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1 online resource ( x, 342 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • 1.Physico-chemical boundaries of life.- 2.Microbial diversity in deep hypersaline anoxic basins.- 3.Microbial speciation in the geothermal ecosystem.- 4.Bacterial adaptation to hot and dry deserts.- 5.Extremophiles in Antarctica: Life at low temperatures.- 6.Anhydrobiotic rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria: Potential for astrobiology and biotechnology.- 7.Psychrophilic microorganisms as important source for biotechnological processes.- 8.Halophilic microorganisms from man-made and natural hypersaline environments: Physiology, ecology, and biotechnological potential.- 9.Applications of extremophiles in astrobiology: Habitability and life detection strategies.- 10.Extremophiles in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.- 11.The Extreme Biology of Meteorites: Their Role in Understanding the Origin and Distribution of Life on Earth and in the Universe.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
This entirely updated second edition provides an overview on the biology, ecology and biodiversity of extremophiles. Unusual and less explored ecosystems inhabited by extremophiles such as marine hypersaline deeps, extreme cold, desert sands, and man-made clean rooms for spacecraft assembly are presented. An additional focus is put on the role of these highly specialized microorganism in applied research fields, ranging from biotechnology and nanotechnology to astrobiology. Examples such as novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection strategies for potential extraterrestrial life forms are discussed in detail. The book addresses researchers and advanced students in the fields of microbiology, microbial ecology and biotechnology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
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1 online resource.
  • Preface; Contents; Part I: Air Pollution in East Asia; Chapter 1: Gaseous Species; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 SO2; 1.2.1 Japan; 1.2.2 China; 1.2.3 Korea; 1.3 NOx; 1.3.1 Japan; 1.3.2 China; 1.3.3 Korea; 1.4 Tropospheric Ozone; 1.4.1 Japan; 1.4.2 China; 1.4.3 Korea; 1.4.4 Trends in Ozone Concentrations Above the East China Sea Based on Aerial Observations; References; Chapter 2: Aerosols; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Aerosols and PM2.5; 2.3 Kosa and Chemical Species Transported with kosa; 2.4 Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC); 2.5 PAHs; 2.6 Metallic Elements and Source Apportionment
  • 2.7 Sulfate, Nitrate, and Ammonium Aerosols2.8 Trends of Ionic Species in Aerosols Transported from East Asia Measured by Aircraft; References; Chapter 3: Acid Deposition; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Acid Deposition Monitored by a Regional Network in East Asia; 3.2.1 Wet Deposition; 3.2.2 Dry and Total Deposition; 3.2.3 Observational Data in Forested Areas Obtained by the EANET: Relevant Studies; 3.3 Soil Acidification in Asian Countries; 3.4 Summary; References; Part II: Effects of Gaseous Air Pollutants on Plants in Japan; Chapter 4: Effects of Ozone on Japanese Agricultural Crops
  • 4.1 Introduction4.2 Studies in the 1970s; 4.3 Studies from the 1980s to 1990s; 4.4 Studies in the early 2000s and Beyond; References; Chapter 5: Effects of Ozone on Japanese Trees; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Effects of O3 on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Japanese Trees; 5.2.1 Effects of O3 on Growth; Dry-Matter Growth; Leaf Turnover; Carbon Allocation; Phenology; 5.2.2 O3 Effects on Physiology; Stomatal Functions; Photosynthesis; Respiration; 5.3 Risk Assessment of Ozone Impact; 5.4 Free-Air Ozone Fumigation Experiment
  • 5.5 Biotic Relations5.5.1 Defense Capacity Against Biotic Stresses; 5.5.2 Symbiosis with Ectomycorrhizal Fungi; 5.6 Future Perspectives; References; Chapter 6: Combined Effects of Ozone and Other Environmental Factors on Japanese Trees; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Combined Effects of O3 and Elevated Atmospheric CO2; 6.3 Combined Effects of O3 and Soil Nitrogen Load; 6.4 Combined Effects of O3 and Soil Water Stress; 6.5 Future Perspectives; References; Chapter 7: Environmental Monitoring with Indicator Plants for Air Pollutants in Asia; 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Japanese Experience in the Application of Indicator Plants7.3 Bryophyte and Lichen Communities; 7.4 Chemical Analysis of Bryophytes and Lichens; 7.5 Use of Common Tree Species as Bio-indicators; 7.6 Summary and Future Perspectives; References; Part III: Case Studies in Japanese Forests; Chapter 8: Flux-Based O3 Risk Assessment for Japanese Temperate Forests; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Study Sites; 8.3 Estimation of Light-Saturated GPP; 8.4 Estimation of Cumulative O3 Uptake (COU); 8.5 Effects of Cumulative O3 Uptake (COU) on C Sequestering Capacity in the Beech and Oak Forests; 8.6 Conclusion
