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Book
ix, 577 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
  • Preface x About the Companion Website x 1 Significance, History, and Challenges of Environmental Microbiology 1 1.1 Core concepts can unify environmental microbiology 1 1.2 Synopsis of the significance of environmental microbiology 2 1.3 A brief history of environmental microbiology 6 1.4 Complexity of our world 10 1.5 Many disciplines and their integration 12 2 Formation of the Biosphere: Key Biogeochemical and Evolutionary Events 23 2.1 Issues and methods in Earth s history and evolution 24 2.2 Formation of early planet Earth 24 2.3 Did life reach Earth from Mars? 26 2.4 Plausible stages in the development of early life 29 2.5 Mineral surfaces in marine hydrothermal vents: the early iron/sulfur world could have driven biosynthesis 33 2.6 Encapsulation (a key to cellular life) and an alternative (non-marine) hypothesis for the habitat of pre-cellular life 34 2.7 A plausible definition of the tree of life s last universal common ancestor (LUCA) 35 2.8 The rise of oxygen 36 2.9 Evidence for oxygen and cellular life in the sedimentary record 37 2.10 The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis 38 2.11 Consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: molecular oxygen in the atmosphere and large pools of organic carbon 43 2.12 Eukaryotic evolution: endosymbiotic theory and the blending of traits from Archaea and Bacteria 45 3 Physiological Ecology: Resource Exploitation by Microorganisms 52 3.1 The cause of physiological diversity: diverse habitats provide selective pressures over evolutionary time 53 3.2 Biological and evolutionary insights from genomics 53 3.3 Fundamentals of nutrition: carbon- and energy-source utilization provide a foundation for physiological ecology 62 3.4 Selective pressures: ecosystem nutrient fluxes regulate the physiological status and composition of microbial communities 64 3.5 Cellular responses to starvation: resting stages, environmental sensing circuits, gene regulation, dormancy, and slow growth 69 3.6 A planet of complex mixtures in chemical disequilibrium 77 3.7 A thermodynamic hierarchy describing biosphere selective pressures, energy sources, and biogeochemical reactions 82 3.8 Using the thermodynamic hierarchy of half reactions to predict biogeochemical reactions in time and space 85 3.9 Overview of metabolism and the logic of electron transport 95 310 The flow of carbon and electrons in anaerobic food chains: syntrophy is the rule 97 3.11 The diversity of lithotrophic reactions 100 4 A Survey of the Earth s Microbial Habitats 106 4.1 Terrestrial biomes 107 4.2 Soils: geographic features relevant to both vegetation and microorganisms 109 4.3 Aquatic habitats 113 4.4 Subsurface habitats: oceanic and terrestrial 121 4.5 Defining the prokaryotic biosphere: where do prokaryotes occur on Earth? 131 4.6 Life at the micron scale: an excursion into the microhabitat of soil microorganisms 135 4.7 Extreme habitats for life and microbiological adaptations 140 5 Microbial Diversity: Who is Here and How do we Know? 150 5.1 Defining cultured and uncultured microorganisms 151 5.2 Approaching a census: an introduction to the environmental microbiological toolbox 155 5.3 Criteria for census taking: recognition of distinctive microorganisms (species) 158 5.4 Proceeding toward census taking and measures of microbial diversity 162 5.5 The tree of life: our view of evolution s blueprint for biological diversity 169 5.6 A sampling of key traits of cultured microorganisms from domains Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea 172 5.7 Placing the uncultured majority on the tree of life: what have nonculture-based investigations revealed? 189 5.8 Viruses: an overview of biology, ecology, and diversity 194 5.9 Microbial diversity illustrated by genomics, horizontal gene transfer, and cell size 199 5.10 Biogeography of microorganisms 6 Generating and Interpreting Information in Environmental Microbiology: Methods and their Limitations 208 6.1 How do we know? 209 6.2 Perspectives from a century of scholars and enrichment-culturing procedures 209 6.3 Constraints on knowledge imposed by ecosystem complexity 213 6.4 Environmental microbiology s Heisenberg uncertainty principle : model systems and their risks 215 6.5 Fieldwork: being sure sampling procedures are compatible with analyses and goals 217 6.6 Blending and balancing disciplines from field geochemistry to pure cultures 223 6.7 Overview of methods for determining the position and composition of microbial communities 226 6.8 Methods for determining in situ biogeochemical activities and when they occur 243 6.9 Cloning-based metagenomics and related methods: procedures and insights 245 6.10 Cloning-free next-generation sequencing and Omics methods: procedures and insights 6.11 Discovering the organisms responsible for particular ecological processes: linking identity with activity 255 7 Microbial Biogeochemistry: a Grand Synthesis 281 7.1 Mineral connections: the roles of inorganic elements in life processes 282 7.2 Greenhouse gases and lessons from biogeochemical modeling 286 7.3 The stuff of life : identifying the pools of biosphere materials whose microbiological transformations drive the biogeochemical cycles 293 7.4 Elemental biogeochemical cycles: concepts and physiological processes 313 7.5 Cellular mechanisms of microbial biogeochemical pathways 329 7.6 Mass balance approaches to elemental cycles 335 8 Special and Applied Topics in Environmental Microbiology 346 8.1 Other organisms as microbial habitats: ecological relationships 346 8.2 Microbial residents of plants and humans 363 8.3 Biodegradation and bioremediation 373 8.4 Biofilms 399 8.5 Evolution of catabolic pathways for organic contaminants 403 8.6 Environmental biotechnology: overview and nine case studies 410 8.7 Antibiotic resistance 423 9 Future Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology 442 9.1 The influence of systems biology on environmental microbiology 442 9.2 Ecological niches and their genetic basis 448 9.3 Concepts help define future progress in environmental microbiology 453 Glossary 460 Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
