Search results

RSS feed for this result

5,603 results

254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
1 online resource (XVI, 254 p. 292 ill., 55 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Data and Methods
  • Climate Change Historical Simulations and Projections
  • Comparisons among Multi-model Ensemble Methods
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Developed and Developing World Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions
  • Transferred Responsibility for Historical Climate Change Induced from Carbon Trade between Developed and Developing World.
This atlas and reference resource assembles the latest research findings on the responsibility and obligation of human society for historical climate change. It clearly and quantitatively estimates to what extent the developed and developing world are responsible for historical climate change with regard to anthropogenic carbon and sulfur emissions as well as global carbon trade, and so provides a potential tool to address the controversial issue of carbon emission reduction in international climate negotiations. Since the quantitative attribution of historical climate change is calculated based on CMIP5 models, the fidelity of these models in representing the observed climate change is also evaluated. In addition to evaluation, future climate change based on CMIP5 models is also shown both on global and regional scales (especially for China and its surrounding areas ) in terms of surface air temperature, precipitation, sea surface temperature, atmospheric circulations and Arctic Sea ice. The atlas also makes various comparisons among different multi-model ensemble methods in order to obtain the most reliable estimation.
41 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
There are now a large number of valuation studies on the benefits of biodiversity and on ecosystem services, the services provided by different ecosystems (ESS). Both ideas have been used to elicit values from nature but in recent years the research community has focussed on ESS as the main organising framework, with some additional use of the biodiversity concept to value entities that have intrinsic value and are of an extraordinary nature. Estimates are available for the services from most habitats, by type of ecosystem service, usually expressed in USD per hectare per year. Coverage varies by habitat and region, as does the quality of the assessment, but it is possible now to carry out an estimation of changes in values for a number of ecosystem services a result of the introduction of a new policy or of a physical investment that modifies the ecosystem. While this is a positive development, there remain some issues to be resolved. One is the possibility of double-counting of services when using the standard categories of provisioning, regulating/supporting and cultural ESS. Regulating and supporting services are the basis of the provisioning services and so value estimates for the two cannot always be added up. For example, air pollution absorption is often valued using the cost of alternative ways of reducing the pollutants from the atmosphere while recreation is often valued in terms of willingness-to-pay (WTP) through stated preference methods.
1 online resource
  • Map of Cerrado
  • A note on the map of Cerrado
  • Forewords / Akihiko Tanaka and Alysson Paulinelli
  • Introduction / Akio Hosono, Carlos Magno Campos da Rocha and Yutaka Hongo
  • Part I. Development of Cerrado Agriculture / by Akio Hosono and Yutaka Hongo
  • Technological Breakthrough that Made Cerrado Agriculture Possible : Preparatory to Establishment Periods
  • Institutional Innovation that Drove Cerrado Agriculture on Truck : From Establishment to Early Development Periods
  • Full-fledged Development of Cerrado Agriculture : The Path to Becoming a Major Global Breadbasket
  • The Impact of Cerrado Development : Stable Food Supply and Inclusive Development with Agricultural Value Chains
  • Cerrado Agriculture and Environment
  • Part II. Technological and Institutional Innovations that Enabled Sustainable Cerrado Agriculture
  • EMBRAPA Model : An Experience of Institutional Building for Agricultural Technology Innovation / by Elseu Alves
  • Technological Innovations for Cerrado Agriculture : Experiences of CPAC / by Elmar Wagner, Wenceslau J. Goedert and Carlos Magno Campos de Rocha
  • Environment Friendly Land Use of Cerrado / by Edson Eyji Sano
  • PRODECER : An Innovative International Cooperation Program / by Roberto Rodriguez
  • Role of CAMPO, a Bi-National Public Private Enterprise as a Promoter and Coordinator of PRODECER / by Emiliano Pereira Botelho.
"Brazil has become one of today's major producers and net exporters of grains. This was achieved by converting barren land into one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. Since the mid-1970s, the tropical savanna, known as Cerrado, has been transformed into one of the world's largest grain-growing areas. The transformation of Cerrado is one of the crucial factors that enabled Brazil's impressive poverty reduction both through generating jobs and inclusive growth as well as through increasing food and nutrition security. Innovative technologies and institutions were introduced and developed to uphold environmental and ecological conservation. The experiences of the Cerrado related in this book will be of great value to contemporary developing countries struggling to attain food and nutrition security, value chains, employment and inclusive growth, and sustainable development"-- Provided by publisher.
