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1 online resource (1 files) : digital, PDF file.
Each year since 2015, NREL has presented Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) in a spreadsheet that contains detailed cost and performance data (both current and projected) for renewable and conventional technologies. The spreadsheet includes a workbook for each technology. This spreadsheet provides data for the 2017 ATB. In this edition of the ATB, offshore wind power has been updated to include 15 technical resource groups. And, two options are now provided for representing market conditions for project financing, including current market conditions and long-term historical conditions. For more information, see https://atb.nrel.gov/.
1 online resource (Article No. 43401) : digital, PDF file.
Here we report the first example of a class of additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced composite (AMCFRC) materials which have been achieved through the use of a latent thermal cured aromatic thermoset resin system, through an adaptation of direct ink writing (DIW) 3D-printing technology. We have developed a means of printing high performance thermoset carbon fiber composites, which allow the fiber component of a resin and carbon fiber fluid to be aligned in three dimensions via controlled micro-extrusion and subsequently cured into complex geometries. Characterization of our composite systems clearly show that we achieved a high order of fiber alignment within the composite microstructure, which in turn allows these materials to outperform equivalently filled randomly oriented carbon fiber and polymer composites. Moreover, our AM carbon fiber composite systems exhibit highly orthotropic mechanical and electrical responses as a direct result of the alignment of carbon fiber bundles in the microscale which we predict will ultimately lead to the design of truly tailorable carbon fiber/polymer hybrid materials having locally programmable complex electrical, thermal and mechanical response.
1 online resource (p. 3493-3504) : digital, PDF file.
Here, the Frenkel exciton model is a useful tool for theoretical studies of multichromophore systems. We recently showed that the exciton model could be used to coarse-grain electronic structure in multichromophoric systems, focusing on singly excited exciton states. However, our previous implementation excluded charge-transfer excited states, which can play an important role in light-harvesting systems and near-infrared optoelectronic materials. Recent studies have also emphasized the significance of charge-transfer in singlet fission, which mediates the coupling between the locally excited states and the multiexcitonic states. In this work, we report on an ab initio exciton model that incorporates charge-transfer excited states and demonstrate that the model provides correct charge-transfer excitation energies and asymptotic behavior. Comparison with TDDFT and EOM-CC2 calculations shows that our exciton model is robust with respect to system size, screening parameter, and different density functionals. Inclusion of charge-transfer excited states makes the exciton model more useful for studies of singly excited states and provides a starting point for future construction of a model that also includes double-exciton states.
1 online resource (p. 3554-3565) : digital, PDF file.
We have used ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to characterize water properties using two meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) functionals, M06-L-D3 and B97M-rV, and compared their performance against a standard GGA corrected for dispersion, revPBE-D3, at ambient conditions (298 K, and 1 g cm<sup>–3</sup> or 1 atm). Simulations of the equilibrium density, radial distribution functions, self-diffusivity, the infrared spectrum, liquid dipole moments, and characterizations of the hydrogen bond network show that all three functionals have overcome the problem of the early AIMD simulations that erroneously found ambient water to be highly structured, but they differ substantially among themselves in agreement with experiment on this range of water properties. We show directly using water cluster data up through the pentamer that revPBE-D3 benefits from a cancellation of its intrinsic functional error by running classical trajectories, whereas the meta-GGA functionals are demonstrably more accurate and would require the simulation of nuclear quantum effects to realize better agreement with all cluster and condensed phase properties.
Compositions and methods of making a modified polyhydroxylated polymer comprising a polyhydroxylated polymer having reversibly modified hydroxyl groups, whereby the hydroxyl groups are modified by an acid-catalyzed reaction between a polydroxylated polymer and a reagent such as acetals, aldehydes, vinyl ethers and ketones such that the modified polyhydroxylated polymers become insoluble in water but freely soluble in common organic solvents allowing for the facile preparation of acid-sensitive materials. Materials made from these polymers can be made to degrade in a pH-dependent manner. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargoes were successfully loaded into particles made from the present polymers using single and double emulsion techniques, respectively. Due to its ease of preparation, processability, pH-sensitivity, and biocompatibility, of the present modified polyhydroxylated polymers should find use in numerous drug delivery applications.
The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.
1 online resource (Article No. 13945 ): digital, PDF file.
Here, IRMOF-74 analogues are among the most widely studied metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for adsorption applications because of their one-dimensional channels and high metal density. Most studies involving the IRMOF-74 series assume that the crystal lattice is rigid. This assumption guides the interpretation of experimental data, as changes in the crystal symmetry have so far been ignored as a possibility in the literature. Here, we report a deformation pattern, induced by the adsorption of argon, for IRMOF-74-V. This work has two main implications. First, we use molecular simulations to demonstrate that the IRMOF-74 series undergoes a deformation that is similar to the mechanism behind breathing MOFs, but is unique because the deformation pattern extends beyond a single unit cell of the original structure. Second, we provide an alternative interpretation of experimental small-angle X-ray scattering profiles of these systems, which changes how we view the fundamentals of adsorption in this MOF series.
