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Book
70 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Germ cell/heritable mutations are important regulatory endpoints for international agencies interested in protecting the health of future generations. However, germ cell mutation analysis has been hampered by a lack of efficient tools. The motivation for developing this AOP was to provide context for new assays in this field, identify research gaps and facilitate the development of new methods. In this AOP, a compound capable of alkylating DNA is delivered to the testes causing germ cell mutations and subsequent mutations in the offspring of the exposed parents. Although there are some gaps surrounding some mechanistic aspects of this AOP, the overarching AOP is widely accepted and applies broadly to any species that produces sperm.
Book
51 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and reproductive dysfunction, as measured through the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity and spawning. Initial development of this AOP draws heavily on evidence collected using repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay. The OECD 229 assay serves as screening assay for endocrine disruption and associated reproductive impairment (OECD 2012). Cumulative fecundity is one of several variables known to be of demographic significance in forecasting fish population trends. Therefore, this AOP has utility in supporting the application of measures of aromatase, or in silico predictions of the ability to inhibit aromatase, as a means to identify chemicals with known potential to adversely affect fish populations and potentially other oviparous vertebrates.
Book
100 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
It is well documented and accepted that learning and memory processes rely on physiological functioning of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR). Both animal and human studies investigating NMDA itself, experiments with NMDAR antagonists and mutant mice lacking NMDAR subunits strongly support this statement (Rezvani, 2006). Activation of NMDARs results in long-term potentiation (LTP), which is related to increased synaptic strength, plasticity and memory formation in the hippocampus (Johnston et al., 2009). LTP induced by activation of NMDA receptors has been found to be elevated in the developing rodent brain compared to the mature brain, partially due to 'developmental switch' of the NMDAR 2A and 2B subunits (Johnston et al., 2009). Activation of the NMDAR also enhances brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptogenesis (Tyler et al., 2002; Johnston et al., 2009). Consequently, the blockage of NMDAR by chemical substances during synaptogenesis disrupts neuronal network formation resulting in the impairment of learning and memory processes (Toscano and Guilarte, 2005). This AOP is relevant to developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The molecular initiating event (MIE) is described as the chronic binding of antagonist to NMDAR in neurons during synaptogenesis (development) in hippocampus (one of the critical brain structures for learning and memory formation). One of the chemicals that blocks NMDAR after chronic exposure is lead (Pb2+), a well-known developmental neurotoxicant.
Book
73 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Liver fibrosis is an important human health issue associated with chemical exposure. It is a typical result of chronic toxic injury and one of the considered endpoints for regulatory purposes. This AOP describes the linkage between hepatic injury caused by protein alkylation and the formation of liver fibrosis. Fibrogenesis is a long-term and complex process for which an adequate cell model is not available and an in vitro evaluation of fibrogenic potential is therefore not feasible yet. This systematic and coherent display of currently available mechanistic-toxicological information can serve as a knowledge-based repository for identification/selection/development of in vitro methods suitable for measuring key events and their relationships along the AOP and to facilitate the use of alternative data for regulatory purposes. Identified uncertainties and knowledge gaps can indicate priorities for future research.
Book
34 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper identifies opportunities to refine OECD’s indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution, and their periodic production for OECD and G20 countries. First, a comprehensive review is conducted of the publicly available ground-level air monitoring data for the selected countries, including their geographic coverage, data quality, comparability, etc. Second, the paper evaluates the potential applications of ground monitoring measurements for the construction of policy-relevant and internationally comparable indicators across OECD and G20 countries. Given the limited public availability of data and the incomplete geographic coverage in countries outside of Europe and North America, this paper concludes that such data are not suitable for the development of the OECD indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution that need to be harmonised across countries and over time. A hybrid approach is instead recommended as a superior alternative that draws on both satellite data combined with a chemical transport model calibrated using ground-based measurements.
