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Book
1 online resource (36 p.) : digital, PDF file.
The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years he Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 45993 ): digital, PDF file.
The ability of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) techniques to cut solid matter at the nano-scale revolutionized the study of material structure across the life-, earth- and material sciences. But a detailed understanding of the damage caused by the ion beam and its effect on material properties remains elusive. We examine this damage in 3D using coherent X-ray diffraction to measure the full lattice strain tensor in FIB-milled gold nano-crystals. We also found that even very low ion doses, previously thought to be negligible, cause substantial lattice distortions. At higher doses, extended self-organized defect structures appear. Combined with detailed numerical calculations, these observations allow fundamental insight into the nature of the damage created and the structural instabilities that lead to a surprisingly inhomogeneous morphology.
Book
1 online resource (37 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become one of the most powerful techniques in the fields of material science, inorganic chemistry and nanotechnology. In terms of resolutions, advanced TEM may reach a high spatial resolution of 0.05 nm, a high energy-resolution of 7 meV. In addition, <i>in situ</i> TEM can help researcher to image the process happened within 1 ms. This paper reviews the recent technical approaches of applying advanced TEM characterization on nanomaterials for catalysis. The text is organized according to the demanded information of nanocrystals from the perspective of application: for example, size, composition, phase, strain, and morphology. The electron beam induced effect and in situ TEM are also introduced. As a result, I hope this review can help the scientists in related fields to take advantage of advanced TEM to their own researches.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 471 ): digital, PDF file.
Revelation of unequivocal structural information at the atomic level for complex systems is uniquely important for deeper and generic understanding of the structure property connections and a key challenge in materials science. Here in this paper we report an experimental study of the local structure by applying total elastic scattering and Raman scattering analyses to an important non-relaxor ferroelectric solid solution exhibiting the so-called composition-induced morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), where concomitant enhancement of physical properties have been detected. The powerful combination of static and dynamic structural probes enabled us to derive direct correspondence between the atomic-level structural correlations and reported properties. The atomic pair distribution functions obtained from the neutron total scattering experiments were analysed through big-box atom-modelling implementing reverse Monte Carlo method, from which distributions of magnitudes and directions of off-centred cationic displacements were extracted. We found that an enhanced randomness of the displacement-directions for all ferroelectrically active cations combined with a strong dynamical coupling between the A- and B-site cations of the perovskite structure, can explain the abrupt amplification of piezoelectric response of the system near MPB. Finally, altogether this provides a more fundamental basis in inferring structure-property connections in similar systems including important implications in designing novel and bespoke materials.
Book
1 online resource (p. 762-771 ): digital, PDF file.
Femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy is used to determine the static bandgap inhomogeneity of a colloidal quantum dot ensemble. The excited states of quantum dots absorb light, so their absorptive two-dimensional (2D) spectra will typically have positive and negative peaks. We show that the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is robustly determined by the slope of the nodal line separating positive and negative peaks in the 2D spectrum around the bandgap transition; this nodal line slope is independent of excited state parameters not known from the absorption and emission spectra. The absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is compared to a size and shape distribution determined by electron microscopy. The electron microscopy images are analyzed using new 2D histograms that correlate major and minor image projections to reveal elongated nanocrystals, a conclusion supported by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Lastly, the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity quantitatively agrees with the bandgap variations calculated from the size and shape distribution, placing upper bounds on any surface contributions.
Book
1 online resource (p. 762-771 ): digital, PDF file.
Femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy is used to determine the static bandgap inhomogeneity of a colloidal quantum dot ensemble. The excited states of quantum dots absorb light, so their absorptive two-dimensional (2D) spectra will typically have positive and negative peaks. It is shown that the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is robustly determined by the slope of the nodal line separating positive and negative peaks in the 2D spectrum around the bandgap transition; this nodal line slope is independent of excited state parameters not known from the absorption and emission spectra. The absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is compared to a size and shape distribution determined by electron microscopy. The electron microscopy images are analyzed using new 2D histograms that correlate major and minor image projections to reveal elongated nanocrystals, a conclusion supported by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity quantitatively agrees with the bandgap variations calculated from the size and shape distribution, placing upper bounds on any surface contributions.