1 online resource (XVI, 243 p.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • 1 - Underneath the Pantanal Wetland: a Deep-time History of Gondwana Assembly, Climate Change, and the Dawn of Metazoan Life (LV Warren*, F Quaglio, M G Simoes, BT Freitas, ML Assine and C Ricommini) 2 - Geology and Geomorphology of the Pantanal Basin (ML Assine*, A Silva, FN Pupim, ER Merino and D Mendes) 3 - Paleolimnology in the Pantanal: Using Lake Sediment Archives to Track Late Quaternary Environmental Change in the World's Largest Neotropical Wetland (MM McGlue*, A Silva, ML Assine, JC Stevaux and FW Cruz) 4 - Changing Rivers and the Hydrology of the Pantanal Wetland (ML Assine*, JC Stevaux, HA Macedo, I Bergier, C Padovani, and A Silva) *Corresponding author: "Mario L. Assine" 5 - Terrestrial and Aquatic Vegetation Diversity of the Pantanal Wetland (A Pott* and JSV Silva) 6 - Metabolic Scaling Applied to Native Woody Savanna Species in the Pantanal of Nhecolandia (I Bergier, SM Salis*, and PP Mattos) 7 - Alkaline Lakes Dynamics in the Nhecolandia Landscape (I Bergier*, A Krusche and F Guerin) 8 - Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Paraguay River floodplain (Pantanal) during Episodic Anoxia Events (I Bergier*, APS Silva, H Monteiro, F Guerin, HA Macedo, A Silva, A Krusche, HO Sawakuchi and D Bastviken) 9 - Pesticides in the Pantanal (E Dores) 10 - Historical Land-use Changes in Sao Gabriel do Oeste at the Upper Taquari River Basin (LS Buller*, GB Silva, MR Zanetti, E Ortega, A Moraes, T Goulart and I Bergier) 11 - Natural and Environmental Vulnerability along the Touristic "Estradas Parque Pantanal" by GIS Algebraic Mapping (GH Cavazzana, G Lastoria, KF Roche, TGT Catalini and AC Paranhos Filho) 12 - Climate Change Scenarios in the Pantanal (J Marengo*, G Sampaio and LM Alves).
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today's Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
1 online resource (xiv, 263 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Part I: Solar and Wind Energy Recursive Estimation Methods to Forecast Short-Term Solar Irradiation A. Martin, Juan R. Trapero Technical and environmental analysis of parabolic trough Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies G. San Miguel, B. Corona, J. Servert, D. Lopez, E. Cerrajero, F. Gutierrez, M. Lasheras Wind power forecast error probabilistic model using Markov Chains S. Martin Martinez, A. Honrubia Escribano, M. Canas Carreton, V. Guerrero Mestre and E. Gomez Lazaro Part II: Energy Storage Energy Storage Integration with Renewable Energies: the Case of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems Carlos de la Cruz, Monica Baptista Lema, Xavier del Toro Garcia, Pedro Roncero-Sanchez Batteries and Ultracapacitors based Energy Storage in Renewable Multi-Sources Systems Mahamadou Abdou Tankari, Gilles Lefebvre Different Phase Change Materials Implementations for Thermal Energy Storage Mustapha Karkri, Gilles Lefebvre, Laurent Royon Part III: Biomass Bio-refineries: an Overview on Bio-Ethanol Production Juan Carlos Dominguez Toribio, Francisco Jesus Fernandez Morales Effects of External Resistance on Microbial Fuel Cell's Performance A. Gonzalez del Campo, P. Canizares, J. Lobatob, M. Rodrigo, F.J. Fernandez The avocado and its waste: an approach of fuel potential/application Maria Paz Dominguez-- Karina Araus-- Pamela Bonert-- Francisco Sanchez-- Guillermo San Miguel-- Mario Toledo Part IV: Socio-economy of Energy Agency and Learning Relationships Against Energy Efficiency Barriers Martin Rubio, I., Florence Sandoval, A., Gonzalez Sanchez, E.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of efficient, clean and renewable energy production, conversion and storage. The ten chapters, written by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) solar and wind energy; (2) energy storage in batteries; (3) biomass; and (4) socio-economic aspects of energy. Given its multidisciplinary approach, which combines environmental analysis and an engineering perspective, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmentally sustainable energy production, conversion, storage and its engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
ix, 577 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
