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Online 81. New experimental tests for gravity and dark matter [electronic resource] [2016]
 Wiser, Timothy D.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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The behavior of gravity is well understood and highly constrained on length scales from millimeters to the size of the Solar System. New physics, such as extra dimensions or new forces, may modify the behavior of gravity below a millimeter. On the other end of the spectrum, observations of galaxies, galaxy clusters, supernovae, and the Cosmic Microwave Background all point to the gravitational dominance of dark matter and dark energy over the ordinary matter content of the Universe. It is therefore worth investigating, with high precision, the behavior of gravity at the longest distance scales as well. In this dissertation, I describe a recent proposal for a spacebased experiment, optimized to test the inverse square law with great accuracy at scales of up to 100 AU. This is the largest length scale that can be reached with a direct probe using current technology. I also describe a new experimental strategy for testing putative signals of dark matter decay or annihilation. Merging galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster provide a powerful testing ground for indirect detection of dark matter. The spatial distribution of the dark matter is both directly measurable through gravitational lensing and substantially different from the distribution of potential astrophysical backgrounds. I propose to use this spatial information to identify the origin of indirect detection signals, and show that even statistical excesses of a few sigma can be robustly tested for consistencyor inconsistencywith a dark matter source.
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Online 82. New insights into galaxy cluster astrophysics using the Suzaku Xray satellite [electronic resource] [2016]
 Urban, Ondrej.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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Galaxy clusters enable a broad range of astrophysical studies, from the microphysics of hot tenuous plasmas, to the physics of galaxy evolution, to constraining cosmological models. In particular, much can, and has, been learned from detailed studies of the nearest brightest systems, in which the relevant astrophysics can be viewed "in closeup". The focus of this thesis is the analysis of , and extraction of novel results from, observations of nearby galaxy clusters made with the Suzaku Xray satellite. In particular, the first part of the thesis is focused on the analysis of data from Suzaku Key Project observations of the Perseus Cluster, the Xray brightest cluster in the sky, which offered the most complete view to date of any galaxy cluster from its core to the outer edge. The results are presented across several chapters. In Chapter 2, we examine the behaviour of various physical properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), some of which, most prominently including the entropy, indicate a presence of density inhomogeneities at large radii (r> r500). In Chapter 3, we report evidence for large megaparsecscale sloshing motions of the ICM in Perseus, a phenomenon which had not been observed before at these scales. In Chapter 4, we present the first spatially resolved study of the chemical composition of the ICM throughout the full volume of a cluster. Notably, we find a homogeneous distribution of heavy elements at large radii which indicates that these elements, produced by supernovae, were likely injected into and mixed with the intergalactic gas before galaxy clusters formed. In the second part of this thesis, I present a detailed spectral examination of Suzaku observations of the four Xray brightest clusters, in order to search for the presence of a ~3.5 keV Xray emission line. The presence of such a line has been claimed in some previous Xray studies of the Perseus Cluster, and some other galaxies and clusters. It has been proposed that such a feature could be a decay signature from sterile neutrino dark matter. My results present a severe challenge to this interpretation. Alternative scenarios for the origin of the ~3.5 keV feature are discussed.
