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Book
xii, 293 pages, 16 pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. AN INTRODUCTION INTO BIRDS, THE GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS OF THEIR EVOLUTION, AND THE AVIAN SKELETON 4 Birds are evolutionary nested within theropod dinosaurs 4 The geological settings of avian evolution in a nutshell 6 Characteristics of the avian skeleton 7 2. THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS 13 Archaeopteryx: The German urvogel and its bearing on avian evolution 13 The closest maniraptoran relatives of birds 15 Feather evolution 21 The origin of avian flight 25 3. THE MESOZOIC FLIGHT WAY TOWARDS MODERN BIRDS 29 Jeholornithids: Early Cretaceous long-tailed birds 30 Confuciusornis, Sapeornis, and kin: Basal birds with a pygostyle 31 Ornithothoraces and the origin of sustained flapping flight capabilities 34 The Ornithuromorpha: Refinement of modern characteristics 37 Ornithurae and the origin of modern birds 40 4. MESOZOIC BIRDS: INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND CHARACTER EVOLUTION 43 The interrelationships of Mesozoic birds controversial phylogenetic placements and well-supported clades 43 Character evolution in Mesozoic birds 45 Ontogenetic development of Mesozoic birds 53 5. THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND ORIGIN OF CROWN GROUP BIRDS (NEORNITHES) 55 Phylogenetic interrelationships of neornithine birds 56 The Mesozoic fossil record of neornithine-like and neornithine birds 58 6. PALAEOGNATHOUS BIRDS (OSTRICHES, TINAMOUS, AND ALLIES) 61 The interrelationships of extant Palaeognathae 62 Early Cenozoic palaeognathous birds of the Northern Hemisphere 63 The long-winged ostriches, rheas, and tinamous 64 The short-winged palaeognathous birds 67 Biogeography: A textbook example of Gondwanan vicariance has become dismantled 70 7. GALLOANSERES: FOWL AND KIN 71 Galliformes from herbivorous forest dwellers to seed eaters of open landscapes 72 The waterfowl 75 Gastornithids: Giant herbivorous birds in the early Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere 79 Dromornithids (mihirungs or thunderbirds): Gastornis-like birds from Australia 80 Pelagornithids: The bony-toothed birds 81 8. THE DIFFICULT-TO-PLACE GROUPS : BIOGEOGRAPHIC SURPRISES AND AERIAL SPECIALISTS 83 The columbiform birds: Doves, sandgrouse, and mesites? 84 The Hoatzin a South American relict species 85 Turacos and cuckoos 86 Bustards 87 The wonderful Mirandornithes, or how different can sister taxa be? 88 Strisores: The early diversification of nocturnal avian insectivores 91 9. SHOREBIRDS, CRANES, AND RELATIVES 97 Charadriiformes: One of the most diverse groups of extant birds 97 From rail to crane 103 10. AEQUORNITHES: AQUATIC AND SEMI-AQUATIC CARNIVORES 107 Loons: Foot-propelled divers of the Northern Hemisphere 107 The pelagic tubenoses and albatrosses 108 Penguins: More than 60 million years of flightlessness 111 The polyphyletic Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes 115 Late Cenozoic turnovers in marine avifaunas 125 11. CARIAMIFORMS AND DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY 126 Seriemas and allies: Two species now, a lot more in the past 127 Diurnal birds of prey: Multiple cases of convergence among raptorial birds 131 12. THE CENOZOIC RADIATION OF SMALL ARBOREAL BIRDS 137 The Courol and mousebirds: Two African relict groups 137 The long evolutionary history of owls 140 Parrots and passerines: An unexpected sister group relationship and its potential evolutionary implications 142 Trogons, rollers, and woodpeckers: Cavity-nesters with diverse foot morphologies 148 13. INSULAR AVIFAUNAS NOW AND THEN, ON VARIOUS SCALES 153 Islands and isolated continents as refugia 154 The evolution of flightlessness in predator-free environments 155 Insular gigantism and islands as cradles of unusual morphologies 160 GLOSSARY 163 REFERENCES 165 INDEX.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Knowledge of the evolutionary history of birds has much improved in recent decades. Fossils from critical time periods are being described at unprecedented rates and modern phylogenetic analyses have provided a framework for the interrelationships of the extant groups. This book gives an overview of the avian fossil record and its paleobiological significance, and it is the only up-to-date textbook that covers both Mesozoic and more modern-type Cenozoic birds in some detail. The reader is introduced to key features of basal avians and the morphological transformations that have occurred in the evolution towards modern birds. An account of the Cenozoic fossil record sheds light on the biogeographic history of the extant avian groups and discusses fossils in the context of current phylogenetic hypotheses. This review of the evolutionary history of birds not only addresses students and established researchers, but it may also be a useful source of information for anyone else with an interest in the evolution of birds and a moderate background in biology and geology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xv, 323 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xvi, 451 pages, 88 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm
  • List of contributors, xi About the companion websites, xvii 1 Introduction, 1 Tom Gleeson and Steven Ingebritsen 2 DigitalCrust a 4D data system of material properties for transforming research on crustal fluid flow, 6 Ying Fan, Stephen Richard, R. Sky Bristol, Shanan E. Peters, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Nils Moosdorf, Aaron Packman, Tom Gleeson, I. Zaslavsky, S. Peckham, Lawrence Murdoch, Michael Fienen, Michael Cardiff, David Tarboton, Norman Jones, Richard Hooper, Jennifer Arrigo, D. Gochis, J. Olson and David Wolock Part I: The physics of permeability, 13 3 The physics of permeability, 15 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen 4 A pore-scale investigation of the dynamic response of saturated porous media to transient stresses, 16 Christian Huber and Yanqing Su 5 Flow of concentrated suspensions through fractures: small variations in solid concentration cause significant in-plane velocity variations, 27 Ricardo Medina, Jean E. Elkhoury, Joseph P. Morris, Romain Prioul, Jean Desroches and Russell L. Detwiler 6 Normal stress-induced permeability hysteresis of a fracture in a granite cylinder, 39 A. P. S. Selvadurai 7 Linking microearthquakes to fracture permeability evolution, 49 Takuya Ishibashi, Noriaki Watanabe, Hiroshi Asanuma and Noriyoshi Tsuchiya 8 Fractured rock stress permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical mechanical couplings, 65 Jonny Rutqvist Part II: Static permeability, 83 9 Static permeability, 85 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part II(A): Sediments and sedimentary rocks 10 How well can we predict permeability in sedimentary basins? Deriving and evaluating porosity permeability equations for noncemented sand and clay mixtures, 89 Elco Luijendijk and Tom Gleeson 11 Evolution of sediment permeability during burial and subduction, 104 Hugh Daigle and Elizabeth J. Screaton Part II(B): Igneous and metamorphic rocks 12 Is the permeability of crystalline rock in the shallow crust related to depth, lithology, or tectonic setting?, 125 Mark Ranjram, Tom Gleeson and Elco Luijendijk 13 Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: Insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, United States, 137 Erick R. Burns, Colin F. Williams, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Clifford I. Voss, Frank A. Spane and Jacob DeAngelo 14 Deep fluid circulation within crystalline basement rocks and the role of hydrologic windows in the formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature geothermal system, 155 Jeffrey Pepin, Mark Person, Fred Phillips, Shari Kelley, Stacy Timmons, Lara Owens, James Witcher and Carl W. Gable 15 Hydraulic conductivity of fractured upper crust: insights from hydraulic tests in boreholes and fluid rock interaction in crystalline basement rocks, 174 Ingrid Stober and Kurt Bucher Part III: Dynamic permeability, 189 16 Dynamic permeability, 191 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part III(A): Oceanic crust 17 Rapid generation of reaction permeability in the roots of black smoker systems, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, 195 Johnson R. Cann, Andrew M. Mccaig and Bruce W. D. Yardley Part III(B): Fault zones 18 The permeability of active subduction plate boundary faults, 209 Demian M. Saffer 19 Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes, 228 Simon C. Cox, Catriona D. Menzies, Rupert Sutherland, Paul H. Denys, Calum Chamberlain and Damon A. H. Teagle 20 Transient permeability in fault stepovers and rapid rates of orogenic gold deposit formation, 249 Steven Micklethwaite, Arianne Ford, Walter Witt and Heather A. Sheldon 21 Evidence for long-timescale (>103 years) changes in hydrothermal activity induced by seismic events, 260 Trevor Howald, Mark Person, Andrew Campbell, Virgil Lueth, Albert Hofstra, Donald Sweetkind, Carl W. Gable, Amlan Banerjee, Elco Luijendijk, Laura Crossey, Karl Karlstrom, Shari Kelley and Fred M. Phillips Part III(C): Crustal-scale behavior 22 The permeability of crustal rocks through the metamorphic cycle: an overview, 277 Bruce Yardley 23 An analytical solution for solitary porosity waves: dynamic permeability and fluidization of nonlinear viscous and viscoplastic rock, 285 James A. D. Connolly and Y. Y. Podladchikov 24 Hypocenter migration and crustal seismic velocity distribution observed for the inland earthquake swarms induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in NE Japan: implications for crustal fluid distribution and crustal permeability, 307 T. Okada, T. Matsuzawa, N. Umino, K. Yoshida, A. Hasegawa, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, M. Kosuga, Tetsuya Takeda, A. Kato, T. Igarashi, K. Obara, S. Sakai, A. Saiga, T. Iidaka, T. Iwasaki, N. Hirata, N. Tsumura, Y. Yamanaka, T. Terakawa, H. Nakamichi, T. Okuda, S. Horikawa, H. Katao, T. Miura, A. Kubo, T. Matsushima, K. Goto and H. Miyamachi 25 Continental-scale water-level response to a large earthquake, 324 Zheming Shi, Guang-Cai Wang, Michael Manga and Chi-Yuen Wang Part III(D): Effects of fluid injection at the scale of a reservoir or ore-deposit 26 Development of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection, 337 Giona Preisig, Erik Eberhardt, Valentin Gischig, Vincent Roche, Mirko van der Baan, Benoit Valley, Peter K. Kaiser, Damien Duff and Robert Lowther 27 Modeling enhanced geothermal systems and the essential nature of large-scale changes in permeability at the onset of slip, 353 Stephen A. Miller 28 Dynamics of permeability evolution in stimulated geothermal reservoirs, 363 Joshua Taron, Steve E. Ingebritsen, Stephen Hickman and Colin F. Williams 29 The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic hydrothermal systems, 373 Philipp Weis Part IV: Conclusion, 393 30 Toward systematic characterization, 395 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen References, 398 Index, 447.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures. The practical importance of permeability and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production ( fracking ), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment. This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xiv, 281 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 27 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
274 pages : maps (some color), illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
viii, 168 pages : maps, many color illustrations ; 29 cm.