  • Preface x About the Companion Website x 1 Significance, History, and Challenges of Environmental Microbiology 1 1.1 Core concepts can unify environmental microbiology 1 1.2 Synopsis of the significance of environmental microbiology 2 1.3 A brief history of environmental microbiology 6 1.4 Complexity of our world 10 1.5 Many disciplines and their integration 12 2 Formation of the Biosphere: Key Biogeochemical and Evolutionary Events 23 2.1 Issues and methods in Earth s history and evolution 24 2.2 Formation of early planet Earth 24 2.3 Did life reach Earth from Mars? 26 2.4 Plausible stages in the development of early life 29 2.5 Mineral surfaces in marine hydrothermal vents: the early iron/sulfur world could have driven biosynthesis 33 2.6 Encapsulation (a key to cellular life) and an alternative (non-marine) hypothesis for the habitat of pre-cellular life 34 2.7 A plausible definition of the tree of life s last universal common ancestor (LUCA) 35 2.8 The rise of oxygen 36 2.9 Evidence for oxygen and cellular life in the sedimentary record 37 2.10 The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis 38 2.11 Consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: molecular oxygen in the atmosphere and large pools of organic carbon 43 2.12 Eukaryotic evolution: endosymbiotic theory and the blending of traits from Archaea and Bacteria 45 3 Physiological Ecology: Resource Exploitation by Microorganisms 52 3.1 The cause of physiological diversity: diverse habitats provide selective pressures over evolutionary time 53 3.2 Biological and evolutionary insights from genomics 53 3.3 Fundamentals of nutrition: carbon- and energy-source utilization provide a foundation for physiological ecology 62 3.4 Selective pressures: ecosystem nutrient fluxes regulate the physiological status and composition of microbial communities 64 3.5 Cellular responses to starvation: resting stages, environmental sensing circuits, gene regulation, dormancy, and slow growth 69 3.6 A planet of complex mixtures in chemical disequilibrium 77 3.7 A thermodynamic hierarchy describing biosphere selective pressures, energy sources, and biogeochemical reactions 82 3.8 Using the thermodynamic hierarchy of half reactions to predict biogeochemical reactions in time and space 85 3.9 Overview of metabolism and the logic of electron transport 95 310 The flow of carbon and electrons in anaerobic food chains: syntrophy is the rule 97 3.11 The diversity of lithotrophic reactions 100 4 A Survey of the Earth s Microbial Habitats 106 4.1 Terrestrial biomes 107 4.2 Soils: geographic features relevant to both vegetation and microorganisms 109 4.3 Aquatic habitats 113 4.4 Subsurface habitats: oceanic and terrestrial 121 4.5 Defining the prokaryotic biosphere: where do prokaryotes occur on Earth? 131 4.6 Life at the micron scale: an excursion into the microhabitat of soil microorganisms 135 4.7 Extreme habitats for life and microbiological adaptations 140 5 Microbial Diversity: Who is Here and How do we Know? 150 5.1 Defining cultured and uncultured microorganisms 151 5.2 Approaching a census: an introduction to the environmental microbiological toolbox 155 5.3 Criteria for census taking: recognition of distinctive microorganisms (species) 158 5.4 Proceeding toward census taking and measures of microbial diversity 162 5.5 The tree of life: our view of evolution s blueprint for biological diversity 169 5.6 A sampling of key traits of cultured microorganisms from domains Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea 172 5.7 Placing the uncultured majority on the tree of life: what have nonculture-based investigations revealed? 189 5.8 Viruses: an overview of biology, ecology, and diversity 194 5.9 Microbial diversity illustrated by genomics, horizontal gene transfer, and cell size 199 5.10 Biogeography of microorganisms 6 Generating and Interpreting Information in Environmental Microbiology: Methods and their Limitations 208 6.1 How do we know? 209 6.2 Perspectives from a century of scholars and enrichment-culturing procedures 209 6.3 Constraints on knowledge imposed by ecosystem complexity 213 6.4 Environmental microbiology s Heisenberg uncertainty principle : model systems and their risks 215 6.5 Fieldwork: being sure sampling procedures are compatible with analyses and goals 217 6.6 Blending and balancing disciplines from field geochemistry to pure cultures 223 6.7 Overview