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Online 83. New techniques for precision atom interferometry and applications to fundamental tests of gravity and of quantum mechanics [electronic resource] [2016]
 Kovachy, Tim.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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Lightpulse atom interferometryin which quantum mechanical atomic wave packets are split along two paths and later recombined and made to interfere by sequences of optical pulsesis a remarkably sensitive technique for measuring inertial forces, allowing it to be a valuable tool for applications ranging from fundamental tests of gravity to geodesy and inertial navigation. The inertial sensitivity of an atom interferometer is proportional to its enclosed spacetime areathat is, the product of the spatial separation between the two interferometer paths and the interferometer duration. Therefore, new techniques that allow this spacetime area to be increased are essential in order for atom interferometry to reach its full potential. In this thesis, I describe the development of such techniques. We approach the problem of increasing the interferometer spacetime area on two fronts. First, we implement new methods to increase the momentum transferred by the beam splitters of the interferometer. The velocity difference and therefore the spatial separation of the interferometer paths are proportional to this momentum transfer. Conventional atom optics techniques involve beam splitters that transfer two photon momentum recoils (2 hbar k) to the atoms. I will discuss our realization of large momentum transfer (LMT) beam splitters that transfer up to 100 hbar k. Second, we have built a 10 m tall atomic fountain that allows the total interferometer duration to be increased to 2 s. Ultimately, we combined LMT atom optics with longduration atom interferometry in the 10 m atomic fountain, leading to very large spacetime area atom interferometers. In these very large area atom interferometers, the separation between the two atomic wave packets that respectively travel along the two interferometer paths reaches distances of up to 54 cm. Therefore, in addition to offering greatly increased inertial sensitivity, these interferometers probe the quantum mechanical wavelike nature of matter in a new macroscopic regime. I will discuss the techniques we devised to overcome the many technical challenges associated with such interferometers, which in other apparatus have prevented interference from being maintained for path separations larger than 1 cm. I will also describe initial results from the use of our very large area interferometers to test the equivalence principle with Rb85 and Rb87 and our plans for further progress in this direction. Very large area atom interferometry requires high laser power and extremely cold atom sources. We have developed a novel high power, frequency doubled laser source at 780 nm that is suitable for atom optics. Also, we have implemented a sequence of matter wave lenses to prepare and measure atomic ensembles with recordlow effective temperatures of 50 pK. In addition to applications in atom interferometry, we expect that such an atom source will be broadly useful for a wide range of experiments.
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Online 84. Particle acceleration in magnetized, relativistic outflows of astrophysical sources [electronic resource] [2016]
 Yuan, Yajie.
 2016.
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Many powerful and variable gammaray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae (particularly the Crab Nebula), active galactic nuclei and gammaray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gammarayemitting energies efficiently over very short time scales. These are likely due to rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. We term such a process as "magnetoluminescence". One possible scenario is that in the highly magnetized outflow of the prime mover, an ideal instability causes a tangled, high energy configuration to relax to a lower energy state over light crossing time scales; during the process extended E > B or E · B ≠ 0 regions can be formed and sustained as the particles are accelerated up to the radiation reaction limit, removing the electromagnetic energy in the form of gammaray emission. In order to test this conjecture, we devise simple models of magnetized, relativistic plasma configurations, which allow us to study in detail the macroscopic instability that leads to dramatic dissipation of electromagnetic energy. One class of examples are the socalled linear forcefree equilibria within confining walls or 3D periodic boxes. Using analytical technique and MHD simulations, we find that many of the short wavelength configurations are unstable to ideal modes; the instability grows on Alfven wave crossing time scales (close to the light crossing time scale when the magnetization is high), and the system eventually relaxes to the longest wavelength state, or lowest energy state, as allowed by a conserved total helicity. We then used one of the lowest order unstable equilibria as a testbed to understand the generic features of particle acceleration and radiation in a relativistic, magnetized plasma, using radiative particleincell (PIC) simulations. We find that the ideal instability forces a dynamic current layer formation and the highest energy particles are first accelerated by the parallel electric field in the current layers; fast variability can be produced by particle bunches ejected from the current layers. Meanwhile, we have been working closely with the observations, particularly the interpretation of multiwavelength data of the inner knot in the Crab Nebula, which was suspected to be the site of the gammaray flares. Though no convincing evidence has been found in that respect, we did a careful examination of emission models at the knot, which prompts us to reconsider the main particle acceleration mechanisms responsible for most of the emission (in the Optical/UV/Xray wavebands) from the nebula. We think all the aforementioned results provide instructive steps along the way to learn about the basic properties of magnetized, relativistic plasmas and extreme particle acceleration. We also propose possible future directions in theoretical analysis, simulations, observations and laboratory astrophysics that may help us better understand these powerful engines in our universe.
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3781 2016 Y  Inlibrary use 
 Engelsen, Nils Johan.