Book
1 online resource (p. 762-771 ): digital, PDF file.
Femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy is used to determine the static bandgap inhomogeneity of a colloidal PbSe quantum dot ensemble. It is shown that the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is robustly determined by the slope of the nodal line separating positive and negative peaks in the 2D spectrum around the bandgap transition; this nodal line slope is independent of excited state parameters not known from the absorption and emission spectra. The absorption bandgap inhomogeneity is compared to a size and shape distribution determined by electron microscopy. The electron microscopy images are analyzed using new 2D histograms that correlate major and minor image projections to reveal elongated nanocrystals, a conclusion supported by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Lastly, the absorption bandgap inhomogeneity quantitatively agrees with the bandgap variations calculated from the size and shape distribution, placing upper bounds on any surface contributions.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 40535 ): digital, PDF file.
40% of ultrapure silicon is lost as kerf during slicing to produce wafers. Currently, kerf is not recycled due to engineering challenges and costs associated with removing its abundant impurities. Carbon left behind from the lubricant remains as one of the most difficult contaminants to remove in kerf without significant silicon oxidation. The present work enables to better understand the mechanism of carbon elimination in kerf which can aid the design of better processes for kef recycling and low cost photovoltaics. In this paper, we studied the kinetics of carbon elimination from silicon kerf in two atmospheres: air and N<sub>2</sub>, under a regime of no-diffusion-limitation. Here, we report the apparent activation energy in both atmospheres using three methods: Kissinger, and two isoconversional approaches. In both atmospheres, a bimodal apparent activation energy is observed, suggesting a two stage process. Furthermore, a reaction mechanism is proposed in which (a) C-C and C-O bond cleavage reactions occur in parallel with polymer formation; (b) at higher temperatures, this polymer fully degrades in air but leaves a tarry residue in N<sub>2</sub> that accounts for about 12% of the initial total carbon.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 41121 ): digital, PDF file.
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of fatty acid amides that play signaling roles in diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. We used fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades NAE into ethanolamine and free fatty acid to terminate its signaling function. In animals, chemical inhibitors of FAAH for therapeutic treatment of pain and as tools to probe deeper into biochemical properties of FAAH. In a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that dampened the inhibitory effect of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth, we identified 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrim idine-2,4(3 H, 6 H)-dione (or MDPD). MDPD alleviated the growth inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0, in part by enhancing the enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH). In vitro, biochemical assays showed that MDPD enhanced the apparent Vmax of AtFAAH but did not alter the affinity of AtFAAH for its NAE substrates. Furthermore, structural analogs of MDPD did not affect AtFAAH activity or dampen the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling growth indicating that MDPD is a specific synthetic chemical activator of AtFAAH. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an unbiased chemical genetic approach to identify new pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH- and NAE-mediated physiological processes in plants.
Book
1 online resource (p. 2533-2544 ): digital, PDF file.
Insight into the solid-state chemistry of pure technetium-99 (<sup>99</sup>Tc) oxides is required in the development of a robust immobilization and disposal system for nuclear waste stemming from the radiopharmaceutical industry, from the production of nuclear weapons, and from spent nuclear fuel. However, because of its radiotoxicity and the subsequent requirement of special facilities and handling procedures for research, only a few studies have been completed, many of which are over 20 years old. In this study, we report the synthesis of pure alkali pertechnetates (sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and analysis of these compounds by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (static and magic angle spinning), and neutron diffraction. The structures and spectral signatures of these compounds will aid in refining the understanding of 99Tc incorporation into and release from nuclear waste glasses. NaTcO<sub>4</sub> shows aspects of the relatively higher electronegativity of the Na atom, resulting in large distortions of the pertechnetate tetrahedron and deshielding of the <sup>99</sup>Tc nucleus relative to the aqueous TcO<sub>4</sub><sup>–</sup>. At the other extreme, the large Cs and Rb atoms interact only weakly with the pertechnetate, have closer to perfect tetrahedral symmetry at the Tc atom, and have very similar vibrational spectra, even though the crystal structure of CsTcO<sub>4</sub> is orthorhombic while that of RbTcO<sub>4</sub> is tetragonal. Further trends are observed in the cell volume and quadrupolar coupling constant.
