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254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
48 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents a review of existing approaches to estimate the costs of inaction, as well as the benefits of policy action, for air pollution. It focuses primarily on health impacts from air pollution. The paper presents the "impact pathway approach", which includes various steps in the analysis of the costs of air pollution. These include quantifying emissions, calculating the concentrations of the pollutants, applying epidemiologic studies to calculate the physical health effects and applying valuation methods to calculate the economic costs of the health impacts. The report also reviews applications of the impact pathway approach to applied economic studies that aim at calculating the macroeconomic costs of air pollution. It proposes possible approaches for including the feedbacks from the health impacts of air pollution in an applied economic framework. While ideally this requires serious modifications of the modelling frameworks and an improvement of the available empirical results, some impacts, such as changes in health expenditures and labour productivity, can easily been incorporated, following the literature on the economic costs of the health impacts of climate change.
1 online resource (37 p.)
This paper discusses the scope for market mechanisms, already established for greenhouse gas mitigation in Annex 1 countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol, for implementing "net mitigation, " defined here as mitigation beyond Annex 1 countries' formal mitigation requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Such market mechanisms could be useful for establishing and extending greenhouse gas mitigation targets also under the Paris Agreement from December 2015. Net mitigation is considered in two possible forms: as a "net atmospheric benefit, " or as an "own contribution" by offset host countries. A main conclusion is that a "net atmospheric benefit" is possible at least in the short run, best implemented via stricter baselines against which offsets are credited; but it can also take the form of offset iscounting whereby offset buyers are credited fewer credits. The latter, although generally inefficient, can be a second-best response to certain imperfections in the offset market, which are discussed in the paper. There is less merit for claiming that "own contributions" can lead to additional mitigation under existing mechanisms.
1 online resource (XVI, 254 p. 292 ill., 55 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Data and Methods
  • Climate Change Historical Simulations and Projections
  • Comparisons among Multi-model Ensemble Methods
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions
  • Transferred Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Carbon Trade between Developed and Developing World.
This atlas and reference resource assembles the latest research findings on the responsibility and obligation of human society for historical climate change. It clearly and quantitatively estimates to what extent the developed and developing world are responsible for historical climate change with regard to anthropogenic carbon and sulfur emissions as well as global carbon trade, and so provides a potential tool to address the controversial issue of carbon emission reduction in international climate negotiations. Since the quantitative attribution of historical climate change is calculated based on CMIP5 models, the fidelity of these models in representing the observed climate change is also evaluated. In addition to evaluation, future climate change based on CMIP5 models is also shown both on global and regional scales (especially for China and its surrounding areas ) in terms of surface air temperature, precipitation, sea surface temperature, atmospheric circulations and Arctic Sea ice. The atlas also makes various comparisons among different multi-model ensemble methods in order to obtain the most reliable estimation.
1 online resource ()
Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology outlines the cutting-edge research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics, as well as the microbial ecology of biochar application to soil, the use of different phyto-chemical analyses, possibilities for future research, and recommendations for climate change policy. Biochar, or charcoal produced from plant matter and applied to soil, has become increasingly recognized as having the potential to address multiple contemporary concerns, such as agricultural productivity and contaminated ecosystem amelioration, primarily by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and improving soil functions. Biochar Application is the first reference to offer a complete assessment of the various impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems, and includes chapters analyzing all aspects of biochar technology and application to soil, from ecogenomic analyses and application ratios to nutrient cycling and next generation sequencing. Written by a team of international authors with interdisciplinary knowledge of biochar, this reference will provide a platform where collaborating teams can find a common resource to establish outcomes and identify future research needs throughout the world.
1 online resource (XIX, 543 p. 187 illus., 127 illus. in color.) online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Instead of the Foreword.- Biomineralization in Geosystems.- Geochemistry of Biogenic-Abiogenic Systems.- Biomineral Interactions in Soil.- bioweathering and destruction of Cultural Heritage Monuments.- Mineral Formation in Living Organisms and Biomimetic Materials.- History of Science.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
This book offers a collection of papers presented at the V International Symposium "Biogenic - abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems" that was held from 20-22 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg (Russia). Papers in this book cover a wide range of topics connected with interactions between biogenic and abiogenic components in the lithosphere, biosphere and technosphere. The main topics include: biomineralization in geosystems, geochemistry of biogenic-abiogenic systems, biomineral interactions in soil, minerals in living organisms and biomimetic materials, medical geology, bioweathering and destruction of cultural heritage.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
1 online resource (25 p.)
