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1 online resource (TUPOA19 ): digital, PDF file.
The low-energy section of the photoinjector-based electron linear accelerator at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility was recently commissioned to an energy of 50 MeV. This linear accelerator relies primarily upon pulsed SRF acceleration and an optional bunch compressor to produce a stable beam within a large operational regime in terms of bunch charge, total average charge, bunch length, and beam energy. Various instrumentation was used to characterize fundamental properties of the electron beam including the intensity, stability, emittance, and bunch length. While much of this instrumentation was commissioned in a 20 MeV running period prior, some (including a new Martin- Puplett interferometer) was in development or pending installation at that time. All instrumentation has since been recommissioned over the wide operational range of beam energies up to 50 MeV, intensities up to 4 nC/pulse, and bunch structures from ~1 ps to more than 50 ps in length.
1 online resource (00:02:51) : digital, PDF file.
America’s leading particle physics laboratory is turning 50 years old this year. Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln remembers the laboratory’s first half century and looks forward to the fascinating research topics that Fermilab’s scientific staff are looking at as they leap forward into the future.
This report documents the results of a study prepared at the request of the Office of Radiological Security of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), as part of the Domestic Protect and Reduce mission by the Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The study included a literature survey of over 80 relevant documents and articles including industry standards, regulatory documents, technical papers, a court case, previous task force reports and industry white papers. The team also conducted interviews or had conversations with over 40 individuals representing over a dozen organizations over the course of its 10-month program. This report summarizes our findings, addresses the specific questions posed to us by NNSA, and concludes with a list of actionable recommendations.
1 online resource (Article No. 040102) : digital, PDF file.
Superconducting linacs are capable of producing intense, stable, high-quality electron beams that have found widespread applications in science and industry. Here, the 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting standing-wave accelerating rf cavity originally developed for e<sup>+</sup>/e<sup>-</sup> linear-collider applications has been broadly employed in various superconducting-linac designs. In this paper we discuss the transfer matrix of such a cavity and present its measurement performed at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. Finally, the experimental results are found to be in agreement with analytical calculations and numerical simulations.
1 online resource (25 p.) : digital, PDF file.
Excitation of higher-order modes (HOMs) in superconducting cavities may severely affect the operation of the main linac in the Chinese Accelerator Driven System (CADS). Preliminary analysis is made on the effects of beam dynamic, which includes possible longitudinal and transverse emittance enlargements, as well as the possibility of beam breakup. Suggestions are given for further investigation. Comparison is made between the C-ADS and the Fermilab Project X.
Intercepting multi-aperture masks (e.g. pepper pot or multislit mask) combined with a downstream transversedensity diagnostics (e.g. based on optical transition radiation or employing scintillating media) are commonly used for characterizing the phase space of charged particle beams and the associated emittances. The required data analysis relies on precise calculation of the RMS sizes and positions of the beamlets originated from the mask which drifted up to the analyzing diagnostics. Voronoi diagram is an efficient method for splitting a plane into subsets according to the distances between given vortices. The application of the method to analyze data from pepper pot and multislit mask based measurement is validated via numerical simulation and applied to experimental data acquired at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. We also discuss the application of the Voronoi diagrams to quantify transverselymodulated beams distortion.
The Fourier coefficients v[2] and v[3] characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, pt= 1-100 GeV. The analysis focuses on pt > 10 GeV range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60x% most central events. The v[2] coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to the initial-state fluctuations. The values of both methods remain positive up to pt ~ 70 GeV, in all examined centrality classes. The v[3] coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for pt >~ 20 GeV. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations.
1 online resource (00:02:15) : digital, PDF file.
A baby bison was born at Fermilab on April 20, 2017. Here is that story.
Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.
1 online resource (00:07:08 ): digital, PDF file.
The use of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology is a driving force in the development of particle accelerators. Scientists from around the globe are working together to develop the newest materials and techniques to improve the quality and efficiency of the SRF cavities that are essential for this technology.
Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the rst to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (ltering and transforming experiment-specic data formats), these new technologies use dierent approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the ocial experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. We will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed. 1.
1 online resource (00:02:48) : digital, PDF file.
Scientists Rocky Kolb and Mike Turner recount the time they first proposed that Fermilab – dedicated to the study of the universe's smallest constituents — expand its program to include the stars, galaxies and the cosmos.
1 online resource (00:02:48) : digital, PDF file.
Fermilab's website was born in June 1992, thanks in part to Tim Berners-Lee, who invented the World Wide Web in 1989. Fermilab's Ruth Pordes tells the origin story.
1 online resource (Article No. 022004 ): digital, PDF file.
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
1 online resource (Article No. 107) : digital, PDF file.
Here, we study boundary scattering in the $\phi^4$ model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state. We also study the decay of the vibrational boundary mode, and explore different scenarios for its relaxation and for the creation of kinks.