Book
254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
Book
48 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents a review of existing approaches to estimate the costs of inaction, as well as the benefits of policy action, for air pollution. It focuses primarily on health impacts from air pollution. The paper presents the "impact pathway approach", which includes various steps in the analysis of the costs of air pollution. These include quantifying emissions, calculating the concentrations of the pollutants, applying epidemiologic studies to calculate the physical health effects and applying valuation methods to calculate the economic costs of the health impacts. The report also reviews applications of the impact pathway approach to applied economic studies that aim at calculating the macroeconomic costs of air pollution. It proposes possible approaches for including the feedbacks from the health impacts of air pollution in an applied economic framework. While ideally this requires serious modifications of the modelling frameworks and an improvement of the available empirical results, some impacts, such as changes in health expenditures and labour productivity, can easily been incorporated, following the literature on the economic costs of the health impacts of climate change.
Book
1 online resource (29 p.)
This paper presents a model to assess the socioeconomic resilience to natural disasters of an economy, defined as its capacity to mitigate the impact of disaster-related asset losses on welfare, and a tool to help decision makers identify the most promising policy options to reduce welfare losses due to floods. Calibrated with household surveys, the model suggests that welfare losses from the July 2005 floods in Mumbai were almost double the asset losses, because losses were concentrated on poor and vulnerable populations. Applied to river floods in 90 countries, the model provides estimates of country-level socioeconomic resilience. Because floods disproportionally affect poor people, each of global flood asset loss is equivalent to a .6 reduction in the affected country's national income, on average. The model also assesses and ranks policy levers to reduce flood losses in each country. It shows that considering asset losses is insufficient to assess disaster risk management policies. The same reduction in asset losses results in different welfare gains depending on who benefits. And some policies, such as adaptive social protection, do not reduce asset losses, but still reduce welfare losses. Asset and welfare losses can even move in opposite directions: increasing by one percentage point the share of income of the bottom 20 percent in the 90 countries would increase asset losses by 0.6 percent, since more wealth would be at risk. But it would also reduce the impact of income losses on wellbeing, and ultimately reduce welfare losses by 3.4 percent.
Book
1 online resource (37 p.)
This paper discusses the scope for market mechanisms, already established for greenhouse gas mitigation in Annex 1 countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol, for implementing "net mitigation, " defined here as mitigation beyond Annex 1 countries' formal mitigation requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Such market mechanisms could be useful for establishing and extending greenhouse gas mitigation targets also under the Paris Agreement from December 2015. Net mitigation is considered in two possible forms: as a "net atmospheric benefit, " or as an "own contribution" by offset host countries. A main conclusion is that a "net atmospheric benefit" is possible at least in the short run, best implemented via stricter baselines against which offsets are credited; but it can also take the form of offset iscounting whereby offset buyers are credited fewer credits. The latter, although generally inefficient, can be a second-best response to certain imperfections in the offset market, which are discussed in the paper. There is less merit for claiming that "own contributions" can lead to additional mitigation under existing mechanisms.
Book
1 online resource (XVI, 254 p. 292 ill., 55 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Data and Methods
  • Climate Change Historical Simulations and Projections
  • Comparisons among Multi-model Ensemble Methods
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions
  • Transferred Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Carbon Trade between Developed and Developing World.
This atlas and reference resource assembles the latest research findings on the responsibility and obligation of human society for historical climate change. It clearly and quantitatively estimates to what extent the developed and developing world are responsible for historical climate change with regard to anthropogenic carbon and sulfur emissions as well as global carbon trade, and so provides a potential tool to address the controversial issue of carbon emission reduction in international climate negotiations. Since the quantitative attribution of historical climate change is calculated based on CMIP5 models, the fidelity of these models in representing the observed climate change is also evaluated. In addition to evaluation, future climate change based on CMIP5 models is also shown both on global and regional scales (especially for China and its surrounding areas ) in terms of surface air temperature, precipitation, sea surface temperature, atmospheric circulations and Arctic Sea ice. The atlas also makes various comparisons among different multi-model ensemble methods in order to obtain the most reliable estimation.
Book
1 online resource ()
Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology outlines the cutting-edge research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics, as well as the microbial ecology of biochar application to soil, the use of different phyto-chemical analyses, possibilities for future research, and recommendations for climate change policy. Biochar, or charcoal produced from plant matter and applied to soil, has become increasingly recognized as having the potential to address multiple contemporary concerns, such as agricultural productivity and contaminated ecosystem amelioration, primarily by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and improving soil functions. Biochar Application is the first reference to offer a complete assessment of the various impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems, and includes chapters analyzing all aspects of biochar technology and application to soil, from ecogenomic analyses and application ratios to nutrient cycling and next generation sequencing. Written by a team of international authors with interdisciplinary knowledge of biochar, this reference will provide a platform where collaborating teams can find a common resource to establish outcomes and identify future research needs throughout the world.