 2016.
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Atomic sensors are pushing the boundaries in precision for timekeeping, magnetometry, and gravity gradiometry. Conventional atomic sensors are ultimately limited by the quantum projection noise. In this thesis, the quantum projection noise limit on sensing precision is circumvented by exploiting entanglement—quantum correlations between the atoms. Entangled states enabling 100fold measurement precision enhancement were generated using cavitybased measurements. Additionally, a new method was developed which allows entanglementenhanced metrology without detection noise beyond the quantum projection noise limit.
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Online 86. Searches for light scalar dark matter [electronic resource] [2016]
 Van Tilburg, Ken.
 2016.
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If the dark matter is made up of a bosonic particle, it can be ultralight, with a mass potentially much below 1 eV. Moduli fields, whose values could set couplings and masses of known particles, are good candidates for such light dark matter. Their abundance in our Universe would manifest itself as tiny fractional oscillations of Standard Model parameters, such as the electron mass or the finestructure constant, in turn modulating length and time scales of atoms. Rods and clocks, used for gedanken experiments in the development of relativity theory, have since transformed into actual precision instruments. The size of acoustic resonators and the frequency of atomic transitions can now be measured to 1 part in 10^24 and 10^18, respectively, and thus constitute sensitive probes of moduli. Atomic gravitational wave detectors can have a timedomain response to modulus dark matter, and sense temporal oscillations of atomic frequencies down to 1 part in 10^25. This thesis gives an overview of the parameter space of modulus dark matter, and compares the sensitivity of various experimental proposals relative to existing constraints from searches for new forces. I will focus on two classes of experimental strategies in particular: resonantmass detectors (rods), and atomic spectroscopy and interferometry (clocks).
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Online 87. Searching for heavy photons in the HPS experiment [electronic resource] [2016]
 Uemura, Sho.
 2016.
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The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) is a new experiment at Jefferson Lab that searches for a massive U(1) vector boson (known as a heavy photon or A') in the MeVGeV mass range and coupling weakly to ordinary matter through a kinetic mixing interaction. The HPS experiment seeks to produce heavy photons by electron bremsstrahlung on a fixed target, is sensitive to heavy photon decays to electronpositron pairs, and targets the range in heavy photon mass from 20 to 600 MeV, and kinetic mixing strength epsilon^2 from 1E5 to 1E10. HPS searches for heavy photons using two signatures: a narrow mass resonance and displaced vertices. This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental motivations for a heavy photon, the design and operation of the HPS experiment, and the displaced vertex search. The data used in this dissertation is the unblinded fraction of the 2015 HPS run, for the period of operation where the HPS silicon vertex tracker (SVT) was operated at its nominal position. This data was recorded from May 13 to May 18, 2015, at a beam energy of 1.056 GeV and a nominal beam current of 50 nA. The integrated luminosity is 119 inverse nanobarns, which is equivalent to 0.172 days of ideal running at the nominal beam current. This dissertation presents results (signal significance and upper limits) from the displaced vertex search in the mass range from 20 to 60 MeV, and kinetic mixing strength epsilon^2 from 2E8 to 1E10. This search does not have sufficient sensitivity to exclude a canonical heavy photon at any combination of mass and mixing strength. The strictest limit achieved in this analysis on the production of a particle that decays like a heavy photon is 115 times the expected production crosssection for a heavy photon. Factors limiting the sensitivity of this analysis are discussed. Projections of HPS performance with the full 2015 data set, and with planned improvements to the analysis, are presented. Comparisons are also made to earlier reach estimates.
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 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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Designed for undergraduate physics majors but open to all students with a calculusbased physics background and some laboratory and coding experience. Students make and analyze observations using the telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Topics covered include navigating the night sky, the physics of stars and galaxies, telescope instrumentation and operation, imaging and spectroscopic techniques, quantitative error analysis, and effective scientific communication. The course concludes with an independent project. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: prior completion of Physics 40 or 60 series.