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1 online resource ( xv, 314 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Section I: Evolution and adaptationsChapter 1. Evolution reshaped life for the water column: the skeleton of the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica (Boulenger 1902)Olga Voskoboinikova, H. William Detrich III, R. Craig Albertson, John H. Postlethwait, Laura Ghigliotti, Eva Pisano Chapter 2. Coping with ice: Freeze avoidance in the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) from egg to adultClive Evans, Art DeVries Chapter 3. The unique haemoglobin system of migratory Pleuragramma antarctica: correlation of haematological and biochemical adaptations with mode of lifeGuido di Prisco, Cinzia Verde Chapter 4. Pro-oxidant challenges and antioxidant adaptation of Pleuragramma antarctica in platelet iceMaura Benedetti, Maria Elisa Giuliani, Francesco Regoli Section II: Ecology and life historyChapter 5. Diet and trophic ecology of adult Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica)Matthew H. Pinkerton Chapter 6. Trophic ecology of early developmental stages of Antarctic silverfishEric Tavernier and Carolina Giraldo Chapter 7. The role of lipids in the life history of the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticaWilhelm Hagen and Gerhard Kattner Chapter 8. Energetics of the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica, from the Western Antarctic PeninsulaEloy Martinez, Joseph J Torres Chapter 9. Reproductive strategies of the Antarctic silverfish: known knowns, known unknowns and unknown unknownsLaura Ghigliotti, Volodymyr Herasymchuk, Karl-Herman Kock, Marino Vacchi Chapter 10. Population structure and life history connectivity of Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) in the Southern Ocean ecosystemJulian Ashford, Lorenzo Zane, Joseph Torres, Mario La Mesa, Alexander Simms Section III: Challenges and conservation perspectivesChapter 11. Acoustic methods of monitoring silverfish distribution and abundanceRichard L. O'Driscoll, Iole Leonori, Andrea De Felice, and Gavin J. Macaulay Chapter 12. Impact of climate change on the Antarctic silverfish and its consequences for the Antarctic ecosystemKatja Mintenbeck and Joseph J Torres Chapter 13. Conservation and management of the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica populations and habitatsPhilippe Koubbi, Grant Susie, David Ramm, Marino Vacchi, Laura Ghigliotti, Eva Pisano.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319558912 20170717
This book encompasses the body of available scientific information on the notothenioid fish Pleuragramma antarctica commonly known as Antarctic silverfish. This plankton-feeder of the intermediate trophic level is the most abundant fish in the coastal regions of high Antarctica, and plays a pivotal ecological role as the main prey of top predators like seals, penguins, whales and Antarctic toothfish. Broad circum-polar distribution, a key role in the Antarctic shelf pelagic ecosystem, and adaptations makes understanding the species' likely response to environmental change relevant to foresee the potential responses at the local ecosystem level. Additionally, a detailed understanding of the abundance and trophic interactions of such a dominant keystone species is a vital element of informing the development of marine spatial planning and marine protected areas in the Antarctic continental shelf region. Experts in the field provide here unique insights into the evolutionary adaptation, eco-physiology, trophic ecology, reproductive and population ecology of the Antarctic silverfish and provide new clues about its vulnerability in facing the challenges of the ongoing environmental changes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319558912 20170717
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  • Contents Introduction to the Application of Palaeoecological Techniques in Estuaries
  • Part I. Estuaries and their Management.- Estuary Form and Function: Implications for Palaeoecological Studies
  • Geology and Sedimentary History of Modern Estuaries
  • Palaeoecological Evidence for Variability and Change in Estuaries: Insights for Management
  • Part II. Coring and Dating of Estuarine Sediments. Sediment Sampling in Estuaries ? Site Selection and Sampling Techniques
  • Some Practical Considerations Regarding the Application of 210Pb and 137Cs Dating to Estuarine Sediments
  • Radiocarbon Dating in Estuarine Environments
  • Part III. Techniques for Palaeoenvironmental Reconstructions in Estuaries. Lipid Biomarkers as Organic Geochemical Proxies for the Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of Estuarine Environments