New and expanded for its second edition, Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, is a timely update to a classic text filled with ideas, connections, and concepts that advance an in-depth understanding of this growing segment of microbiology. Core principles are highlighted with an emphasis on the logic of the science and new methods-driven discoveries. Numerous up-to-date examples and applications boxes provide tangible reinforcement of material covered. Study questions at the end of each chapter require students to utilize analytical and quantitative approaches, to define and defend arguments, and to apply microbiological paradigms to their personal interests. Essay assignments and related readings stimulate student inquiry and serve as focal points for teachers to launch classroom discussions. A companion website with downloadable artwork and answers to study questions is also available. Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, offers a coherent and comprehensive treatment of this dynamic, emerging field, building bridges between basic biology, evolution, genomics, ecology, biotechnology, climate change, and the environmental sciences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface x About the Companion Website x 1 Significance, History, and Challenges of Environmental Microbiology 1 1.1 Core concepts can unify environmental microbiology 1 1.2 Synopsis of the significance of environmental microbiology 2 1.3 A brief history of environmental microbiology 6 1.4 Complexity of our world 10 1.5 Many disciplines and their integration 12 2 Formation of the Biosphere: Key Biogeochemical and Evolutionary Events 23 2.1 Issues and methods in Earth s history and evolution 24 2.2 Formation of early planet Earth 24 2.3 Did life reach Earth from Mars? 26 2.4 Plausible stages in the development of early life 29 2.5 Mineral surfaces in marine hydrothermal vents: the early iron/sulfur world could have driven biosynthesis 33 2.6 Encapsulation (a key to cellular life) and an alternative (non-marine) hypothesis for the habitat of pre-cellular life 34 2.7 A plausible definition of the tree of life s last universal common ancestor (LUCA) 35 2.8 The rise of oxygen 36 2.9 Evidence for oxygen and cellular life in the sedimentary record 37 2.10 The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis 38 2.11 Consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: molecular oxygen in the atmosphere and large pools of organic carbon 43 2.12 Eukaryotic evolution: endosymbiotic theory and the blending of traits from Archaea and Bacteria 45 3 Physiological Ecology: Resource Exploitation by Microorganisms 52 3.1 The cause of physiological diversity: diverse habitats provide selective pressures over evolutionary time 53 3.2 Biological and evolutionary insights from genomics 53 3.3 Fundamentals of nutrition: carbon- and energy-source utilization provide a foundation for physiological ecology 62 3.4 Selective pressures: ecosystem nutrient fluxes regulate the physiological status and composition of microbial communities 64 3.5 Cellular responses to starvation: resting stages, environmental sensing circuits, gene regulation, dormancy, and slow growth 69 3.6 A planet of complex mixtures in chemical disequilibrium 77 3.7 A thermodynamic hierarchy describing biosphere selective pressures, energy sources, and biogeochemical reactions 82 3.8 Using the thermodynamic hierarchy of half reactions to predict biogeochemical reactions in time and space 85 3.9 Overview of metabolism and the logic of electron transport 95 310 The flow of carbon and electrons in anaerobic food chains: syntrophy is the rule 97 3.11 The diversity of lithotrophic reactions 100 4 A Survey of the Earth s Microbial Habitats 106 4.1 Terrestrial biomes 107 4.2 Soils: geographic features relevant to both vegetation and microorganisms 109 4.3 Aquatic habitats 113 4.4 Subsurface habitats: oceanic and terrestrial 121 4.5 Defining the prokaryotic biosphere: where do prokaryotes occur on Earth? 131 4.6 Life at the micron scale: an excursion into the microhabitat of soil microorganisms 135 4.7 Extreme habitats for life and microbiological adaptations 140 5 Microbial Diversity: Who is Here and How do we Know? 150 5.1 Defining cultured and uncultured microorganisms 151 5.2 Approaching a census: an introduction to the environmental microbiological toolbox 155 5.3 Criteria for census taking: recognition of distinctive microorganisms (species) 158 5.4 Proceeding toward census taking and measures of microbial diversity 162 5.5 The tree of life: our view of evolution s blueprint for biological diversity 169 5.6 A sampling of key traits of cultured microorganisms from domains Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea 172 5.7 Placing the uncultured majority on the tree of life: what have nonculture-based investigations revealed? 189 5.8 Viruses: an overview of biology, ecology, and diversity 194 5.9 Microbial diversity illustrated by genomics, horizontal gene transfer, and cell size 199 5.10 Biogeography of microorganisms 6 Generating and Interpreting Information in Environmental Microbiology: Methods and their Limitations 208 6.1 How do we know? 209 6.2 Perspectives from a century of scholars and enrichment-culturing procedures 209 6.3 Constraints on knowledge imposed by ecosystem complexity 213 6.4 Environmental microbiology s Heisenberg uncertainty principle : model systems and their risks 215 6.5 Fieldwork: being sure sampling procedures are compatible with analyses and goals 217 6.6 Blending and balancing disciplines from field geochemistry to pure cultures 223 6.7 Overview of methods for determining the position and composition of microbial communities 226 6.8 Methods for determining in situ biogeochemical activities and when they occur 243 6.9 Cloning-based metagenomics and related methods: procedures and insights 245 6.10 Cloning-free next-generation sequencing and Omics methods: procedures and insights 6.11 Discovering the organisms responsible for particular ecological processes: linking identity with activity 255 7 Microbial Biogeochemistry: a Grand Synthesis 281 7.1 Mineral connections: the roles of inorganic elements in life processes 282 7.2 Greenhouse gases and lessons from biogeochemical modeling 286 7.3 The stuff of life : identifying the pools of biosphere materials whose microbiological transformations drive the biogeochemical cycles 293 7.4 Elemental biogeochemical cycles: concepts and physiological processes 313 7.5 Cellular mechanisms of microbial biogeochemical pathways 329 7.6 Mass balance approaches to elemental cycles 335 8 Special and Applied Topics in Environmental Microbiology 346 8.1 Other organisms as microbial habitats: ecological relationships 346 8.2 Microbial residents of plants and humans 363 8.3 Biodegradation and bioremediation 373 8.4 Biofilms 399 8.5 Evolution of catabolic pathways for organic contaminants 403 8.6 Environmental biotechnology: overview and nine case studies 410 8.7 Antibiotic resistance 423 9 Future Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology 442 9.1 The influence of systems biology on environmental microbiology 442 9.2 Ecological niches and their genetic basis 448 9.3 Concepts help define future progress in environmental microbiology 453 Glossary 460 Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