Special economic zones can be an effective instrument to promote industrialization if implemented properly in the right context. In China, starting in the 1980s, special economic zones were used as a testing ground for the country's transition from a planned to a market economy, and they are a prime example of China's pragmatic and experimental approach to reforms. One of the great special economic zone success stories in China is the Suzhou Industrial Park, a modern industrial township developed in the early 1990s through a Sino-Singapore partnership. It is successful not just in the economic sense, but also in terms of urban and social development in an eco-friendly way. One key lesson is that in a weak market environment, a facilitating and reform-oriented host government, coupled with foreign expertise and knowledge as well as a "whole value chain" approach can go a long way in developing urban-industry well-integrated special economic zones. This paper is intended to examine the success factors and key lessons of the Sino-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park, which can be useful for other developing countries.
47 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
The Paris Agreement, adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reinforces the international framework for adaptation action by establishing a global adaptation goal. Under the Paris Agreement, countries have also agreed to an enhanced transparency framework for action, which includes adaptation. The Agreement also requests each Party to submit and update an "adaptation communication" as appropriate. This paper explores what elements of countries’ adaptation responses and progress could be reported under the Paris Agreement so as to better communicate efforts towards enhanced adaptation and resilience. The paper also highlights the potential benefits both at a national and an international level from identifying and collating adaptation-related information. Finally the paper outlines a possible structure of an adaptation communication, and identifies options and associated information needs for the adaptation-related components of the global stocktake agreed to in the Paris Agreement.
41 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
There are now a large number of valuation studies on the benefits of biodiversity and on ecosystem services, the services provided by different ecosystems (ESS). Both ideas have been used to elicit values from nature but in recent years the research community has focussed on ESS as the main organising framework, with some additional use of the biodiversity concept to value entities that have intrinsic value and are of an extraordinary nature. Estimates are available for the services from most habitats, by type of ecosystem service, usually expressed in USD per hectare per year. Coverage varies by habitat and region, as does the quality of the assessment, but it is possible now to carry out an estimation of changes in values for a number of ecosystem services a result of the introduction of a new policy or of a physical investment that modifies the ecosystem. While this is a positive development, there remain some issues to be resolved. One is the possibility of double-counting of services when using the standard categories of provisioning, regulating/supporting and cultural ESS. Regulating and supporting services are the basis of the provisioning services and so value estimates for the two cannot always be added up. For example, air pollution absorption is often valued using the cost of alternative ways of reducing the pollutants from the atmosphere while recreation is often valued in terms of willingness-to-pay (WTP) through stated preference methods.
1 online resource
  • Map of Cerrado
  • A note on the map of Cerrado
  • Forewords / Akihiko Tanaka and Alysson Paulinelli
  • Introduction / Akio Hosono, Carlos Magno Campos da Rocha and Yutaka Hongo
  • Part I. Development of Cerrado Agriculture / by Akio Hosono and Yutaka Hongo
  • Technological Breakthrough that Made Cerrado Agriculture Possible : Preparatory to Establishment Periods
  • Institutional Innovation that Drove Cerrado Agriculture on Truck : From Establishment to Early Development Periods
  • Full-fledged Development of Cerrado Agriculture : The Path to Becoming a Major Global Breadbasket
  • The Impact of Cerrado Development : Stable Food Supply and Inclusive Development with Agricultural Value Chains
  • Cerrado Agriculture and Environment
  • Part II. Technological and Institutional Innovations that Enabled Sustainable Cerrado Agriculture
  • EMBRAPA Model : An Experience of Institutional Building for Agricultural Technology Innovation / by Elseu Alves
  • Technological Innovations for Cerrado Agriculture : Experiences of CPAC / by Elmar Wagner, Wenceslau J. Goedert and Carlos Magno Campos de Rocha
  • Environment Friendly Land Use of Cerrado / by Edson Eyji Sano
  • PRODECER : An Innovative International Cooperation Program / by Roberto Rodriguez
  • Role of CAMPO, a Bi-National Public Private Enterprise as a Promoter and Coordinator of PRODECER / by Emiliano Pereira Botelho.
