"Bloodstain pattern analysis is a technique used in crime-scene reconstruction to determine the point of origin of a blood droplet as well as the method of its creation, e.g., dripping, wiping, or low-to-high-speed impact caused by anything from blunt trauma to cast-off to gunshot wounds. The primary problem of interest in this analysis is to determine of the initial size, speed, and impact angle of a blood droplet that has struck a solid surface through an examination of the bloodstain pattern left on the surface. This research project addressed this problem using a detailed fluid dynamical study of the impact and spreading of a liquid droplet on planar surfaces of variable roughness, wettability, and absorbency oriented at various angles with respect to the velocity vector of the approaching droplet. In particular, this research used a coordinated program of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to examine the influence of the many parameters associated with such droplet impacts. Given its importance to crime-scene reconstruction, the focus of this work is on how to use the shape of the final stain to determine the initial conditions of droplet impact."--Abstract.
[Washington, D.C.?] : National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Office of Justice Programs, 2017.
Book — 1 online resource (20 pages) Digital: text file.PDF.
Injury evidence and biological evidence gained from forensic medical examinations of victims can provide evidence about the crime as well as the means of linking a suspect to the crime. Evidence from a forensic medical examination can include genital and non-genital injuries, biological evidence (including sperm or semen, blood, and amylase, an enzyme of saliva), and a DNA profile that can often be derived from the biological evidence. This DNA can be matched to a potential suspect, matched to another investigation in the FBI’s Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), or matched to a convicted offender in CODIS. Injury evidence can be used to establish a victim’s lack of consent and could lead to physical assault charges. This project explored the use and impact of injury evidence and biological evidence through a study of the role of these forms of evidence in prosecuting sexual assault in an urban district attorney’s office in a metropolitan area in the eastern United States.
In 1998, the National Research Council issued a report “Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding Bombs and the Bomb Makers”.  The NRC report recommended that a comprehensive national powder database be developed, containing information about the physical characteristics and chemical composition of commercially available black and smokeless powders. An agency-independent effort to develop a smokeless powders database did not emerge until 2009, when the National Center for Forensic Science (NCFS) in collaboration with the Scientific Working Group for Fire and Explosions (SWGFEX) began work on an internet-accessible database of analytical information on smokeless powders (http://www.ilrc.ucf.edu/powders/). The database opened in early 2011 with 100 entries of legacy powders, provided by Mr. Ronald Kelly (FBI-retired). Under this research grant: (1) records for an additional 600 powders were entered into the database, (2) 100 new powders were analyzed and their records entered into the database, (3) reference collections of the 100 smokeless powders were provided, free of charge, to 50 forensic laboratories that conduct smokeless powder exams and, (4) the data corresponding to the legacy and new records were utilized in research to establish evidentiary and investigative value associated with matching records returned from a search of the Smokeless Powders Database.