of methods for determining the position and composition of microbial communities 226 6.8 Methods for determining in situ biogeochemical activities and when they occur 243 6.9 Cloning-based metagenomics and related methods: procedures and insights 245 6.10 Cloning-free next-generation sequencing and Omics methods: procedures and insights 6.11 Discovering the organisms responsible for particular ecological processes: linking identity with activity 255 7 Microbial Biogeochemistry: a Grand Synthesis 281 7.1 Mineral connections: the roles of inorganic elements in life processes 282 7.2 Greenhouse gases and lessons from biogeochemical modeling 286 7.3 The stuff of life : identifying the pools of biosphere materials whose microbiological transformations drive the biogeochemical cycles 293 7.4 Elemental biogeochemical cycles: concepts and physiological processes 313 7.5 Cellular mechanisms of microbial biogeochemical pathways 329 7.6 Mass balance approaches to elemental cycles 335 8 Special and Applied Topics in Environmental Microbiology 346 8.1 Other organisms as microbial habitats: ecological relationships 346 8.2 Microbial residents of plants and humans 363 8.3 Biodegradation and bioremediation 373 8.4 Biofilms 399 8.5 Evolution of catabolic pathways for organic contaminants 403 8.6 Environmental biotechnology: overview and nine case studies 410 8.7 Antibiotic resistance 423 9 Future Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology 442 9.1 The influence of systems biology on environmental microbiology 442 9.2 Ecological niches and their genetic basis 448 9.3 Concepts help define future progress in environmental microbiology 453 Glossary 460 Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
New and expanded for its second edition, Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, is a timely update to a classic text filled with ideas, connections, and concepts that advance an in-depth understanding of this growing segment of microbiology. Core principles are highlighted with an emphasis on the logic of the science and new methods-driven discoveries. Numerous up-to-date examples and applications boxes provide tangible reinforcement of material covered. Study questions at the end of each chapter require students to utilize analytical and quantitative approaches, to define and defend arguments, and to apply microbiological paradigms to their personal interests. Essay assignments and related readings stimulate student inquiry and serve as focal points for teachers to launch classroom discussions. A companion website with downloadable artwork and answers to study questions is also available. Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry, Second Edition, offers a coherent and comprehensive treatment of this dynamic, emerging field, building bridges between basic biology, evolution, genomics, ecology, biotechnology, climate change, and the environmental sciences.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Biology Library (Falconer), Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
54 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and "green" innovation in shipbuilding. The primary motivating question of this work is whether there is evidence of: i) technology push from innovation that enables environmental policy initiatives; and/or, ii) policy pull that induces innovation leading to "green" ships. This paper focuses on four environmental categories of technological innovation in the shipbuilding industry, encompassing oil spill recovery, emissions control, climate change mitigation and ballast water treatment. The analysis draws upon documents filed at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to proxy for policy measures, and uses patent data of the Worldwide Statistical Patent Database, maintained by the European Patent Office (EPO), to account for innovation. Our results show a similar trend between patent activity and IMO document submissions over the years 1998 to 2012 for the two environmental categories, climate change mitigation and emissions control. The key contribution of this work are to provide more insights into environmental policy in shipbuilding and its role in innovation activity, as well as to develop a rich dataset focused on IMO policies aimed at encouraging improved environmental performance by ships.
