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xii, 293 pages, 16 pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. AN INTRODUCTION INTO BIRDS, THE GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS OF THEIR EVOLUTION, AND THE AVIAN SKELETON 4 Birds are evolutionary nested within theropod dinosaurs 4 The geological settings of avian evolution in a nutshell 6 Characteristics of the avian skeleton 7 2. THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS 13 Archaeopteryx: The German urvogel and its bearing on avian evolution 13 The closest maniraptoran relatives of birds 15 Feather evolution 21 The origin of avian flight 25 3. THE MESOZOIC FLIGHT WAY TOWARDS MODERN BIRDS 29 Jeholornithids: Early Cretaceous long-tailed birds 30 Confuciusornis, Sapeornis, and kin: Basal birds with a pygostyle 31 Ornithothoraces and the origin of sustained flapping flight capabilities 34 The Ornithuromorpha: Refinement of modern characteristics 37 Ornithurae and the origin of modern birds 40 4. MESOZOIC BIRDS: INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND CHARACTER EVOLUTION 43 The interrelationships of Mesozoic birds controversial phylogenetic placements and well-supported clades 43 Character evolution in Mesozoic birds 45 Ontogenetic development of Mesozoic birds 53 5. THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND ORIGIN OF CROWN GROUP BIRDS (NEORNITHES) 55 Phylogenetic interrelationships of neornithine birds 56 The Mesozoic fossil record of neornithine-like and neornithine birds 58 6. PALAEOGNATHOUS BIRDS (OSTRICHES, TINAMOUS, AND ALLIES) 61 The interrelationships of extant Palaeognathae 62 Early Cenozoic palaeognathous birds of the Northern Hemisphere 63 The long-winged ostriches, rheas, and tinamous 64 The short-winged palaeognathous birds 67 Biogeography: A textbook example of Gondwanan vicariance has become dismantled 70 7. GALLOANSERES: FOWL AND KIN 71 Galliformes from herbivorous forest dwellers to seed eaters of open landscapes 72 The waterfowl 75 Gastornithids: Giant herbivorous birds in the early Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere 79 Dromornithids (mihirungs or thunderbirds): Gastornis-like birds from Australia 80 Pelagornithids: The bony-toothed birds 81 8. THE DIFFICULT-TO-PLACE GROUPS : BIOGEOGRAPHIC SURPRISES AND AERIAL SPECIALISTS 83 The columbiform birds: Doves, sandgrouse, and mesites? 84 The Hoatzin a South American relict species 85 Turacos and cuckoos 86 Bustards 87 The wonderful Mirandornithes, or how different can sister taxa be? 88 Strisores: The early diversification of nocturnal avian insectivores 91 9. SHOREBIRDS, CRANES, AND RELATIVES 97 Charadriiformes: One of the most diverse groups of extant birds 97 From rail to crane 103 10. AEQUORNITHES: AQUATIC AND SEMI-AQUATIC CARNIVORES 107 Loons: Foot-propelled divers of the Northern Hemisphere 107 The pelagic tubenoses and albatrosses 108 Penguins: More than 60 million years of flightlessness 111 The polyphyletic Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes 115 Late Cenozoic turnovers in marine avifaunas 125 11. CARIAMIFORMS AND DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY 126 Seriemas and allies: Two species now, a lot more in the past 127 Diurnal birds of prey: Multiple cases of convergence among raptorial birds 131 12. THE CENOZOIC RADIATION OF SMALL ARBOREAL BIRDS 137 The Courol and mousebirds: Two African relict groups 137 The long evolutionary history of owls 140 Parrots and passerines: An unexpected sister group relationship and its potential evolutionary implications 142 Trogons, rollers, and woodpeckers: Cavity-nesters with diverse foot morphologies 148 13. INSULAR AVIFAUNAS NOW AND THEN, ON VARIOUS SCALES 153 Islands and isolated continents as refugia 154 The evolution of flightlessness in predator-free environments 155 Insular gigantism and islands as cradles of unusual morphologies 160 GLOSSARY 163 REFERENCES 165 INDEX.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Knowledge of the evolutionary history of birds has much improved in recent decades. Fossils from critical time periods are being described at unprecedented rates and modern phylogenetic analyses have provided a framework for the interrelationships of the extant groups. This book gives an overview of the avian fossil record and its paleobiological significance, and it is the only up-to-date textbook that covers both Mesozoic and more modern-type Cenozoic birds in some detail. The reader is introduced to key features of basal avians and the morphological transformations that have occurred in the evolution towards modern birds. An account of the Cenozoic fossil record sheds light on the biogeographic history of the extant avian groups and discusses fossils in the context of current phylogenetic hypotheses. This review of the evolutionary history of birds not only addresses students and established researchers, but it may also be a useful source of information for anyone else with an interest in the evolution of birds and a moderate background in biology and geology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119020769 20161205
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xxi, 403 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 24 cm
Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781589484672 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xv, 323 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780198717416 20170313
