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Book
20 p. : digital, PDF file.
The ultimate objective of the project was to develop, build, operate and validate a laboratory scale continuous process to make carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>)-based chemical intermediates with significantly lower energy content, carbon footprint, and cost than today’s petrochemical versions. Novomer’s catalyst allows carbon monoxide (CO) – an output of Praxair’s solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) CO<sub>2</sub> to CO conversion technology – to be combined with an ethane-derivative (ethylene oxide, (EO)) to form a versatile intermediate called beta-propiolactone (BPL) via carbonylation chemistry. The BPL can be converted to acrylic acid using known technologies previously demonstrated at commercial scale, or further reacted in the presence of Novomer’s catalyst to form four-carbon chemical intermediates. The team has collected engineering data required to build a pilot plant (out of scope project scope) with the assistance of an industrial chemical partner.
Book
1 online resource (76 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.
Book
30 : digital, PDF file.
Over the past year, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) supported a number of exciting initiatives and research and development (R&D)activities! The GTO budget was increased in Fiscal Years (FY) 2015-2016, providing the opportunity to invest in new technologies and initiatives, such as the DOE-wide Subsurface Crosscut Initiative, and the Small Business Vouchers (SBV)Program, which is focused on growing our small business and national laboratory partnerships. These efforts will continue to advance geothermal as an economically competitive renewable energy.
Book
1 online resource (33 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted its first annual survey update of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2013 survey.
Book
1 online resource.
ORNL researcher Matt Langholtz discusses resource analyses in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report that can inform strategic decisions about building a thriving bioeconomy by 2040.
Book
p. 448 : digital, PDF file.
This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.
Everything we are doing in R&D is to develop methods and a code for robust, accurate and efficient algorithms in a Parallel (MPI) Modular Object-Oriented code for Industry and Researchers.
Book
212 p. : digital, PDF file.
The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.
Book
2 : digital, PDF file.
Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.
Book
1 online resource (2 ) : digital, PDF file.
EERE’s vision is a strong and prosperous America that is powered by clean, affordable, and secure energy. In the context of this vision, EERE’s mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the transition to a global clean energy economy. This mission requires that EERE perform its work at the intersection of national energy, economic, and environmental systems, as well as across industry and institutional organizations.
Book
1 online resource (11 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
This is a Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) for bio-oil analysis.
Book
1 online resource (12 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
The purpose of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. (PST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to develop an additive manufacturing process to fabricate next generation high temperature masking fixtures for coating of turbine airfoils with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) by the Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) process. Typical masking fixtures are sophisticated designs and require complex part manipulation in order to achieve the desired coating distribution. Fixtures are typically fabricated from high temperature nickel (Ni) based superalloys. The fixtures are fabricated from conventional processes by welding of thin sheet material into a complex geometry, to decrease the weight load for the manipulator and to reduce the thermal mass of the fixture. Recent attempts have been made in order to fabricate the fixtures through casting, but thin walled sections are difficult to cast and have high scrap rates. This project focused on understanding the potential for fabricating high temperature Ni based superalloy fixtures through additive manufacturing. Two different deposition processes; electron beam melting (EBM) and laser powder bed fusion were evaluated to determine the ideal processing route of these materials. Two different high temperature materials were evaluated. The high temperature materials evaluated were Inconel 718 and another Ni base alloy, designated throughout the remainder of this document as Alloy X, as the alloy composition is sensitive. Inconel 718 is a more widely utilized material for additive manufacturing although it is not currently the material utilized for current fixtures. Alloy X is the alloy currently used for the fixtures, but is not a commercially available alloy for additive manufacturing. Praxair determined it was possible to build the fixture using laser powder bed technology from Inconel 718. ORNL fabricated the fixture geometry using the EBM technology in order to compare deposition features such as surface roughness, geometric accuracy, deposition rate, surface and subsurface porosity, and material quality. It was determined that the laser powder bed technology was ideal for the geometry and requirements of the fixture set by Praxair, and Praxair moved forward with the purchase of a laser powder bed system. The subsequent portion of the project focused on determining the ideal processing parameters for alloy X for the laser powder bed system using ORNL’s Renishaw laser powder bed system. Praxair supplied gas atomized powders of alloy X material with properties specified by ORNL. ORNL printed text cube arrays in order to determine the ideal combination of laser powder and laser travel speed in order to maximize material density, improve surface quality, and maintain geometric accuracy. Additional powder supplied by Praxair was used to fabricate a full-scale fixture component.
