhand granitoids near Orchha, Central Indian shield: evidence for rapid crystallization
  • The long (3.7-2.1 Ga) and multistage evolution of the Bug Granulite-Gneiss Complex, Ukrainian Shield, based on the SIMS U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircons from a single sample
  • Geochemical characterization and petrogenesis of mafic granulites from the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ)
  • Metamorphic evolution of the Ilomantsi greenstone belt in the Archaean Karelia Province, eastern Finland.
This Special Publication sheds light on crust formation and tectonic processes in early Earth by focusing on Archaean granitoids and related rocks from West Greenland in the North Atlantic Craton, Karelia Province of the Fennoscandian Shield, Eastern Dharwar and Bundelkhand cratons in the Indian Shield and Bug Complex of the Ukrainian Shield. Resulting from the IGCP-SIDA 599 project 'The Changing Early Earth', this compilation of papers provides explanations on the nomenclature of Archaean granitoids and explores the petrology, element and isotope geochemistry, geochronology and metamorphism of granitoids and supracrustal rocks of variable metamorphic grade. This volume provides information on the increase and timing of crust-mantle interactions and granitoid diversification from early Archaean protoliths of island arc origin to the emergence of multi-source high-K calc-alkaline granitoid batholiths at convergent continental margins. The formation of abundant granitoid batholiths suggests a significant change in mantle dynamics and plate tectonics towards the end of the Archaean.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
317 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 28 cm
  • Preface-- Acknowledgments-- 1. Introduction-- 2. Methods for locating old continents and terranes-- 3. Tectonic units of the Earth-- 4. Earth's origins and the Precambrian-- 5. Cambrian-- 6. Ordovician-- 7. Silurian-- 8. Devonian-- 9. Carboniferous-- 10. Permian-- 11. Triassic-- 12. Jurassic-- 13. Cretaceous-- 14. Paleogene-- 15. Neogene and Quaternary-- 16. Climates past and present-- Endnote-- Appendix 1. Location of Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces-- Appendix 2. Mesozoic to modern Panthalassic and Pacific Ocean plates-- Appendix 3. Orogenies-- References-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107105324 20170313
Using full-colour palaeogeographical maps from the Cambrian to the present, this interdisciplinary volume explains how plate motions and surface volcanism are linked to processes in the Earth's mantle, and to climate change and the evolution of the Earth's biota. These new and very detailed maps provide a complete and integrated Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography. They illustrate the development of all the major mountain-building orogenies. Old lands, seas, ice caps, volcanic regions, reefs, and coal beds are highlighted on the maps, as well as faunal and floral provinces. Many other original diagrams show sections from the Earth's core, through the mantle, and up to the lithosphere, and how Large Igneous Provinces are generated, helping to understand how plates have appeared, moved, and vanished through time. Supplementary resources are available online, making this an invaluable reference for researchers, graduate students, professional geoscientists and anyone interested in the geological history of the Earth.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107105324 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xiv, 281 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 27 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xvii, 304 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm.
  • Preface vii Notation xi Acknowledgments xvii Part I: Introduction 1 1 Introduction 3 Part II: Problem Definition 7 2 Initial Boundary Value Problem for Hydraulic Head 9 3 Hydraulic Head Components and Their IBVPs 13 4 Periodic Transient Components 15 5 BVP for Harmonic Constituents 21 6 Polar Form of Space BVP 29 7 Complex-Variable Form of Space BVP 37 8 Comparison of Space BVP Forms 43 Part III: Elementary Examples 45 9 Examples: 1D Flow in Ideal Media 47 10 Examples: 1D Flow in Exponential Media 63 11 Examples: 1D Flow in Power Law Media 89 12 Examples: 2D and 3D Flow in Ideal Media 95 13 Examples: Uniform-Gradient Flow 107 Part IV: Essential Concepts 121 14 Attenuation, Delay, and Gradient Collinearity 123 15 Time Variation of Specific-Discharge Constituent 131 Part V: Stationary Points 149 16 Stationary Points: Basic Concepts 151 17 Stationary Points: Amplitude and Phase 157 18 Flow Stagnation 171 Part VI: Wave Propagation 181 19 Harmonic, Hydraulic Head Waves 183 20 Wave Distortion 199 21 Waves in One Dimension 215 22 Wave Equation 225 Part VII: Energy Transport 231 23 Mechanical Energy of Groundwater 233 24 Mechanical Energy: Time Averages 239 25 Mechanical Energy of Single-Constituent Fields 249 Part VIII: Conclusion 261 26 Conclusion 263 Part IX: Appendices 269 A Hydraulic Head Components 271 B Useful Results from Trigonometry 273 C Linear Transformation of Space Coordinates 275 D Complex Variables 281 E Kelvin Functions 283 Bibliography 291 Index 295.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119133940 20170306
Hydrodynamics of Time-Periodic Groundwater Flow introduces the emerging topic of periodic fluctuations in groundwater. While classical hydrology has often focused on steady flow conditions, many systems display periodic behavior due to tidal, seasonal, annual, and human influences. Describing and quantifying subsurface hydraulic responses to these influences may be challenging to those who are unfamiliar with periodically forced groundwater systems. The goal of this volume is to present a clear and accessible mathematical introduction to the basic and advanced theory of time-periodic groundwater flow, which is essential for developing a comprehensive knowledge of groundwater hydraulics and groundwater hydrology. Volume highlights include: Overview of time-periodic forcing of groundwater systems Definition of the Boundary Value Problem for harmonic systems in space and time Examples of 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional flow in various media Attenuation, delay, and gradients, stationary points and flow stagnation Wave propagation and energy transport Hydrodynamics of Time-Periodic Groundwater Flow presents numerous examples and exercises to reinforce the essential elements of the theoretical development, and thus is eminently well suited for self-directed study by undergraduate and graduate students. This volume will be a valuable resource for professionals in Earth and environmental sciences who develop groundwater models., including in the fields of groundwater hydrology, soil physics, hydrogeology, geoscience, geophysics, and geochemistry. Time-periodic phenomena are also encountered in fields other than groundwater flow, such as electronics, heat transport, and chemical diffusion. Thus, students and professionals in the field of chemistry, electronic engineering, and physics will also find this book useful..