This book is an introductory text to a range of numerical methods used today to simulate time-dependent processes in Earth science, physics, engineering, and many other fields. The physical problem of elastic wave propagation in 1D serves as a model system with which the various numerical methods are introduced and compared. The theoretical background is presented with substantial graphical material supporting the concepts. The results can be reproduced with the supplementary electronic material provided as python codes embedded in Jupyter notebooks. The book starts with a primer on the physics of elastic wave propagation, and a chapter on the fundamentals of parallel programming, computational grids, mesh generation, and hardware models. The core of the book is the presentation of numerical solutions of the wave equation with six different methods: 1) the finite-difference method; 2) the pseudospectral method (Fourier and Chebyshev); 3) the linear finite-element method; 4) the spectral-element method; 5) the finite-volume method; and 6) the discontinuous Galerkin method. Each chapter contains comprehension questions, theoretical, and programming exercises. The book closes with a discussion of domains of application and criteria for the choice of a specific numerical method, and the presentation of current challenges.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780198717416 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
1 volume.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xvi, 451 pages, 88 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm
  • List of contributors, xi About the companion websites, xvii 1 Introduction, 1 Tom Gleeson and Steven Ingebritsen 2 DigitalCrust a 4D data system of material properties for transforming research on crustal fluid flow, 6 Ying Fan, Stephen Richard, R. Sky Bristol, Shanan E. Peters, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Nils Moosdorf, Aaron Packman, Tom Gleeson, I. Zaslavsky, S. Peckham, Lawrence Murdoch, Michael Fienen, Michael Cardiff, David Tarboton, Norman Jones, Richard Hooper, Jennifer Arrigo, D. Gochis, J. Olson and David Wolock Part I: The physics of permeability, 13 3 The physics of permeability, 15 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen 4 A pore-scale investigation of the dynamic response of saturated porous media to transient stresses, 16 Christian Huber and Yanqing Su 5 Flow of concentrated suspensions through fractures: small variations in solid concentration cause significant in-plane velocity variations, 27 Ricardo Medina, Jean E. Elkhoury, Joseph P. Morris, Romain Prioul, Jean Desroches and Russell L. Detwiler 6 Normal stress-induced permeability hysteresis of a fracture in a granite cylinder, 39 A. P. S. Selvadurai 7 Linking microearthquakes to fracture permeability evolution, 49 Takuya Ishibashi, Noriaki Watanabe, Hiroshi Asanuma and Noriyoshi Tsuchiya 8 Fractured rock stress permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical mechanical couplings, 65 Jonny Rutqvist Part II: Static permeability, 83 9 Static permeability, 85 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part II(A): Sediments and sedimentary rocks 10 How well can we predict permeability in sedimentary basins? Deriving and evaluating porosity permeability equations for noncemented sand and clay mixtures, 89 Elco Luijendijk and Tom Gleeson 11 Evolution of sediment permeability during burial and subduction, 104 Hugh Daigle and Elizabeth J. Screaton Part II(B): Igneous and metamorphic rocks 12 Is the permeability of crystalline rock in the shallow crust related to depth, lithology, or tectonic setting?, 125 Mark Ranjram, Tom Gleeson and Elco Luijendijk 13 Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: Insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, United States, 137 Erick R. Burns, Colin F. Williams, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Clifford I. Voss, Frank A. Spane and Jacob DeAngelo 14 Deep fluid circulation within crystalline basement rocks and the role of hydrologic windows in the formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature geothermal system, 155 Jeffrey Pepin, Mark Person, Fred Phillips, Shari Kelley, Stacy Timmons, Lara Owens, James Witcher and Carl W. Gable 15 Hydraulic conductivity of fractured upper crust: insights from hydraulic tests in boreholes and fluid rock interaction in crystalline basement rocks, 174 Ingrid Stober and Kurt Bucher Part III: Dynamic permeability, 189 16 Dynamic permeability, 191 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part III(A): Oceanic crust 17 Rapid generation of reaction permeability in the roots of black smoker systems, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, 195 Johnson R. Cann, Andrew M. Mccaig and Bruce W. D. Yardley Part III(B): Fault zones 18 The permeability of active subduction plate boundary faults, 209 Demian M. Saffer 19 Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes, 228 Simon C. Cox, Catriona D. Menzies, Rupert Sutherland, Paul H. Denys, Calum Chamberlain and Damon A. H. Teagle 20 Transient permeability in fault stepovers and rapid rates of orogenic gold deposit formation, 249 Steven Micklethwaite, Arianne Ford, Walter Witt and Heather A. Sheldon 21 Evidence for long-timescale (>103 years) changes in hydrothermal activity induced by seismic events, 260 Trevor Howald, Mark Person, Andrew Campbell, Virgil Lueth, Albert Hofstra, Donald Sweetkind, Carl W. Gable, Amlan Banerjee, Elco Luijendijk, Laura Crossey, Karl Karlstrom, Shari Kelley and Fred M. Phillips Part III(C): Crustal-scale behavior 22 The permeability of crustal rocks through the metamorphic cycle: an overview, 277 Bruce Yardley 23 An analytical solution for solitary porosity waves: dynamic permeability and fluidization of nonlinear viscous and viscoplastic rock, 285 James A. D. Connolly and Y. Y. Podladchikov 24 Hypocenter migration and crustal seismic velocity distribution observed for the inland earthquake swarms induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in NE Japan: implications for crustal fluid distribution and crustal permeability, 307 T. Okada, T. Matsuzawa, N. Umino, K. Yoshida, A. Hasegawa, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, M. Kosuga, Tetsuya Takeda, A. Kato, T. Igarashi, K. Obara, S. Sakai, A. Saiga, T. Iidaka, T. Iwasaki, N. Hirata, N. Tsumura, Y. Yamanaka, T. Terakawa, H. Nakamichi, T. Okuda, S. Horikawa, H. Katao, T. Miura, A. Kubo, T. Matsushima, K. Goto and