Book
1 online resource (3 p.) : digital, PDF file.
No abstract provided.
Book
1 online resource (p. 1389-1401 ): digital, PDF file.
Ion specificity, a widely observed macroscopic phenomenon in condensed phases and at interfaces, is essentially a fundamental chemical physical issue. We have been investigating such effects using cluster models in an “atom-by-atom” and “molecule-by-molecule” fashion not possible with condensed-phase methods. We use electrospray ionization (ESI) to generate molecular and ionic clusters to simulate key molecular entities involved in local binding regions, and characterize them employing negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). Inter- and intramolecular interactions and binding configurations are directly obtained as functions of cluster size and composition, providing insightful molecular-level description and characterization over the local active sites that play crucial roles in determining solution chemistry and condensed phase phenomena. Finally, the topics covered in this article are relevant to a wide scope of research fields ranging from ion specific effects in electrolyte solutions, ion selectivity/recognition in normal functioning of life, to molecular specificity in aerosol particle formation, as well as in rational material design and synthesis.
Book
1 online resource (p. 3496-3504 ): digital, PDF file.
The interesting and tunable properties of layered metal dichalcogenides heavily depend on their phase and layer stacking. Here, we show and explain how the layer stacking and physical properties of WSe<sub>2</sub> are influenced by screw dislocations. A one-to-one correlation of atomic force microscopy and high- and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy of many dislocated WSe<sub>2</sub> nanoplates reveals variations in the number and shapes of dislocation spirals and different layer stackings that are determined by the number, rotation, and location of the dislocations. Plates with triangular dislocation spirals form noncentrosymmetric stacking that gives rise to strong second-harmonic generation and enhanced photoluminescence, plates with hexagonal dislocation spirals form the bulk 2H layer stacking commonly observed, and plates containing mixed dislocation shapes have intermediate noncentrosymmetric stackings with mixed properties. Multiple dislocation cores and other complexities can lead to more complex stackings and properties. Finally, these previously unobserved properties and layer stackings in WSe<sub>2</sub> will be interesting for spintronics and valleytronics.
Book
1 online resource (p. 73-82 ): digital, PDF file.
<p>Protein crystallography data collection at synchrotrons is routinely carried out at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate radiation damage. Although damage still takes place at 100 K and below, the immobilization of free radicals increases the lifetime of the crystals by approximately 100-fold. Recent studies have shown that flash-cooling decreases the heterogeneity of the conformational ensemble and can hide important functional mechanisms from observation. These discoveries have motivated increasing numbers of experiments to be carried out at room temperature. However, the trade-offs between increased risk of radiation damage and increased observation of alternative conformations at room temperature relative to cryogenic temperature have not been examined. A considerable amount of effort has previously been spent studying radiation damage at cryo-temperatures, but the relevance of these studies to room temperature diffraction is not well understood. Here, the effects of radiation damage on the conformational landscapes of three different proteins (<i>T. danielli</i> thaumatin, hen egg-white lysozyme and human cyclophilin A) at room (278 K) and cryogenic (100 K) temperatures are investigated. Increasingly damaged datasets were collected at each temperature, up to a maximum dose of the order of 10<sup>7</sup> Gy at 100 K and 10<sup>5</sup> Gy at 278 K. Although it was not possible to discern a clear trend between damage and multiple conformations at either temperature, it was observed that disorder, monitored by <i>B</i>-factor-dependent crystallographic order parameters, increased with higher absorbed dose for the three proteins at 100 K. At 278 K, however, the total increase in this disorder was only statistically significant for thaumatin. A correlation between specific radiation damage affecting side chains and the amount of disorder was not observed. Lastly, this analysis suggests that elevated conformational heterogeneity in crystal structures at room temperature is observed despite radiation damage, and not as a result thereof.</p>
Book
1 online resource (p. 3101-3107 ): digital, PDF file.