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119133940 20170306
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
274 pages : maps (some color), illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
viii, 168 pages : maps, many color illustrations ; 29 cm.
  • Part 1 - Subduction Zone Earthquake.- Achievement of the Project for Advanced GPS/Acoustic Survey in the Last Four Years.- Interplate-Coupling in and Around the Rupture Area of the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake (M9.0) Before its Occurrence Based on Terrestrial and Sea-Floor-Geodetic Observations.- Part 2 - Geodetic Observations of the Earthquake Deformation Cycle.- Geodetic and Geomorphic Evaluations of Earthquake Generation Potential of the Northern Sumatran Fault, Indonesia.- Virtual Quake: Statistics, Co-Seismic Deformations and Gravity Changes for Driven Earthquake Fault-Systems.- Dynamic Strain in a South African Gold Mine by the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake.- Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Products for Geophysical Applications and a Decade of Seismogeodesy.- Earthquake Risk on the San Andreas Fault System in Northern California.- Rheological Structure beneath the NE Japan Inferred from Coseismic Strain Anomalies Associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0).- Paradoxical Vertical Crustal Movement Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan.- Forecasting earthquakes with the Virtual Quake simulator: Regional and fault-partitioned catalogs.- Part 3 - Near Real-Time Warning.- Development and assessment of real-1 time fault model estimation routines in the GEONET real-time processing system.- Buoy Platform Development for Observation of Tsunami and Crustal deformation.- GPS/Acoustic Measurement Using a Multipurpose Moored Buoy System.- Part 4 - Interaction of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.- Pressure Sources of Miyakejima Volcano Estimated From Crustal Deformation.- Part 5 - Natural Hazards.- Application of A10 absolute gravimeter for monitoring land subsidence in Jakarta, Indonesia.- Introduction to the Gravity Database (GALILEO) Compiled by the Geological Survey of Japan.- GPS Tsunami Meter using Satellite Communication System with a Function which Measures Ocean Bottom Crustal Movements.- Ground Deformation in the Kyoto and Osaka Area During Recent 19.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
These proceedings contain a selection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards (GENAH), Matsushima, Japan, 22-26 July, 2014. The scientific sessions focused on monitoring temporal and spatial changes in Earth's lithosphere and atmosphere using geodetic satellite systems, high rate GNSS as well as high resolution imaging (InSAR, Lidar). Researchers in various fields of geodesy discussed the role of geodesy in disaster mitigation and how groups with different techniques can collaborate toward such a goal.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xiii, 297 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 29 cm
  • Hemispherical Dependence of Magnetospheric Energy Injection and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Response. Interhemispheric Asymmetries in Magnetospheric Energy Input / Eftyhia Zesta, Athanasios Boudouridis, James M. Weygand, Endawoke Yizengaw, Mark B. Moldwin, Peter Chi
  • Simultaneity and Asymmetry in the Occurrence of Counterequatorial Electrojet along African Longitudes / A. Babatunde Rabiu, Olanike O. Folarin, Teiji Uozumi, Akimasa Yoshikawa
  • Stormtime Equatorial Electrojet Ground-Induced Currents / Mark B. Moldwin, Justin S. Tsu
  • Differences in Midlatitude Ionospheric Response to Magnetic Disturbances at Northern and Southern Hemispheres and Anomalous Response During the Last Extreme Solar Minimum / Dalia Bureov, Jan Latovika
  • Longitude Dependence of Storm-Enhanced Densities (SEDs). Longitude and Hemispheric Dependencies in Storm-Enhanced Density / Roderick A. Heelis
  • Solar Cycle 24 Observations of Storm-Enhanced Density and the Tongue of Ionization / Anthea J. Coster, Philip J. Erickson, John C. Foster, Evan G. Thomas, J. Michael Ruohoniemi, Joseph Baker
  • A Global Ionospheric Range Error Correction Model for Single-Frequency GNSS Users / Norbert Jakowski, Mohammed Mainul Hoque
  • Longitude Spatial Structure in Total Electron Content and Electrodynamics. Determining the Longitude Dependence of Vertical E × B Drift Velocities Associated with the Four-Cell, Nonmigrating Tidal Structure / David Anderson, Tzu-Wei Fang
  • Imaging the Global Vertical Density Structure from the Ground and Space / Endawoke Yizengaw, Brett A. Carter
  • On the Longitudinal Dependence of the Equatorial Electrojet / Vafi Doumbia, Oswald Didier Franck Grodji
  • Tomographic Reconstruction of Ionospheric Electron Density Using Altitude-Dependent Regularization Strength over the Eastern Africa Longitude Sector / Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gebreab Kidanu, Gebregiorgis Abraha
  • Variation of the Total Electron Content with Solar Activity During the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Makerere University, Kampala / Florence M. Dujanga, Phillip Opio, Francis Twinomugisha
  • Longitudinal Dependence of Day-to-Day Variability of Critical Frequency of Equatorial Type Sporadic E (foEsq) / Emmanuel O. Somoye, Andrew O. Akala, Aghogho Ogwala, Eugene O. Onori, Rasaq A. Adeniji-Adele, Enerst E. Iheonu
  • Temporal Response to Lower Atmosphere Disturbances. Impact of Migrating Tides on Electrodynamics During the January 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming / Timothy J. Fuller-Rowell, Tzu-Wei Fang, Houjun Wang, Vivien Matthias, Peter Hoffmann, Klemens Hocke, Simone Studer
  • Simultaneous Measurements and Monthly Climatologies of Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures in the Peruvian and Brazilian Longitudinal Sectors / John W. Meriwether, Jonathan J. Makela, Daniel J. Fisher
  • Observations of TIDs over South and Central America / Cesar E. Valladares, Robert Sheehan, Edgardo E. Pacheco
  • Modeling the East African Ionosphere / Melessew Nigussie, Baylie Damtie, Endawoke Yizengaw, Sandro M. Radicella
  • Response of the Thermosphere and Ionosphere to Variability in Solar Radiation. Ionospheric Response to X-Ray and EUV Flux Changes During Solar Flares / Ludger Scherliess
  • Spectrally Resolved X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance Variations During Solar Flares / Thomas N. Woods, Francis G. Eparvier, James P. Mason
  • Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation. Effect of Magnetic Declination on Equatorial Spread F Bubble Development / Joseph D. Huba
  • Global Ionospheric Electron Density Disturbances During the Initial Phase of a Geomagnetic Storm on 5 April 2010 / Chigomezyo M. Ngwira, Anthea J. Coster.
