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Online 1. Toward a predictive composite Higgs model : a dual approach in 5D [2019]
 Yoon, Jong Min, author.
 [Stanford, California] : [Stanford University], 2019.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

An interesting possibility of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking is to consider the Higgs boson as a composite particle, i.e. a pseudoGoldstone boson of a new strong dynamics. Although it is hard to make quantitative predictions under a strong interaction, we can use its dual description in 5D and compute physical observables. In this thesis, I introduce gaugeHiggs unification models in warped 5dimensional space as a setting for composite Higgs models. Gauge bosons and fermions are in the bulk and the Higgs boson is identified with the 5th component of a gauge field. We formalize the computation of the ColemanWeinberg potential of the Higgs field and present a simple, general formula. Using this tool, we consider a specific model with SO(5) × U (1) global symmetry and introduce a new fermion multiplet, which competes with the top quark and creates a little hierarchy characterized by a small parameter s = v/f . Using a Green's function method, we compute the properties of the model systematically as a power series in s. We discuss the constraints on this model from the measured value of the Higgs mass, the masses of top quark partners, and precision electroweak observables. Finally, we compute fermion pair creation cross sections in general SO(5) × U (1) models. Our Green's function method provides an analytic understanding of the new physics effects across the parameter space. We find that the predicted effects will be visible in precision measurements and different models of b quark mass generation can be distinguished by these measurements already at 250 GeV in the center of mass.
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Online 2. Constructing scattering amplitudes from their formal properties [electronic resource] [2017]
 McLeod, Andrew.
 2017.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory encode the probability of configurations of incoming and outgoing particles scattering into each other, as well as particle masses and decay rates. Traditionally they have been calculated using Feynman diagrams, but this method generally proves too computationally intensive to allow for the calculation of higherloop contributions, which are relevant for making predictions in particle physics experiments and to our understanding of quantum field theory itself. As a step in the direction of filling this computational gap, this dissertation presents an improved bootstrap method for computing scattering amplitudes in the planar limit of maximally supersymmetric YangMills theory. This method does away with Feynman diagrams altogether, and instead uses knowledge of the symmetries and analytic properties of scattering amplitudes, in conjunction with an understanding of the mathematical form these amplitudes take in general and special kinematics, to uniquely determine them at high loop orders. In particular, it makes use of the fact that amplitudes in this theory are expressible in terms of generalized polylogarithms for seven and fewer particles. The first part of this dissertation focuses on sixparticle kinematics, where previouslyunappreciated algebraic constraints on these amplitudes are described that restrict both their double derivatives and their double discontinuities. Alongside previouslyunderstood constraints, these properties are used to uniquely determine all sixparticle amplitudes in this theory through five loops. These explicit results are then used to provide analytic and numerical evidence for a recentlyconjectured positivity property these amplitudes are thought to have in certain kinematic regions. In the second part of this dissertation, it is shown that these methods straightforwardly generalize to sevenparticle kinematics, where they in fact prove to be even more restrictive than in sixparticle kinematics. In particular, a smaller set of constraints is shown to be sufficient to determine specific sevenpoint amplitudes at three and four loops, up to integration constants. While the results presented in this thesis are confined to the planar limit of maximally supersymmetric YangMills theory, these bootstrap methods are expected to prove useful even in theories without supersymmetry.
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Online 3. Search of new physics with boosted higgs boson in hadronic final states with ATLAS detector [electronic resource] [2017]
 Zeng, Qi.