"Brazil has become one of today's major producers and net exporters of grains. This was achieved by converting barren land into one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. Since the mid-1970s, the tropical savanna, known as Cerrado, has been transformed into one of the world's largest grain-growing areas. The transformation of Cerrado is one of the crucial factors that enabled Brazil's impressive poverty reduction both through generating jobs and inclusive growth as well as through increasing food and nutrition security. Innovative technologies and institutions were introduced and developed to uphold environmental and ecological conservation. The experiences of the Cerrado related in this book will be of great value to contemporary developing countries struggling to attain food and nutrition security, value chains, employment and inclusive growth, and sustainable development"-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (XVI, 243 p.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • 1 - Underneath the Pantanal Wetland: a Deep-time History of Gondwana Assembly, Climate Change, and the Dawn of Metazoan Life (LV Warren*, F Quaglio, M G Simoes, BT Freitas, ML Assine and C Ricommini) 2 - Geology and Geomorphology of the Pantanal Basin (ML Assine*, A Silva, FN Pupim, ER Merino and D Mendes) 3 - Paleolimnology in the Pantanal: Using Lake Sediment Archives to Track Late Quaternary Environmental Change in the World's Largest Neotropical Wetland (MM McGlue*, A Silva, ML Assine, JC Stevaux and FW Cruz) 4 - Changing Rivers and the Hydrology of the Pantanal Wetland (ML Assine*, JC Stevaux, HA Macedo, I Bergier, C Padovani, and A Silva) *Corresponding author: "Mario L. Assine" 5 - Terrestrial and Aquatic Vegetation Diversity of the Pantanal Wetland (A Pott* and JSV Silva) 6 - Metabolic Scaling Applied to Native Woody Savanna Species in the Pantanal of Nhecolandia (I Bergier, SM Salis*, and PP Mattos) 7 - Alkaline Lakes Dynamics in the Nhecolandia Landscape (I Bergier*, A Krusche and F Guerin) 8 - Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Paraguay River floodplain (Pantanal) during Episodic Anoxia Events (I Bergier*, APS Silva, H Monteiro, F Guerin, HA Macedo, A Silva, A Krusche, HO Sawakuchi and D Bastviken) 9 - Pesticides in the Pantanal (E Dores) 10 - Historical Land-use Changes in Sao Gabriel do Oeste at the Upper Taquari River Basin (LS Buller*, GB Silva, MR Zanetti, E Ortega, A Moraes, T Goulart and I Bergier) 11 - Natural and Environmental Vulnerability along the Touristic "Estradas Parque Pantanal" by GIS Algebraic Mapping (GH Cavazzana, G Lastoria, KF Roche, TGT Catalini and AC Paranhos Filho) 12 - Climate Change Scenarios in the Pantanal (J Marengo*, G Sampaio and LM Alves).
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319187341 20160619
This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today's Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319187341 20160619
1 online resource (23 p.)
This paper examines the short- and long-run economic impact of Egypt's energy subsidy reform in July 2014 (without and without compensating transfers for the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution) and the decline in global energy prices, as well as the long-run impact of phasing out the energy subsidies over a 5 year period. The analysis uses a Computable General Equilibrium model with 56 productive sectors, including 11 energy subsectors. The short-run analysis employs a two-stage factor market adjustment, with wages first fixed and then flexible. The long-run analysis is run in a recursive dynamic mode, capturing the impact of improved productivity and increased investment resulting from more efficient allocation of resources and reduction in government deficits. In the short run, the 2014 reforms lead to slightly lower consumption while investment increases strongly and production shifts from highly subsidized energy-intensive sectors such as energy, water and sanitation, and transport to other sectors (notably construction). The impact on overall consumer prices is limited. In the longer run, real GDP growth increases by about one percentage point relative to the baseline before the 2014 reform.