37 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of the macroeconomic relationship between environmentally related taxes and inequality in income sources. The analysis also investigates whether this relationship differs between countries which have implemented environmental tax reforms (ETRs) and ones which have not. Following earlier empirical literature, income inequality is measured by the disposable-income-based Gini coefficient. The analysis is based on a panel of all 34 OECD countries spanning the period from 1995 to 2011. Information about the implementation of ETRS in the examined period is collected through a review of relevant academic and policy literature. Empirical results from econometric models reveal that, on average, there is no statistically significant relationship between the overall share of environmentally related tax revenues in GDP and inequality in income sources. However, the relationship varies with the taxed activity under consideration and the existence of an explicit mechanism to redistribute environmentally related tax revenues. In countries where such mechanisms are absent, energy tax revenues (% of GDP) are shown to have a positive, although modest, relationship with income inequality. In contrast, in countries where energy tax revenues are, at least partially, used to reduce tax burden on income and labour, there is a negative relationship between energy taxes and inequality in income sources. On the contrary, no significant relationship is identified between motor vehicle and other transport tax revenues and income inequality, while revenues from other environmentally related taxes, such as waste and air pollution taxes, are negatively associated with income inequality, regardless of the existence of an explicit revenue recycling mechanism.
141 p. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword
  • Executive summary
  • Investigating farm management practices that may foster green growth
  • The role of soil and water conservation in the transition to green growth
  • What does organic farming mean for green growth?
  • Unleashing the green growth potential of integrated pest management
  • How critical is modern agricultural biotechnology in increasing productivity sustainably?
  • Is precision agriculture the start of a new revolution?.
This report looks at farm management practices with green growth potential, from farmer-led innovations (such as those directly linked to soil and water, Integrated Pest Management, organic farming) to science-led technologies (such as biotechnology and precision agriculture). Global food demand can only be met in a sustainable way if new forms of agricultural production and innovative technologies can be unlocked to increase the productivity, stability, and resilience of production systems with goals beyond just raising yields, including saving water and energy, reducing risk, improving product quality, protecting the environment and climate change mitigation.
PDFs (611 pages) : illustrations.
  • An ecological model of student interaction in online learning environments Genevieve Marie Johnson, Audrey Cooke
  • Maintaining motivation in online students: an examination of the ARCS-V motivation model Cindy Stewart, Travis Crone
  • The pivotal role of faculty in online student engagement and retention Judi Simmons Estes
  • Participation in online distance learning environments: proxy, sign, or a means to an end? David Starr-Glass
  • Building interaction online: reflective blog journals to link university learning to real world practice Arianne J Rourke, Annabelle Lewer-Fletcher
  • A mixed methods examination of instructor social presence in accelerated online courses Patrick Ryan Lowenthal
  • "I'm not simply dealing with some heartless computer": videoconferencing as personalized online learning in a graduate literacy course Peggy Lynn Semingson, Pete Smith
  • Building interaction in adults' online courses: a case study on training e-educators of adults Maria Pavlis-Korres, Piera Leftheriotou
  • Preparing online learning readiness with learner-content interaction: design for scaffolding self-regulated learning Juhong Christie Liu, Elaine Roberts Kaye
  • Web-based technologies for ensuring interaction in online courses: faculty choice and student perception of web-based technologies for interaction in online economics Olivia P. Morris
  • More teaching in less time: leveraging time to maximize teaching presence B. Jean Mandernach, Rick Holbeck, Ted Cross
  • Instructor-driven strategies for establishing and sustaining social presence Michelle Kilburn, Martha Henckell, David Starrett
  • Engage online learners: design considerations for promoting student interactions Sang Chan, Devshikha Bose
  • Ensuring presence in online learning environments Eunice Luyegu
  • Teaching and learning online: an examination of effective techniques, practices, and processes Angelia Yount, Kwesi Tandoh
  • Interacting at a distance: creating engagement in online learning environments Robert L. Moore
  • Encouraging and increasing student engagement and participation in an online classroom kathryn woods
  • building relationship Through Learning Communities and Participation in Online Learning Environments: Building Interactions in Online Learning Victoria M. Cardullo, Megan Burton
  • Deepening understanding of multicultural online education: teaching presence for English language learners Alex Kumi-Yeboah [and 3 others]
  • Stylized moments: creating student engagement and participation in an asynchronous online university film course William Thomas McBride.
Online learning has become a prominent and inseparable component of higher education in recent years. Questions related to course structure, levels of interaction, presence, and participation within online courses persist and invite further inquiry for determining factors that encourage effective teaching and learning in online environments. The Handbook of Research on Strategic Management of Interaction, Presence, and Participation in Online Courses explores models of course development and delivery techniques to improve instruction, learning, and student satisfaction in online courses. Covering topics such as rates of participation, student engagement and retention, and social development, this handbook serves as a resource for educators in online learning environments, as well as for course designers and developers of online courses and researchers whose agenda includes examining interaction, presence, and participation in online courses.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
1 online resource.