  • Part 1 - Subduction Zone Earthquake.- Achievement of the Project for Advanced GPS/Acoustic Survey in the Last Four Years.- Interplate-Coupling in and Around the Rupture Area of the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake (M9.0) Before its Occurrence Based on Terrestrial and Sea-Floor-Geodetic Observations.- Part 2 - Geodetic Observations of the Earthquake Deformation Cycle.- Geodetic and Geomorphic Evaluations of Earthquake Generation Potential of the Northern Sumatran Fault, Indonesia.- Virtual Quake: Statistics, Co-Seismic Deformations and Gravity Changes for Driven Earthquake Fault-Systems.- Dynamic Strain in a South African Gold Mine by the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake.- Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Products for Geophysical Applications and a Decade of Seismogeodesy.- Earthquake Risk on the San Andreas Fault System in Northern California.- Rheological Structure beneath the NE Japan Inferred from Coseismic Strain Anomalies Associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0).- Paradoxical Vertical Crustal Movement Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan.- Forecasting earthquakes with the Virtual Quake simulator: Regional and fault-partitioned catalogs.- Part 3 - Near Real-Time Warning.- Development and assessment of real-1 time fault model estimation routines in the GEONET real-time processing system.- Buoy Platform Development for Observation of Tsunami and Crustal deformation.- GPS/Acoustic Measurement Using a Multipurpose Moored Buoy System.- Part 4 - Interaction of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.- Pressure Sources of Miyakejima Volcano Estimated From Crustal Deformation.- Part 5 - Natural Hazards.- Application of A10 absolute gravimeter for monitoring land subsidence in Jakarta, Indonesia.- Introduction to the Gravity Database (GALILEO) Compiled by the Geological Survey of Japan.- GPS Tsunami Meter using Satellite Communication System with a Function which Measures Ocean Bottom Crustal Movements.- Ground Deformation in the Kyoto and Osaka Area During Recent 19.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
These proceedings contain a selection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards (GENAH), Matsushima, Japan, 22-26 July, 2014. The scientific sessions focused on monitoring temporal and spatial changes in Earth's lithosphere and atmosphere using geodetic satellite systems, high rate GNSS as well as high resolution imaging (InSAR, Lidar). Researchers in various fields of geodesy discussed the role of geodesy in disaster mitigation and how groups with different techniques can collaborate toward such a goal.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xii, 426 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 24 cm
Isotope Geochemistry: The Origin and Formation of Manganese Rocks and Ores is a comprehensive reference on global manganese deposits, including their origins and formations. Manganese is both a significant industrial chemical, critical for steel-making, and a strategic mineral, occurring in abundance only in certain countries. Furthermore, it is used effectively in CO2 sequestration, helping to mitigate greenhouse gas emission challenges around the world. For these reasons, exploration for manganese is very active, yet access to the primary academic literature can be a challenge, especially in field operations. Isotope Geochemistry brings this material together in a single source, making it the ideal all-in-one reference that presents the supporting data, analytics, and interpretation from known manganese deposits. This book is an essential resource for researchers and scientists in multiple fields, including exploration and economic geologists, mineralogists, geochemists, and environmental scientists alike. * Features coverage of the formation, origins, and deposits of manganese rocks and ores globally, arming geoscientists with a thorough reference on the subject* Includes 170 figures and illustrations that visually capture key concepts* Includes elusive data with supporting analysis and interpretation of deposits in Russia, one of the most robust geographic locations in the world for manganese rock and ore research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128031650 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