New and expanded for its second edition, Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, is a timely update to a classic text filled with ideas, connections, and concepts that advance an in-depth understanding of this growing segment of microbiology. Core principles are highlighted with an emphasis on the logic of the science and new methods-driven discoveries. Numerous up-to-date examples and applications boxes provide tangible reinforcement of material covered. Study questions at the end of each chapter require students to utilize analytical and quantitative approaches, to define and defend arguments, and to apply microbiological paradigms to their personal interests. Essay assignments and related readings stimulate student inquiry and serve as focal points for teachers to launch classroom discussions. A companion website with downloadable artwork and answers to study questions is also available. Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, offers a coherent and comprehensive treatment of this dynamic, emerging field, building bridges between basic biology, evolution, genomics, ecology, biotechnology, climate change, and the environmental sciences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Biology Library (Falconer), Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Status of items at Biology Library (Falconer)
Biology Library (Falconer) Status
Stacks
QR100 .M33 2016 Unknown
Status of items at Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain) Status
Stacks
QR100 .M33 2016 Unavailable In process Request
Book
53 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Climate support will be an important element in reaching a post-2020 climate agreement at COP 21 in December 2015. To further increase and mobilise the levels of climate support post-2020, a number of proposals have been made in the negotiating text produced in the Geneva session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in February 2015. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of several of these proposals, focusing on those that are clear and specific. The paper assesses proposals on mobilising climate finance using the following criteria: (i) the level of financial flows that they could generate; (ii) how much of this could be mobilised in the UNFCCC context; (iii) the ease of implementation of the proposal; (iv) if and how such increased mobilisation could be monitored; and (v) whether the proposal would fill a specific gap in the context of climate support within the UNFCCC. The paper undertakes a similar assessment for proposals in the Geneva text on enhancing the level of technology development and transfer, as well as capacity building. It discusses whether the proposals could potentially increase technology development and transfer, capacity building and development, as well as whether they are likely to do so in practice, based on current experience and ease of implementation. The proposals vary significantly in the amount of climate support they could mobilise (or enhance, in the case of technology and capacity building), for a range of reasons. These include the particular wording of the proposals, their sensitivity to national implementation, uncertainty in measuring progress towards objectives, and in some cases the limited role the UNFCCC plays as an institution in a given area of climate support.
Climate support will be an important element in reaching a post-2020 climate agreement at COP 21 in December 2015. To further increase and mobilise the levels of climate support post-2020, a number of proposals have been made in the negotiating text produced in the Geneva session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in February 2015. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of several of these proposals, focusing on those that are clear and specific. The paper assesses proposals on mobilising climate finance using the following criteria: (i) the level of financial flows that they could generate; (ii) how much of this could be mobilised in the UNFCCC context; (iii) the ease of implementation of the proposal; (iv) if and how such increased mobilisation could be monitored; and (v) whether the proposal would fill a specific gap in the context of climate support within the UNFCCC. The paper undertakes a similar assessment for proposals in the Geneva text on enhancing the level of technology development and transfer, as well as capacity building. It discusses whether the proposals could potentially increase technology development and transfer, capacity building and development, as well as whether they are likely to do so in practice, based on current experience and ease of implementation. The proposals vary significantly in the amount of climate support they could mobilise (or enhance, in the case of technology and capacity building), for a range of reasons. These include the particular wording of the proposals, their sensitivity to national implementation, uncertainty in measuring progress towards objectives, and in some cases the limited role the UNFCCC plays as an institution in a given area of climate support.
Book
1 online resource (12064 ) : digital, PDF file.
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y<sup>-1</sup>), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y<sup>-1</sup>), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 8285 ) : digital, PDF file.
Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These similarities likely reflect a shared role for fermentative metabolisms despite a shift in primary carbon sources from plant-derived to animal-derived polysaccharides, such as chitin. In contrast, protein catabolism and essential amino acid synthesis pathways in baleen whale microbiomes more closely resemble those of terrestrial carnivores. Our results demonstrate that functional attributes of the microbiome can vary independently even given an animal-derived diet, illustrating how diet and evolutionary history combine to shape microbial diversity in the mammalian gut.
Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These similarities likely reflect a shared role for fermentative metabolisms despite a shift in primary carbon sources from plant-derived to animal-derived polysaccharides, such as chitin. In contrast, protein catabolism and essential amino acid synthesis pathways in baleen whale microbiomes more closely resemble those of terrestrial carnivores. Our results demonstrate that functional attributes of the microbiome can vary independently even given an animal-derived diet, illustrating how diet and evolutionary history combine to shape microbial diversity in the mammalian gut.
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
Book
1 online resource
  • Front Cover ; Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean ; Copyright ; Contents ; Preface ; Introduction ; Chapter 1: A Brief History of Exploration and Discovery; 1.1. The Age of Navigation
  • 1.2. Scientific Expeditions Come to the Fore 1.3. An Increase in Commercial Exploitation ; 1.4. Dynamics of the Discovery of Southern Ocean Biodiversity
  • 1.5. Tools for Oceanography Exploration Chapter 2: The Southern Ocean and its Environment: A World of Extremes ; 2.1. An Ocean with Undefined Limits ; 2.2. The Southern Climate: Windy and Cold, with Very Little Light ; 2.3. Ice in All its Forms; 2.4. In Isolation Yet Interconnected, the Complexity of Ocean Circulation; 2.5. Sediment and Nutrients
  • Chapter 3: The Ocean Through Time3.1. The Split of a Supercontinent from the Jurassic to the Eocene; 3.2. Global Cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition; 3.3. Other Thermal Anomalies During the Oligocene and Miocene
  • 3.4. Another Cold Snap in the Late Miocene 3.5. Climatic Oscillations and Glacial-Interglacial Cycles; Chapter 4: Southern Ocean Biogeography and Communities
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is vast, in particular, its history, its isolation, and climate, making it a unique "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, adaptation and ecology. Its evolutionary history of adaptation provide a wealth of information on the functioning of the biosphere and its potential. The Southern Ocean is the result of a history of nearly 40 million years marked by the opening of the Straits south of Australia and South America and intense cooling. The violence of its weather, its very low temperatures, the formation of huge ice-covered areas, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a world apart. This book discusses the consequences for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the region, including endemism, slowed metabolism, longevity, gigantism, and its larval stages; features which make this vast ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive processes, scalable to work in extreme environmental conditions. Today, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is facing global change, particularly in regional warming and acidification of water bodies. Unable to migrate further south, how will she cope, if any, to visitors from the North? * Designed for curious readers to discover the immense ocean surrounding the most isolated and most inhospitable continent on the planet.* Describes the Southern Ocean facing biodiversification due to global change* Authored by scientists with experience of expeditions to the Southern Ocean.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Front Cover ; Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean ; Copyright ; Contents ; Preface ; Introduction ; Chapter 1: A Brief History of Exploration and Discovery; 1.1. The Age of Navigation
  • 1.2. Scientific Expeditions Come to the Fore 1.3. An Increase in Commercial Exploitation ; 1.4. Dynamics of the Discovery of Southern Ocean Biodiversity
  • 1.5. Tools for Oceanography Exploration Chapter 2: The Southern Ocean and its Environment: A World of Extremes ; 2.1. An Ocean with Undefined Limits ; 2.2. The Southern Climate: Windy and Cold, with Very Little Light ; 2.3. Ice in All its Forms; 2.4. In Isolation Yet Interconnected, the Complexity of Ocean Circulation; 2.5. Sediment and Nutrients
  • Chapter 3: The Ocean Through Time3.1. The Split of a Supercontinent from the Jurassic to the Eocene; 3.2. Global Cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition; 3.3. Other Thermal Anomalies During the Oligocene and Miocene
  • 3.4. Another Cold Snap in the Late Miocene 3.5. Climatic Oscillations and Glacial-Interglacial Cycles; Chapter 4: Southern Ocean Biogeography and Communities
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is vast, in particular, its history, its isolation, and climate, making it a unique "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, adaptation and ecology. Its evolutionary history of adaptation provide a wealth of information on the functioning of the biosphere and its potential. The Southern Ocean is the result of a history of nearly 40 million years marked by the opening of the Straits south of Australia and South America and intense cooling. The violence of its weather, its very low temperatures, the formation of huge ice-covered areas, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a world apart. This book discusses the consequences for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the region, including endemism, slowed metabolism, longevity, gigantism, and its larval stages; features which make this vast ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive processes, scalable to work in extreme environmental conditions. Today, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is facing global change, particularly in regional warming and acidification of water bodies. Unable to migrate further south, how will she cope, if any, to visitors from the North? * Designed for curious readers to discover the immense ocean surrounding the most isolated and most inhospitable continent on the planet.* Describes the Southern Ocean facing biodiversification due to global change* Authored by scientists with experience of expeditions to the Southern Ocean.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (22 p.)
With data from the nearly 6,000 households in the Nepal Living Standards Survey of 2010-11, this paper finds that the mean reduction in household firewood collection associated with use of a biogas plant for cooking is about 1,100 kilograms per year from a mean of about 2,400 kilograms per year. This estimate is derived by comparing only households with and without biogas in the same village, thus effectively removing the influence of many potential confounders. Further controls for important determinants of firewood collection, such as household size, per capita consumption expenditure, cattle ownership, and unemployment are used to identify the effect of biogas adoption on firewood collection. Bounds on omitted variable bias are derived with the proportional selection assumption. The central estimate is much smaller than those in the previous literature, but is still large enough for the cost of adopting biogas to be significantly reduced via carbon offsets at a modest carbon price of 0 per ton of CO2e when using central estimates of emission factors and global warming potentials of pollutants taken from the scientific literature.