  • C/N ratios and Carbon Isotope Composition of Organic Matter in Estuarine Environments
  • Physical and Chemical Factors to Consider when Studying Historical Contamination and Pollution in Estuaries
  • Diatoms as Indicators of Environmental Change in Estuaries
  • Dinoflagellate Cysts as Proxies for Holocene Environmental Change in Estuaries: Diversity, Abundance and Morphology
  • Applications of Foraminifera, Testate Amoebae and Tintinnids in Estuarine Palaeoecology
  • Ostracods as Recorders of Palaeoenvironmental Change in Estuaries
  • Application of Molluscan Analyses to the Reconstruction of Past Environmental Conditions in Estuaries
  • Corals in Estuarine Environments: Their Response to Environmental Changes and Application in Reconstructing Past Environmental Variability
  • Inferring Environmental Change in Estuaries from Plant Macrofossils
  • Applications of Pollen Analysis in Estuarine Systems
  • Part IV. Case Studies. Palaeo-Environmental Approaches to Reconstructing Sea Level Changes in Estuaries
  • Paleoecology Studies in Chesapeake Bay: A Model System for Understanding Interactions between Climate, Anthropogenic Activities and the Environment
  • Paleosalinity Changes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary and on the Adjacent Uruguayan Continental Shelf over the Past 1,200 Years: An Approach Using Diatoms as a Proxy
  • Application of Paleoecology to Ecosystem Restoration: A Case Study from South Florida's Estuaries
  • Paleolimnological History of The Coorong: Identifying the Natural Ecological Character of a Ramsar Wetland in Crisis
  • Palaeoenvironmental History of the Baltic Sea : One of the Largest Brackish-water Ecosystems in the World .
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1 online resource.
  • Acknowledgments; Contents; About the Editors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 The Decline of Biodiversity in the Agro-ecosystems; 1.2 Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe Agriculture
  • The Role of History; 1.3 Conservation Tools: From the Protected Areas Approach and Nature2000 Network to the High Nature Value Areas in Europe; 1.3.1 A Concept of Protected Areas Application to Successful Conservation; 1.3.2 Theories for Fragmented Space; 1.3.3 Applying Ecological Terminology for Agricultural Landscapes of Whole Europe?; 1.4 HNV Farming Definition
  • 1.5 Approaches to Characterize HNV Farming1.5.1 Land Cover Approach; 1.5.2 Farm System Approach; 1.5.3 Species Approach; 1.6 The HNV as Support for Biodiversity and Public Goods; 1.7 This Book in Few Words; References; Chapter 2: Spread of the Concept of HNV Farmland in Europe: A Systematic Review; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Methods; 2.3 Results; 2.4 Discussion; Bibliography; Chapter 3: Identifying HNV Areas Using Geographic Information Systems and Landscape Metrics; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Simple Metrics for Identification of HNV Farmland; 3.3 Input Data for Calculation of Landscape Metrics
  • 3.4 Landscape Metrics Case Study: An Example of Using Landscape Metrics to Identify HNV FarmlandReferences; Chapter 4: Suitable Methods for Monitoring HNV Farmland Using Bird Species; 4.1 Bird Count Methods for Farmland Systems: Single-Habitat and Multi-habitat Species; 4.2 The Concept of Bioindicators or Environmental Surrogates and Common Measures of Diversity in Bird Communities; 4.2.1 The Concept of Bioindicators; 4.2.2 Common Diversity Metrics Useful for Bird Communities; 4.3 Species Distribution Models and Other Useful Statistical Tools; 4.3.1 SDMs in a Nutshell; 4.4 Other Useful Tools
  • 4.4.1 MRT-Multiregression Tree Analysis4.4.2 Indicator Species Analysis; References; Part I: Case Studies; Chapter 5: Case Study 1. Bird as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Farmlands from Central Italy; 5.1 Methodology; 5.1.1 Study Area; 5.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 5.1.3 Data Analysis; 5.2 Results; 5.2.1 Farmland Classification and Description; 5.2.2 Bird Indicators of HNV Farmland; 5.2.3 Relative Importance of HNV Farmland Characteristics for Bird Distribution; 5.3 Discussion; 5.3.1 Utility of the Proposed Methodology; References
  • Chapter 6: Case Study 2. Birds as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Portuguese Cork Oak Montados6.1 Methodology; 6.1.1 Study Area; 6.1.2 Bird Census; 6.1.3 HNV Features and Explanatory Variables; 6.1.4 Data Analysis; 6.2 Results; 6.2.1 Environmental Variables; 6.2.2 Bird Guilds; 6.2.3 Modelling of Bird Guilds; 6.3 Discussion; 6.4 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Case Study 3. Using Indicator Species AnalysisIndVal to Identify Bird Indicators of HNV in Farmlands from Western P...; 7.1 Methodology; 7.1.1 Study Area; 7.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 7.1.3 Data Analysis; 7.2 Results
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48 p.