x, 292 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
  • Feeling the heat
  • Under the heavens and the seas
  • The air we breathe
  • Dynamic planet
  • Oceans of data
  • Statistically speaking
  • A condensed account of clouds, rain, and snow
  • Weather mechanisms
  • Weather extremes, the new normal
  • The world of weather forecasting.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
x, 346 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Uncertainty in Natural Hazards, Modeling and Decision Support / Karin Riley, Matthew Thompson, Peter Webley, and Kevin D. Hyde
  • Part I: Uncertainty, Communication, and Decision Support. Natural Hazard Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis / Matthew Thompson and Jord J. Warmink
  • Understanding Uncertainty as a Key Interdisciplinary Problem in Earth System Science / Florian Rauser and Gernot Geppert
  • Uncertainty and Probability in Wildfire Management Decision Support / Matthew Thompson, David Calkin, Joe H. Scott, and Michael Hand
  • Role of Uncertainty in Decision Support for Volcanic Ash Cloud Modeling / Peter Webley
  • Part II: Geological Hazards. Building an Uncertainty Modeling Framework for Real-Time VATD / Peter Webley, Abani Patra, Marcus Bursik, E. Bruce Pitman, Jonathan Dehn, Tarung Singh, Puneet Singla, Matthew D. Jones, Reza Madankan, E. Ramona Stefanescu, and Solene Pouget
  • Uncertainties in Estimating Magma Source Parameters from InSAR Observation / Wenyu Gong, Zhong Lu, and Franz Meyer
  • Improving Model Simulations of Volcanic Emission Clouds and Assessing Model Uncertainties / Nina Iren Kristiansen, Delia Arnold, Christian Maurer, Julius Vira, Razvan Rădulescu, Damien Martin, Andreas Stohl, Kerstin Stebel, Mikhail Sofiev, Colin O'Dowd, and Gerhard Wotawa
  • Uncertainty Assessment of Pyroclastic Density Currents at Mount Vesuvius (Italy) Simulated Through the Energy Cone Model / Pablo Tierz, Laura Sandri, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Lucia Zaccarelli, Mauro Antonio Di Vito, and Warner Marzocchi
  • Earthquake Loss Estimation in the Gyeongju Area, Southeastern Korea, Using a Site Classification Map / Su Young Kang and Kwang-Hee Kim
  • Implications of Different Digital Elevation Models and Preprocessing Techniques to Delineate Debris Flow Inundation Hazard Zones in El Salvador / Eric Ross Anderson, Robert E. Griffin, and Daniel E. Irwin
  • Evaluating the Performance of FLO2D for Simulating Past Lahar Events at the Most Active Mexican Volcanoes: Popocatépetl and Volcán de Colima / Lizeth Caballero, Lucia Capra, and Rosario Vázquez
  • Part III: Biophysical and Climatic Hazards. An Uncertainty Analysis of Wildfire Modeling / Karin Riley and Matthew Thompson
  • Fire and Smoke Remote Sensing and Modeling Uncertainties / Charles Ichoku, Luke T. Ellison, Yun Yue, Jun Wang, and Johannes W. Kaiser
  • Uncertainty and Complexity Tradeoffs When Integrating Fire Spread with Hydroecological Projections / Maureen C. Kennedy and Donald McKenzie
  • Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation for Projections of Extremes in Monthly Area Burned Under Climate Change: A Case Study in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA / Adam J. Terando, Brian Reich, Krishna Pacifici, Jennifer Costanza, Alexa McKerrow, and Jaime A. Collazo
  • Simulating Vegetation Change, Carbon Cycling, and Fire Over the Western United States Using CMIP5 Climate Projections / D. Bachelet, T. Sheehan, K. Ferschweiler, and J. Abatzoglou
  • Sensitivity of Vegetation Fires to Climate, Vegetation, and Anthropogenic Drivers in the HESFIRE Model: Consequences for Fire Modeling and Projection Uncertainties / Yannick Le Page
  • Uncertainties in Predicting Debris Flow Hazards Following Wildfire / Kevin D. Hyde, Karin Riley, and Cathelijne Stoof
  • Capturing Spatiotemporal Variation in Wildfires for Improving Postwildfire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments / Jessica R. Haas, Matthew Thompson, Anne Tillery, and Joe H. Scott
  • Uncertainty in Estimation of Debris-Flow Triggering Rainfall: Evaluation and Impact on Identification of Threshold Relationships / E.I. Nikolopoulos, F. Marra, and M. Borga
  • Prospects in Landslide Prediction / Natasha Markuzon, Catherine Slesnick, Erin Leidy, John Regan, Xiang Gao, and Adam Schlosser.