1 online resource (xiv, 220 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction on emerging contaminants in rivers and their environmental risk.- Contaminants of emerging concern in Mediterranean watersheds.- Emerging organic contaminants in aquifers: Sources, transport, fate, and attenuation.- Effects of emerging contaminants on biodiversity, community structure, and adaptation of river biota.- Bioaccumulation of emerging contaminants in the biota: patterns in Mediterranean river networks.- Ecosystem responses to emerging contaminants: fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in a Mediterranean river.- Fate and degradation of emerging contaminants in rivers: Models review.- The emerging contaminants in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319293745 20160619
This volume offers an overview of the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants in Mediterranean rivers and their relevance to their chemical and ecological quality under water scarcity. With chapters covering the effects under multiple stress conditions of pharmaceuticals, polar pesticides, personal care products, and industrial chemicals, the observations presented can be applicable to other parts of the world where water scarcity is an issue . It is of interest to environmental chemists, ecologists, environmental engineers, and ecotoxicologists, as well as water managers and decision-makers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319293745 20160619
1 online resource (xiv, 263 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Part I: Solar and Wind Energy Recursive Estimation Methods to Forecast Short-Term Solar Irradiation A. Martin, Juan R. Trapero Technical and environmental analysis of parabolic trough Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies G. San Miguel, B. Corona, J. Servert, D. Lopez, E. Cerrajero, F. Gutierrez, M. Lasheras Wind power forecast error probabilistic model using Markov Chains S. Martin Martinez, A. Honrubia Escribano, M. Canas Carreton, V. Guerrero Mestre and E. Gomez Lazaro Part II: Energy Storage Energy Storage Integration with Renewable Energies: the Case of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems Carlos de la Cruz, Monica Baptista Lema, Xavier del Toro Garcia, Pedro Roncero-Sanchez Batteries and Ultracapacitors based Energy Storage in Renewable Multi-Sources Systems Mahamadou Abdou Tankari, Gilles Lefebvre Different Phase Change Materials Implementations for Thermal Energy Storage Mustapha Karkri, Gilles Lefebvre, Laurent Royon Part III: Biomass Bio-refineries: an Overview on Bio-Ethanol Production Juan Carlos Dominguez Toribio, Francisco Jesus Fernandez Morales Effects of External Resistance on Microbial Fuel Cell's Performance A. Gonzalez del Campo, P. Canizares, J. Lobatob, M. Rodrigo, F.J. Fernandez The avocado and its waste: an approach of fuel potential/application Maria Paz Dominguez-- Karina Araus-- Pamela Bonert-- Francisco Sanchez-- Guillermo San Miguel-- Mario Toledo Part IV: Socio-economy of Energy Agency and Learning Relationships Against Energy Efficiency Barriers Martin Rubio, I., Florence Sandoval, A., Gonzalez Sanchez, E.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319170992 20160619
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of efficient, clean and renewable energy production, conversion and storage. The ten chapters, written by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) solar and wind energy; (2) energy storage in batteries; (3) biomass; and (4) socio-economic aspects of energy. Given its multidisciplinary approach, which combines environmental analysis and an engineering perspective, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmentally sustainable energy production, conversion, storage and its engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319170992 20160619
ix, 577 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
  • Preface x About the Companion Website x 1 Significance, History, and Challenges of Environmental Microbiology 1 1.1 Core concepts can unify environmental microbiology 1 1.2 Synopsis of the significance of environmental microbiology 2 1.3 A brief history of environmental microbiology 6 1.4 Complexity of our world 10 1.5 Many disciplines and their integration 12 2 Formation of the Biosphere: Key Biogeochemical and Evolutionary Events 23 2.1 Issues and methods in Earth s history and evolution 24 2.2 Formation of early planet Earth 24 2.3 Did life reach Earth from Mars? 26 2.4 Plausible stages in the development of early life 29 2.5 Mineral surfaces in marine hydrothermal vents: the early iron/sulfur world could have driven biosynthesis 33 2.6 Encapsulation (a key to cellular life) and an alternative (non-marine) hypothesis for the habitat of pre-cellular life 34 2.7 A plausible definition of the tree of life s last universal common ancestor (LUCA) 35 2.8 The rise of oxygen 36 2.9 Evidence for oxygen and cellular life in the sedimentary record 37 2.10 The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis 38 2.11 Consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: molecular oxygen in the atmosphere and large pools of organic carbon 43 2.12 Eukaryotic evolution: endosymbiotic theory and the blending of traits from Archaea and Bacteria 45 3 Physiological Ecology: Resource Exploitation by Microorganisms 52 3.1 The cause of physiological diversity: diverse habitats provide selective pressures over evolutionary time 53 3.2 Biological and evolutionary insights from genomics 53 3.3 Fundamentals of nutrition: carbon- and energy-source utilization provide a foundation for physiological ecology 62 3.4 Selective pressures: ecosystem nutrient fluxes regulate the physiological status and composition of microbial communities 64 3.5 Cellular responses to starvation: resting stages, environmental sensing circuits, gene regulation, dormancy, and slow growth 69 3.6 A planet of complex mixtures in chemical disequilibrium 77 3.7 A thermodynamic hierarchy describing biosphere selective pressures, energy sources, and biogeochemical reactions 82 3.8 Using the thermodynamic hierarchy of half reactions to predict biogeochemical reactions in time and space 85 3.9 Overview of metabolism and the logic of electron transport 95 310 The flow of carbon and electrons in anaerobic food chains: syntrophy is the rule 97 3.11 The diversity of lithotrophic reactions 100 4 A Survey of the Earth s Microbial Habitats 106 4.1 Terrestrial biomes 107 4.2 Soils: geographic features relevant to both vegetation and microorganisms 109 4.3 Aquatic habitats 113 4.4 Subsurface habitats: oceanic and terrestrial 121 4.5 Defining the prokaryotic biosphere: where do prokaryotes occur on Earth? 