The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.
A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.
1 online resource (115-124) : digital, PDF file.
Here we discuss the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the major factors that is limiting the overall performance output of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, Platinum Group Metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts based on Fe, Co, Ni, Mn and the same precursor (Aminoantipyrine, AAPyr) were synthesized using identical sacrificial support method (SSM). The catalysts were investigated for their electrochemical performance, and then integrated into an air-breathing cathode to be tested in “clean” environment and in a working microbial fuel cell (MFC). Their performances were also compared to activated carbon (AC) based cathode under similar conditions. Results showed that the addition of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni to AAPyr increased the performances compared to AC. Fe-AAPyr showed the highest open circuit potential (OCP) that was 0.307 ± 0.001 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the highest electrocatalytic activity at pH 7.5. On the contrary, AC had an OCP of 0.203 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and had the lowest electrochemical activity. In MFC, Fe-AAPyr also had the highest output of 251 ± 2.3 μWcm<sup>–2</sup>, followed by Co-AAPyr with 196 ± 1.5 μWcm<sup>–2</sup>, Ni-AAPyr with 171 ± 3.6 μWcm<sup>–2</sup>, Mn-AAPyr with 160 ± 2.8 μWcm<sup>–2</sup> and AC 129 ± 4.2 μWcm<sup>–2</sup>. The best performing catalyst (Fe-AAPyr) was then tested in MFC with increasing solution conductivity from 12.4 mScm<sup>–1</sup> to 63.1 mScm<sup>–1</sup>. A maximum power density of 482 ± 5 μWcm<sup>–2</sup> was obtained with increasing solution conductivity, which is one of the highest values reported in the field.
1 online resource (Article No. 15541) : digital, PDF file.
Terrestrial vegetation emits vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to he atmosphere1-3, which influence oxidants and aerosols leading to complex feedbacks on air quality and climate4-6. Isoprene dominates global non-methane VOC emissions with tropical regions contributing ~80% of global isoprene emissions2. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plant species, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft direct eddy covariance measurements over the pristine Amazon forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are 3 times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions based on satellite land cover and vegetation specific emission factors (EFs). The results reveal strong correlations between observed isoprene emission rates and terrain elevations which are confirmed by similar correlations between satellite-derived isoprene emissions and terrain elevations. We propose that the elevational gradient in the Amazonian forest isoprene emission capacity is determined by plant species distributions and can explain a substantial degree of isoprene emission variability in tropical forests. Finally, we apply this approach over the central Amazon and use a model to demonstrate the impacts on regional air quality.
1 online resource (20 p.) : digital, PDF file.
The goal of this project is to characterize and document the differences between 4 sets of microclad samples, and provide this information to the detonator Design Agency (Q-6) for the purposes of evaluating “similitude” for stockpile use.
1 online resource (4 p.) : digital, PDF file.
In order to appropriately model and predict the chemical integrity and performance of cementitious materials used for waste immobilization at the Savannah River Site (SRS), it is critical to understand the I-129 solubility and distribution within the tank farm. Iodine in radioactive waste and in environmental media is typically highly mobile and long lived. Iodine is ubiquitous in SRS tank waste and waste forms. The iodine is assumed to be soluble and present at low levels in Performance Assessments (PAs) for SRS Tank Farms, and is one of the dose drivers in the PAs for both the SRS Salt Disposal Facility (SDF) and the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF). Analysis of tank waste samples is critical to understanding the Tank Farm iodine inventory and reducing disposal uncertainty. Higher than expected iodine levels have recently been observed in residual solids isolated from some SRS tanks prior to closure, indicating uncertainty regarding the chemical species involved. If the iodine inventory uncertainty is larger than anticipated, future work may be necessary to reduce the uncertainty. This memorandum satisfies a portion of the work scope identified in Task Plan SRNL-RP-2016-00651. A separate memorandum issued previously, reported historical unpublished I-129 data, a significant portion of which was below detectable analytical limits. This memorandum includes iodine and general chemical analysis results for six archived SRNL samples which were previously reported to have I-129 concentrations below detectable limits. Lower sample dilution factors were used for the current analyses in order to obtain concentrations above detection. The samples analyzed included surface and depth samples from SRS tanks 30, 32, and 39.
1 online resource (p. 370-374) : digital, PDF file.