 2017.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) confirms the validity of the Standard Model (SM) in the description of particle interactions at electroweak scale. However, radioactive corrections to the Higgs mass drives its value to the model's validity limit, indicating either extreme finetuning or the presence of new physics at higher energy scale. Since 2015, the LHC starts its Run 2 journey with unprecedented center of mass energy of 13 TeV. Along with increase in luminosity, this greatly extends the sensitivity of ATLAS experiment to heavy new particles at TeV scale. In particular, many new physics models beyond the Standard Model manifest themselves through significant coupling to the Higgs boson in decays of new particles to a Higgs boson and other SM particles. In this work, two searches for resonances decaying to either pair of Higgs bosons or a Higgs boson associated with another SM vector boson in all hadronic final states are presented using data collected by ATLAS during Run 2. Due to the heavy mass of new resonance, Higgs boson and W/Z boson can be boosted to large momentum, causing their decay products to be collimated. The dominant H> bb decay mode also provides a clear signature through displaced vertices. A powerful boosted boson identification technique fully exploiting such jet substructure and heavy flavor information is therefore developed and used in both searches to suppress the dominant multijet backgrounds and largely enhance search sensitivity in particular for very high resonance mass. In the absence of significant excess, new exclusion limits are set on benchmark new physics models.
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3781 2017 Z  Inlibrary use 
 Huang, Junwu.
 2017.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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This thesis discusses a framework in which Weinberg's anthropic explanation of the cosmological constant problem also solves the higgs hierarchy problem. The weak scale is selected by chiral dynamics that controls the stabilization of an extra dimension. When the higgs vacuum expectation value is close to a fermion mass scale (the weak scale), the radius of an extra dimension becomes large, and develops an enhanced number of vacua available to scan the cosmological constant down to its observed value. At low energies, the radion, the particle that controls the size of the extra dimension, necessarily appears as an unnaturally light scalar, in a range of masses and couplings accessible to fifthforce searches as well as scalar dark matter searches with atomic clocks and gravitationalwave detectors. The fermion sector that controls the size of the extra dimension consists of a pair of electroweak doublets and several singlets. These leptons satisfy approximate mass relations related to the weak scale and are accessible to the LHC and future colliders.
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Online 5. F16PHYSICS26201 : General Relativity. 2016 Fall [2016]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2016
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 Book — 1 text file
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Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is a basis for modern ideas of fundamental physics, including string theory, as well as for studies of cosmology and astrophysics. The course begins with an overview of special relativity, and the description of gravity as arising from curved space. From Riemannian geometry and the geodesic equations, to curvature, the energymomentum tensor, and the Einstein field equations. Applications of General Relativity: topics may include experimental tests of General Relativity and the weakfield limit, black holes (Schwarzschild, charged ReissnerNordstrom, and rotating Kerr black holes), gravitational waves (including detection methods), and an introduction to cosmology (including cosmic microwave background radiation, dark energy, and experimental probes). Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is a basis for modern ideas of fundamental physics, including string theory, as well as for studies of cosmology and astrophysics. The course begins with an overview of special relativity, and the description of gravity as arising from curved space. From Riemannian geometry and the geodesic equations, to curvature, the energymomentum tensor, and the Einstein field equations. Applications of General Relativity: topics may include experimental tests of General Relativity and the weakfield limit, black holes (Schwarzschild, charged ReissnerNordstrom, and rotating Kerr black holes), gravitational waves (including detection methods), and an introduction to cosmology (including cosmic microwave background radiation, dark energy, and experimental probes). Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
 Wiser, Timothy D.
 2016.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

The behavior of gravity is well understood and highly constrained on length scales from millimeters to the size of the Solar System. New physics, such as extra dimensions or new forces, may modify the behavior of gravity below a millimeter. On the other end of the spectrum, observations of galaxies, galaxy clusters, supernovae, and the Cosmic Microwave Background all point to the gravitational dominance of dark matter and dark energy over the ordinary matter content of the Universe. It is therefore worth investigating, with high precision, the behavior of gravity at the longest distance scales as well. In this dissertation, I describe a recent proposal for a spacebased experiment, optimized to test the inverse square law with great accuracy at scales of up to 100 AU. This is the largest length scale that can be reached with a direct probe using current technology. I also describe a new experimental strategy for testing putative signals of dark matter decay or annihilation. Merging galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster provide a powerful testing ground for indirect detection of dark matter. The spatial distribution of the dark matter is both directly measurable through gravitational lensing and substantially different from the distribution of potential astrophysical backgrounds. I propose to use this spatial information to identify the origin of indirect detection signals, and show that even statistical excesses of a few sigma can be robustly tested for consistencyor inconsistencywith a dark matter source.