"'Ionospheric Space Weather' includes articles from six science themes that were discussed at the Chapman Conference in 2012. These include: Hemispherical dependence of magnetospheric energy injection and the thermosphere-ionosphere response, longitude and hemispheric dependence of storm-enhanced densities (SED), response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to variability in solar radiation, longitude spatial structure in total electron content and electrodynamics, temporal response to lower-atmosphere disturbances, and ionospheric irregularities and scintillation. 'Ionospheric Space Weather: Longitude Dependence and Lower Atmosphere Forcing' will be useful to both active researchers and advanced graduate students in the field of physics, geophysics, and engineering, especially those who are keen to acquire a global understanding of ionospheric phenomena, including observational information from all longitude sectors across the globe" -- Provided by publisher.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xii, 426 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 24 cm
Isotope Geochemistry: The Origin and Formation of Manganese Rocks and Ores is a comprehensive reference on global manganese deposits, including their origins and formations. Manganese is both a significant industrial chemical, critical for steel-making, and a strategic mineral, occurring in abundance only in certain countries. Furthermore, it is used effectively in CO2 sequestration, helping to mitigate greenhouse gas emission challenges around the world. For these reasons, exploration for manganese is very active, yet access to the primary academic literature can be a challenge, especially in field operations. Isotope Geochemistry brings this material together in a single source, making it the ideal all-in-one reference that presents the supporting data, analytics, and interpretation from known manganese deposits. This book is an essential resource for researchers and scientists in multiple fields, including exploration and economic geologists, mineralogists, geochemists, and environmental scientists alike. * Features coverage of the formation, origins, and deposits of manganese rocks and ores globally, arming geoscientists with a thorough reference on the subject* Includes 170 figures and illustrations that visually capture key concepts* Includes elusive data with supporting analysis and interpretation of deposits in Russia, one of the most robust geographic locations in the world for manganese rock and ore research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128031650 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xxi, 392 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Contributors ix Prologue xvii Acknowledgments xxi Part I Introduction Video J. L. Burch (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014) URL: 1 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling, Past to Future James L. Burch 3 Part II The Earth's Ionosphere as a Source Video W. I. Axford (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014) URL: 2 Measurements of Ion Outflows from the Earth's Ionosphere Andrew W. Yau, William K. Peterson, and Takumi Abe 21 3 Low-energy Ion Outflow Observed by Cluster: Utilizing the Spacecraft Potential S. Haaland, M. Andre, A. Eriksson, K. Li, H. Nilsson, L. Baddeley, C. Johnsen, L. Maes, B. Lybekk, and A. Pedersen 33 Video W. B. Hanson (1974) with Remarks by R. A. Heelis (2014) URL: 4 Advances in Understanding Ionospheric Convection at High Latitudes R. A. Heelis 49 5 Energetic and Dynamic Coupling of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System Gang Lu 61 Video R. G. Johnson (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014) URL: 6 The Impact of O+ on Magnetotail Dynamics Lynn M. Kistler 79 7 Thermal and Low-energy Ion Outflows in and through the Polar Cap: The Polar Wind and the Low-energy Component of the Cleft Ion Fountain Naritoshi Kitamura, Kanako Seki, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Takumi Abe, Manabu Yamada, Shigeto Watanabe, Atsushi Kumamoto, Atsuki Shinbori, and Andrew W. Yau 91 8 Ionospheric and Solar Wind Contributions to Magnetospheric Ion Density and Temperature throughout the Magnetotail Michael W. Liemohn and Daniel T. Welling 101 Part III The Effect of Low-energy Plasma on the Stability of Energetic Plasmas Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by R. M. Thorne URL: 9 How Whistler-Mode Waves and Thermal Plasma Density Control the Global Distribution of the Diffuse Aurora and the Dynamical Evolution of Radiation Belt Electrons Richard M. Thorne, Jacob Bortnik, Wen Li, Lunjin Chen, Binbin Ni, and Qianli Ma 117 10 Plasma Wave Measurements from the Van Allen Probes George B. Hospodarsky, W. S. Kurth, C. A. Kletzing, S. R. Bounds, O. Santolik, Richard M. Thorne, Wen Li, T. F. Averkamp, J. R. Wygant, and J. W. Bonnell 127 Video D. J. Williams (1974) with Remarks by L. J. Lanzerotti (2014) URL: 11 Ring Current Ions Measured by the RBSPICE Instrument on the Van Allen Probes Mission Louis J. Lanzerotti and Andrew J. Gerrard 145 12 Global Modeling of Wave Generation Processes in the Inner Magnetosphere Vania K. Jordanova 155 Part IV Unified Global Modeling of Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Earth Video P. M. Banks (1974) with Remarks by R. W. Schunk (2014) URL: 13 Modeling Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Ion Outflow: Past, Present, and Future R. W. Schunk 169 14 Coupling the Generalized Polar Wind Model to Global Magnetohydrodynamics: Initial Results Daniel T. Welling, Abdallah R. Barakat, J. Vincent