With data from the nearly 6,000 households in the Nepal Living Standards Survey of 2010-11, this paper finds that the mean reduction in household firewood collection associated with use of a biogas plant for cooking is about 1,100 kilograms per year from a mean of about 2,400 kilograms per year. This estimate is derived by comparing only households with and without biogas in the same village, thus effectively removing the influence of many potential confounders. Further controls for important determinants of firewood collection, such as household size, per capita consumption expenditure, cattle ownership, and unemployment are used to identify the effect of biogas adoption on firewood collection. Bounds on omitted variable bias are derived with the proportional selection assumption. The central estimate is much smaller than those in the previous literature, but is still large enough for the cost of adopting biogas to be significantly reduced via carbon offsets at a modest carbon price of 0 per ton of CO2e when using central estimates of emission factors and global warming potentials of pollutants taken from the scientific literature.
Book
1 online resource (47 p.)
This paper provides field experiment-based evidence on the potential additional forest carbon sequestration that cleaner and more fuel-efficient cookstoves might generate. The paper focuses on the Mirt (meaning "best") cookstove, which is used to bake injera, the staple food in Ethiopia. The analysis finds that the technology generates per-meal fuel savings of 22 to 31 percent compared with a traditional three-stone stove with little or no increase in cooking time. Because approximately 88 percent of harvests from Ethiopian forests are unsustainable, these findings suggest that the Mirt stove, and potentially improved cookstoves more generally, can contribute to reduced forest degradation. These savings may be creditable under the United Nations Collaborative Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. Because of the highly specific nature of the Mirt stove and the lack of refrigeration in rural Ethiopia, rebound effects are unlikely, but this analysis was unable completely to rule out such leakage. The conclusions are therefore indicative, pending evidence on the frequency of Mirt stove use in the field. The effects of six randomized behavioral treatments on fuelwood and cooking time outcomes were also evaluated, but limited effects were found.
This paper provides field experiment-based evidence on the potential additional forest carbon sequestration that cleaner and more fuel-efficient cookstoves might generate. The paper focuses on the Mirt (meaning "best") cookstove, which is used to bake injera, the staple food in Ethiopia. The analysis finds that the technology generates per-meal fuel savings of 22 to 31 percent compared with a traditional three-stone stove with little or no increase in cooking time. Because approximately 88 percent of harvests from Ethiopian forests are unsustainable, these findings suggest that the Mirt stove, and potentially improved cookstoves more generally, can contribute to reduced forest degradation. These savings may be creditable under the United Nations Collaborative Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. Because of the highly specific nature of the Mirt stove and the lack of refrigeration in rural Ethiopia, rebound effects are unlikely, but this analysis was unable completely to rule out such leakage. The conclusions are therefore indicative, pending evidence on the frequency of Mirt stove use in the field. The effects of six randomized behavioral treatments on fuelwood and cooking time outcomes were also evaluated, but limited effects were found.
Book
1 online resource (34 p.)
Global trajectories for reducing carbon emissions depend on the local adoption of alternatives to conventional energy sources, technologies, and urban development. Yet, decisions on which type of capital investments to make, made by local governments as part of the normal budget cycle, typically do not incorporate climate considerations. Furthermore, current academic and professional literature specific to climate change draws attention to decision-making tools that would require access to technical expertise, data, and financial support that may not be practical for cities in low- and middle-income countries. Arguably, the methodologies most able to effect this transformation will be those that are convenient and affordable to administer, and that offer straight-forward low carbon alternatives to traditional forms of infrastructure investment. Current methodologies for capital investment planning that do not take climate change into consideration can result in prioritization of investments that diverge from a low carbon path and a potential missed opportunity to reap financial benefits from efficiency gains. This paper concludes that relatively minor alterations to common procedures can reveal the trade-offs and local benefits of low carbon alternatives in the capital investment planning process. This paper was written as an input to the preparation of the Climate-Informed Capital Investment Planning Guidebook, a how-to guide for local government staff, which will be published in 2015.
Global trajectories for reducing carbon emissions depend on the local adoption of alternatives to conventional energy sources, technologies, and urban development. Yet, decisions on which type of capital investments to make, made by local governments as part of the normal budget cycle, typically do not incorporate climate considerations. Furthermore, current academic and professional literature specific to climate change draws attention to decision-making tools that would require access to technical expertise, data, and financial support that may not be practical for cities in low- and middle-income countries. Arguably, the methodologies most able to effect this transformation will be those that are convenient and affordable to administer, and that offer straight-forward low carbon alternatives to traditional forms of infrastructure investment. Current methodologies for capital investment planning that do not take climate change into consideration can result in prioritization of investments that diverge from a low carbon path and a potential missed opportunity to reap financial benefits from efficiency gains. This paper concludes that relatively minor alterations to common procedures can reveal the trade-offs and local benefits of low carbon alternatives in the capital investment planning process. This paper was written as an input to the preparation of the Climate-Informed Capital Investment Planning Guidebook, a how-to guide for local government staff, which will be published in 2015.
Book
1 online resource (43 p.)