H. Miyamachi 25 Continental-scale water-level response to a large earthquake, 324 Zheming Shi, Guang-Cai Wang, Michael Manga and Chi-Yuen Wang Part III(D): Effects of fluid injection at the scale of a reservoir or ore-deposit 26 Development of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection, 337 Giona Preisig, Erik Eberhardt, Valentin Gischig, Vincent Roche, Mirko van der Baan, Benoit Valley, Peter K. Kaiser, Damien Duff and Robert Lowther 27 Modeling enhanced geothermal systems and the essential nature of large-scale changes in permeability at the onset of slip, 353 Stephen A. Miller 28 Dynamics of permeability evolution in stimulated geothermal reservoirs, 363 Joshua Taron, Steve E. Ingebritsen, Stephen Hickman and Colin F. Williams 29 The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic hydrothermal systems, 373 Philipp Weis Part IV: Conclusion, 393 30 Toward systematic characterization, 395 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen References, 398 Index, 447.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures. The practical importance of permeability and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production ( fracking ), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment. This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
vii, 256 pages : maps (some color), illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
  • Archaean granitoids: an overview and significance from a tectonic perspective
  • Hafnium isotope constraints on the origin of Mesoarchaean andesites in southern West Greenland, North Atlantic Craton
  • The tectonomagmatic significance of Neoarchaean variably alkali-enriched gabbro and diorite intrusions of the western Karelia Province
  • Alkaline-rich quartz syenite intrusions of the Western Karelia subprovince
  • Geochronology of Neoarchaean granitoids of the NW eastern Dharwar craton: implications for crust formation
  • The diversification of granitoids and plate tectonic implications at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in the Bundelkhand Craton, Central India
  • Petrogenesis of mafic magmatic enclaves of the Bundelkhand granitoids near Orchha, Central Indian shield: evidence for rapid crystallization
  • The long (3.7-2.1 Ga) and multistage evolution of the Bug Granulite-Gneiss Complex, Ukrainian Shield, based on the SIMS U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircons from a single sample
  • Geochemical characterization and petrogenesis of mafic granulites from the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ)
  • Metamorphic evolution of the Ilomantsi greenstone belt in the Archaean Karelia Province, eastern Finland.
This Special Publication sheds light on crust formation and tectonic processes in early Earth by focusing on Archaean granitoids and related rocks from West Greenland in the North Atlantic Craton, Karelia Province of the Fennoscandian Shield, Eastern Dharwar and Bundelkhand cratons in the Indian Shield and Bug Complex of the Ukrainian Shield. Resulting from the IGCP-SIDA 599 project 'The Changing Early Earth', this compilation of papers provides explanations on the nomenclature of Archaean granitoids and explores the petrology, element and isotope geochemistry, geochronology and metamorphism of granitoids and supracrustal rocks of variable metamorphic grade. This volume provides information on the increase and timing of crust-mantle interactions and granitoid diversification from early Archaean protoliths of island arc origin to the emergence of multi-source high-K calc-alkaline granitoid batholiths at convergent continental margins. The formation of abundant granitoid batholiths suggests a significant change in mantle dynamics and plate tectonics towards the end of the Archaean.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
317 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 28 cm
  • Preface-- Acknowledgments-- 1. Introduction-- 2. Methods for locating old continents and terranes-- 3. Tectonic units of the Earth-- 4. Earth's origins and the Precambrian-- 5. Cambrian-- 6. Ordovician-- 7. Silurian-- 8. Devonian-- 9. Carboniferous-- 10. Permian-- 11. Triassic-- 12. Jurassic-- 13. Cretaceous-- 14. Paleogene-- 15. Neogene and Quaternary-- 16. Climates past and present-- Endnote-- Appendix 1. Location of Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces-- Appendix 2. Mesozoic to modern Panthalassic and Pacific Ocean plates-- Appendix 3. Orogenies-- References-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107105324 20170313
Using full-colour palaeogeographical maps from the Cambrian to the present, this interdisciplinary volume explains how plate motions and surface volcanism are linked to processes in the Earth's mantle, and to climate change and the evolution of the Earth's biota. These new and very detailed maps provide a complete and integrated Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography. They illustrate the development of all the major mountain-building orogenies. Old lands, seas, ice caps, volcanic regions, reefs, and coal beds are highlighted on the maps, as well as faunal and floral provinces. Many other original diagrams show sections from the Earth's core, through the mantle, and up to the lithosphere, and how Large Igneous Provinces are generated, helping to understand how plates have appeared, moved, and vanished through time. Supplementary resources are available online, making this an invaluable reference for researchers, graduate students, professional geoscientists and anyone interested in the geological history of the Earth.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781107105324 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xi 95 pages
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xiv, 281 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 27 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xvii, 304 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm.
