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1 online resource (330 pages) : illustrations.
  • Sustainable supply chains / Amulya Gurtu, Cory Searcy, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • An introduction to sustainable supply chain management and business implications / Gowri Vijayan, Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman
  • The development and analysis of environmentally responsible supply chain models / Ehab Bazan, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • Assessing the green supply chain management for the United Arab Emirates construction industry / Sreejith Balasubramanian, Balan Sundarakani
  • A waste elimination process: an approach for lean and sustainable manufacturing systems / Sherif Mostafa, Jantanee Dumrak
  • Green supply chain management model for sustainable manufacturing practices / Surajit Bag, Neeraj Anand, Krishan Kumar Pandey
  • Recent developments in green supply chain management: sourcing and logistics / Jay R. Brown [and 3 others]
  • Integrated sustainable supply chain management: current practices and future direction / Geevaneswary Saththasivam, Yudi Fernando
  • Advocating sustainable supply chain management and sustainability in global supply chain / Kijpokin Kasemsap.
"This book examines the challenges and benefits of implementing sustainability into the core functions of contemporary enterprises, focusing on how green approaches improve operations in an ecological way by highlighting key concepts, emerging innovations, and future directions"--Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (204 p.) : color illustrations
  • Foreword; Acknowledgements; Contents; Abbreviations; 1 Introduction: Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective; 1.1 Peace Ecology in the Anthropocene; 1.2 Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective; 1.3 Organization of the Book: Biodiversity, Water, Food, Energy and Waste; References; 2 Historical Times and Turning Points in a Turbulent Century: 1914, 1945, 1989 and 2014?; Abstract; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Historical Times and Changing Global Contexts; 2.2.1 The Term and Concept of 'Time'
  • 2.2.2 Cosmic Time: Beyond Human Intervention2.2.3 Geological Time: Transition from the Holocene to the Anthropocene; 2.2.4 Technical Time: Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions; 2.2.5 Braudel's Three Times of Human History; 2.2.6 Kondradieff's Long Cycles: Periodization of Economic History; 2.2.7 The Ecological Impact of the Great and Global Transformations; 2.3 International Order: Historical-Political Turning Points, Global Transformations and Transitions; 2.4 The Industrial Revolution: Trigger for the Silent Transition in Geological Time
  • 2.4.1 Changes in CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere2.4.2 Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC (2013/2014); 2.5 The Global Transformations in the Long Nineteenth Century; 2.6 The Changes of 1914 and 1919: Triggered by World War I; 2.7 The Changes of 1945: Triggered by World War II; 2.8 The Changes of 1989: Peaceful Change and New Wars; 2.9 Was 2014 a Turning Point in World History as 1914 Was?; 2.10 Conclusions; References; 3 Global Ecological Crisis: Structural Violence and the Tyranny of Small Decisions; Abstract; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Global Ecological Crisis
  • 3.3 Ecological Crisis as Structural Violence3.3.1 A Structural Theory of Imperialism; 3.3.2 Tyranny of Small Decisions; 3.4 Re-orienting Decisions Towards Ecological Peace; 3.5 Conclusion; References; 4 Loving Nature: The Emotional Dimensions of Ecological Peacebuilding; Abstract; 4.1 'Speaking Our Own Truth Is Like Oxygen'; 4.2 Introductory Remarks; 4.3 The Minefields of Separating the Inseparable and Describing the Ineffable; 4.4 An Ecological Approach to Loving; 4.5 From Securely Armoured to Seriously Enamoured?; 4.6 Spaces of Resistance and Spaces of Complicity
  • 4.7 Who Defines and Measures What the Limit Is?4.8 Conclusion; References; Other Literature; 5 Drowning in Complexity? Preliminary Findings on Gender, Peacebuilding and Climate Change in Honduras; Abstract; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Why Gender?; 5.3 Gender-Relational Peacebuilding; 5.4 Vulnerabilities, Climate Change, Gender and Peacebuilding; 5.5 Honduras-Coffee, Conflict and Climate Change; 5.5.1 Migration; 5.5.2 Forms of Urban and Rural Violence; 5.5.3 Coffee; 5.5.4 Coping with Climate Change, Violence and Migration; 5.6 Conclusion; References
70 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Germ cell/heritable mutations are important regulatory endpoints for international agencies interested in protecting the health of future generations. However, germ cell mutation analysis has been hampered by a lack of efficient tools. The motivation for developing this AOP was to provide context for new assays in this field, identify research gaps and facilitate the development of new methods. In this AOP, a compound capable of alkylating DNA is delivered to the testes causing germ cell mutations and subsequent mutations in the offspring of the exposed parents. Although there are some gaps surrounding some mechanistic aspects of this AOP, the overarching AOP is widely accepted and applies broadly to any species that produces sperm.