"Uncertainties are pervasive in natural hazards, and it is crucial to develop robust and meaningful approaches to characterize and communicate uncertainties to inform modeling efforts. In this monograph we provide a broad, cross-disciplinary overview of issues relating to uncertainties faced in natural hazard and risk assessment. We introduce some basic tenets of uncertainty analysis, discuss issues related to communication and decision support, and offer numerous examples of analyses and modeling approaches that vary by context and scope. Contributors include scientists from across the full breath of the natural hazard scientific community, from those in real-time analysis of natural hazards to those in the research community from academia and government. Key themes and highlights include: Substantial breadth and depth of analysis in terms of the types of natural hazards addressed, the disciplinary perspectives represented, and the number of studies included, targeted, application-centered analyses with a focus on development and use of modeling techniques to address various sources of uncertainty, emphasis on the impacts of climate change on natural hazard processes and outcomes, and recommendations for cross-disciplinary and science transfer across natural hazard sciences This volume will be an excellent resource for those interested in the current work on uncertainty classification/quantification and will document common and emergent research themes to allow all to learn from each other and build a more connected but still diverse and ever growing community of scientists" -- Provided by publisher's website.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xvi, 885 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
234 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 26 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
240 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 29 cm
  • Preface 6 1 The Age of Mammals 7 Dating Rocks 8 Clocks in Rocks 10 What's in a Name? 11 How Do We Classify Animals? 12 Bones vs Molecules 15 Bones and Teeth 15 2 The Origin and Early Evolution of Mammals 20 Synapsids (Protomammals or Stem Mammals) 20 Mammals in the Age of Dinosaurs 23 Morganucodonts 23 Docodonts 25 Monotremes (Platypus and Echidna) and Their Relatives 27 Multituberculates 30 Triconodonts 31 Theria 34 3 Marsupials: Pouched Mammals 37 Marsupial vs Placental 37 Marsupial Evolution 38 Ameridelphia 39 Australiadelphia 41 4 Placental Mammals (Eutheria) 47 The Interrelationships of Placentals 50 5 Xenarthra: Sloths, Anteaters, and Armadillos 51 Edentate vs Xenarthran 51 Order Cingulata (Armadillos) 53 Order Pilosa (Anteaters and Sloths) 55 6 Afrotheria: Elephants, Hyraxes, Sea Cows, Aardvarks, and Their Relatives 58 Tethytheres and Afrotheres 58 Order Proboscidea (Elephants, Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Their Relatives) 60 Order Sirenia (Manatees and Dugongs, or Sea Cows) 67 Order Embrithopoda (Arsinoitheres) 72 Order Desmostylia (Desmostylians) 73 Order Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) 75 Order Tubulidentata (Aardvarks) 77 Order Macroscelidia (Elephant Shrews) 78 Order Afrosoricida 79 7 Euarchontoglires: Euarchonta Primates, Tree Shrews, and Colugos 80 Archontans 80 Order Scandentia (Tree Shrews) 82 Order Dermoptera (Colugos, or Flying Lemurs) 82 Order Plesiadapiformes (Plesiadapids) 84 Order Primates (Euprimates) 86 8 Euarchontoglires: Glires Rodents and Lagomorphs 94 Chisel Teeth 94 Order Rodentia (Rodents) 95 Order Lagomorpha (Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas) 101 9 Laurasiatheria: Insectivores Order Eulipotyphla and Other Insectivorous Mammals 103 Order Eulipotyphla 103 Extinct Insectivorous Groups 107 10 Laurasiatheria: Chiroptera Bats 112 Bat Origins 114 11 Laurasiatheria: Pholidota Pangolins, or Scaly Anteaters 117 Order Pholidota (Pangolins) 118 Palaeanodonts 120 12 Laurasiatheria: Carnivora and Creodonta Predatory Mammals 122 Carnivores, Carnivorans, and Creodonts 122 Order Creodonta 124 Order Carnivora 127 13 Laurasiatheria: Ungulata Hoofed Mammals and Their Relatives 146 Condylarths 147 14 Laurasiatheria: Artiodactyla Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals: Pigs, Hippos, Whales, Camels, Ruminants, and Their Extinct Relatives 151 Artiodactyl Origins 153 Suoid Artiodactyls 154 Whippomorpha 160 Tylopods 169 Ruminantia 175 15 Laurasiatheria: Perissodactyla Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals: Horses, Rhinos, Tapirs, and Their Extinct Relatives 186 Equoids 187 Tapiroids 191 Rhinocerotoids 196 Brontotheres, or Titanotheres 199 16 Laurasiatheria: Meridiungulata South American Hoofed Mammals 203 Order Notoungulata (Southern Ungulates) 205 Order Pyrotheria (Fire Beasts) 206 Order Astrapotheria (Lightning Beasts) 207 Order Litopterna (Litopterns, or Smooth Heels) 207 17 Uintatheres, Pantodonts, Taeniodonts, and Tillodonts 209 Order Dinocerata (Uintatheres) 209 Order Pantodonta (Pantodonts) 212 Order Taeniodonta (Taeniodonts) 214 Order Tillodontia (Tillodonts) 216 18 Mammalian Evolution and Extinction 218 Why Were Prehistoric Mammals So Big? 218 Where Have All the Megamammals Gone? 219 How Did Mammals Diversify after the Dinosaurs Vanished? 222 What about Mass Extinctions? 228 The Future of Mammals 229 Illustration Credits 231 Further Reading 232 Index (with Pronunciation Guide for Taxonomic Names) 234.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691156828 20161219