A significant portion of the world's forests that are eligible for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, known as REDD+, payments are community managed forests. However, there is little knowledge about preferences of households living in community managed forests for REDD+ contracts, or the opportunity costs of accepting REDD+ contracts for these communities. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of rural communities in Nepal to understand respondents' preferences toward the institutional structure of REDD+ contracts. The sample is split across communities with community managed forests groups and those without community managed forest groups to see how prior involvement in community managed forest groups affects preferences. The results show that respondents care about how the payments are divided between households and communities, the severity of restrictions on firewood use, the restrictions on grazing, and the fairness of access to community managed forest resources as well as the level of payments. The preferences for REDD contracts are in general similar between community managed and non-community managed forest resource respondents, but there are differences, in particular with regard to how beliefs influence the likelihood of accepting the contracts. Finally, the paper finds that the opportunity cost of REDD+ payments, although cheaper than many other carbon dioxide abatement options, is higher than previously suggested in the literature.
A significant portion of the world's forests that are eligible for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, known as REDD+, payments are community managed forests. However, there is little knowledge about preferences of households living in community managed forests for REDD+ contracts, or the opportunity costs of accepting REDD+ contracts for these communities. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of rural communities in Nepal to understand respondents' preferences toward the institutional structure of REDD+ contracts. The sample is split across communities with community managed forests groups and those without community managed forest groups to see how prior involvement in community managed forest groups affects preferences. The results show that respondents care about how the payments are divided between households and communities, the severity of restrictions on firewood use, the restrictions on grazing, and the fairness of access to community managed forest resources as well as the level of payments. The preferences for REDD contracts are in general similar between community managed and non-community managed forest resource respondents, but there are differences, in particular with regard to how beliefs influence the likelihood of accepting the contracts. Finally, the paper finds that the opportunity cost of REDD+ payments, although cheaper than many other carbon dioxide abatement options, is higher than previously suggested in the literature.
Book
26 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. Furthermore, environmental goals might not be reached if pollution shifts abroad. A competing view argues that properly implemented environmentally related taxes foster innovation, thereby boosting productivity and competitiveness. Empirical research is needed to gain insight into the strength of these various effects. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999. Germany’s manufacturing sector uses significant amounts of electricity, and to counteract potential negative effects on competitiveness, relief was provided: firms using more electricity than specified thresholds benefitted from reduced electricity tax rates. The tax reduction amounted up to EUR 14.6 per megawatt hour, about 80% of the full tax rate. When measured as an effective rate on the carbon content in the average unit of electricity, the electricity tax translates into EUR 44.4 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating the magnitude of the tax. The econometric analysis – a regression discontinuity design – shows no robust effects in either direction of the reduced electricity tax rates on firms’ competitiveness. Firms subject to the full tax rates, but otherwise similar to firms facing reduced rates, did not perform worse in terms of turnover, exports, value added, investment and employment. The analysis questions the relevance of the tax reduction for competitiveness reasons and suggests that it could be gradually removed. The energy use threshold, above which a reduced tax rate applies, could be raised over time and competitiveness impacts monitored.
Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. Furthermore, environmental goals might not be reached if pollution shifts abroad. A competing view argues that properly implemented environmentally related taxes foster innovation, thereby boosting productivity and competitiveness. Empirical research is needed to gain insight into the strength of these various effects. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999. Germany’s manufacturing sector uses significant amounts of electricity, and to counteract potential negative effects on competitiveness, relief was provided: firms using more electricity than specified thresholds benefitted from reduced electricity tax rates. The tax reduction amounted up to EUR 14.6 per megawatt hour, about 80% of the full tax rate. When measured as an effective rate on the carbon content in the average unit of electricity, the electricity tax translates into EUR 44.4 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating the magnitude of the tax. The econometric analysis – a regression discontinuity design – shows no robust effects in either direction of the reduced electricity tax rates on firms’ competitiveness. Firms subject to the full tax rates, but otherwise similar to firms facing reduced rates, did not perform worse in terms of turnover, exports, value added, investment and employment. The analysis questions the relevance of the tax reduction for competitiveness reasons and suggests that it could be gradually removed. The energy use threshold, above which a reduced tax rate applies, could be raised over time and competitiveness impacts monitored.
Book
1 online resource (48 p.)
This paper examines whether cooperative behavior by respondents measured as contributions in a one-shot public goods game correlates with reported pro-forest collective action behaviors. All the outcomes analyzed are costly in terms of time, land, or money. The study finds significant evidence that more cooperative individuals (or those who believe their group members will cooperate) engage in collective action behaviors that support common forests, once the analysis is adjusted for demographic factors, wealth, and location. Those who contribute more in the public goods experiment are found to be more likely to have planted trees in community forests during the previous month and to have invested in biogas. They also have planted more trees on their own farms and spent more time monitoring community forests. As cooperation appears to be highly conditional on beliefs about others' cooperation, these results suggest that policies to support cooperation and strengthen local governance could be important for collective action and economic outcomes associated with forest resources. As forest management and quality in developing countries is particularly important for climate change policy, these results suggest that international efforts such as the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation should pay particular attention to supporting governance and cooperation at the local level.