Eccles, R. W. Schunk, and Charles R. Chappell 179 Video D. H. Fairfield (1974) with Remarks by J. A. Slavin (2014) URL: 15 Coupling Ionospheric Outflow into Magnetospheric Models: Transverse Heating from Wave-Particle Interactions Alex Glocer 195 16 Modeling of the Evolution of Storm-Enhanced Density Plume during the 24 to 25 October 2011 Geomagnetic Storm Shasha Zou and Aaron J. Ridley 205 Video (1974) and Remarks by R. A. Wolf (2014) URL: 17 Forty-Seven Years of the Rice Convection Model R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, and J. Yang 215 18 Magnetospheric Model Performance during Conjugate Aurora William Longley, Patricia Reiff, Jone Peter Reistad, and Nikolai Ostgaard 227 Video C. G. Park (1974) with Remarks by D. L. Carpenter (2014) URL: 19 Day-to-Day Variability of the Quiet-Time Plasmasphere Caused by Thermosphere Winds Jonathan Krall, Joseph D. Huba, Douglas P. Drob, Geoff Crowley, and Richard E. Denton 235 Part V The Coupling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by A. F. Nagy URL: 20 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Planets and Satellites Thomas E. Cravens 245 21 Plasma Measurements at Non-Magnetic Solar System Bodies Andrew J. Coates 259 Video F. V. Coroniti (1976) with Remarks by M. G. Kivelson (2014) URL: 22 Plasma Wave Observations with Cassini at Saturn George B. Hospodarsky, J. D. Menietti, D. Pi a, W. S. Kurth, D. A. Gurnett, A. M. Persoon, J. S. Leisner, and T. F. Averkamp 277 23 Titan's Interaction with Saturn's Magnetosphere Joseph H. Westlake, Thomas E. Cravens, Robert E. Johnson, Stephen A. Ledvina, Janet G. Luhmann, Donald G. Mitchell, Matthew S. Richard, Ilkka Sillanpaa, Sven Simon, Darci Snowden, J. Hunter Waite, Jr., and Adam K. Woodson 291 Part VI The Unified Modeling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System Video T. W. Hill and P. H. Reiff (1976) with Remarks by T. W. Hill (2014) URL: 24 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Jupiter and Saturn Thomas W. Hill 309 25 Global MHD Modeling of the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System at Saturn Xianzhe Jia, Margaret G. Kivelson, and Tamas I. Gombosi 319 Video G. C. Reid (1976) with Remarks by R. L. McPherron (2014) URL: 26 Simulation Studies of Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Coupling in Saturn's Magnetosphere Raymond J. Walker and Keiichiro Fukazawa 335 27 Characterizing the Enceladus Torus by Its Contribution to Saturn's Magnetosphere Ying-Dong Jia, Hanying Wei, and Christopher T. Russell 345 Part VII Future Directions for Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Research Video E. R. Schmerling and L. D. Kavanagh (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014) and J. R. Doupnik (2014) URL: 28 Future Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Study Requirements Thomas E. Moore, Kevin S. Brenneman, Charles R. Chappell, James H. Clemmons, Glyn A. Collinson, Christopher Cully, Eric Donovan, Gregory D. Earle, Daniel J. Gershman, R. A. Heelis, Lynn M. Kistler, Larry Kepko, George Khazanov, David J. Knudsen, Marc Lessard, Elizabeth A. MacDonald, Michael J. Nicolls, Craig J. Pollock, Robert Pfaff, Douglas E. Rowland, Ennio Sanchez, R. W. Schunk, Joshua Semeter, Robert J. Strangeway, and Jeffrey Thayer 357 DOI List 377 Index 379.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119066774 20170227
Over a half century of exploration of the Earth s space environment, it has become evident that the interaction between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere plays a dominant role in the evolution and dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas and fields. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that this same interaction is of fundamental importance at other planets and moons throughout the solar system. Based on papers presented at an interdisciplinary AGU Chapman Conference at Yosemite National Park in February 2014, this volume provides an intellectual and visual journey through our exploration and discovery of the paradigm-changing role that the ionosphere plays in determining the filling and dynamics of Earth and planetary environments. The 2014 Chapman conference marks the 40th anniversary of the initial magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling conference at Yosemite in 1974, and thus gives a four decade perspective of the progress of space science research in understanding these fundamental coupling processes. Digital video links to an online archive containing both the 1974 and 2014 meetings are presented throughout this volume for use as an historical resource by the international heliophysics and planetary science communities. Topics covered in this volume include: * Ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma * Effects of the low energy ionospheric plasma on the stability and creation of the more energetic plasmas * The unified global modeling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere at the Earth and other planets * New knowledge of these coupled interactions for heliophysicists and planetary scientists, with a cross-disciplinary approach involving advanced measurement and modeling techniques Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of space and planetary science, atmospheric science, space physics, astronomy, and geophysics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119066774 20170227
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 292 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