51 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and reproductive dysfunction, as measured through the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity and spawning. Initial development of this AOP draws heavily on evidence collected using repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay. The OECD 229 assay serves as screening assay for endocrine disruption and associated reproductive impairment (OECD 2012). Cumulative fecundity is one of several variables known to be of demographic significance in forecasting fish population trends. Therefore, this AOP has utility in supporting the application of measures of aromatase, or in silico predictions of the ability to inhibit aromatase, as a means to identify chemicals with known potential to adversely affect fish populations and potentially other oviparous vertebrates.
119 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Under physiological conditions activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDARs), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPARs) and kainate (KARs) is responsible for basal excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. However, sustained over-activation of these receptors can induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Increased Ca2+ influx through NMDARs promotes many pathways of toxicity due to generation of free radical species, reduced ATP production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein aggregation. Neuronal injury induced by over-activation of these receptors and the excessive Ca2+ influx is considered an early key event of excitotoxicity. The proposed AOP is relevant to adult neurotoxicity. The MIE has been defined as a direct binding of agonists to NMDARs or indirect, through prior activation of AMPARs and/or KARs resulting in sustained NMDARs over-activation causing excitotoxic neuronal cell death, mainly in hippocampus and cortex, two brain structures fundamental for learning and memory processes.
100 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
It is well documented and accepted that learning and memory processes rely on physiological functioning of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR). Both animal and human studies investigating NMDA itself, experiments with NMDAR antagonists and mutant mice lacking NMDAR subunits strongly support this statement (Rezvani, 2006). Activation of NMDARs results in long-term potentiation (LTP), which is related to increased synaptic strength, plasticity and memory formation in the hippocampus (Johnston et al., 2009). LTP induced by activation of NMDA receptors has been found to be elevated in the developing rodent brain compared to the mature brain, partially due to 'developmental switch' of the NMDAR 2A and 2B subunits (Johnston et al., 2009). Activation of the NMDAR also enhances brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptogenesis (Tyler et al., 2002; Johnston et al., 2009). Consequently, the blockage of NMDAR by chemical substances during synaptogenesis disrupts neuronal network formation resulting in the impairment of learning and memory processes (Toscano and Guilarte, 2005). This AOP is relevant to developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The molecular initiating event (MIE) is described as the chronic binding of antagonist to NMDAR in neurons during synaptogenesis (development) in hippocampus (one of the critical brain structures for learning and memory formation). One of the chemicals that blocks NMDAR after chronic exposure is lead (Pb2+), a well-known developmental neurotoxicant.
73 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Liver fibrosis is an important human health issue associated with chemical exposure. It is a typical result of chronic toxic injury and one of the considered endpoints for regulatory purposes. This AOP describes the linkage between hepatic injury caused by protein alkylation and the formation of liver fibrosis. Fibrogenesis is a long-term and complex process for which an adequate cell model is not available and an in vitro evaluation of fibrogenic potential is therefore not feasible yet. This systematic and coherent display of currently available mechanistic-toxicological information can serve as a knowledge-based repository for identification/selection/development of in vitro methods suitable for measuring key events and their relationships along the AOP and to facilitate the use of alternative data for regulatory purposes. Identified uncertainties and knowledge gaps can indicate priorities for future research.