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Online 7. New techniques for precision atom interferometry and applications to fundamental tests of gravity and of quantum mechanics [electronic resource] [2016]
 Kovachy, Tim.
 2016.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Lightpulse atom interferometryin which quantum mechanical atomic wave packets are split along two paths and later recombined and made to interfere by sequences of optical pulsesis a remarkably sensitive technique for measuring inertial forces, allowing it to be a valuable tool for applications ranging from fundamental tests of gravity to geodesy and inertial navigation. The inertial sensitivity of an atom interferometer is proportional to its enclosed spacetime areathat is, the product of the spatial separation between the two interferometer paths and the interferometer duration. Therefore, new techniques that allow this spacetime area to be increased are essential in order for atom interferometry to reach its full potential. In this thesis, I describe the development of such techniques. We approach the problem of increasing the interferometer spacetime area on two fronts. First, we implement new methods to increase the momentum transferred by the beam splitters of the interferometer. The velocity difference and therefore the spatial separation of the interferometer paths are proportional to this momentum transfer. Conventional atom optics techniques involve beam splitters that transfer two photon momentum recoils (2 hbar k) to the atoms. I will discuss our realization of large momentum transfer (LMT) beam splitters that transfer up to 100 hbar k. Second, we have built a 10 m tall atomic fountain that allows the total interferometer duration to be increased to 2 s. Ultimately, we combined LMT atom optics with longduration atom interferometry in the 10 m atomic fountain, leading to very large spacetime area atom interferometers. In these very large area atom interferometers, the separation between the two atomic wave packets that respectively travel along the two interferometer paths reaches distances of up to 54 cm. Therefore, in addition to offering greatly increased inertial sensitivity, these interferometers probe the quantum mechanical wavelike nature of matter in a new macroscopic regime. I will discuss the techniques we devised to overcome the many technical challenges associated with such interferometers, which in other apparatus have prevented interference from being maintained for path separations larger than 1 cm. I will also describe initial results from the use of our very large area interferometers to test the equivalence principle with Rb85 and Rb87 and our plans for further progress in this direction. Very large area atom interferometry requires high laser power and extremely cold atom sources. We have developed a novel high power, frequency doubled laser source at 780 nm that is suitable for atom optics. Also, we have implemented a sequence of matter wave lenses to prepare and measure atomic ensembles with recordlow effective temperatures of 50 pK. In addition to applications in atom interferometry, we expect that such an atom source will be broadly useful for a wide range of experiments.
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Online 8. Searches for light scalar dark matter [electronic resource] [2016]
 Van Tilburg, Ken.
 2016.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

If the dark matter is made up of a bosonic particle, it can be ultralight, with a mass potentially much below 1 eV. Moduli fields, whose values could set couplings and masses of known particles, are good candidates for such light dark matter. Their abundance in our Universe would manifest itself as tiny fractional oscillations of Standard Model parameters, such as the electron mass or the finestructure constant, in turn modulating length and time scales of atoms. Rods and clocks, used for gedanken experiments in the development of relativity theory, have since transformed into actual precision instruments. The size of acoustic resonators and the frequency of atomic transitions can now be measured to 1 part in 10^24 and 10^18, respectively, and thus constitute sensitive probes of moduli. Atomic gravitational wave detectors can have a timedomain response to modulus dark matter, and sense temporal oscillations of atomic frequencies down to 1 part in 10^25. This thesis gives an overview of the parameter space of modulus dark matter, and compares the sensitivity of various experimental proposals relative to existing constraints from searches for new forces. I will focus on two classes of experimental strategies in particular: resonantmass detectors (rods), and atomic spectroscopy and interferometry (clocks).
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Online 9. Twodimensional spatial imaging of charge transport in germanium crystals at cryogenic temperatures [electronic resource] [2016]
 Moffatt, Robert A.
 2016.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, twodimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.
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Online 10. Extending the supersymmetric little hierarchy [electronic resource] [2015]
 Howe, Kiel.