This paper examines whether cooperative behavior by respondents measured as contributions in a one-shot public goods game correlates with reported pro-forest collective action behaviors. All the outcomes analyzed are costly in terms of time, land, or money. The study finds significant evidence that more cooperative individuals (or those who believe their group members will cooperate) engage in collective action behaviors that support common forests, once the analysis is adjusted for demographic factors, wealth, and location. Those who contribute more in the public goods experiment are found to be more likely to have planted trees in community forests during the previous month and to have invested in biogas. They also have planted more trees on their own farms and spent more time monitoring community forests. As cooperation appears to be highly conditional on beliefs about others' cooperation, these results suggest that policies to support cooperation and strengthen local governance could be important for collective action and economic outcomes associated with forest resources. As forest management and quality in developing countries is particularly important for climate change policy, these results suggest that international efforts such as the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation should pay particular attention to supporting governance and cooperation at the local level.
Book
1 PDF (xvi, 125 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
Book
1 online resource ()
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
50 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Raw materials are essential for the global economy and future development depends on their continued supply. Like fossil fuels, minerals are non-renewable. In general, their deposits in the Earth’s crust are also geographically clustered, making security of supply a potential risk. In many cases, the exhaustion of economically competitive minerals deposits in industrialized countries has made supplies increasingly dependent on the political stability of mineral-rich emerging economies. At the same time, increasing demand from these emerging markets, new technologies that require large amounts of rare minerals , low substitutability in applications and low rates of recycling have made economies more vulnerable to potential supply disruptions. Consequently policy-makers in several OECD countries and regions have developed reports that assess the vulnerability of their respective economies to disruptions in the supply of minerals. A common aim of many of these studies is the identification of a list of so-called ‘critical minerals’, defined as minerals for which the risk of disruptions in supply is relatively high and for which supply disruptions will be associated with large economic impacts.
Raw materials are essential for the global economy and future development depends on their continued supply. Like fossil fuels, minerals are non-renewable. In general, their deposits in the Earth’s crust are also geographically clustered, making security of supply a potential risk. In many cases, the exhaustion of economically competitive minerals deposits in industrialized countries has made supplies increasingly dependent on the political stability of mineral-rich emerging economies. At the same time, increasing demand from these emerging markets, new technologies that require large amounts of rare minerals , low substitutability in applications and low rates of recycling have made economies more vulnerable to potential supply disruptions. Consequently policy-makers in several OECD countries and regions have developed reports that assess the vulnerability of their respective economies to disruptions in the supply of minerals. A common aim of many of these studies is the identification of a list of so-called ‘critical minerals’, defined as minerals for which the risk of disruptions in supply is relatively high and for which supply disruptions will be associated with large economic impacts.
Book
1 online resource (42 p.)
South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electricity cooperation and trade, and undertaking needed domestic sector reforms. Although bilateral electricity sector cooperation in the region is increasing, broader regional cooperation and trade initiatives have lagged in the face of regional barriers and domestic sector inefficiencies. Deeper electricity market reforms are not a necessity for further development of cross-border electricity trade, but limited progress in overcoming regional and domestic barriers will limit the scope of the regional market and the benefits it can provide.
South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electricity cooperation and trade, and undertaking needed domestic sector reforms. Although bilateral electricity sector cooperation in the region is increasing, broader regional cooperation and trade initiatives have lagged in the face of regional barriers and domestic sector inefficiencies. Deeper electricity market reforms are not a necessity for further development of cross-border electricity trade, but limited progress in overcoming regional and domestic barriers will limit the scope of the regional market and the benefits it can provide.
Book
1 online resource (33 p.)
Economic development critically involves diversification and structural transformation-that is, the continued, dynamic reallocation of resources from less productive to more productive sectors and activities. This paper documents that, over an extended period, developing Asia has on average been particularly successful in diversifying its exports, particularly in comparison with Sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the progress has occurred through diversification along the 'extensive margin', that is, through entry into completely new products. In addition, developing Asia has on average benefited significantly from quality upgrading, helping it capitalize on already existing comparative advantages. Yet, agricultural and natural resources tend to have lower potential for quality upgrading than manufactures. Therefore, for lower-income "frontier" countries, diversification into products with longer "quality ladders" may be a necessary first step before large gains from quality improvement can be reaped.
Economic development critically involves diversification and structural transformation-that is, the continued, dynamic reallocation of resources from less productive to more productive sectors and activities. This paper documents that, over an extended period, developing Asia has on average been particularly successful in diversifying its exports, particularly in comparison with Sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the progress has occurred through diversification along the 'extensive margin', that is, through entry into completely new products. In addition, developing Asia has on average benefited significantly from quality upgrading, helping it capitalize on already existing comparative advantages. Yet, agricultural and natural resources tend to have lower potential for quality upgrading than manufactures. Therefore, for lower-income "frontier" countries, diversification into products with longer "quality ladders" may be a necessary first step before large gains from quality improvement can be reaped.
Book
1 online resource (41 p.)
This paper uses a randomized experimental design with real-time electronic stove temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests to estimate the fuelwood and carbon dioxide savings from an improved cookstove program in the process of being implemented in rural Ethiopia. Knowing more about how households interact with improved cookstoves is important, because cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is an important determinant of greenhouse gas emissions and indoor air pollution. Creating local networks among stove users generally appears to increase fuelwood savings, and among monetary treatments the most robust positive effects come from free distribution. The paper estimates that on average one improved stove saves approximately 634 kilograms of fuelwood per year or about 0.94 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, which is about half of previous estimates. Using the May 2015 California auction price of 3.39/ton, the carbon sequestration from each stove deployed is worth about 2.59. Such carbon market offset revenues would be sufficient to cover the cost of the stove within one year.