34 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper identifies opportunities to refine OECD’s indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution, and their periodic production for OECD and G20 countries. First, a comprehensive review is conducted of the publicly available ground-level air monitoring data for the selected countries, including their geographic coverage, data quality, comparability, etc. Second, the paper evaluates the potential applications of ground monitoring measurements for the construction of policy-relevant and internationally comparable indicators across OECD and G20 countries. Given the limited public availability of data and the incomplete geographic coverage in countries outside of Europe and North America, this paper concludes that such data are not suitable for the development of the OECD indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution that need to be harmonised across countries and over time. A hybrid approach is instead recommended as a superior alternative that draws on both satellite data combined with a chemical transport model calibrated using ground-based measurements.
254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
48 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents a review of existing approaches to estimate the costs of inaction, as well as the benefits of policy action, for air pollution. It focuses primarily on health impacts from air pollution. The paper presents the "impact pathway approach", which includes various steps in the analysis of the costs of air pollution. These include quantifying emissions, calculating the concentrations of the pollutants, applying epidemiologic studies to calculate the physical health effects and applying valuation methods to calculate the economic costs of the health impacts. The report also reviews applications of the impact pathway approach to applied economic studies that aim at calculating the macroeconomic costs of air pollution. It proposes possible approaches for including the feedbacks from the health impacts of air pollution in an applied economic framework. While ideally this requires serious modifications of the modelling frameworks and an improvement of the available empirical results, some impacts, such as changes in health expenditures and labour productivity, can easily been incorporated, following the literature on the economic costs of the health impacts of climate change.
1 online resource (29 p.)
This paper presents a model to assess the socioeconomic resilience to natural disasters of an economy, defined as its capacity to mitigate the impact of disaster-related asset losses on welfare, and a tool to help decision makers identify the most promising policy options to reduce welfare losses due to floods. Calibrated with household surveys, the model suggests that welfare losses from the July 2005 floods in Mumbai were almost double the asset losses, because losses were concentrated on poor and vulnerable populations. Applied to river floods in 90 countries, the model provides estimates of country-level socioeconomic resilience. Because floods disproportionally affect poor people, each of global flood asset loss is equivalent to a .6 reduction in the affected country's national income, on average. The model also assesses and ranks policy levers to reduce flood losses in each country. It shows that considering asset losses is insufficient to assess disaster risk management policies. The same reduction in asset losses results in different welfare gains depending on who benefits. And some policies, such as adaptive social protection, do not reduce asset losses, but still reduce welfare losses. Asset and welfare losses can even move in opposite directions: increasing by one percentage point the share of income of the bottom 20 percent in the 90 countries would increase asset losses by 0.6 percent, since more wealth would be at risk. But it would also reduce the impact of income losses on wellbeing, and ultimately reduce welfare losses by 3.4 percent.
1 online resource (37 p.)
This paper discusses the scope for market mechanisms, already established for greenhouse gas mitigation in Annex 1 countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol, for implementing "net mitigation, " defined here as mitigation beyond Annex 1 countries' formal mitigation requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Such market mechanisms could be useful for establishing and extending greenhouse gas mitigation targets also under the Paris Agreement from December 2015. Net mitigation is considered in two possible forms: as a "net atmospheric benefit, " or as an "own contribution" by offset host countries. A main conclusion is that a "net atmospheric benefit" is possible at least in the short run, best implemented via stricter baselines against which offsets are credited; but it can also take the form of offset iscounting whereby offset buyers are credited fewer credits. The latter, although generally inefficient, can be a second-best response to certain imperfections in the offset market, which are discussed in the paper. There is less merit for claiming that "own contributions" can lead to additional mitigation under existing mechanisms.
1 online resource (XVI, 254 p. 292 ill., 55 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Data and Methods
  • Climate Change Historical Simulations and Projections
  • Comparisons among Multi-model Ensemble Methods
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions
  • Transferred Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Carbon Trade between Developed and Developing World.
This atlas and reference resource assembles the latest research findings on the responsibility and obligation of human society for historical climate change. It clearly and quantitatively estimates to what extent the developed and developing world are responsible for historical climate change with regard to anthropogenic carbon and sulfur emissions as well as global carbon trade, and so provides a potential tool to address the controversial issue of carbon emission reduction in international climate negotiations. Since the quantitative attribution of historical climate change is calculated based on CMIP5 models, the fidelity of these models in representing the observed climate change is also evaluated. In addition to evaluation, future climate change based on CMIP5 models is also shown both on global and regional scales (especially for China and its surrounding areas ) in terms of surface air temperature, precipitation, sea surface temperature, atmospheric circulations and Arctic Sea ice. The atlas also makes various comparisons among different multi-model ensemble methods in order to obtain the most reliable estimation.