 2015.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Particle physics describes particles and their interactions at many energy scales, and different models can be characterized by the relationships between these scales. In a natural model, particle properties are insensitive to perturbations at higher energy scales, while in a tuned model particle properties are determined by delicate cancellations between processes even at energy scales separated by large hierarchies. Is our universe natural or tuned? The answer to this question can have dramatic consequences for the interpretation of fundamental theories and for our understanding of the inflationary birth of our universe. The discovery of a Standard Modellike Higgs Boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has made concrete the possibility that our universe may be tuned. However, the observed particles of the Standard Model may still form part of a natural model if new particles and symmetries are present at energies observable at the LHC and future colliders. Supersymmetry is one possible extension of the Standard Model motivated by the idea of naturalness, but its minimal version is highly constrained by searches from the first run of the LHC. We describe extensions of the minimal supersymmetric model in which a little hierarchy between the masses of the new supersymmetric particles and the Standard Model particles is consistent with naturalness and current LHC searches. We also discuss the potential for discovering these models in the upcoming collisions at the upgraded LHC and future colliders.
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3781 2015 H  Inlibrary use 
 Yen, Jeffrey JyhChung.
 2015.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
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Understanding the quasiparticle diffusion process inside sputtered aluminum (Al) thin films (∼ 0.11 μm) is critical for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment to further optimize its detectors to directly search for dark matter. An initial study with Al films was undertaken by our group ∼ 20 years ago, but some important questions were not answered at the time. This thesis can be considered a continuation of that critical study. The CDMS experiment utilizes high purity silicon and germanium crystals to simultaneously measure ionization and phonons created by particle interactions. In addition to describing some of the rich physics involved in simultaneously detecting ionization and phonons with a CDMS detector, this thesis focuses on the detailed physics of the phonon sensors themselves, which are patterned onto CDMS detector surfaces. CDMS detectors use thin sputtered Al films to collect phonon energy when it propagates to the surfaces of the detector crystals. The phonon energy breaks Cooper pairs and creates quasiparticles (qps). These qps diffuse until they get trapped in an proximitized "overlap" region where lowerTc tungsten films connect to the Al film. These tungsten films are the transition edge sensors (WTESs) CDMS uses to readout phonon signals. We performed a wide range of experiments using several sets of test devices de signed and fabricated specifically for this work. The devices were used mostly to study quasiparticle (qp) transport in Al films and qp transmission through Al/W interfaces. The results of this work are being used to optimize the design of detectors for SuperCDMS SNOLAB.
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Online 12. Atom interferometry in a 10 m fountain [electronic resource] [2014]
 Sugarbaker, Alexander.
 2014.
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This thesis presents experimental results from the Stanford 10 m atom drop tower. We use atomic physics and laser spectroscopic techniques to test both general relativity and quantum mechanics. By dropping different types of atoms and observing their freefall accelerations, it will be possible to test the equivalence principle and other general relativistic effects in the lab. By observing coherence after splitting an atom by up to 8.2 cm, we have probed the quantumtoclassical transition with increasingly macroscopic superposition states.
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Online 13. F14PHYSICS26201 : Introduction to Gravitation. 2014 Fall [2014]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2014
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 Book — 1 text file
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Introduction to general relativity. Curvature, energymomentum tensor, Einstein field equations. Weak field limit of general relativity. Black holes, relativistic stars, gravitational waves, cosmology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.
Introduction to general relativity. Curvature, energymomentum tensor, Einstein field equations. Weak field limit of general relativity. Black holes, relativistic stars, gravitational waves, cosmology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 14. Surface adsorption and resonance ionization spectroscopy for barium identification in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments [electronic resource] [2014]
 Twelker, Karl.
 2014.