  • Author's NoteAcknowledgmentsForecast1. Feeling the Heat2. Under the Heavens and the Seas3. The Air We Breathe4. Dynamic Planet5. Oceans of Data6. Statistically Speaking7. A Condensed Account of Clouds, Rain, and Snow8. Weather Mechanisms9. Weather Extremes: The New Normal10. The World of Weather ForecastingAnd That Wraps Up Your Weather for TodayAppendixGlossaryNotesBibliographyIndex.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231174923 20170313
How do meteorologists design forecasts for the next day's, the next week's, or the next month's weather? Are some forecasts more likely to be accurate than others, and why? Making Sense of Weather and Climate takes readers through key topics in atmospheric physics and presents a cogent view of how weather relates to climate, particularly climate-change science. It is the perfect book for amateur meteorologists and weather enthusiasts, and for anyone whose livelihood depends on navigating the weather's twists and turns. Making Sense of Weather and Climate begins by explaining the essential mechanics and characteristics of this fascinating science. The noted physics author Mark Denny also defines the crucial differences between weather and climate, and then develops from this basic knowledge a sophisticated yet clear portrait of their relation. Throughout, Denny elaborates on the role of weather forecasting in guiding politics and other aspects of human civilization. He also follows forecasting's effect on the economy. Denny's exploration of the science and history of a phenomenon we have long tried to master makes this book a unique companion for anyone who wants a complete picture of the environment's individual, societal, and planetary impact.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231174923 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 346 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Uncertainty in Natural Hazards, Modeling and Decision Support / Karin Riley, Matthew Thompson, Peter Webley, and Kevin D. Hyde
  • Part I: Uncertainty, Communication, and Decision Support. Natural Hazard Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis / Matthew Thompson and Jord J. Warmink
  • Understanding Uncertainty as a Key Interdisciplinary Problem in Earth System Science / Florian Rauser and Gernot Geppert
  • Uncertainty and Probability in Wildfire Management Decision Support / Matthew Thompson, David Calkin, Joe H. Scott, and Michael Hand
  • Role of Uncertainty in Decision Support for Volcanic Ash Cloud Modeling / Peter Webley
  • Part II: Geological Hazards. Building an Uncertainty Modeling Framework for Real-Time VATD / Peter Webley, Abani Patra, Marcus Bursik, E. Bruce Pitman, Jonathan Dehn, Tarung Singh, Puneet Singla, Matthew D. Jones, Reza Madankan, E. Ramona Stefanescu, and Solene Pouget
  • Uncertainties in Estimating Magma Source Parameters from InSAR Observation / Wenyu Gong, Zhong Lu, and Franz Meyer
  • Improving Model Simulations of Volcanic Emission Clouds and Assessing Model Uncertainties / Nina Iren Kristiansen, Delia Arnold, Christian Maurer, Julius Vira, Razvan Rădulescu, Damien Martin, Andreas Stohl, Kerstin Stebel, Mikhail Sofiev, Colin O'Dowd, and Gerhard Wotawa
  • Uncertainty Assessment of Pyroclastic Density Currents at Mount Vesuvius (Italy) Simulated Through the Energy Cone Model / Pablo Tierz, Laura Sandri, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Lucia Zaccarelli, Mauro Antonio Di Vito, and Warner Marzocchi
  • Earthquake Loss Estimation in the Gyeongju Area, Southeastern Korea, Using a Site Classification Map / Su Young Kang and Kwang-Hee Kim
  • Implications of Different Digital Elevation Models and Preprocessing Techniques to Delineate Debris Flow Inundation Hazard Zones in El Salvador / Eric Ross Anderson, Robert E. Griffin, and Daniel E. Irwin
  • Evaluating the Performance of FLO2D for Simulating Past Lahar Events at the Most Active Mexican Volcanoes: Popocatépetl and Volcán de Colima / Lizeth Caballero, Lucia Capra, and Rosario Vázquez
  • Part III: Biophysical and Climatic Hazards. An Uncertainty Analysis of Wildfire Modeling / Karin Riley and Matthew Thompson
  • Fire and Smoke Remote Sensing and Modeling Uncertainties / Charles Ichoku, Luke T. Ellison, Yun Yue, Jun Wang, and Johannes W. Kaiser
  • Uncertainty and Complexity Tradeoffs When Integrating Fire Spread with Hydroecological Projections / Maureen C. Kennedy and Donald McKenzie
  • Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation for Projections of Extremes in Monthly Area Burned Under Climate Change: A Case Study in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA / Adam J. Terando, Brian Reich, Krishna Pacifici, Jennifer Costanza, Alexa McKerrow, and Jaime A. Collazo
  • Simulating Vegetation Change, Carbon Cycling, and Fire Over the Western United States Using CMIP5 Climate Projections / D. Bachelet, T. Sheehan, K. Ferschweiler, and J. Abatzoglou
  • Sensitivity of Vegetation Fires to Climate, Vegetation, and Anthropogenic Drivers in the HESFIRE Model: Consequences for Fire Modeling and Projection Uncertainties / Yannick Le Page
  • Uncertainties in Predicting Debris Flow Hazards Following Wildfire / Kevin D. Hyde, Karin Riley, and Cathelijne Stoof
  • Capturing Spatiotemporal Variation in Wildfires for Improving Postwildfire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments / Jessica R. Haas, Matthew Thompson, Anne Tillery, and Joe H. Scott
  • Uncertainty in Estimation of Debris-Flow Triggering Rainfall: Evaluation and Impact on Identification of Threshold Relationships / E.I. Nikolopoulos, F. Marra, and M. Borga
  • Prospects in Landslide Prediction / Natasha Markuzon, Catherine Slesnick, Erin Leidy, John Regan, Xiang Gao, and Adam Schlosser.