The purpose of this working paper is to review existing chemical risk assessment methods in the context of supporting socio-economic cost-benefit analysis, focusing on more “typical” risk assessments that may not have strong epidemiologic data and/or were not originally designed to support socio-economic analyses. A number of case studies of such “typical” chemical risk assessments were reviewed with respect to their suitability for supporting socio-economic analyses.
1 online resource (Article No. 42999 ): digital, PDF file.
Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.
1 online resource.
  • Part I. Concepts, Issues, and Policy Chapter 1. The Context and Scope of the Book Chapter 2. Introduction Part II. Methodologies for Evaluating Competitiveness Chapter 3. International Trade and Prices as Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 4. Price-Quality Tradeoffs and Multitrack Evaluations of Competitiveness Chapter 5. Track 1 Methodology: Cost-Price Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 6. Track 2 Methodology: Value Chains and Quality Criteria Part III. Case Studies in the Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture Chapter 7. Colombia: A Strategic Assessment of National Crop Competitiveness Chapter 8. Rwanda: Competitiveness by Quality Criteria, Track 2 Chapter 9. El Salvador: Crop Competitiveness and Factor Intensities Chapter 10. Colombia: Crop Competitiveness by Region Evaluated via Tracks 1 and 2 Part IV. Concluding Remarks Chapter 11. Assessing Agricultural Competitiveness and Its Determinants Chapter 12. Competitiveness in a Development Perspective.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
The Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture: A Guide to Competitive Potential with Case Studies describes and synthesizes existing methodologies for evaluating competitiveness in agriculture, introduces extensions and refinements, and provides a novel approach based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. As exports of tropical fruit, nuts, and other high-value crops have been growing very rapidly from developing countries, but often encounter serious obstacles in their value chains, this book demonstrates how national agricultural policy is oftentimes not guided by considerations of inherent competitiveness. In addition, the book presents case studies that illustrate the application of these approaches using quantitative frameworks. A concluding chapter introduces policy considerations for competitiveness from work in Jordan, Colombia, Estonia, Peru, and elsewhere, also discussing the role of specific policies in raising competitiveness sustainably and its role in reducing rural poverty.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
1 online resource (xii, 222 pages.) :.
The book covers the fundamentals and applications of computational bioacoustics in monitoring and control applications in healthcare. The work provides a thorough discussion of cross-disciplinary research, including new engineering technology with a discussion of codes and demos illustrating the application of various audio parameterization and machine learning techniques on the task of automated recognition and monitoring.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781614517290 20170814
1 online resource ( x, 87 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Abbreviations; Introduction; 1 New Perspectives on Ecological Networks; Abstract; 1.1 The Impact of Urbanization Processes on the Consumption of the Soil and on the Fragmentation; 1.2 From Protected Natural Areas to Reticular System; 1.3 The Paradigm of the Ecological Networks; 1.4 European Policies About Ecological Networks; References; 2 Ecological Networks and Planning; Abstract; 2.1 The Issue of Regulation; 2.2 The Re-processing of Values: New Types of Planning?; 2.3 Ecological Networks in Planning Instruments; 2.4 The Case of Italy
  • 2.5 The Italian Census of Local Scale Planning Instruments According to the Ecological Network ModelReferences; 3 Ecological Network, Application of a Model in Sicily; Abstract; 3.1 Soil Consumption and Fragmentation of the Regional Natural System; 3.2 Urban-Planning Versus Environment-Planning; 3.3 A Reticular System for the Protected Areas; 3.4 The Application of the Ecological Network in Wide-Area Planning in Sicily: The Case of the Metropolitan City of Palermo and of the Libero Consorzio Di Siracusa; References; Conclusions; References
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1 online resource (xvi, 191 pages) : color illustrations.