A facile strategy has been developed to construct unique core–shell-structured Li<sub>2.7</sub>V<sub>2.1</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub> nanocomposites with a Li<sub>3</sub>V<sub>2</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub> core and LiVOPO<sub>4</sub> shell by using nonstoichiometric design and high-energy ball milling (HEBM) treatment. The HEBM treatment supplies enough energy to drive the excess V atoms to the surface to form a V-enriched shell. Such kind of cathode can deliver a high reversible capacity of 131.5 mAhg<sup>$-$1</sup> at 0.5 C, which is close to the theoretical capacity (133 mAhg<sup>$-$1</sup> in 3.0–4.3 V). Even at 20 C, it still delivers an excellent discharge capacity of 116.3 mAhg<sup>$-$1</sup>, and a remarkable capacity of 111.0 mAhg<sup>$-$1</sup> after 1000 cycles, corresponding to an ultra-small capacity-loss of 0.0046% per cycle. Finally, the significantly improved high-rate electrochemical performance can be attributed to the active shell of LiVOPO<sub>4</sub>, which not only efficiently facilitates the electron and Li<sup>+</sup> ion transport during cycling processes, but also accommodates more Li+ ions to effectively compensate the capacity loss of the core.
Book
1 online resource (14 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Graphene has attracted great interest for future electronics due to its high mobility and high thermal conductivity. However, a two-dimensional graphene sheet behaves like a metal, lacking a bandgap needed for the key devices components such as field effect transistors (FETs) in digital electronics. It has been shown that, partly due to quantum confinement, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with ~2 nm width can open up sufficient bandgaps and evolve into semiconductors to exhibit high on/off ratios useful for FETs. However, a challenging problem has been that, such ultra-narrow GNRs (~2 nm) are difficult to fabricate, especially for GNRs with smooth edges throughout the ribbon length. Despite high on/off ratios, these GNRs show very low mobility and low on-state conductance due to dominant scattering effects by imperfections and disorders at the edges. Wider GNRs (>5 nm) show higher mobility, higher conductance but smaller bandgaps and low on/off ratios undesirable for FET applications. It is highly desirable to open up bandgaps in graphene or increase the bandgaps in wide GNRs to afford graphene based semiconductors for high performance (high on-state current and high on/off ratio) electronics. Large scale ordering and dense packing of such GNRs in parallel are also needed for device integration but have also been challenging thus far. It has been shown theoretically that uniaxial strains can be applied to a GNR to engineer its bandgap. The underlying physics is that under uniaxial strain, the Dirac point moves due to stretched C-C bonds, leading to an increase in the bandgap of armchair GNRs by up to 50% of its original bandgap (i.e. bandgap at zero strain). For zigzag GNRs, due to the existence of the edge states, changes of bandgap are smaller under uniaxial strain and can be increased by ~30%. This work proposes a novel approach to the fabrication of densely aligned graphene nanoribbons with highly smooth edges afforded by anisotropic etching and uniaxial strain for bandgap engineering of GNRs towards high on/off ratio and high on-state current GNR devices. First, we will develop a novel approach for the fabrication of high density GNR arrays (pitch <50 nm, tunable down to 30nm) with pre-defined edge orientation and smooth edges using a free standing nano-mask derived from diblock copolymer assembly for patterning of graphene sheets. Anisotropic graphene edges will be developed to afford smooth edges along crystallographic lattice directions. Then, we will fabricate GNR devices on flexible substrates and apply uniaxial strain to engineer the bandgap of the GNRs. The bandgap of GNRs could be increased by up to 50% under uniaxial strain according to theoretical calculations and will be investigated through electrical transport measurements. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of single GNRs and parallel arrays will be used to probe and quantify the uniaxial strain. Electrical measurements will be used to probe the on/off ratio of GNR FET devices and confirm the bandgap tuning effects. Finally, we plan to use dense parallel arrays of GNRs to demonstrate strained GNR field effect transistors with high on/off ratios and high on-state current, and compare strained GNR FETs with carbon nanotube and Si based field effect transistor (FET) devices.