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 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Neutrinos are the only elementary particle that could have particleantiparticle duality, called Majorana nature. If neutrinos do indeed have this property, it could be measured through neutrinoless doublebeta decay, a hypothetical nuclear decay. The halflife of this decay is very long, thus the reduction of backgrounds is very important. In searches for neutrinoless doublebeta decay in Xe136, backgrounds in the signal region of interest can be eliminated by recovering the expected daughter nucleus of this decay, Ba136. This work describes the development of a technique to recover these barium ions from liquid xenon using surface adsorption and identify them using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). Barium ions adsorb onto a surface in the liquid xenon, which we remove to a separate vacuum chamber for identification. Laser induced thermal desorption removes atoms from the surface into vacuum, then the barium is reionized using RIS and drifted down a time of flight mass spectrometer. RIS has been shown to be both efficient and selective, both favorable aspects for a barium tagging system. The prototype system described here offers both optical spectroscopic and mass spectroscopic confirmation of the barium daughter. Barium tagging is being developed for use in nEXO, a future neutrinoless doublebeta decay experiment, and will allow the detector to probe into the normal hierarchy of neutrino masses.
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Online 15. Testing and characterization of superCDMS dark matter detectors [electronic resource] [2014]
 Shank, Benjamin.
 2014.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) relies on collection of phonons and charge carriers in semiconductors held at tens of milliKelvin as handles for detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). This thesis begins with a brief overview of the direct dark matter search (Chapter 1) and SuperCDMS detectors (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, a 3He evaporative refrigerator facility is described. Results from experiments performed inhouse at Stanford to measure carrier transport in highpurity germanium (HPGe) crystals operated at subKelvin temperatures are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5 a new numerical model and a timedomain optimal filtering technique are presented, both developed for use with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), that provide excellent event reconstruction for single particle interactions in detectors read out with superconducting WTESs coupled to energycollecting films of Al.
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Online 16. W14PHYSICS6301 : Electricity, Magnetism, and Waves. 2014 Winter [2014]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2014
 Description
 Book — 1 text file
 Summary

(Second in a threepart series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) Advanced freshman physics. For students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background contemplating a major in Physics or interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Other theorems of vector calculus. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 61 and MATH 51; Pre or corequisite: MATH 52.
(Second in a threepart series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) Advanced freshman physics. For students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background contemplating a major in Physics or interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Other theorems of vector calculus. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 61 and MATH 51; Pre or corequisite: MATH 52.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 17. F13PHYSICS26201 : Introduction to Gravitation. 2013 Fall [2013]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2013
 Description
 Book — 1 text file
 Summary

Introduction to general relativity. Curvature, energymomentum tensor, Einstein field equations. Weak field limit of general relativity. Black holes, relativistic stars, gravitational waves, cosmology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.
Introduction to general relativity. Curvature, energymomentum tensor, Einstein field equations. Weak field limit of general relativity. Black holes, relativistic stars, gravitational waves, cosmology. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 121 or equivalent including special relativity.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
Online 18. Supersymmetry at the large hadron collider [electronic resource] [2013]
 Saraswat, Prashant.
 2013.
 Description
 Book — 1 online resource.
 Summary

Supersymmetry is a wellmotivated extension of the Standard Model that can exhibit a wide range of phenomenology. This dissertation explores various supersymmetric models with distinct signatures and discusses the prospects for discovering them using data from the Large Hadron Collider.
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Online 19. W13PHYSICS6301 : Electricity, Magnetism, and Waves. 2013 Winter [2013]
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2013
 Description
 Book — 1 text file
 Summary

(Second in a threepart series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) Advanced freshman physics. For students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background contemplating a major in Physics or interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Other theorems of vector calculus. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 61 and MATH 51; Pre or corequisite: MATH 52.
(Second in a threepart series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) Advanced freshman physics. For students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background contemplating a major in Physics or interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Other theorems of vector calculus. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 61 and MATH 51; Pre or corequisite: MATH 52.  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi
 Stanford University. Department of Physics (Sponsor)
 Stanford (Calif.), 2013
 Description
 Book — 1 text file
 Summary

Introduction to multimeters, breadboards, function generators and oscilloscopes. Emphasis on studentdeveloped design of experimental procedure and data analysis for topics covered in PHYSICS 63: electricity, magnetism, circuits, and optics. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 63
Introduction to multimeters, breadboards, function generators and oscilloscopes. Emphasis on studentdeveloped design of experimental procedure and data analysis for topics covered in PHYSICS 63: electricity, magnetism, circuits, and optics. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 63  Collection
 Stanford University Syllabi