Uncertainties are pervasive in natural hazards, and it is crucial to develop robust and meaningful approaches to characterize and communicate uncertainties to inform modeling efforts. In this monograph we provide a broad, cross-disciplinary overview of issues relating to uncertainties faced in natural hazard and risk assessment. We introduce some basic tenets of uncertainty analysis, discuss issues related to communication and decision support, and offer numerous examples of analyses and modeling approaches that vary by context and scope. Contributors include scientists from across the full breath of the natural hazard scientific community, from those in real-time analysis of natural hazards to those in the research community from academia and government. Key themes and highlights include: * Substantial breadth and depth of analysis in terms of the types of natural hazards addressed, the disciplinary perspectives represented, and the number of studies included * Targeted, application-centered analyses with a focus on development and use of modeling techniques to address various sources of uncertainty * Emphasis on the impacts of climate change on natural hazard processes and outcomes * Recommendations for cross-disciplinary and science transfer across natural hazard sciences This volume will be an excellent resource for those interested in the current work on uncertainty classification/quantification and will document common and emergent research themes to allow all to learn from each other and build a more connected but still diverse and ever growing community of scientists.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119027867 20170220
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xvi, 885 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
234 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 26 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
240 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 29 cm
  • Preface 6 1 The Age of Mammals 7 Dating Rocks 8 Clocks in Rocks 10 What's in a Name? 11 How Do We Classify Animals? 12 Bones vs Molecules 15 Bones and Teeth 15 2 The Origin and Early Evolution of Mammals 20 Synapsids (Protomammals or Stem Mammals) 20 Mammals in the Age of Dinosaurs 23 Morganucodonts 23 Docodonts 25 Monotremes (Platypus and Echidna) and Their Relatives 27 Multituberculates 30 Triconodonts 31 Theria 34 3 Marsupials: Pouched Mammals 37 Marsupial vs Placental 37 Marsupial Evolution 38 Ameridelphia 39 Australiadelphia 41 4 Placental Mammals (Eutheria) 47 The Interrelationships of Placentals 50 5 Xenarthra: Sloths, Anteaters, and Armadillos 51 Edentate vs Xenarthran 51 Order Cingulata (Armadillos) 53 Order Pilosa (Anteaters and Sloths) 55 6 Afrotheria: Elephants, Hyraxes, Sea Cows, Aardvarks, and Their Relatives 58 Tethytheres and Afrotheres 58 Order Proboscidea (Elephants, Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Their Relatives) 60 Order Sirenia (Manatees and Dugongs, or Sea Cows) 67 Order Embrithopoda (Arsinoitheres) 72 Order Desmostylia (Desmostylians) 73 Order Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) 75 Order Tubulidentata (Aardvarks) 77 Order Macroscelidia (Elephant Shrews) 78 Order Afrosoricida 79 7 Euarchontoglires: Euarchonta Primates, Tree Shrews, and Colugos 80 Archontans 80 Order Scandentia (Tree Shrews) 82 Order Dermoptera (Colugos, or Flying Lemurs) 82 Order Plesiadapiformes (Plesiadapids) 84 Order Primates (Euprimates) 86 8 Euarchontoglires: Glires Rodents and Lagomorphs 94 Chisel Teeth 94 Order Rodentia (Rodents) 95 Order Lagomorpha (Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas) 101 9 Laurasiatheria: Insectivores Order Eulipotyphla and Other Insectivorous Mammals 103 Order Eulipotyphla 103 Extinct Insectivorous Groups 107 10 Laurasiatheria: Chiroptera Bats 112 Bat Origins 114 11 Laurasiatheria: Pholidota Pangolins, or Scaly Anteaters 117 Order Pholidota (Pangolins) 118 Palaeanodonts 120 12 Laurasiatheria: Carnivora and Creodonta Predatory Mammals 122 Carnivores, Carnivorans, and Creodonts 122 Order Creodonta 124 Order Carnivora 127 13 Laurasiatheria: Ungulata Hoofed Mammals and Their Relatives 146 Condylarths 147 14 Laurasiatheria: Artiodactyla Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals: Pigs, Hippos, Whales, Camels, Ruminants, and Their Extinct Relatives 151 Artiodactyl Origins 153 Suoid Artiodactyls 154 Whippomorpha 160 Tylopods 169 Ruminantia 175 15 Laurasiatheria: Perissodactyla Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals: Horses, Rhinos, Tapirs, and Their Extinct Relatives 186 Equoids 187 Tapiroids 191 Rhinocerotoids 196 Brontotheres, or Titanotheres 199 16 Laurasiatheria: Meridiungulata South American Hoofed Mammals 203 Order Notoungulata (Southern Ungulates) 205 Order Pyrotheria (Fire Beasts) 206 Order Astrapotheria (Lightning Beasts) 207 Order Litopterna (Litopterns, or Smooth Heels) 207 17 Uintatheres, Pantodonts, Taeniodonts, and Tillodonts 209 Order Dinocerata (Uintatheres) 209 Order Pantodonta (Pantodonts) 212 Order Taeniodonta (Taeniodonts) 214 Order Tillodontia (Tillodonts) 216 18 Mammalian Evolution and Extinction 218 Why Were Prehistoric Mammals So Big? 218 Where Have All the Megamammals Gone? 219 How Did Mammals Diversify after the Dinosaurs Vanished? 222 What about Mass Extinctions? 228 The Future of Mammals 229 Illustration Credits 231 Further Reading 232 Index (with Pronunciation Guide for Taxonomic Names) 234.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691156828 20161219