  • Preface vii Notation xi Acknowledgments xvii Part I: Introduction 1 1 Introduction 3 Part II: Problem Definition 7 2 Initial Boundary Value Problem for Hydraulic Head 9 3 Hydraulic Head Components and Their IBVPs 13 4 Periodic Transient Components 15 5 BVP for Harmonic Constituents 21 6 Polar Form of Space BVP 29 7 Complex-Variable Form of Space BVP 37 8 Comparison of Space BVP Forms 43 Part III: Elementary Examples 45 9 Examples: 1D Flow in Ideal Media 47 10 Examples: 1D Flow in Exponential Media 63 11 Examples: 1D Flow in Power Law Media 89 12 Examples: 2D and 3D Flow in Ideal Media 95 13 Examples: Uniform-Gradient Flow 107 Part IV: Essential Concepts 121 14 Attenuation, Delay, and Gradient Collinearity 123 15 Time Variation of Specific-Discharge Constituent 131 Part V: Stationary Points 149 16 Stationary Points: Basic Concepts 151 17 Stationary Points: Amplitude and Phase 157 18 Flow Stagnation 171 Part VI: Wave Propagation 181 19 Harmonic, Hydraulic Head Waves 183 20 Wave Distortion 199 21 Waves in One Dimension 215 22 Wave Equation 225 Part VII: Energy Transport 231 23 Mechanical Energy of Groundwater 233 24 Mechanical Energy: Time Averages 239 25 Mechanical Energy of Single-Constituent Fields 249 Part VIII: Conclusion 261 26 Conclusion 263 Part IX: Appendices 269 A Hydraulic Head Components 271 B Useful Results from Trigonometry 273 C Linear Transformation of Space Coordinates 275 D Complex Variables 281 E Kelvin Functions 283 Bibliography 291 Index 295.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119133940 20170306
Hydrodynamics of Time-Periodic Groundwater Flow introduces the emerging topic of periodic fluctuations in groundwater. While classical hydrology has often focused on steady flow conditions, many systems display periodic behavior due to tidal, seasonal, annual, and human influences. Describing and quantifying subsurface hydraulic responses to these influences may be challenging to those who are unfamiliar with periodically forced groundwater systems. The goal of this volume is to present a clear and accessible mathematical introduction to the basic and advanced theory of time-periodic groundwater flow, which is essential for developing a comprehensive knowledge of groundwater hydraulics and groundwater hydrology. Volume highlights include: Overview of time-periodic forcing of groundwater systems Definition of the Boundary Value Problem for harmonic systems in space and time Examples of 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional flow in various media Attenuation, delay, and gradients, stationary points and flow stagnation Wave propagation and energy transport Hydrodynamics of Time-Periodic Groundwater Flow presents numerous examples and exercises to reinforce the essential elements of the theoretical development, and thus is eminently well suited for self-directed study by undergraduate and graduate students. This volume will be a valuable resource for professionals in Earth and environmental sciences who develop groundwater models., including in the fields of groundwater hydrology, soil physics, hydrogeology, geoscience, geophysics, and geochemistry. Time-periodic phenomena are also encountered in fields other than groundwater flow, such as electronics, heat transport, and chemical diffusion. Thus, students and professionals in the field of chemistry, electronic engineering, and physics will also find this book useful..
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119133940 20170306
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
274 pages : maps (some color), illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
viii, 168 pages : maps, many color illustrations ; 29 cm.
  • Part 1 - Subduction Zone Earthquake.- Achievement of the Project for Advanced GPS/Acoustic Survey in the Last Four Years.- Interplate-Coupling in and Around the Rupture Area of the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake (M9.0) Before its Occurrence Based on Terrestrial and Sea-Floor-Geodetic Observations.- Part 2 - Geodetic Observations of the Earthquake Deformation Cycle.- Geodetic and Geomorphic Evaluations of Earthquake Generation Potential of the Northern Sumatran Fault, Indonesia.- Virtual Quake: Statistics, Co-Seismic Deformations and Gravity Changes for Driven Earthquake Fault-Systems.- Dynamic Strain in a South African Gold Mine by the 2011 Tohoku-Earthquake.- Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Products for Geophysical Applications and a Decade of Seismogeodesy.- Earthquake Risk on the San Andreas Fault System in Northern California.- Rheological Structure beneath the NE Japan Inferred from Coseismic Strain Anomalies Associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0).- Paradoxical Vertical Crustal Movement Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan.- Forecasting earthquakes with the Virtual Quake simulator: Regional and fault-partitioned catalogs.- Part 3 - Near Real-Time Warning.- Development and assessment of real-1 time fault model estimation routines in the GEONET real-time processing system.- Buoy Platform Development for Observation of Tsunami and Crustal deformation.- GPS/Acoustic Measurement Using a Multipurpose Moored Buoy System.- Part 4 - Interaction of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.- Pressure Sources of Miyakejima Volcano Estimated From Crustal Deformation.- Part 5 - Natural Hazards.- Application of A10 absolute gravimeter for monitoring land subsidence in Jakarta, Indonesia.- Introduction to the Gravity Database (GALILEO) Compiled by the Geological Survey of Japan.- GPS Tsunami Meter using Satellite Communication System with a Function which Measures Ocean Bottom Crustal Movements.- Ground Deformation in the Kyoto and Osaka Area During Recent 19.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
These proceedings contain a selection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards (GENAH), Matsushima, Japan, 22-26 July, 2014. The scientific sessions focused on monitoring temporal and spatial changes in Earth's lithosphere and atmosphere using geodetic satellite systems, high rate GNSS as well as high resolution imaging (InSAR, Lidar). Researchers in various fields of geodesy discussed the role of geodesy in disaster mitigation and how groups with different techniques can collaborate toward such a goal.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319397672 20170206
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 310 pages, 12 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 24 cm
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xii, 426 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 24 cm
Isotope Geochemistry: The Origin and Formation of Manganese Rocks and Ores is a comprehensive reference on global manganese deposits, including their origins and formations. Manganese is both a significant industrial chemical, critical for steel-making, and a strategic mineral, occurring in abundance only in certain countries. Furthermore, it is used effectively in CO2 sequestration, helping to mitigate greenhouse gas emission challenges around the world. For these reasons, exploration for manganese is very active, yet access to the primary academic literature can be a challenge, especially in field operations. Isotope Geochemistry brings this material together in a single source, making it the ideal all-in-one reference that presents the supporting data, analytics, and interpretation from known manganese deposits. This book is an essential resource for researchers and scientists in multiple fields, including exploration and economic geologists, mineralogists, geochemists, and environmental scientists alike. * Features coverage of the formation, origins, and deposits of manganese rocks and ores globally, arming geoscientists with a thorough reference on the subject* Includes 170 figures and illustrations that visually capture key concepts* Includes elusive data with supporting analysis and interpretation of deposits in Russia, one of the most robust geographic locations in the world for manganese rock and ore research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128031650 20161219
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
viii, 266 pages : illustration, maps (some color) ; 27 cm
  • 1. Shoki henshū gaihōzu
  • 2. Shoki gaihōzu sokuryō genzu
  • 3. Amerika Gikai Toshokanzō shoki gaihō sokuryō genzu dētabēsu kōchiku katei to mokuroku.