Book
1 online resource (p. 4937-4945 ): digital, PDF file.
In recent years, the popularity of density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions (DFT) has surged for the design and optimization of functional materials. However, no single DFT exchange–correlation functional currently available gives accurate adsorption energies on transition metals both when bonding to the surface is dominated by strong covalent or ionic bonding and when it has strong contributions from van der Waals interactions (i.e., dispersion forces). Here we present a new, simple method for accurately predicting adsorption energies on transition-metal surfaces based on DFT calculations, using an adaptively weighted sum of energies from RPBE and optB86b-vdW (or optB88-vdW) density functionals. This method has been benchmarked against a set of 39 reliable experimental energies for adsorption reactions. Our results show that this method has a mean absolute error and root mean squared error relative to experiments of 13.4 and 19.3 kJ/mol, respectively, compared to 20.4 and 26.4 kJ/mol for the BEEF-vdW functional. For systems with large van der Waals contributions, this method decreases these errors to 11.6 and 17.5 kJ/mol. Furthermore, this method provides predictions of adsorption energies both for processes dominated by strong covalent or ionic bonding and for those dominated by dispersion forces that are more accurate than those of any current standard DFT functional alone.
Book
1 online resource (p. 3666-3674 ): digital, PDF file.
Here, we report on a direct diode-pumped Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier laser system producing multi-uJ energies with repetition rate from 50 to 250 kHz. By combining cryogenic cooling of Ti:sapphire with high brightness fiber-coupled 450nm laser diodes, we for the first time demonstrate a power-scalable CW-pumped architecture that can be directly applied to demanding ultrafast applications such as coherent high-harmonic EUV generation without any complex post-amplification pulse compression. Initial results promise a new era for Ti:sapphire amplifiers not only for ultrafast laser applications, but also for tunable CW sources. We discuss the unique challenges to implementation, as well as the solutions to these challenges.
Book
1 online resource (8 p.) : digital, PDF file.
The project seeks to investigate the mechanism by which CBMs potentiate the activity of glycoside hydrolases against complete plant cell walls. The project is based on the hypothesis that the wide range of CBMs present in bacterial enzymes maximize the potential target substrates by directing the cognate enzymes not only to different regions of a specific plant cell wall, but also increases the range of plant cell walls that can be degraded. In addition to maximizing substrate access, it was also proposed that CBMs can target specific subsets of hydrolases with complementary activities to the same region of the plant cell wall, thereby maximizing the synergistic interactions between these enzymes. This synergy is based on the premise that the hydrolysis of a specific polysaccharide will increase the access of closely associated polymers to enzyme attack. In addition, it is unclear whether the catalytic module and appended CBM of modular enzymes have evolved unique complementary activities.
Book
1 online resource (p. 8030-8040 ): digital, PDF file.
It can be difficult to simultaneously control the size, composition, and morphology of metal nanomaterials under benign aqueous conditions. For this, bioinspired approaches have become increasingly popular due to their ability to stabilize a wide array of metal catalysts under ambient conditions. In this regard, we used the R5 peptide as a three-dimensional template for formation of PdPt bimetallic nanomaterials. Monometallic Pd and Pt nanomaterials have been shown to be highly reactive toward a variety of catalytic processes, but by forming bimetallic species, increased catalytic activity may be realized. The optimal metal-to-metal ratio was determined by varying the Pd:Pt ratio to obtain the largest increase in catalytic activity. To better understand the morphology and the local atomic structure of the materials, the bimetallic PdPt nanomaterials were extensively studied by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis. The resulting PdPt materials were determined to form multicomponent nanostructures where the Pt component demonstrated varying degrees of oxidation based upon the Pd:Pt ratio. To test the catalytic reactivity of the materials, olefin hydrogenation was conducted, which indicated a slight catalytic enhancement for the multicomponent materials. Finally, these results suggest a strong correlation between the metal ratio and the stabilizing biotemplate in controlling the final materials morphology, composition, and the interactions between the two metal species.