Book
1 online resource (XIX, 543 p. 187 illus., 127 illus. in color.) online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Instead of the Foreword.- Biomineralization in Geosystems.- Geochemistry of Biogenic-Abiogenic Systems.- Biomineral Interactions in Soil.- bioweathering and destruction of Cultural Heritage Monuments.- Mineral Formation in Living Organisms and Biomimetic Materials.- History of Science.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
This book offers a collection of papers presented at the V International Symposium "Biogenic - abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems" that was held from 20-22 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg (Russia). Papers in this book cover a wide range of topics connected with interactions between biogenic and abiogenic components in the lithosphere, biosphere and technosphere. The main topics include: biomineralization in geosystems, geochemistry of biogenic-abiogenic systems, biomineral interactions in soil, minerals in living organisms and biomimetic materials, medical geology, bioweathering and destruction of cultural heritage.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
Book
1 online resource (520 p.)
Book
1 online resource (25 p.)
Special economic zones can be an effective instrument to promote industrialization if implemented properly in the right context. In China, starting in the 1980s, special economic zones were used as a testing ground for the country's transition from a planned to a market economy, and they are a prime example of China's pragmatic and experimental approach to reforms. One of the great special economic zone success stories in China is the Suzhou Industrial Park, a modern industrial township developed in the early 1990s through a Sino-Singapore partnership. It is successful not just in the economic sense, but also in terms of urban and social development in an eco-friendly way. One key lesson is that in a weak market environment, a facilitating and reform-oriented host government, coupled with foreign expertise and knowledge as well as a "whole value chain" approach can go a long way in developing urban-industry well-integrated special economic zones. This paper is intended to examine the success factors and key lessons of the Sino-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park, which can be useful for other developing countries.
Video
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (16 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Niche construction: definitions and examples
  • The endomembrane system
  • Advent of cholesterol depended on oxygen
  • Ecosystems and the process of death
  • Internal niche construction
  • The swim-bladder, the lung and PTHrP
  • Niche construction and epigenetics interactions
  • Gaia hypothesis.
Book
31 p. : digital, PDF file.
<p>Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of<italic>Deltaproteobacteria</italic>diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. In addition, many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co-occurrences containing putatively heterotrophic, candidate phyla such as OD1, <i>Atribacteria</i>, MBG-B, and Hyd24-12 and the potential for complex sulfur cycling involving <i>Epsilon</i>-, <i>Delta</i>-, and <i>Gammaproteobacteria</i> in methane seep ecosystems.</p>
Book
1 online resource (xii, 391 p.) : ill. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Introduction: Why Study Climate Change in Mountains?- PART I: Approaches for Climate Adaptation Planning
  • 2. Linking Climate Science and Management
  • 3. Challenges and Approaches for Integrating Climate Science into Federal Land Management
  • PART II: Climate and Land Use Change
  • 4. Historical and Projected Climates to Support Climate Adaptation across the Northern Rocky Mountains
  • 5. Foundational Analyses of Historical and Projected Climates as a Basis for Climate Change Exposure and Adaptation Potential across the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative
  • 6. Assessing Vulnerability to Land Use and Climate Change at Landscape Scales: Landforms and Physiographic Diversity as Coarse-Filter Targets Representing Species and Processes
  • PART III: Ecological Consequences and Vulnerabilities
  • 7. Quantifying Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Processes in the Great Northern and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives
  • 8. Modeling Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Vegetation for National Parks in the Eastern United States
  • 9. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tree Species and Biome Types in the United States Northern Rocky Mountains
  • 10. Past, Present, and Future Climate Shapes the Vegetation Communities of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem across Elevation Gradients
  • 11. Assessing the Vulnerability of Tree Species to Climate Change in the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative
  • 12. Likely Responses of Native and Invasive Salmonid Fishes to Climate Change in the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains
  • PART IV. Managing under Climate Change
  • 13. Opportunities, Challenges, Approaches to Achieving Climate-Smart Adaptation
  • 14. Perspectives on Responding to Climate Change at Rocky Mountain National Park
  • 15. Case Study: Whitebark Pine in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
  • 16. Assessing Success in Sustaining Wildland Ecosystems: Insights from Greater Yellowstone
  • 17. Conclusion
  • Contributors
  • Index.