After the mass extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, mammals became the dominant terrestrial life form on our planet. Roaming the earth were spectacular beasts such as saber-toothed cats, giant mastodonts, immense ground sloths, and gigantic giraffe-like rhinoceroses. Here is the ultimate illustrated field guide to the lost world of these weird and wonderful prehistoric creatures. A woolly mammoth probably won't come thundering through your vegetable garden any time soon. But if one did, this would be the book to keep on your windowsill next to the binoculars. It covers all the main groups of fossil mammals, discussing taxonomy and evolutionary history, and providing concise accounts of the better-known genera and species as well as an up-to-date family tree for each group. No other book presents such a wealth of new information about these animals--what they looked like, how they behaved, and how they were interrelated. In addition, this unique guide is stunningly illustrated throughout with full-color reconstructions of these beasts--many never before depicted--along with photographs of amazing fossils from around the world. * Provides an up-to-date guidebook to hundreds of extinct species, from saber-toothed cats to giant mammoths * Features a wealth of color illustrations, including new reconstructions of many animals never before depicted* Demonstrates evolution in action--such as how whales evolved from hoofed mammals and how giraffes evolved from creatures with short necks* Explains how mass extinctions and climate change affected mammals, including why some mammals grew so huge.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691156828 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xii, 600 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 24 cm
  • 1. Introduction Rajat Mazumder 2. Evolution of Siliciclastic Provenance Inquiries: A Critical Appraisal Abhijit Basu 3. Tracing the source of the bio/siliciclastic beach sands at Rosa Marina (Apulian coast, SE Italy) Tom van Loon 4. Changes in the heavy-mineral spectra on their way from various sources to joint sinks - a case study of Pleistocene sandurs and an ice-marginal valley in NW Poland Tom van Loon 5. Reconstruction of paleohydraulic condition from depositional structures: a critical appraisal Prabir Dasgupta 6. Physico-chemical Characteristics of the Barremian-Aptian Siliciclastic Rocks in the Pondicherry Embryonic Rift Sub-basin, India Subir Sarkar 7. Petrological and geochemical constraints on provenance, paleo-weathering and tectonic setting of clastic sediments from the Neogene Lambir and Sibuti Formations, North West Borneo Ramasamy Nagarajan 8. Where are the Precambrian Tsunami Deposits? Madagascar Chevrons and other Modern Analogues Provide Insights into Identifying Ancient Tsunamigenic Sequences Dallas Abbott 9. The Contourite Problem G. Shanmugam 10. Fluvial Systems, Provenance and Reservoir Development in the Eocene Brennan Basin Member of the Duchesne River Formation, Northern Uinta Basin, Utah Marjorie A. Chan and Takashi Sato 11. Changes in the shape of breccia lenses during sliding from source to sink in the Cambrian epeiric sea of the North China Platform Tom van Loon 12. Provenance of chert rudites and arenites in the northern Canadian Cordillera Darrel Graham Francis Long 13. Late Neoproterozoic to early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Tasmanides, eastern Australia: Provenance switching associated with development of the East Gondwana active margin Chris Fergusson 14. Utility of Detrital Zircons in an Upper Amphibolite Facies Terrane Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli 15. Detrital zircon (U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS) geochronology, Nd isotope mapping and sediment geochemistry from the Singhora Group, central India: Implications towards provenance, its shift and regional stratigraphic correlation Partha Chakraborty and Kaushik Das 16. Deciphering sedimentary provenance, timing of sedimentation and metamorphism from a suite of metapelites from the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC), India: Implications for Proterozoic tectonics in the east-central part of the Indian shield Pulak Sengupta 17. SEM -CL fabric analysis of quartz framework population from the Mesoarchean Keonjhar Quartzite from Singhbhum Craton, eastern India - Implications for the understanding of upper continental crust Joydip Mukhopadhyay 18. Provenance of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentary rocks Giuliana Costa and Axel Hofmann 19. Ice ages in Earth history: puzzling palaeolatitudes and regional provenance of ice sheets on an evolving planet Grant Young 20. The Isua supracrustal belt (Greenland): Spotlight on the oldest well-preserved sedimentary systems (~3.7, ~3.75 and ~3.8 Ga) Allen Nutman.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128033869 20170123
Sediment Provenance: Influences on Compositional Change from Source to Sink provides a thorough and inclusive overview that features data-based case studies on a broad range of dynamic aspects in sedimentary rock structure and deposition. Provenance data plays a critical role in a number of aspects of sedimentary rocks, including the assessment of palaeogeographic reconstructions, the constraints of lateral displacements in orogens, the characterization of crust which is no longer exposed, the mapping of depositional systems, sub-surface correlation, and in predicting reservoir quality. The provenance of fine-grained sediments-on a global scale-has been used to monitor crustal evolution, and sediment transport is paramount in considering restoration techniques for both watershed and river restoration. Transport is responsible for erosion, bank undercutting, sandbar formation, aggradation, gullying, and plugging, as well as bed form migration and generation of primary sedimentary structures. Additionally, the quest for reservoir quality in contemporary hydrocarbon exploration and extraction necessitates a deliberate focus on diagenesis. This book addresses all of these challenges and arms geoscientists with an all-in-one reference to sedimentary rocks, from source to deposition.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128033869 20170123
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
ix, 246 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