131 4.6 Life at the micron scale: an excursion into the microhabitat of soil microorganisms 135 4.7 Extreme habitats for life and microbiological adaptations 140 5 Microbial Diversity: Who is Here and How do we Know? 150 5.1 Defining cultured and uncultured microorganisms 151 5.2 Approaching a census: an introduction to the environmental microbiological toolbox 155 5.3 Criteria for census taking: recognition of distinctive microorganisms (species) 158 5.4 Proceeding toward census taking and measures of microbial diversity 162 5.5 The tree of life: our view of evolution s blueprint for biological diversity 169 5.6 A sampling of key traits of cultured microorganisms from domains Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea 172 5.7 Placing the uncultured majority on the tree of life: what have nonculture-based investigations revealed? 189 5.8 Viruses: an overview of biology, ecology, and diversity 194 5.9 Microbial diversity illustrated by genomics, horizontal gene transfer, and cell size 199 5.10 Biogeography of microorganisms 6 Generating and Interpreting Information in Environmental Microbiology: Methods and their Limitations 208 6.1 How do we know? 209 6.2 Perspectives from a century of scholars and enrichment-culturing procedures 209 6.3 Constraints on knowledge imposed by ecosystem complexity 213 6.4 Environmental microbiology s Heisenberg uncertainty principle : model systems and their risks 215 6.5 Fieldwork: being sure sampling procedures are compatible with analyses and goals 217 6.6 Blending and balancing disciplines from field geochemistry to pure cultures 223 6.7 Overview of methods for determining the position and composition of microbial communities 226 6.8 Methods for determining in situ biogeochemical activities and when they occur 243 6.9 Cloning-based metagenomics and related methods: procedures and insights 245 6.10 Cloning-free next-generation sequencing and Omics methods: procedures and insights 6.11 Discovering the organisms responsible for particular ecological processes: linking identity with activity 255 7 Microbial Biogeochemistry: a Grand Synthesis 281 7.1 Mineral connections: the roles of inorganic elements in life processes 282 7.2 Greenhouse gases and lessons from biogeochemical modeling 286 7.3 The stuff of life : identifying the pools of biosphere materials whose microbiological transformations drive the biogeochemical cycles 293 7.4 Elemental biogeochemical cycles: concepts and physiological processes 313 7.5 Cellular mechanisms of microbial biogeochemical pathways 329 7.6 Mass balance approaches to elemental cycles 335 8 Special and Applied Topics in Environmental Microbiology 346 8.1 Other organisms as microbial habitats: ecological relationships 346 8.2 Microbial residents of plants and humans 363 8.3 Biodegradation and bioremediation 373 8.4 Biofilms 399 8.5 Evolution of catabolic pathways for organic contaminants 403 8.6 Environmental biotechnology: overview and nine case studies 410 8.7 Antibiotic resistance 423 9 Future Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology 442 9.1 The influence of systems biology on environmental microbiology 442 9.2 Ecological niches and their genetic basis 448 9.3 Concepts help define future progress in environmental microbiology 453 Glossary 460 Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118439630 20160619
New and expanded for its second edition, Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, is a timely update to a classic text filled with ideas, connections, and concepts that advance an in-depth understanding of this growing segment of microbiology. Core principles are highlighted with an emphasis on the logic of the science and new methods-driven discoveries. Numerous up-to-date examples and applications boxes provide tangible reinforcement of material covered. Study questions at the end of each chapter require students to utilize analytical and quantitative approaches, to define and defend arguments, and to apply microbiological paradigms to their personal interests. Essay assignments and related readings stimulate student inquiry and serve as focal points for teachers to launch classroom discussions. A companion website with downloadable artwork and answers to study questions is also available. Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, offers a coherent and comprehensive treatment of this dynamic, emerging field, building bridges between basic biology, evolution, genomics, ecology, biotechnology, climate change, and the environmental sciences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118439630 20160619
Biology Library (Falconer), Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
54 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and "green" innovation in shipbuilding. The primary motivating question of this work is whether there is evidence of: i) technology push from innovation that enables environmental policy initiatives; and/or, ii) policy pull that induces innovation leading to "green" ships. This paper focuses on four environmental categories of technological innovation in the shipbuilding industry, encompassing oil spill recovery, emissions control, climate change mitigation and ballast water treatment. The analysis draws upon documents filed at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to proxy for policy measures, and uses patent data of the Worldwide Statistical Patent Database, maintained by the European Patent Office (EPO), to account for innovation. Our results show a similar trend between patent activity and IMO document submissions over the years 1998 to 2012 for the two environmental categories, climate change mitigation and emissions control. The key contribution of this work are to provide more insights into environmental policy in shipbuilding and its role in innovation activity, as well as to develop a rich dataset focused on IMO policies aimed at encouraging improved environmental performance by ships.