  • 1. Introduction: Intertwining consciousness, human body and the environment.- Part I. Winter and the North in the emergence of civic space.- 2. Human posture and the nightly sky: Cosmos in Diluvial prehistoric myth.- 3. The North, Axis mundi and gender myths: The primordial civic space.- 4. Winter acumen and mood disorder: Apollo, Dionysus and Foucault's History of Madness.- 5. Hero under the weather: Mood disorder and the emergence of civic space.- 6. Psychocultural aspects of weather and place: The Little Ice Age.- Part II. Body-earth-sky and city-form.- 7. Sky myths and gender projection in early city-form.- 8. The North and paradigms of balance: Harmony and equilibrium as an urban ideal.- 9. Axial Age civilizations as a project of north-hemispheric masculinity: The Antipodean myth.- 10. Philosophical urbanism from Thomas More to Walter Benjamin.- Part III. Phenomenology of the winter-city.- 12. From Cartesian doubt to heroic design: The late LIA and the Myth of the Grand Designer.- 13. The late LIA and its urban sequel: Reason, mental illness and the emergence of crowd.- Part IV. Solvitur ambulando.- 14. Aftermaths of the LIA: Loss of place and the North American winter-city .- 15. Epilogue.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book explores how the weather and city-form impact the mind, and how city-form and mind interact. It builds on Merleau-Ponty's contention that mind, the human body and the environment are intertwined in a singular composite, and on Walter Benjamin's suggestion that mind and city-form, in mutual interaction, through history, have set the course of civilization. Bringing together the fields of philosophy, urbanism, geography, history, and architecture, the book shows the association of existentialism with prevalence of mood disorder in Northern Europe at the close of Little Ice Age. It explains the implications of city-form and traces the role of the myths and allegories of urban design as well as the history of gender projection onto city-form. It shows how urbanization in Northern Europe provided easier access to shelter, yet resulted in sunlight deprivation, and yielded increasing incidence of depression and other mental disorder among the European middle-class. The book uses the examples of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky and Kafka, to show how walking through the streets, squares and other urban voids became the informal remedy to mood disorder, a prominent trait among founders of modern Existentialism. It concludes by describing how the connection of anguish and violence is relevant to winter depression in cities, in North America in particular.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
1 online resource (xviii, 618 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
The soils are fundamental to our existence, delivering water and nutrients to plants, that feed us. But they are in many ways in danger and their conservation is therefore a most important focus for science, governments and society as a whole. A team of world recognised researchers have prepared this first English edition based on the 16th European edition. * The precursors and the processes of soil development * The physical, biological and chemical properties of soils * Nutrients and Pollutants * The various soil classifications with the main focus on the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) * The most important soils and soil landscapes of the world * Soil Evaluation Techniques * Basic Principles of Soil Conservation Whoever works with soils needs this book.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
78 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Outdoor air pollution is a major determinant of health worldwide. The greatest public health effects are from increased mortality in adults. However, both PM and O3 also cause a wide range of other, less serious, health outcomes; and there are effects on mortality and morbidity of other pollutants also, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). These adverse health effects have economic consequences; OECD (2014) suggests that the social costs of the health impact of outdoor air pollution in OECD countries, China and India was approximately USD 1.7 trillion and USD 1.9 trillion, respectively, in 2010. However, the study highlights that though the social costs of premature mortality account for the majority of these totals, the social costs of morbidity remain poorly estimated. The objective of this paper is to inform the development of improved estimates of the social costs of human morbidity impacts resulting from outdoor air pollution in two components; namely to develop a core set of pollutant-health end-points to be covered when estimating the costs of morbidity, and to review current estimates of the cost of morbidity from air pollution.