  • Preface viii Chapter 1 Basics of seismic inversion 1 1.1 The linear inverse problem 1 1.2 Data, model and mapping 3 1.3 General solutions 4 1.4 Regularisation 5 Chapter 2 Linear systems for inversion 11 2.1 A governing equation and its solution 11 2.2 Seismic scattering 14 2.3 Seismic imaging 16 2.4 Seismic downward continuation 18 2.5 Seismic data processing 20 Chapter 3 Least-squares solutions 23 3.1 Determinant and rank 23 3.2 The inverse of a square matrix 27 3.3 LU decomposition and Cholesky factorisation 28 3.4 Least-squares solutions 34 3.5 Least-squares solution for a nonlinear system 37 3.6 Least-squares solution by QR decomposition 37 Chapter 4 Singular value analysis 41 4.1 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 41 4.2 Singular value concept 44 4.3 Generalised inverse solution by SVD 46 4.4 SVD applications 48 Chapter 5 Gradient-based methods 53 5.1 The step length 54 5.2 The steepest descent method 55 5.3 Conjugate gradient method 59 5.4 Biconjugate gradient method 61 5.5 The subspace gradient method 64 Chapter 6 Regularisation 67 6.1 Regularisation versus conditional probability 67 6.2 The Lp-norm constraint 70 6.3 The maximum entropy constraint 73 6.4 The Cauchy constraint 76 6.5 Comparison of various regularisations 79 Chapter 7 Localised average solutions 83 7.1 The average solution 84 7.2 The deltaness 85 7.3 The spread criterion 86 7.4 The Backus-Gilbert stable solution 88 Chapter 8 Seismic wavelet estimation 93 8.1 Wavelet extraction from seismic-to-well correlation 94 8.2 Constant-phase wavelet by kurtosis matching 98 8.3 Mixed-phase wavelet by cumulant matching 102 8.4 Generalised seismic wavelets 106 Chapter 9 Seismic reflectivity inversion 111 9.1 The least-squares problem with a Gaussian constraint 111 9.2 Reflectivity inversion with an Lp-norm constraint 113 9.3 Reflectivity inversion with the Cauchy constraint 115 9.4 Multichannel inversion scheme 118 9.5 Multichannel conjugate gradient method 121 Chapter 10 Seismic ray-impedance inversion 125 10.1 Acoustic and elastic impedances 125 10.2 Ray impedance 129 10.3 Workflow of ray-impedance inversion 132 10.4 Ray-impedance inversion with a model constraint 136 Chapter 11 Seismic tomography based on ray theory 137 11.1 Seismic tomography 137 11.2 Velocity-depth ambiguity in tomography 138 11.3 Ray tracing by a path bending method 141 11.4 Geometrical spreading of curved interfaces 144 11.5 Joint inversion of traveltime and amplitude data 147 Chapter 12 Waveform tomography for the velocity model 153 12.1 Inverse theory for seismic waveform tomography 154 12.2 The optimal step length 157 12.3 Strategy for reflection seismic tomography 159 12.4 Multiple attenuation and partial compensation 162 12.5 Waveform tomography 166 Chapter 13 Waveform tomography with irregular topography 169 13.1 Body-fitted grids for finite-difference modelling 169 13.2 Modification of boundary points 172 13.3 Pseudo-orthogonality and smoothness 173 13.4 Wave equation and absorbing boundary condition 176 13.5 Waveform tomography with irregular topography 180 Chapter 14 Waveform tomography for seismic impedance 183 14.1 Wave equation and model parameterisation 185 14.2 The impedance inversion method 187 14.3 Inversion strategies and the inversion flow 188 14.4 Application to field seismic data 193 14.5 Conclusions 196 Appendices 197 A Householder transform for QR decomposition 197 B Singular value decomposition 200 C Iterative methods for solving a linear system 206 D Biconjugate gradient method for complex systems 209 Exercises and solutions 211 References 231 Author index 238 Subject index 240.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119257981 20161213
Seismic inversion aims to reconstruct a quantitative model of the Earth subsurface, by solving an inverse problem based on seismic measurements. There are at least three fundamental issues to be solved simultaneously: non-linearity, non-uniqueness, and instability. This book covers the basic theory and techniques used in seismic inversion, corresponding to these three issues, emphasising the physical interpretation of theoretical concepts and practical solutions. This book is written for master and doctoral students who need to understand the mathematical tools and the engineering aspects of the inverse problem needed to obtain geophysically meaningful solutions. Building on the basic theory of linear inverse problems, the methodologies of seismic inversion are explained in detail, including ray-impedance inversion and waveform tomography etc. The application methodologies are categorised into convolutional and wave-equation based groups. This systematic presentation simplifies the subject and enables an in-depth understanding of seismic inversion. This book also provides a practical guide to reservoir geophysicists who are attempting quantitative reservoir characterisation based on seismic data. Philosophically, the seismic inverse problem allows for a range of possible solutions, but the techniques described herein enable geophysicists to exclude models that cannot satisfy the available data. This book summarises the author s extensive experience in both industry and academia and includes innovative techniques not previously published.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119257981 20161213
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xxiii, 422 pages : illustrations (some color), color maps ; 24 cm