This volume is a collaboration between scientists and managers, providing a science-derived framework and common-sense approaches for keeping parks and protected areas healthy on a rapidly changing planet. Scientists have been warning for years that human activity is heating up the planet and climate change is under way. In the past century, global temperatures have risen an average of 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit, a trend that is expected to only accelerate. But public sentiment has taken a long time to catch up, and we are only just beginning to acknowledge the serious effects this will have on all life on Earth. The federal government is crafting broad-scale strategies to protect wildland ecosystems from the worst effects of climate change. The challenge now is to get the latest science into the hands of resource managers entrusted with protecting water, plants, fish and wildlife, tribal lands, and cultural heritage sites in wildlands. Teaming with NASA and the Department of the Interior, ecologist Andrew James Hansen, along with his team of scientists and managers, set out to understand how climate and land use changes affect montane landscapes of the Rockies and the Appalachians, and how these findings can be applied to wildlands elsewhere. They examine changes over the past century as well as expected future change, assess the vulnerability of species and ecosystems to these changes, and provide new, collaborative management approaches to mitigate expected impacts. A series of case studies showcases how managers might tackle such wide-ranging problems as the effects of warming streams on cold-water fish in Great Smoky Mountain National Park and dying white-bark pine stands in the Greater Yellowstone area. A surprising finding is that species and ecosystems vary dramatically in vulnerability to climate change. While many will suffer severe effects, others may actually benefit from projected changes.
Book
20 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Given that the population of the Sahel depends largely on rain-fed agriculture and transhumant livestock rearing, there is a growing concern about the future climate of the region as global warming may alter the availability of water resources. The lack of consensus on climate projections for West Africa results partly from the inability of climate models to capture some basic features of present-day climate variability in the region. As a result, climate model projections are difficult to analyse in terms of impacts and provide little guidance to inform decision making on adaption and resilience-building. However, by engaging with users of climate information to better understand their activities and their sensitivities to weather and climate, and by looking beyond the user to understand the wider systems context in which climate change occurs, progress can be made in interpreting climate impacts. This paper reviews the latest climate projections for West Africa and considers alternative ways in which the knowledge generated from climate science can be understood in the context of preparing for an uncertain future that provides practical help for decision makers.
Book
47 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
The Paris Agreement, adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reinforces the international framework for adaptation action by establishing a global adaptation goal. Under the Paris Agreement, countries have also agreed to an enhanced transparency framework for action, which includes adaptation. The Agreement also requests each Party to submit and update an "adaptation communication" as appropriate. This paper explores what elements of countries’ adaptation responses and progress could be reported under the Paris Agreement so as to better communicate efforts towards enhanced adaptation and resilience. The paper also highlights the potential benefits both at a national and an international level from identifying and collating adaptation-related information. Finally the paper outlines a possible structure of an adaptation communication, and identifies options and associated information needs for the adaptation-related components of the global stocktake agreed to in the Paris Agreement.
Book
41 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
There are now a large number of valuation studies on the benefits of biodiversity and on ecosystem services, the services provided by different ecosystems (ESS). Both ideas have been used to elicit values from nature but in recent years the research community has focussed on ESS as the main organising framework, with some additional use of the biodiversity concept to value entities that have intrinsic value and are of an extraordinary nature. Estimates are available for the services from most habitats, by type of ecosystem service, usually expressed in USD per hectare per year. Coverage varies by habitat and region, as does the quality of the assessment, but it is possible now to carry out an estimation of changes in values for a number of ecosystem services a result of the introduction of a new policy or of a physical investment that modifies the ecosystem. While this is a positive development, there remain some issues to be resolved. One is the possibility of double-counting of services when using the standard categories of provisioning, regulating/supporting and cultural ESS. Regulating and supporting services are the basis of the provisioning services and so value estimates for the two cannot always be added up. For example, air pollution absorption is often valued using the cost of alternative ways of reducing the pollutants from the atmosphere while recreation is often valued in terms of willingness-to-pay (WTP) through stated preference methods.