  • 1. 初期編集外邦図
  • 2. 初期外邦測量原図
  • 3. アメリカ議会図書館蔵・初期外邦測量原図デー タベース・構築過程と目錄.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
ix 55 pages
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xxi, 392 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Contributors ix Prologue xvii Acknowledgments xxi Part I Introduction Video J. L. Burch (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014) URL: 1 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling, Past to Future James L. Burch 3 Part II The Earth's Ionosphere as a Source Video W. I. Axford (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014) URL: 2 Measurements of Ion Outflows from the Earth's Ionosphere Andrew W. Yau, William K. Peterson, and Takumi Abe 21 3 Low-energy Ion Outflow Observed by Cluster: Utilizing the Spacecraft Potential S. Haaland, M. Andre, A. Eriksson, K. Li, H. Nilsson, L. Baddeley, C. Johnsen, L. Maes, B. Lybekk, and A. Pedersen 33 Video W. B. Hanson (1974) with Remarks by R. A. Heelis (2014) URL: 4 Advances in Understanding Ionospheric Convection at High Latitudes R. A. Heelis 49 5 Energetic and Dynamic Coupling of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System Gang Lu 61 Video R. G. Johnson (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014) URL: 6 The Impact of O+ on Magnetotail Dynamics Lynn M. Kistler 79 7 Thermal and Low-energy Ion Outflows in and through the Polar Cap: The Polar Wind and the Low-energy Component of the Cleft Ion Fountain Naritoshi Kitamura, Kanako Seki, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Takumi Abe, Manabu Yamada, Shigeto Watanabe, Atsushi Kumamoto, Atsuki Shinbori, and Andrew W. Yau 91 8 Ionospheric and Solar Wind Contributions to Magnetospheric Ion Density and Temperature throughout the Magnetotail Michael W. Liemohn and Daniel T. Welling 101 Part III The Effect of Low-energy Plasma on the Stability of Energetic Plasmas Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by R. M. Thorne URL: 9 How Whistler-Mode Waves and Thermal Plasma Density Control the Global Distribution of the Diffuse Aurora and the Dynamical Evolution of Radiation Belt Electrons Richard M. Thorne, Jacob Bortnik, Wen Li, Lunjin Chen, Binbin Ni, and Qianli Ma 117 10 Plasma Wave Measurements from the Van Allen Probes George B. Hospodarsky, W. S. Kurth, C. A. Kletzing, S. R. Bounds, O. Santolik, Richard M. Thorne, Wen Li, T. F. Averkamp, J. R. Wygant, and J. W. Bonnell 127 Video D. J. Williams (1974) with Remarks by L. J. Lanzerotti (2014) URL: 11 Ring Current Ions Measured by the RBSPICE Instrument on the Van Allen Probes Mission Louis J. Lanzerotti and Andrew J. Gerrard 145 12 Global Modeling of Wave Generation Processes in the Inner Magnetosphere Vania K. Jordanova 155 Part IV Unified Global Modeling of Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Earth Video P. M. Banks (1974) with Remarks by R. W. Schunk (2014) URL: 13 Modeling Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Ion Outflow: Past, Present, and Future R. W. Schunk 169 14 Coupling the Generalized Polar Wind Model to Global Magnetohydrodynamics: Initial Results Daniel T. Welling, Abdallah R. Barakat, J. Vincent Eccles, R. W. Schunk, and Charles R. Chappell 179 Video D. H. Fairfield (1974) with Remarks by J. A. Slavin (2014) URL: 15 Coupling Ionospheric Outflow into Magnetospheric Models: Transverse Heating from Wave-Particle Interactions Alex Glocer 195 16 Modeling of the Evolution of Storm-Enhanced Density Plume during the 24 to 25 October 2011 Geomagnetic Storm Shasha Zou and Aaron J. Ridley 205 Video (1974) and Remarks by R. A. Wolf (2014) URL: 17 Forty-Seven Years of the Rice Convection Model R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, and J. Yang 215 18 Magnetospheric Model Performance during Conjugate Aurora William Longley, Patricia Reiff, Jone Peter Reistad, and Nikolai Ostgaard 227 Video C. G. Park (1974) with Remarks by D. L. Carpenter (2014) URL: 19 Day-to-Day Variability of the Quiet-Time Plasmasphere Caused by Thermosphere Winds Jonathan Krall, Joseph D. Huba, Douglas P. Drob, Geoff Crowley, and Richard E. Denton 235 Part V The Coupling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by A. F. Nagy URL: 20 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Planets and Satellites Thomas E. Cravens 245 21 Plasma Measurements at Non-Magnetic Solar System Bodies Andrew J. Coates 259 Video F. V. Coroniti (1976) with Remarks by M. G. Kivelson (2014) URL: 22 Plasma Wave Observations with Cassini at Saturn George B. Hospodarsky, J. D. Menietti, D. Pi a, W. S. Kurth, D. A. Gurnett, A. M. Persoon, J. S. Leisner, and T. F. Averkamp 277 23 Titan's Interaction with Saturn's Magnetosphere Joseph H. Westlake, Thomas E. Cravens, Robert E. Johnson, Stephen A. Ledvina, Janet G. Luhmann, Donald G. Mitchell, Matthew S. Richard, Ilkka Sillanpaa, Sven Simon, Darci Snowden, J. Hunter Waite, Jr., and Adam K. Woodson 291 Part VI The Unified Modeling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System Video T. W. Hill and P. H. Reiff (1976) with Remarks by T. W. Hill (2014) URL: 24 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Jupiter and Saturn Thomas W. Hill 309 25 Global MHD Modeling of the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System at Saturn Xianzhe Jia, Margaret G. Kivelson, and Tamas I. Gombosi 319 Video G. C. Reid (1976) with Remarks by R. L. McPherron (2014) URL: 26 Simulation Studies of Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Coupling in Saturn's Magnetosphere Raymond J. Walker and Keiichiro Fukazawa 335 27 Characterizing the Enceladus Torus by Its Contribution to Saturn's Magnetosphere Ying-Dong Jia, Hanying Wei, and Christopher T. Russell 345 Part VII Future Directions for Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Research Video E. R. Schmerling and L. D. Kavanagh (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014) and J. R. Doupnik (2014) URL: 28 Future Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Study Requirements Thomas E. Moore, Kevin S. Brenneman, Charles R. Chappell, James H. Clemmons, Glyn A. Collinson, Christopher Cully, Eric Donovan, Gregory D. Earle, Daniel J. Gershman, R. A. Heelis, Lynn M. Kistler, Larry Kepko, George Khazanov, David J. Knudsen, Marc Lessard, Elizabeth A. MacDonald, Michael J. Nicolls, Craig J. Pollock, Robert Pfaff, Douglas E. Rowland, Ennio Sanchez, R. W. Schunk, Joshua Semeter, Robert J. Strangeway, and Jeffrey Thayer 357 DOI List 377 Index 379.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119066774 20170227
Over a half century of exploration of the Earth s space environment, it has become evident that the interaction between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere plays a dominant role in the evolution and dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas and fields. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that this same interaction is of fundamental importance at other planets and moons throughout the solar system. Based on papers presented at an interdisciplinary AGU Chapman Conference at Yosemite National Park in February 2014, this volume provides an intellectual and visual journey through our exploration and discovery of the paradigm-changing role that the ionosphere plays in determining the filling and dynamics of Earth and planetary environments. The 2014 Chapman conference marks the 40th anniversary of the initial magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling conference at Yosemite in 1974, and thus gives a four decade perspective of the progress of space science research in understanding these fundamental coupling processes. Digital video links to an online archive containing both the 1974 and 2014 meetings are presented throughout this volume for use as an historical resource by the international heliophysics and planetary science communities. Topics covered in this volume include: * Ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma * Effects of the low energy ionospheric plasma on the stability and creation of the more energetic plasmas * The unified global modeling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere at the Earth and other planets * New knowledge of these coupled interactions for heliophysicists and planetary scientists, with a cross-disciplinary approach involving advanced measurement and modeling techniques Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of space and planetary science, atmospheric science, space physics, astronomy, and geophysics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119066774 20170227
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 292 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
  • Author's NoteAcknowledgmentsForecast1. Feeling the Heat2. Under the Heavens and the Seas3. The Air We Breathe4. Dynamic Planet5. Oceans of Data6. Statistically Speaking7. A Condensed Account of Clouds, Rain, and Snow8. Weather Mechanisms9. Weather Extremes: The New Normal10. The World of Weather ForecastingAnd That Wraps Up Your Weather for TodayAppendixGlossaryNotesBibliographyIndex.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231174923 20170313
How do meteorologists design forecasts for the next day's, the next week's, or the next month's weather? Are some forecasts more likely to be accurate than others, and why? Making Sense of Weather and Climate takes readers through key topics in atmospheric physics and presents a cogent view of how weather relates to climate, particularly climate-change science. It is the perfect book for amateur meteorologists and weather enthusiasts, and for anyone whose livelihood depends on navigating the weather's twists and turns. Making Sense of Weather and Climate begins by explaining the essential mechanics and characteristics of this fascinating science. The noted physics author Mark Denny also defines the crucial differences between weather and climate, and then develops from this basic knowledge a sophisticated yet clear portrait of their relation. Throughout, Denny elaborates on the role of weather forecasting in guiding politics and other aspects of human civilization. He also follows forecasting's effect on the economy. Denny's exploration of the science and history of a phenomenon we have long tried to master makes this book a unique companion for anyone who wants a complete picture of the environment's individual, societal, and planetary impact.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231174923 20170313
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
xi, 249 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