38 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper explores the relationship between environmental regulation, innovation, and competitiveness, drawing upon a unique dataset on environmental regulations directed at combustion plants, a global dataset of power plants, and a global dataset of ‘environmental’ patents. The analysis is conducted in two stages. First, a nonparametric frontier analysis is implemented to estimate efficiency scores, including a measure of technological innovation based on patent stocks. Second, econometric methods are applied to analyse the role of policy stringency and policy design on efficiency. Our estimation sample covers thermal power plant sectors in 20 countries from 1990 to 2009. The results show that the stringency of environmental regulations is a significant determinant of productive efficiency with respect to pollutant emissions as well as fuel use. However, these effects turn negative once the level of stringency leaps over a certain threshold. In addition, the paper concludes that the positive effect of regulatory stringency can be diminished by a negative effect of regulatory differentiation with measures which are differentiated across plant size and age having negative consequences, and these effects are increasing over time. This finding is important given the prevalence of size- and vintage-differentiated policies in many countries. Finally, it is found that integrated approaches to environmental innovation are more likely to bring about efficiency improvements than end-of-pipe technologies.
37 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of the macroeconomic relationship between environmentally related taxes and inequality in income sources. The analysis also investigates whether this relationship differs between countries which have implemented environmental tax reforms (ETRs) and ones which have not. Following earlier empirical literature, income inequality is measured by the disposable-income-based Gini coefficient. The analysis is based on a panel of all 34 OECD countries spanning the period from 1995 to 2011. Information about the implementation of ETRS in the examined period is collected through a review of relevant academic and policy literature. Empirical results from econometric models reveal that, on average, there is no statistically significant relationship between the overall share of environmentally related tax revenues in GDP and inequality in income sources. However, the relationship varies with the taxed activity under consideration and the existence of an explicit mechanism to redistribute environmentally related tax revenues. In countries where such mechanisms are absent, energy tax revenues (% of GDP) are shown to have a positive, although modest, relationship with income inequality. In contrast, in countries where energy tax revenues are, at least partially, used to reduce tax burden on income and labour, there is a negative relationship between energy taxes and inequality in income sources. On the contrary, no significant relationship is identified between motor vehicle and other transport tax revenues and income inequality, while revenues from other environmentally related taxes, such as waste and air pollution taxes, are negatively associated with income inequality, regardless of the existence of an explicit revenue recycling mechanism.
141 p. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword
  • Executive summary
  • Investigating farm management practices that may foster green growth
  • The role of soil and water conservation in the transition to green growth
  • What does organic farming mean for green growth?
  • Unleashing the green growth potential of integrated pest management
  • How critical is modern agricultural biotechnology in increasing productivity sustainably?
  • Is precision agriculture the start of a new revolution?.
This report looks at farm management practices with green growth potential, from farmer-led innovations (such as those directly linked to soil and water, Integrated Pest Management, organic farming) to science-led technologies (such as biotechnology and precision agriculture). Global food demand can only be met in a sustainable way if new forms of agricultural production and innovative technologies can be unlocked to increase the productivity, stability, and resilience of production systems with goals beyond just raising yields, including saving water and energy, reducing risk, improving product quality, protecting the environment and climate change mitigation.