Sensitivity Analysis in Earth Observation Modeling highlights the state-of-the-art in ongoing research investigations and new applications of sensitivity analysis in earth observation modeling. In this framework, original works concerned with the development or exploitation of diverse methods applied to different types of earth observation data or earth observation-based modeling approaches are included. An overview of sensitivity analysis methods and principles is provided first, followed by examples of applications and case studies of different sensitivity/uncertainty analysis implementation methods, covering the full spectrum of sensitivity analysis techniques, including operational products. Finally, the book outlines challenges and future prospects for implementation in earth observation modeling. Information provided in this book is of practical value to readers looking to understand the principles of sensitivity analysis in earth observation modeling, the level of scientific maturity in the field, and where the main limitations or challenges are in terms of improving our ability to implement such approaches in a wide range of applications. Readers will also be informed on the implementation of sensitivity/uncertainty analysis on operational products available at present, on global and continental scales. All of this information is vital in the selection process of the most appropriate sensitivity analysis method to implement. * Outlines challenges and future prospects of sensitivity analysis implementation in earth observation modeling* Provides readers with a roadmap for directing future efforts* Includes case studies with applications from different regions around the globe, helping readers to explore strengths and weaknesses of the different methods in earth observation modeling* Presents a step-by-step guide, providing the principles of each method followed by the application of variants, making the reference easy to use and follow.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128030110 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xv, 146 pages ; 22 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xxv, 610 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 28 cm.
  • Preface
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. S-waves and VSP in the 20th century
  • 3. Fundamentals : wavefield dynamics and kinematics
  • 4. Acquisition
  • 5. Processing and analysis
  • 6. Imaging applications
  • 7. Inversion applications
  • 8. Business model considerations.
3C seismic applications provide enhanced rock property characterization of the reservoir that can complement P-wave methods. Continued interest in converted P- to S-waves (PS-waves) and vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) has resulted in the steady development of advanced vector wavefield techniques. PS-wave images along with VSP data can be used to help P-wave interpretation of structure in gas obscured zones, of elastic and fluid properties for lithology discrimination from S-wave impedance and density inversion in unconventional reservoirs, and of fracture characterization and stress monitoring from S-wave birefringence (splitting) analysis. The book, which accompanies the 2016 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, presents an overview of 3C seismic theory and practical application: from fundamentals of PS-waves and VSPs, through to acquisition and processing including interpretation techniques. The emphasis is on unique aspects of vector wavefields, anisotropy, and the important relationships that unify S-waves and P-waves. Various applications and case studies demonstrate image benefits from PS-waves, elastic properties and fluid discrimination from joint inversion of amplitude variations with offset/angle (AVO/A), and VSP methods for anisotropic velocity model building and improved reservoir imaging. The book will be of interest to geophysicists, geologists, and engineers, especially those involved with or considering the use of AVO/A inversion, fracture/stress characterization analyses, or interpretation in gas-obscured reservoirs.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xii, 204 p. : ill. (chiefly col.), col. maps ; 24 cm
  • Acknowledgement. Preface. 1: In good time-- 2: Tempus fugit - time flies-- 3: The importance of understanding time-- 4: The early chronologers-- 5: Time's arrow and time's cycle-- 6: The determination of relative time - beds in order-- 7: Measurement of absolute time - the age of the Earth-- 8: Archaeological time-- 9: Time future. References and further reading.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781780460390 20160619
Geologists are among that group of scientists who must factor the passage of time into their investigations, and they thus have a perspective on time that sets them apart from many other researchers. The proposition that geological time is vast, encompassing thousands of millions of years, is relatively recent. It is a concept that remains controversial and unacceptable to many people today who still consider the Earth to have been made to a timetable covering no more than 10,000 years. This book examines how our fascination with time has developed from our earliest ancestors' recognition of the cycles of the sun and the moon. It considers the passage of time as a series of non-repeatable events - "Time's Arrow" - in contrast to time as a series of repeated processes - "Time's Cycle" - both of which can be used to explain geological features on the Earth's surface. The Abyss of Time argues for a greater understanding of geological or 'deep time' as society becomes more aware of the vulnerability of the Earth's resources to over-exploitation by an expanding consumer society.This debate and the controversy surrounding global warming emphasizes the importance of geological time to the process of economic and political decision-making. It is a book for those interested in the intellectual challenge presented by the extent of geological time. The Abyss of Time is written for environmentalists and policy-makers who wish to better place their concerns and decisions in proper context but, above all, it is a book that offers to share a geologist's appreciation of time with the widest possible audience. [Subject: Geology, Earth Science, Environmental Studies].
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781780460390 20160619
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
xiii, 137 pages : illustrations (some color, color maps ; 25 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
312 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 28 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)