After the mass extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, mammals became the dominant terrestrial life form on our planet. Roaming the earth were spectacular beasts such as saber-toothed cats, giant mastodonts, immense ground sloths, and gigantic giraffe-like rhinoceroses. Here is the ultimate illustrated field guide to the lost world of these weird and wonderful prehistoric creatures. A woolly mammoth probably won't come thundering through your vegetable garden any time soon. But if one did, this would be the book to keep on your windowsill next to the binoculars. It covers all the main groups of fossil mammals, discussing taxonomy and evolutionary history, and providing concise accounts of the better-known genera and species as well as an up-to-date family tree for each group. No other book presents such a wealth of new information about these animals--what they looked like, how they behaved, and how they were interrelated. In addition, this unique guide is stunningly illustrated throughout with full-color reconstructions of these beasts--many never before depicted--along with photographs of amazing fossils from around the world. * Provides an up-to-date guidebook to hundreds of extinct species, from saber-toothed cats to giant mammoths * Features a wealth of color illustrations, including new reconstructions of many animals never before depicted* Demonstrates evolution in action--such as how whales evolved from hoofed mammals and how giraffes evolved from creatures with short necks* Explains how mass extinctions and climate change affected mammals, including why some mammals grew so huge.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691156828 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 315 pages, 1 unnumbered sheet of plates : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • Quaternary glaciation in the Mediterranean mountains: a new synthesis
  • Pleistocene plateau ice fields in the High Atlas, Morocco
  • Quaternary glacial history of the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain: a new synthesis
  • Evidence of glacial activity during the Oldest Dryas in the mountains of Spain
  • Did Pyrenean glaciers dance to the beat of global climatic events? Evidence from the Wurmian sequence stratigraphy of an ice-dammed palaeolake depocentre in Andorra
  • Glacial history of the Maritime Alps from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Little Ice Age
  • Middle Pleistocene glaciations in the Apennines, Italy: new chronological data and preservation of the glacial record
  • Pleistocene glaciation in Mediterranean Slovenia
  • Middle Pleistocene glaciation, alluvial fan development and sea-level changes in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro
  • Glacial history of Mt Chelmos, Peloponnesus, Greece
  • The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece
  • Synchronous Last Glacial Maximum across the Anatolian peninsula-- Cosmogenic ³⁶Cl geochronology of late Quaternary glaciers in the Bolkar Mountains, south central Turkey
  • Late Quaternary glaciations in the eastern Mediterranean.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xii, 600 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 24 cm
  • 1. Introduction Rajat Mazumder 2. Evolution of Siliciclastic Provenance Inquiries: A Critical Appraisal Abhijit Basu 3. Tracing the source of the bio/siliciclastic beach sands at Rosa Marina (Apulian coast, SE Italy) Tom van Loon 4. Changes in the heavy-mineral spectra on their way from various sources to joint sinks - a case study of Pleistocene sandurs and an ice-marginal valley in NW Poland Tom van Loon 5. Reconstruction of paleohydraulic condition from depositional structures: a critical appraisal Prabir Dasgupta 6. Physico-chemical Characteristics of the Barremian-Aptian Siliciclastic Rocks in the Pondicherry Embryonic Rift Sub-basin, India Subir Sarkar 7. Petrological and geochemical constraints on provenance, paleo-weathering and tectonic setting of clastic sediments from the Neogene Lambir and Sibuti Formations, North West Borneo Ramasamy Nagarajan 8. Where are the Precambrian Tsunami Deposits? Madagascar Chevrons and other Modern Analogues Provide Insights into Identifying Ancient Tsunamigenic Sequences Dallas Abbott 9. The Contourite Problem G. Shanmugam 10. Fluvial Systems, Provenance and Reservoir Development in the Eocene Brennan Basin Member of the Duchesne River Formation, Northern Uinta Basin, Utah Marjorie A. Chan and Takashi Sato 11. Changes in the shape of breccia lenses during sliding from source to sink in the Cambrian epeiric sea of the North China Platform Tom van Loon 12. Provenance of chert rudites and arenites in the northern Canadian Cordillera Darrel Graham Francis Long 13. Late Neoproterozoic to early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Tasmanides, eastern Australia: Provenance switching associated with development of the East Gondwana active margin Chris Fergusson 14. Utility of Detrital Zircons in an Upper Amphibolite Facies Terrane Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli 15. Detrital zircon (U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS) geochronology, Nd isotope mapping and sediment geochemistry from the Singhora Group, central India: Implications towards provenance, its shift and regional stratigraphic correlation Partha Chakraborty and Kaushik Das 16. Deciphering sedimentary provenance, timing of sedimentation and metamorphism from a suite of metapelites from the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC), India: Implications for Proterozoic tectonics in the east-central part of the Indian shield Pulak Sengupta 17. SEM -CL fabric analysis of quartz framework population from the Mesoarchean Keonjhar Quartzite from Singhbhum Craton, eastern India - Implications for the understanding of upper continental crust Joydip Mukhopadhyay 18. Provenance of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentary rocks Giuliana Costa and Axel Hofmann 19. Ice ages in Earth history: puzzling palaeolatitudes and regional provenance of ice sheets on an evolving planet Grant Young 20. The Isua supracrustal belt (Greenland): Spotlight on the oldest well-preserved sedimentary systems (~3.7, ~3.75 and ~3.8 Ga) Allen Nutman.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128033869 20170123