Designed for undergraduate physics majors but open to all students with a calculusbased physics background and some laboratory and coding experience. Students make and analyze observations using the telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Topics covered include navigating the night sky, the physics of stars and galaxies, telescope instrumentation and operation, imaging and spectroscopic techniques, quantitative error analysis, and effective scientific communication. The course concludes with an independent project. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: prior completion of Physics 40 or 60 series.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 89. Sp16PHYSICS2501 : Modern Physics. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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How do the discoveries since the dawn of the 20th century impact our understanding of 21stcentury physics? This course introduces the foundations of modern physics: Einstein's theory of special relativity and quantum mechanics. Combining the language of physics with tools from algebra and trigonometry, students gain insights into how the universe works on both the smallest and largest scales. Topics may include atomic, molecular, and laser physics; semiconductors; elementary particles and the fundamental forces; nuclear physics (fission, fusion, and radioactivity); astrophysics and cosmology (the contents and evolution of the universe). Emphasis on applications of modern physics in everyday life, progress made in our understanding of the universe, and open questions that are the subject of active research. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 23 or PHYSICS 23S.
How do the discoveries since the dawn of the 20th century impact our understanding of 21stcentury physics? This course introduces the foundations of modern physics: Einstein's theory of special relativity and quantum mechanics. Combining the language of physics with tools from algebra and trigonometry, students gain insights into how the universe works on both the smallest and largest scales. Topics may include atomic, molecular, and laser physics; semiconductors; elementary particles and the fundamental forces; nuclear physics (fission, fusion, and radioactivity); astrophysics and cosmology (the contents and evolution of the universe). Emphasis on applications of modern physics in everyday life, progress made in our understanding of the universe, and open questions that are the subject of active research. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 23 or PHYSICS 23S.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 90. Sp16PHYSICS25201 : Introduction to Particle Physics I. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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 Book — 1 text file
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Elementary particles and the fundamental forces. Quarks and leptons. The mediators of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. Interaction of particles with matter; particle acceleration, and detection techniques. Symmetries and conservation laws. Bound states. Decay rates. Cross sections. Feynman diagrams. Introduction to Feynman integrals. The Dirac equation. Feynman rules for quantum electrodynamics and for chromodynamics. Undergraduates register for PHYSICS 152. Graduate students register for PHYSICS 252. (Graduate students will be required to complete additional assignments in a format determined by the instructor.) Prerequisite: PHYSICS 130. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 131.
Elementary particles and the fundamental forces. Quarks and leptons. The mediators of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. Interaction of particles with matter; particle acceleration, and detection techniques. Symmetries and conservation laws. Bound states. Decay rates. Cross sections. Feynman diagrams. Introduction to Feynman integrals. The Dirac equation. Feynman rules for quantum electrodynamics and for chromodynamics. Undergraduates register for PHYSICS 152. Graduate students register for PHYSICS 252. (Graduate students will be required to complete additional assignments in a format determined by the instructor.) Prerequisite: PHYSICS 130. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 131.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 91. Sp16PHYSICS2601 : Modern Physics Laboratory. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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 Book — 1 text file
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Guided handson and simulationbased exploration of concepts in modern physics, including special relativity, quantum mechanics and nuclear physics with an emphasis on student predictions, observations and explanations. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 25.
Guided handson and simulationbased exploration of concepts in modern physics, including special relativity, quantum mechanics and nuclear physics with an emphasis on student predictions, observations and explanations. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 25.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 92. Sp16PHYSICS26101 : Introduction to Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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What do we know about the physical origins, content, and evolution of the Universe  and how do we know it? Students learn how cosmological distances and times, and the geometry and expansion of space, are described and measured. Composition of the Universe. Origin of matter and the elements. Observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. Thermal history of the Universe, from inflation to the present. Emergence of largescale structure from quantum perturbations in the early Universe. Astrophysical tools used to learn about the Universe. Big open questions in cosmology. Undergraduates register for Physics 161. Graduates register for Physics 261. (Graduate students will be required to complete additional assignments in a format determined by the instructor.) Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent.