Book
431 KB : digital, PDF file.
The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.
Book
1 online resource (24 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.
Book
1 online resource (2 ) : digital, PDF file.
The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) brings together manufacturers, research institutions, suppliers, and universities to investigate manufacturing processes, information, and materials technologies critical to advance domestic manufacturing of clean energy products, and to support energy productivity across the entire manufacturing sector.
Book
2 : digital, PDF file.
Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential
Book
1 online resource (43 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.
Book
79 p. : digital, PDF file.
The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at an optimal tip-speed ratio set-point is difficult, which anticipated the outcome from field experiments. The clear message is that the feedforward Kω2 controller out-performs the feedback controllers in almost all aspects and modes of evaluation. The controllers proved a substantial improvement over the baseline performance of the TidGen® turbine, in terms of energy capture. The effects of noise-contaminated angular velocity signals were investigated and validated by simulation as an explanation for the performance limitations observed for TidGen® turbine operations in Eastport, Maine. Measurements of loads performed as part of the laboratory testing indicate that there are limited differences in average axial thrust force between control architectures. This suggests that none of the control strategies are likely to substantially affect loads on the turbine support structure. Velocity measurements during the ORPC RivGen® turbine deployment at Igiugig, Alaska, in 2014 were used to assess the variability of the river flow. Results suggest that the river flow is approximately steady, in the mean sense, at any particular location in the river, with random turbulent fluctuations that are around 10% of the mean flow. The mean flow in the center channel of the river is 2.5 m/s, with reductions near the riverbanks and in the shallows. Spectral analysis and lagged correlation results indicate that temporal fluctuations at a given point are dominated by large scale fluctuations, such that measurements at the turbine location are just as useful for inflow control implementation as upstream measurements. At this site, and likely at many other river sites, flow is generally steady at a given location, but flow varies dramatically between locations, particularly laterally across the river. The primary result is that a lateral change in position of a few meters results in changes to flow speed that far exceed the turbulence fluctuations at any given location. The turbulence is dominated by l...
Book
16 p. : digital, PDF file.
The manufacturing of tooling for large, contoured surfaces for fiber-layup applications requires significant effort to understand the geometry and then to subtractively manufacture the tool. Traditional methods for the auto industry use clay that is hand sculpted. In the marine pleasure craft industry, the exterior of the model is formed from a foam lay-up that is either hand cut or machined to create smooth lines. Engineers and researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Magnum Venus Products (MVP) in the development of a process for reproducing legacy whitewater adventure craft via digital scanning and large scale 3-D printed layup molds. The process entailed 3D scanning a legacy canoe form, converting that form to a CAD model, additively manufacturing (3-D Print) the mold tool, and subtractively finishing the mold s transfer surfaces. Future work will include applying a gelcoat to the mold transfer surface and infusing using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, or VARTM principles, to create a watertight vessel. The outlined steps were performed on a specific canoe geometry found by MVP s principal participant. The intent of utilizing this geometry is to develop an energy efficient and marketable process for replicating complex shapes, specifically focusing on this particular watercraft, and provide a finished product for demonstration to the composites industry. The culminating part produced through this agreement has been slated for public presentation and potential demonstration at the 2016 CAMX (Composites and Advanced Materials eXpo) exposition in Anaheim, CA. Phase I of this collaborative research and development agreement (MDF-15-68) was conducted under CRADA NFE-15-05575 and was initiated on May 7, 2015, with an introduction to the MVP product line, and concluded in March of 2016 with the printing of and processing of a canoe mold. The project partner Magnum Venous Products (MVP) is a small business. Phase II as discussed herein is under consideration by MVP as of this writing. Overall, it is anticipated that developing this process for manufacturing tooling for complex contoured surfaces has applicability to naval and other watercraft as well as bathrooms and large trucks.
Book
2.08 MB : digital, PDF file.
This presentation provides a high-level overview of advanced power electronic functionality for renewable energy integration with the electric power grid.