  • About the companion website, xi Introduction, 1 1 Modeling basics, 4 1.1 Learning to model, 4 1.2 Three cardinal rules of modeling, 5 1.3 How can I evaluate my model?, 7 1.4 Conclusions, 8 2 A model of exponential decay, 9 2.1 Exponential decay, 9 2.2 The Bandurraga Basin, Idaho, 10 2.3 Getting organized, 10 2.4 Nondimensionalization, 17 2.5 Solving for , 19 2.6 Calibrating the model to the data, 21 2.7 Extending the model, 23 2.8 A numerical solution for exponential decay, 26 2.9 Conclusions, 28 2.10 Problems, 29 3 A model of water quality, 31 3.1 Oases in the desert, 31 3.2 Understanding the problem, 32 3.3 Model development, 32 3.4 Evaluating the model, 37 3.5 Applying the model, 38 3.6 Conclusions, 39 3.7 Problems, 40 4 The Laplace equation, 42 4.1 Laplace s equation, 42 4.2 The Elysian Fields, 43 4.3 Model development, 44 4.4 Quantifying the conceptual model, 47 4.5 Nondimensionalization, 48 4.6 Solving the governing equation, 49 4.7 What does it mean?, 50 4.8 Numerical approximation of the second derivative, 54 4.9 Conclusions, 57 4.10 Problems, 58 5 The Poisson equation, 62 5.1 Poisson s equation, 62 5.2 Alcatraz island, 63 5.3 Understanding the problem, 65 5.4 Quantifying the conceptual model, 74 5.5 Nondimensionalization, 76 5.6 Seeking a solution, 79 5.7 An alternative nondimensionalization, 82 5.8 Conclusions, 84 5.9 Problems, 85 6 The transient diffusion equation, 87 6.1 The diffusion equation, 87 6.2 The Twelve Labors of Hercules, 88 6.3 The Augean Stables, 90 6.4 Carrying out the plan, 92 6.5 An analytical solution, 100 6.6 Evaluating the solution, 109 6.7 Transient finite differences, 114 6.8 Conclusions, 118 6.9 Problems, 119 7 The Theis equation, 122 7.1 The Knight of the Sorrowful Figure, 122 7.2 Statement of the problem, 124 7.3 The governing equation, 125 7.4 Boundary conditions, 127 7.5 Nondimensionalization, 128 7.6 Solving the governing equation, 132 7.7 Theis and the well function , 134 7.8 Back to the beginning, 135 7.9 Violating the model assumptions, 138 7.10 Conclusions, 139 7.11 Problems, 140 8 The transport equation, 141 8.1 The advection dispersion equation, 141 8.2 The problem child, 143 8.3 The Augean Stables, revisited, 144 8.4 Defining the problem, 144 8.5 The governing equation, 146 8.6 Nondimensionalization, 148 8.7 Analytical solutions, 152 8.8 Cauchy conditions, 165 8.9 Retardation and dispersion, 167 8.10 Numerical solution of the ADE, 169 8.11 Conclusions, 173 8.12 Problems, 174 9 Heterogeneity and anisotropy, 177 9.1 Understanding the problem, 177 9.2 Heterogeneity and the representative elemental volume, 179 9.3 Heterogeneity and effective properties, 180 9.4 Anisotropy in porous media, 187 9.5 Layered media, 188 9.6 Numerical simulation, 189 9.7 Some additional considerations, 191 9.8 Conclusions, 192 9.9 Problems, 192 10 Approximation, error, and sensitivity, 195 10.1 Things we almost know, 195 10.2 Approximation using derivatives, 196 10.3 Improving our estimates, 197 10.4 Bounding errors, 199 10.5 Model sensitivity, 201 10.6 Conclusions, 206 10.7 Problems, 207 11 A case study, 210 11.1 The Borax Lake Hot Springs, 210 11.2 Study motivation and conceptual model, 212 11.3 Defining the conceptual model, 213 11.4 Model development, 215 11.5 Evaluating the solution, 224 11.6 Conclusions, 229 11.7 Problems, 230 12 Closing remarks, 233 12.1 Some final thoughts, 233 Appendix A A heuristic approach to nondimensionalization, 236 Appendix B Evaluating implicit equations, 238 B.1 Trial and error, 239 B.2 The graphical method, 239 B.3 Iteration, 240 B.4 Newton s method, 241 Appendix C Matrix solution for implicit algorithms, 243 C.1 Solution of 1D equations, 243 C.2 Solution for higher dimensional problems, 244 C.3 The tridiagonal matrix routine TDMA, 244 Index, 247.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119130369 20170117
An Introduction to Models and Modeling in the Earth and Environmental Sciences offers students and professionals the opportunity to learn about groundwater modeling, starting from the basics. Using clear, physically-intuitive examples, the author systematically takes us on a tour that begins with the simplest representations of fluid flow and builds through the most important equations of groundwater hydrology. Along the way, we learn how to develop a conceptual understanding of a system, how to choose boundary and initial conditions, and how to exploit model symmetry. Other important topics covered include non-dimensionalization, sensitivity, and finite differences. Written in an eclectic and readable style that will win over even math-phobic students, this text lays the foundation for a successful career in modeling and is accessible to anyone that has completed two semesters of Calculus. Although the popular image of a geologist or environmental scientist may be the rugged adventurer, heading off into the wilderness with a compass and a hand level, the disciplines of geology, hydrogeology, and environmental sciences have become increasingly quantitative. Today s earth science professionals routinely work with mathematical and computer models, and career success often demands a broad range of analytical and computational skills. An Introduction to Models and Modeling in the Earth and Environmental Sciencesis written for students and professionals who want to learn the craft of modeling, and do more than just run black box computer simulations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119130369 20170117
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
x, 346 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Uncertainty in Natural Hazards, Modeling and Decision Support / Karin Riley, Matthew Thompson, Peter Webley, and Kevin D. Hyde