What do we know about the physical origins, content, and evolution of the Universe  and how do we know it? Students learn how cosmological distances and times, and the geometry and expansion of space, are described and measured. Composition of the Universe. Origin of matter and the elements. Observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. Thermal history of the Universe, from inflation to the present. Emergence of largescale structure from quantum perturbations in the early Universe. Astrophysical tools used to learn about the Universe. Big open questions in cosmology. Undergraduates register for Physics 161. Graduates register for Physics 261. (Graduate students will be required to complete additional assignments in a format determined by the instructor.) Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 93. Sp16PHYSICS33201 : Quantum Field Theory III. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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Theory of renormalization. The renormalization group and applications to the theory of phase transitions. Renormalization of YangMills theories. Applications of the renormalization group of quantum chromodynamics. Perturbation theory anomalies. Applications to particle phenomenology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 331.
Theory of renormalization. The renormalization group and applications to the theory of phase transitions. Renormalization of YangMills theories. Applications of the renormalization group of quantum chromodynamics. Perturbation theory anomalies. Applications to particle phenomenology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 331.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 94. Sp16PHYSICS37301 : Condensed Matter Theory II. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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Superfluidity and superconductivity. Quantum magnetism. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 372.
Superfluidity and superconductivity. Quantum magnetism. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 372.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 95. Sp16PHYSICS4301 : Electricity and Magnetism. 2016 Spring [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
 Description
 Book — 1 text file
 Summary

What is electricity? What is magnetism? How are they related? How do these phenomena manifest themselves in the physical world? The theory of electricity and magnetism, as codified by Maxwell's equations, underlies much of the observable universe. Students develop both conceptual and quantitative knowledge of this theory. Topics include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; simple AC and DC circuits involving capacitors, inductors, and resistors; integral form of Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves. Principles illustrated in the context of modern technologies. Broader scientific questions addressed include: How do physical theories evolve? What is the interplay between basic physical theories and associated technologies? Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly differential and integral calculus, and vectors. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 or equivalent. MATH 42 or MATH 51 or CME 100 or equivalent. Recommended corequisite: MATH 52 or CME 102.
What is electricity? What is magnetism? How are they related? How do these phenomena manifest themselves in the physical world? The theory of electricity and magnetism, as codified by Maxwell's equations, underlies much of the observable universe. Students develop both conceptual and quantitative knowledge of this theory. Topics include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; simple AC and DC circuits involving capacitors, inductors, and resistors; integral form of Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves. Principles illustrated in the context of modern technologies. Broader scientific questions addressed include: How do physical theories evolve? What is the interplay between basic physical theories and associated technologies? Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly differential and integral calculus, and vectors. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 or equivalent. MATH 42 or MATH 51 or CME 100 or equivalent. Recommended corequisite: MATH 52 or CME 102.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 96. Studies of unconventional superconductivity [electronic resource] [2016]
 Cho, Weejee.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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The physics of unconventional superconductors has been studied for decades but is still not well understood. The present thesis consists of two parts, each intended to shed light on some aspects of this longstanding problem. In the first part, I discuss, based on the Hubbard model in the weakcoupling limit, how the repulsion between electrons gives rise to Cooper pairing. I present simple rules that connect the features of the band structure to those of the gap function, as well as detailed numerical results for various model systems. In the second part, I focus on symmetry constraints on light reflection; a precise understanding of this issue is essential for identifying broken symmetries in various unconventional superconductors from polar Kerr effect measurements. Using a Green's function approach, I prove that the Onsager symmetry of the nonlocal electromagnetic response function implies the absence of the polar Kerr effect in backscattering.
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 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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 Book — 1 text file
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How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding manyparticle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of realworld phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problemsolving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer course. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.