An in-situ calibration of a logarithmic periodic dipole antenna with a frequency coverage of 30 MHz to 80 MHz is performed. Such antennas are part of a radio station system used for detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the so-called Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). The directional and frequency characteristics of the broadband antenna are investigated using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) carrying a small transmitting antenna. The antenna sensitivity is described by the vector effective length relating the measured voltage with the electric-field components perpendicular to the incoming signal direction. The horizontal and meridional components are determined with an overall uncertainty of 7.4^{+0.9}_{-0.3} % and 10.3^{+2.8}_{-1.7} % respectively. The measurement is used to correct a simulated response of the frequency and directional response of the antenna. In addition, the influence of the ground conductivity and permittivity on the antenna response is simulated. Both have a negligible influence given the ground conditions measured at the detector site. The overall uncertainties of the vector effective length components result in an uncertainty of 9.4^{+1.5}_{-1.6} % in the square root of the energy fluence for incoming signal directions with zenith angles smaller than 60{\deg}.
1 online resource (113 p.) : digital, PDF file.
The muon anomaly aµ is one of the most precise quantity known in physics experimentally and theoretically. The high level of accuracy permits to use the measurement of aµ as a test of the Standard Model comparing with the theoretical calculation. After the impressive result obtained at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001 with a total accuracy of 0.54 ppm, a new experiment E989 is under construction at Fermilab, motivated by the diff of aexp SM µ<sup> -</sup> aµ ~ 3σ. The purpose of the E989 experiment is a fourfold reduction of the error, with a goal of 0.14 ppm, improving both the systematic and statistical uncertainty. With the use of the Fermilab beam complex a statistic of × 21 with respect to BNL will be reached in almost 2 years of data taking improving the statistical uncertainty to 0.1 ppm. Improvement on the systematic error involves the measurement technique of ωa and ωp, the anomalous precession frequency of the muon and the Larmor precession frequency of the proton respectively. The measurement of ωp involves the magnetic field measurement and improvements on this sector related to the uniformity of the field should reduce the systematic uncertainty with respect to BNL from 170 ppb to 70 ppb. A reduction from 180 ppb to 70 ppb is also required for the measurement of ωa; new DAQ, a faster electronics and new detectors and calibration system will be implemented with respect to E821 to reach this goal. In particular the laser calibration system will reduce the systematic error due to gain fl of the photodetectors from 0.12 to 0.02 ppm. The 0.02 ppm limit on systematic requires a system with a stability of 10<sup>-4</sup> on short time scale (700 µs) while on longer time scale the stability is at the percent level. The 10<sup>-4</sup> stability level required is almost an order of magnitude better than the existing laser calibration system in particle physics, making the calibration system a very challenging item. In addition to the high level of stability a particular environment, due to the presence of a 14 m diameter storage ring, a highly uniform magnetic field and the detector distribution around the storage ring, set specific guidelines and constraints. This thesis will focus on the final design of the Laser Calibration System developed for the E989 experiment. Chapter 1 introduces the subject of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; chapter 2 presents previous measurement of g<sup>-2</sup>, while chapter 3 discusses the Standard Model prediction and possible new physics scenario. Chapter 4 describes the E989 experiment. In this chapter will be described the experimental technique and also will be presented the experimental apparatus focusing on the improvements necessary to reduce the statistical and systematic errors. The main item of the thesis is discussed in the last two chapters: chapter 5 is focused on the Laser Calibration system while chapter 6 describes the Test Beam performed at the Beam Test Facility of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati from the 29th February to the 7th March as a final test for the full calibrations system. An introduction explain the physics motivation of the system and the diff t devices implemented. In the final chapter the setup used will be described and some of the results obtained will be presented.
Charge-dependent anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) of particle azimuthal distributions are measured in pPb and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The normalized difference in the second-order anisotropy coefficients ($v_2$) between positively and negatively charged particles is found to depend linearly on the observed event charge asymmetry with comparable slopes for both pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide range of charged particle multiplicity. In PbPb, the third-order anisotropy coefficient, $v_3$, shows a similar linear dependence with the same slope as seen for $v_2$. The observed similarities between the $v_2$ slopes for pPb and PbPb, as well as the similar slopes for $v_2$ and $v_3$ in PbPb, are compatible with expectations based on local charge conservation in the decay of clusters or resonances, and constitute a challenge to the hypothesis that the observed charge asymmetry dependence of $v_2$ in heavy ion collisions arises from a chiral magnetic wave.
1 online resource (Article No. 567) : digital, PDF file.
The high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2026, necessitates the replacement of the CMS experiment’s silicon tracker. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation, corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of up to $\Phi _{eq} = 2 \times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ , and an ionising dose of ${\approx } 5$ MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ . Thin, planar silicon sensors are good candidates for this application, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. Here in this article, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200 μm thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of $\Phi _{eq} = 1.3 \times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ are shown.
A 2.1 MeV, 10 mA CW RFQ has been installed and commissioned at the Fermilab’s test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test. This report describes the measure-ments of the beam properties after acceleration in the RFQ, including the energy and emittance.