1 online resource ()
Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology outlines the cutting-edge research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics, as well as the microbial ecology of biochar application to soil, the use of different phyto-chemical analyses, possibilities for future research, and recommendations for climate change policy. Biochar, or charcoal produced from plant matter and applied to soil, has become increasingly recognized as having the potential to address multiple contemporary concerns, such as agricultural productivity and contaminated ecosystem amelioration, primarily by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and improving soil functions. Biochar Application is the first reference to offer a complete assessment of the various impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems, and includes chapters analyzing all aspects of biochar technology and application to soil, from ecogenomic analyses and application ratios to nutrient cycling and next generation sequencing. Written by a team of international authors with interdisciplinary knowledge of biochar, this reference will provide a platform where collaborating teams can find a common resource to establish outcomes and identify future research needs throughout the world.
1 online resource (XIX, 543 p. 187 illus., 127 illus. in color.) online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Instead of the Foreword.- Biomineralization in Geosystems.- Geochemistry of Biogenic-Abiogenic Systems.- Biomineral Interactions in Soil.- bioweathering and destruction of Cultural Heritage Monuments.- Mineral Formation in Living Organisms and Biomimetic Materials.- History of Science.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
This book offers a collection of papers presented at the V International Symposium "Biogenic - abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems" that was held from 20-22 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg (Russia). Papers in this book cover a wide range of topics connected with interactions between biogenic and abiogenic components in the lithosphere, biosphere and technosphere. The main topics include: biomineralization in geosystems, geochemistry of biogenic-abiogenic systems, biomineral interactions in soil, minerals in living organisms and biomimetic materials, medical geology, bioweathering and destruction of cultural heritage.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319249858 20160619
1 online resource (520 p.)
1 online resource (25 p.)
Special economic zones can be an effective instrument to promote industrialization if implemented properly in the right context. In China, starting in the 1980s, special economic zones were used as a testing ground for the country's transition from a planned to a market economy, and they are a prime example of China's pragmatic and experimental approach to reforms. One of the great special economic zone success stories in China is the Suzhou Industrial Park, a modern industrial township developed in the early 1990s through a Sino-Singapore partnership. It is successful not just in the economic sense, but also in terms of urban and social development in an eco-friendly way. One key lesson is that in a weak market environment, a facilitating and reform-oriented host government, coupled with foreign expertise and knowledge as well as a "whole value chain" approach can go a long way in developing urban-industry well-integrated special economic zones. This paper is intended to examine the success factors and key lessons of the Sino-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park, which can be useful for other developing countries.
1 online resource (39 p.)
In many developing countries, environmental quality remains low and policies to improve it have been inconsistently effective. This paper conducts a case study of environmental policy, focusing on an unprecedented ruling by the Supreme Court of India, which targeted industrial pollution in the Ganga River. Difference-in-difference estimations indicate that the ruling led to reductions in river pollution and one-month infant mortality. To look at the mechanisms of impact, the paper tests whether the identified health impact is fully explained by changes in pollution induced by the policy, and fails to reject that it indeed is. In so doing, the analysis also quantifies the adverse impact of water pollution on infant health and documents the persistence of such impacts in downstream communities.
1 online resource (1 streaming video file (16 min.) : color, sound).
  • Contents: Niche construction: definitions and examples
  • The endomembrane system
  • Advent of cholesterol depended on oxygen
  • Ecosystems and the process of death
  • Internal niche construction
  • The swim-bladder, the lung and PTHrP
  • Niche construction and epigenetics interactions
  • Gaia hypothesis.
31 p. : digital, PDF file.
<p>Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of<italic>Deltaproteobacteria</italic>diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. In addition, many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co-occurrences containing putatively heterotrophic, candidate phyla such as OD1, <i>Atribacteria</i>, MBG-B, and Hyd24-12 and the potential for complex sulfur cycling involving <i>Epsilon</i>-, <i>Delta</i>-, and <i>Gammaproteobacteria</i> in methane seep ecosystems.</p>