Recent studies of single-atom catalysts open up the prospect of designing exceptionally active and environmentally efficient chemical processes. The stability and durability of such catalysts is governed by the strength with which the atoms are bound to their support and their diffusive behaviour. Here we use aberration-corrected STEM to image the diffusion of single copper adatoms on graphene oxide. As a result, we discover that individual atoms exhibit anomalous diffusion as a result of spatial and energetic disorder inherent in the support, and interpret the origins of this behaviour to develop a physical picture for the surface diffusion of single metal atoms.
The present invention provides a nanodisc with a membrane scaffold protein. The nanodisc includes a membrane scaffold protein, a telodendrimer and a lipid. The membrane scaffold protein can be apolipoprotein. The telodendrimer has the general formula PEG-L-D-(R).sub.n, wherein D is a dendritic polymer; L is a bond or a linker linked to the focal point group of the dendritic polymer; each PEG is a poly(ethylene glycol) polymer; each R is and end group of the dendritic polymer, or and end group with a covalently bound hydrophobic group, hydrophilic group, amphiphilic compound, or drug; and subscript n is an integer from 2 to 20. Cell free methods of making the nanodiscs are also provided.
A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.
1 online resource (p. 884-890) : digital, PDF file.
ε-Caprolactam and δ-valerolactam are important commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced annually. Biological production of these highly valued chemicals has been limited due to a lack of enzymes that cyclize ω-amino fatty acid precursors to corresponding lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5-aminovaleric acid into δ-valerolactam and 6-aminocaproic acid into ε-caprolactam. Recombinant E. coli expressing ORF26 produced valerolactam and caprolactam when 5-aminovaleric acid and 6-aminocaproic acid were added to the culture medium. Upon coexpressing ORF26 with a metabolic pathway that produced 5-aminovaleric acid from lysine, we were able to demonstrate production of δ-valerolactam from lysine.
1 online resource (2763) : digital, PDF file.
We developed an integrated framework of combined batch experiments and reactive transport simulations to quantify water-rock-CO<sub>2</sub> interactions and arsenic (As) mobilization responses to CO<sub>2</sub> and/or saline water leakage into USDWs. Experimental and simulation results suggest that when CO<sub>2</sub> is introduced, pH drops immediately that initiates release of As from clay minerals. Calcite dissolution can increase pH slightly and cause As re-adsorption. Thus, the mineralogy of the USDW is ultimately a determining factor of arsenic fate and transport. Salient results suggest that: (1) As desorption/adsorption from/onto clay minerals is the major reaction controlling its mobilization, and clay minerals could mitigate As mobilization with surface complexation reactions; (2) dissolution of available calcite plays a critical role in buffering pH; (3) high salinity in general hinders As release from minerals; and (4) the magnitude and quantitative uncertainty of As mobilization are predicated on the values of reaction rates and surface area of calcite, adsorption surface areas and equilibrium constants of clay minerals, and cation exchange capacity. Results of this study are intended to improve ability to quantify risks associated with potential leakage of reservoir fluids into shallow aquifers, in particular the possible environmental impacts of As mobilization at carbon sequestration sites.
1 online resource (p. A1258-A1267) : digital, PDF file.
Here in this work we use estimates of ionic transport properties obtained from molecular dynamics to rank lithium electrolytes of different compositions. We develop linear response methods to obtain the Onsager diffusivity matrix for all chemical species, its Fickian counterpart, and the mobilities of the ionic species. We apply these methods to the well-studied propylene carbonate/ethylene carbonate solvent with dissolved LiBF<sub>4</sub> and O<sub>2</sub>. The results show that, over a range of lithium concentrations and carbonate mixtures, trends in the transport coefficients can be identified and optimal electrolytes can be selected for experimental focus; however, refinement of these estimation techniques is necessary for a reliable ranking of a large set of electrolytes.
1 online resource (Article No. 104) : digital, PDF file.
Oxygen ion transport is the key issue in redox processes. Visualizing the process of oxygen ion migration with atomic resolution is highly desirable for designing novel devices such as oxidation catalysts, oxygen permeation membranes, and solid oxide fuel cells. We show the process of electrically induced oxygen migration and subsequent reconstructive structural transformation in a SrCoO<sub>2.5-σ</sub> film by scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find that the extraction of oxygen from every second SrO layer occurs gradually under an electrical bias; beyond a critical voltage, the brownmillerite units collapse abruptly and evolve into a periodic nano-twined phase with a high c/a ratio and distorted tetrahedra. These results show that oxygen vacancy rows are not only natural oxygen diffusion channels, but also preferred sites for the induced oxygen vacancies. These direct experimental results of oxygen migration may provide a common mechanism for the electrically induced structural evolution of oxides.


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