1 online resource (xii, 367 p.) : ill. (some col.). Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Sustainable Development - Background and Context.- Transformational Sustainability.-Research Methodology.- Green and Sustainable Chemistry.- Sustainability and Ecosystems.-Sustainability Assessment of Technologies.- Corporate Sustainability Management.- Sustainable Development in Economics.- Sustainable Development and Law.- Finance and Sustainability.-Sustainability - Politics and Governance.- Sustainability Communication.- Sustainability and Science Policy.- Justice and Sustainability.- Sustainability Ethics.- Ocean Space and Sustainability.- Sustainable Landscape Development.- Sustainable Development and Material Flows.- Sustainable Energy Systems.-Sustainability and Health.- Mobility and Sustainability.- International Development and Sustainability.-Tourism and Sustainability.- Consumption and Sustainability.- Climate Change - Responding to a Major Challenge for Sustainable Development.- Art and Sustainability.- Teaching and Learning in Sustainability Science.- Education for Sustainable Development.- Problem-based and Project-based Learning for Sustainable Development.- Science for Sustainability - A Societal and Political Perspective.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This textbook provides a comprehensive compilation of conceptual perspectives, methodological approaches and empirical insights of inter- and transdisciplinary sustainability science. Written by an international team of authors from leading sustainability institutions, the textbook covers key perspectives and topics of the scientific discourse on sustainable development. More than two decades after conceptualizing sustainability as societal guiding vision and regulative idea the necessity of concretizing and realizing sustainability in societal praxis is bigger than ever. Sharply improved individual and societal sustainable decision-making and action is necessary for a better future of humankind and the planet. On that account problem- and solution-oriented perspectives and competencies are crucial. The different chapters assemble an encompassing view of essential foundations and specific areas of research and action in sustainability science and practice. The textbook aims at fostering the further establishment of sustainability science in higher education and to enable the next generation of sustainability experts to tackle the challenging and exciting topic of sustainable development.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
30 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper investigates the relationship between local air pollution and urban structure with an emphasis on urban fragmentation. Using a unique dataset of 249 Large Urban Zones (LUZ) across Europe, a Bayesian Model Averaging selection method is employed to empirically identify the determinants of within-LUZ concentration of three air pollutants: NO2, PM10 and SO2 for the year 2006. Several indices of land use are considered among possible determinants. These are supplemented by a dataset on various economic, demographic and meteorological variables that can explain the variation of air pollution. The results of this econometric analysis support the hypothesis that urban structure has significant effects on pollution concentration. In particular, they suggest that fragmented urban areas experience higher concentrations of NO2 and PM10 and that densely populated urban areas suffer from higher SO2 concentration. The findings suggest that policies favouring continuous urban areas may result in environmental improvements.
53 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Climate support will be an important element in reaching a post-2020 climate agreement at COP 21 in December 2015. To further increase and mobilise the levels of climate support post-2020, a number of proposals have been made in the negotiating text produced in the Geneva session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in February 2015. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of several of these proposals, focusing on those that are clear and specific. The paper assesses proposals on mobilising climate finance using the following criteria: (i) the level of financial flows that they could generate; (ii) how much of this could be mobilised in the UNFCCC context; (iii) the ease of implementation of the proposal; (iv) if and how such increased mobilisation could be monitored; and (v) whether the proposal would fill a specific gap in the context of climate support within the UNFCCC. The paper undertakes a similar assessment for proposals in the Geneva text on enhancing the level of technology development and transfer, as well as capacity building. It discusses whether the proposals could potentially increase technology development and transfer, capacity building and development, as well as whether they are likely to do so in practice, based on current experience and ease of implementation. The proposals vary significantly in the amount of climate support they could mobilise (or enhance, in the case of technology and capacity building), for a range of reasons. These include the particular wording of the proposals, their sensitivity to national implementation, uncertainty in measuring progress towards objectives, and in some cases the limited role the UNFCCC plays as an institution in a given area of climate support.
1 online resource (12064 ) : digital, PDF file.
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y<sup>-1</sup>), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.
1 online resource (Article No. 8285 ) : digital, PDF file.
Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These similarities likely reflect a shared role for fermentative metabolisms despite a shift in primary carbon sources from plant-derived to animal-derived polysaccharides, such as chitin. In contrast, protein catabolism and essential amino acid synthesis pathways in baleen whale microbiomes more closely resemble those of terrestrial carnivores. Our results demonstrate that functional attributes of the microbiome can vary independently even given an animal-derived diet, illustrating how diet and evolutionary history combine to shape microbial diversity in the mammalian gut.
28 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.