This paper uses a randomized experimental design with real-time electronic stove temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests to estimate the fuelwood and carbon dioxide savings from an improved cookstove program in the process of being implemented in rural Ethiopia. Knowing more about how households interact with improved cookstoves is important, because cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is an important determinant of greenhouse gas emissions and indoor air pollution. Creating local networks among stove users generally appears to increase fuelwood savings, and among monetary treatments the most robust positive effects come from free distribution. The paper estimates that on average one improved stove saves approximately 634 kilograms of fuelwood per year or about 0.94 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, which is about half of previous estimates. Using the May 2015 California auction price of 3.39/ton, the carbon sequestration from each stove deployed is worth about 2.59. Such carbon market offset revenues would be sufficient to cover the cost of the stove within one year.
Book
1 online resource (50 p.)
This paper estimate the effects of collective action in Nepal's community forests on four ecological measures of forest quality. Forest user group collective action is identified through membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme, pending membership in the program, and existence of a forest user group whose leaders can identify the year the group was formed. This last, broad category is important, because many community forest user groups outside the program show significant evidence of important collective action. The study finds that presumed open access forests have only 21 to 57 percent of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. In several models, program forests sequester more carbon than communities outside the program. This implies that paying new program groups for carbon sequestration credits under the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing may be especially appropriate. However, marginal carbon sequestration effects of program participation are smaller and less consistent than those from two broader measures of collective action. The main finding is that within the existing institutional environment, collective action broadly defined has very important, positive, and large effects on carbon stocks and, in some models, on other aspects of forest quality.
This paper estimate the effects of collective action in Nepal's community forests on four ecological measures of forest quality. Forest user group collective action is identified through membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme, pending membership in the program, and existence of a forest user group whose leaders can identify the year the group was formed. This last, broad category is important, because many community forest user groups outside the program show significant evidence of important collective action. The study finds that presumed open access forests have only 21 to 57 percent of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. In several models, program forests sequester more carbon than communities outside the program. This implies that paying new program groups for carbon sequestration credits under the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing may be especially appropriate. However, marginal carbon sequestration effects of program participation are smaller and less consistent than those from two broader measures of collective action. The main finding is that within the existing institutional environment, collective action broadly defined has very important, positive, and large effects on carbon stocks and, in some models, on other aspects of forest quality.
Book
1 online resource (124 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii), and several species of cacti. NSTec provided to project managers a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. Of the 18 projects on the NNSS, 15 occurred within the range of the threatened desert tortoise. Approximately 2.19 ha of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No desert tortoises were accidentally injured or killed by project activities, and no tortoises were killed by vehicles. On 13 occasions, tortoises were moved off the road and out of harm’s way. Six tortoises were found and transmitters attached as part of an approved study to assess impacts of vehicles on tortoises on the NNSS. NSTec biologists continued to monitor 37 juvenile desert tortoises as part of a collaborative effort to study survival and temperament of translocated animals. From 1978 until 2013, there has been an average of 11.2 wildland fires per year on the NNSS with an average of about 83.7 ha burned per fire. There were no wildland fires documented on the NNSS during 2014. Results from the wildland fuel surveys showed a very low risk of wildland fire due to reduced fuel loads caused by limited natural precipitation. Limited reptile trapping and reptile roadkill surveys were conducted to better define species distribution on the NNSS. Sixteen reptiles were trapped representing five species. Combined with data from 2013, 183 road kills were detected, representing 11 snake and 8 lizard species. Selected natural water sources were monitored to assess trends in physical and biological parameters, and one new water source was found. Wildlife use at five water troughs and four radiologically contaminated sumps was documented using motion-activated cameras. As part of the statewide effort to disseminate information throughout the botanical community, NSTec prepared a shape file with site-specific data for all 17 sensitive plants on the NNSS and provided it to the Nevada Natural Heritage Program for inclusion in their stat...
The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii), and several species of cacti. NSTec provided to project managers a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. Of the 18 projects on the NNSS, 15 occurred within the range of the threatened desert tortoise. Approximately 2.19 ha of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No desert tortoises were accidentally injured or killed by project activities, and no tortoises were killed by vehicles. On 13 occasions, tortoises were moved off the road and out of harm’s way. Six tortoises were found and transmitters attached as part of an approved study to assess impacts of vehicles on tortoises on the NNSS. NSTec biologists continued to monitor 37 juvenile desert tortoises as part of a collaborative effort to study survival and temperament of translocated animals. From 1978 until 2013, there has been an average of 11.2 wildland fires per year on the NNSS with an average of about 83.7 ha burned per fire. There were no wildland fires documented on the NNSS during 2014. Results from the wildland fuel surveys showed a very low risk of wildland fire due to reduced fuel loads caused by limited natural precipitation. Limited reptile trapping and reptile roadkill surveys were conducted to better define species distribution on the NNSS. Sixteen reptiles were trapped representing five species. Combined with data from 2013, 183 road kills were detected, representing 11 snake and 8 lizard species. Selected natural water sources were monitored to assess trends in physical and biological parameters, and one new water source was found. Wildlife use at five water troughs and four radiologically contaminated sumps was documented using motion-activated cameras. As part of the statewide effort to disseminate information throughout the botanical community, NSTec prepared a shape file with site-specific data for all 17 sensitive plants on the NNSS and provided it to the Nevada Natural Heritage Program for inclusion in their stat...