How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding manyparticle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of realworld phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problemsolving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer course. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 98. Theory and measurements of emittance preservation in plasma wakefield acceleration [electronic resource] [2016]
 Frederico, Joel.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) is a revolutionary approach to accelerating charged particles. In this dissertation, we present conditions for circular symmetry in the plasma wake. We present analysis of beam parameter and emittance matching, which predicts these values reach an equilibrium. We present and simulate a model for ion motion, and lay the foundation for simulations revealing emittance growth due to ion motion. By connecting a simple ion motion model and emittance theory, we calculate the emittance growth due to marginal ion motion to be minimal. We also present a proofofconcept of an emittance measurement of PWFA beams.
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Online 99. Topological phenomena in condensed matter physics [electronic resource] [2016]
 Jian, Chaoming.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

In this thesis, we study the topological phenomena in 2+1 dimensional topologically ordered states with additional extrinsic structures. One type of extrinsic structures we will study in this thesis is extrinsic defect. We first introduce the conceptual scheme of extrinsic twist defects which are pointlike defects associated with symmetries of the 2+1 dimensional topological states. We explicitly study several classes of examples. In particular, we study several class the projective nonAbelian braiding statistics of the twist defects which are fundamentally different from the statistics of intrinsic excitations in topological systems. We also find an example where the projective nonAbelian statistics of twist defects can be exploited for universal topological quantum computation, while the host state itself is not suitable for this purpose. Apart from twist defects, extrinsic defects in 2+1 dimensional topological states can take various other forms including linelike defects and pointlike defects. For 2+1 dimensional Abelian topological states, we establish a general classification of all linelike and pointlike defects. We develop a general method to analyze the quantum dimensions of all the pointlike defects, a general understanding of their localized "parafermion" zero modes, and study the projective nonAbelian statistics of them. Another type of extrinsic structure this thesis focuses on is the layering structure of 2+1 dimensional topological states. We propose a general formalism for constructing a large class of 3+1 dimensional topological states by stacking layers of 2+1 dimensional topological states and introducing coupling between them. Using this construction, we can study interesting topological phenomena in 3+1 dimensions, including surface topological orders and 3+1 dimensional topological orders. As an interesting consequence of this construction, we obtain example systems with nontrivial braiding statistics between stringlike excitations. In addition to studying the stringstring braiding in the example system, we propose a generic topological field theory description which can capture both stringparticle and stringstring braiding statistics. Lastly, we provide a proof of a general identity for Abelian string statistics, and discuss an example system with nonAbelian strings.
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Online 100. Towards multiwavelength observations of relativistic jets from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations [electronic resource] [2016]
 Anantua, Richard Jude.
 2016.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

A methodology for reverse engineering current and anticipated observations of astrophysical relativistic jets using selfconsistent, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations is detailed from datahosting and manipulation to mimicking instrumentspecific properties such as point spread function convolution. This pipeline handles particle acceleration prescriptions, synchrotron and inverse Compton emission and absorption, Doppler boosting, timedependent transfer of polarized radiation and lighttravel time effects. Application of this pipeline to lowfrequency radio observations is exemplified using the famous jet in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. Highfrequency gammaray observations are represented by the powerful quasar 3C 279. Though the work presented here focuses on a single simulation of a magnetically arrested disk and a windcollimated, approximately forcefree jet, it can readily be adapted to simulations with different spatiotemporal resolutions and/or plasma initial conditions. Stationary, axisymmetric semianalytic models are also developed, providing a quantitative understanding of the simulated jet flow and its electromagnetic properties. Using the 3D timedependent \say{observing} routines for synchrotron models, predictions such as bilateral asymmetry of intensity maps and enhanced limb brightening for models with high velocity shear are advanced. Using gamma ray prescriptions in the routines resulted in rapid variability. Userfriendly Python and UNIX guides are included for didactic purposes. With the advent of the stateoftheart gamma ray Cerenkov Telescope Array, the Event Horizon Telescope which promises to resolve Schwarzshild radius ($r_S$) scale features at the Galactic Center and M87 and more sophisticated GRMHD simulations with similar resolution coupled with dynamical range $10^0r_S$$10^5r_S$, direct comparison of simulation and observation in this work may facilitate the understanding and prediction of the physical nature of relativistic jets in the near future.
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