  • Part I: Uncertainty, Communication, and Decision Support. Natural Hazard Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis / Matthew Thompson and Jord J. Warmink
  • Understanding Uncertainty as a Key Interdisciplinary Problem in Earth System Science / Florian Rauser and Gernot Geppert
  • Uncertainty and Probability in Wildfire Management Decision Support / Matthew Thompson, David Calkin, Joe H. Scott, and Michael Hand
  • Role of Uncertainty in Decision Support for Volcanic Ash Cloud Modeling / Peter Webley
  • Part II: Geological Hazards. Building an Uncertainty Modeling Framework for Real-Time VATD / Peter Webley, Abani Patra, Marcus Bursik, E. Bruce Pitman, Jonathan Dehn, Tarung Singh, Puneet Singla, Matthew D. Jones, Reza Madankan, E. Ramona Stefanescu, and Solene Pouget
  • Uncertainties in Estimating Magma Source Parameters from InSAR Observation / Wenyu Gong, Zhong Lu, and Franz Meyer
  • Improving Model Simulations of Volcanic Emission Clouds and Assessing Model Uncertainties / Nina Iren Kristiansen, Delia Arnold, Christian Maurer, Julius Vira, Razvan Rădulescu, Damien Martin, Andreas Stohl, Kerstin Stebel, Mikhail Sofiev, Colin O'Dowd, and Gerhard Wotawa
  • Uncertainty Assessment of Pyroclastic Density Currents at Mount Vesuvius (Italy) Simulated Through the Energy Cone Model / Pablo Tierz, Laura Sandri, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Lucia Zaccarelli, Mauro Antonio Di Vito, and Warner Marzocchi
  • Earthquake Loss Estimation in the Gyeongju Area, Southeastern Korea, Using a Site Classification Map / Su Young Kang and Kwang-Hee Kim
  • Implications of Different Digital Elevation Models and Preprocessing Techniques to Delineate Debris Flow Inundation Hazard Zones in El Salvador / Eric Ross Anderson, Robert E. Griffin, and Daniel E. Irwin
  • Evaluating the Performance of FLO2D for Simulating Past Lahar Events at the Most Active Mexican Volcanoes: Popocatépetl and Volcán de Colima / Lizeth Caballero, Lucia Capra, and Rosario Vázquez
  • Part III: Biophysical and Climatic Hazards. An Uncertainty Analysis of Wildfire Modeling / Karin Riley and Matthew Thompson
  • Fire and Smoke Remote Sensing and Modeling Uncertainties / Charles Ichoku, Luke T. Ellison, Yun Yue, Jun Wang, and Johannes W. Kaiser
  • Uncertainty and Complexity Tradeoffs When Integrating Fire Spread with Hydroecological Projections / Maureen C. Kennedy and Donald McKenzie
  • Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation for Projections of Extremes in Monthly Area Burned Under Climate Change: A Case Study in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA / Adam J. Terando, Brian Reich, Krishna Pacifici, Jennifer Costanza, Alexa McKerrow, and Jaime A. Collazo
  • Simulating Vegetation Change, Carbon Cycling, and Fire Over the Western United States Using CMIP5 Climate Projections / D. Bachelet, T. Sheehan, K. Ferschweiler, and J. Abatzoglou
  • Sensitivity of Vegetation Fires to Climate, Vegetation, and Anthropogenic Drivers in the HESFIRE Model: Consequences for Fire Modeling and Projection Uncertainties / Yannick Le Page
  • Uncertainties in Predicting Debris Flow Hazards Following Wildfire / Kevin D. Hyde, Karin Riley, and Cathelijne Stoof
  • Capturing Spatiotemporal Variation in Wildfires for Improving Postwildfire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments / Jessica R. Haas, Matthew Thompson, Anne Tillery, and Joe H. Scott
  • Uncertainty in Estimation of Debris-Flow Triggering Rainfall: Evaluation and Impact on Identification of Threshold Relationships / E.I. Nikolopoulos, F. Marra, and M. Borga
  • Prospects in Landslide Prediction / Natasha Markuzon, Catherine Slesnick, Erin Leidy, John Regan, Xiang Gao, and Adam Schlosser.
Uncertainties are pervasive in natural hazards, and it is crucial to develop robust and meaningful approaches to characterize and communicate uncertainties to inform modeling efforts. In this monograph we provide a broad, cross-disciplinary overview of issues relating to uncertainties faced in natural hazard and risk assessment. We introduce some basic tenets of uncertainty analysis, discuss issues related to communication and decision support, and offer numerous examples of analyses and modeling approaches that vary by context and scope. Contributors include scientists from across the full breath of the natural hazard scientific community, from those in real-time analysis of natural hazards to those in the research community from academia and government. Key themes and highlights include: * Substantial breadth and depth of analysis in terms of the types of natural hazards addressed, the disciplinary perspectives represented, and the number of studies included * Targeted, application-centered analyses with a focus on development and use of modeling techniques to address various sources of uncertainty * Emphasis on the impacts of climate change on natural hazard processes and outcomes * Recommendations for cross-disciplinary and science transfer across natural hazard sciences This volume will be an excellent resource for those interested in the current work on uncertainty classification/quantification and will document common and emergent research themes to allow all to learn from each other and build a more connected but still diverse and ever growing community of scientists.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119027867 20170220
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)