Sediment Provenance: Influences on Compositional Change from Source to Sink provides a thorough and inclusive overview that features data-based case studies on a broad range of dynamic aspects in sedimentary rock structure and deposition. Provenance data plays a critical role in a number of aspects of sedimentary rocks, including the assessment of palaeogeographic reconstructions, the constraints of lateral displacements in orogens, the characterization of crust which is no longer exposed, the mapping of depositional systems, sub-surface correlation, and in predicting reservoir quality. The provenance of fine-grained sediments-on a global scale-has been used to monitor crustal evolution, and sediment transport is paramount in considering restoration techniques for both watershed and river restoration. Transport is responsible for erosion, bank undercutting, sandbar formation, aggradation, gullying, and plugging, as well as bed form migration and generation of primary sedimentary structures. Additionally, the quest for reservoir quality in contemporary hydrocarbon exploration and extraction necessitates a deliberate focus on diagenesis. This book addresses all of these challenges and arms geoscientists with an all-in-one reference to sedimentary rocks, from source to deposition.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128033869 20170123
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
ix, 246 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
  • Preface viii Chapter 1 Basics of seismic inversion 1 1.1 The linear inverse problem 1 1.2 Data, model and mapping 3 1.3 General solutions 4 1.4 Regularisation 5 Chapter 2 Linear systems for inversion 11 2.1 A governing equation and its solution 11 2.2 Seismic scattering 14 2.3 Seismic imaging 16 2.4 Seismic downward continuation 18 2.5 Seismic data processing 20 Chapter 3 Least-squares solutions 23 3.1 Determinant and rank 23 3.2 The inverse of a square matrix 27 3.3 LU decomposition and Cholesky factorisation 28 3.4 Least-squares solutions 34 3.5 Least-squares solution for a nonlinear system 37 3.6 Least-squares solution by QR decomposition 37 Chapter 4 Singular value analysis 41 4.1 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 41 4.2 Singular value concept 44 4.3 Generalised inverse solution by SVD 46 4.4 SVD applications 48 Chapter 5 Gradient-based methods 53 5.1 The step length 54 5.2 The steepest descent method 55 5.3 Conjugate gradient method 59 5.4 Biconjugate gradient method 61 5.5 The subspace gradient method 64 Chapter 6 Regularisation 67 6.1 Regularisation versus conditional probability 67 6.2 The Lp-norm constraint 70 6.3 The maximum entropy constraint 73 6.4 The Cauchy constraint 76 6.5 Comparison of various regularisations 79 Chapter 7 Localised average solutions 83 7.1 The average solution 84 7.2 The deltaness 85 7.3 The spread criterion 86 7.4 The Backus-Gilbert stable solution 88 Chapter 8 Seismic wavelet estimation 93 8.1 Wavelet extraction from seismic-to-well correlation 94 8.2 Constant-phase wavelet by kurtosis matching 98 8.3 Mixed-phase wavelet by cumulant matching 102 8.4 Generalised seismic wavelets 106 Chapter 9 Seismic reflectivity inversion 111 9.1 The least-squares problem with a Gaussian constraint 111 9.2 Reflectivity inversion with an Lp-norm constraint 113 9.3 Reflectivity inversion with the Cauchy constraint 115 9.4 Multichannel inversion scheme 118 9.5 Multichannel conjugate gradient method 121 Chapter 10 Seismic ray-impedance inversion 125 10.1 Acoustic and elastic impedances 125 10.2 Ray impedance 129 10.3 Workflow of ray-impedance inversion 132 10.4 Ray-impedance inversion with a model constraint 136 Chapter 11 Seismic tomography based on ray theory 137 11.1 Seismic tomography 137 11.2 Velocity-depth ambiguity in tomography 138 11.3 Ray tracing by a path bending method 141 11.4 Geometrical spreading of curved interfaces 144 11.5 Joint inversion of traveltime and amplitude data 147 Chapter 12 Waveform tomography for the velocity model 153 12.1 Inverse theory for seismic waveform tomography 154 12.2 The optimal step length 157 12.3 Strategy for reflection seismic tomography 159 12.4 Multiple attenuation and partial compensation 162 12.5 Waveform tomography 166 Chapter 13 Waveform tomography with irregular topography 169 13.1 Body-fitted grids for finite-difference modelling 169 13.2 Modification of boundary points 172 13.3 Pseudo-orthogonality and smoothness 173 13.4 Wave equation and absorbing boundary condition 176 13.5 Waveform tomography with irregular topography 180 Chapter 14 Waveform tomography for seismic impedance 183 14.1 Wave equation and model parameterisation 185 14.2 The impedance inversion method 187 14.3 Inversion strategies and the inversion flow 188 14.4 Application to field seismic data 193 14.5 Conclusions 196 Appendices 197 A Householder transform for QR decomposition 197 B Singular value decomposition 200 C Iterative methods for solving a linear system 206 D Biconjugate gradient method for complex systems 209 Exercises and solutions 211 References 231 Author index 238 Subject index 240.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119257981 20161213
Seismic inversion aims to reconstruct a quantitative model of the Earth subsurface, by solving an inverse problem based on seismic measurements. There are at least three fundamental issues to be solved simultaneously: non-linearity, non-uniqueness, and instability. This book covers the basic theory and techniques used in seismic inversion, corresponding to these three issues, emphasising the physical interpretation of theoretical concepts and practical solutions. This book is written for master and doctoral students who need to understand the mathematical tools and the engineering aspects of the inverse problem needed to obtain geophysically meaningful solutions. Building on the basic theory of linear inverse problems, the methodologies of seismic inversion are explained in detail, including ray-impedance inversion and waveform tomography etc. The application methodologies are categorised into convolutional and wave-equation based groups. This systematic presentation simplifies the subject and enables an in-depth understanding of seismic inversion. This book also provides a practical guide to reservoir geophysicists who are attempting quantitative reservoir characterisation based on seismic data. Philosophically, the seismic inverse problem allows for a range of possible solutions, but the techniques described herein enable geophysicists to exclude models that cannot satisfy the available data. This book summarises the author s extensive experience in both industry and academia and includes innovative techniques not previously published.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119257981 20161213
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)