  • Part I: A Background to Design, 1. The Environment is Not a Human Construct, 2. Global Differences, Not Universals, 3. Shifting Adaptabilities, Not Static Concepts, Part II: Thinking about Design, 4. Multiple, Not Solo Voices, 5. Inquiries, Not Assumptions, 6. Thinking Backwards, Not as a Forward and Linear Narrative.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781138890220 20170515
Today, designers are shifting the practice of landscape architecture towards the need for a more complex understanding of ecological science. Constructed Ecologies presents ecology as critical theory for design, and provides major ideas for design that are supported with solid and imaginative science. In the questioning narrative of Constructed Ecologies, the author discards many old and tired theories in landscape architecture. With detailed documentation, she casts off the savannah theory, critiques the search for universals, reveals the needed role of designers in large-scale agriculture, abandons the overlay technique of McHarg, and introduces the ecological and urban health urgency of public night lighting. Margaret Grose presents wide-ranging new approaches and shows the importance of learning from science for design, of going beyond assumptions, of working in multiple rather than single issues, of disrupting linear design thinking, and of dealing with data. This book is written with a clear voice by an ecologist and landscape architect who has led design students into loving ecological science for the support it gives design.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781138890220 20170515
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120 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword and Acknowledgements
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • The Water Quality Challenge
  • An overview of the main water pollutants in OECD countries
  • Economic costs and policy approaches to control diffuse source water pollution
  • Emerging policy instruments for the control of diffuse source water pollution
  • A policy framework for diffuse source water pollution management.
After decades of regulation and investment to reduce point source water pollution, OECD countries still face water quality challenges (e.g. eutrophication) from diffuse agricultural and urban sources of pollution, that is disperse pollution from surface runoff, soil filtration and atmospheric deposition. The relative lack of progress reflects the complexities of controlling multiple pollutants from multiple sources, their high spatial and temporal variability, associated transactions costs, and limited political acceptability of regulatory measures. This report outlines the water quality challenges facing OECD countries today, presents a range of policy instruments and innovative case studies of diffuse pollution control, and concludes with an integrated policy framework to tackle diffuse water pollution. An optimal approach will likely entail a mix of policy interventions reflecting the basic OECD principles of water quality management – pollution prevention, treatment at source, the polluter pays and beneficiary pays principles, equity, and policy coherence.
1 online resource (Article No. 158 ): digital, PDF file.
Similar to mycorrhizal mutualists, the rhizospheric and endophytic fungi are also considered to act as active regulators of host fitness (e.g., nutrition and stress tolerance). Despite considerable work in selected model systems, it is generally poorly understood how plant-associated fungi are structured in habitats with extreme conditions and to what extent they contribute to improved plant performance. Here, we investigate the community composition of root and seed-associated fungi from six halophytes growing in saline areas of China, and found that the pleosporalean taxa (Ascomycota) were most frequently isolated across samples. A total of twenty-seven representative isolates were selected for construction of the phylogeny based on the multi-locus data (partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and transcription elongation factor 1-a), which classified them into seven families, one clade potentially representing a novel lineage. Fungal isolates were subjected to growth response assays by imposing temperature, pH, ionic and osmotic conditions. The fungi had a wide pH tolerance, while most isolates showed a variable degree of sensitivity to increasing concentration of either salt or sorbitol. Subsequent plant fungal co-culture assays indicated that most isolates had only neutral or even adverse effects on plant growth in the presence of inorganic nitrogen. Interestingly, when provided with organic nitrogen sources the majority of the isolates enhanced plant growth especially above ground biomass. Most of the fungi preferred organic nitrogen over its inorganic counterpart, suggesting that these fungi can readily mineralize organic nitrogen into inorganic nitrogen. Microscopy revealed that several isolates can successfully colonize roots and form melanized hyphae and/or microsclerotia-like structures within cortical cells suggesting a phylogenetic assignment as dark septate endophytes. Furthermore, this work provides a better understanding of the symbiotic relationship between plants and pleosporalean fungi, and initial evidence for the use of this fungal group in benefiting plant production.
1 online resource ( xviii, 439 pages) : illustrations (some color).
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1 online resource (x, 270 pages.) :
  • Preface ix Acknowledgments xi 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Why Forecast? 1 1.2 The Informatics Challenge in Forecasting 3 1.3 The Model-Data Loop 4 1.4 Why Bayes? 6 1.5 Models as Scaffolds 7 1.6 Case Studies and Decision Support 8 1.7 Key Concepts 10 1.8 Hands-on Activities 10 2. From Models to Forecasts 11 2.1 The Traditional Modeler's Toolbox 11 2.2 Example: The Logistic Growth Model 12 2.3 Adding Sources of Uncertainty 14 2.4 Thinking Probabilistically 23 2.5 Predictability 25 2.6 Key Concepts 33 2.7 Hands-on Activities 33 3. Data, Large and Small 34 3.1 The Data Cycle and Best Practices 34 3.2 Data Standards and Metadata 38 3.3 Handling Big Data 40 3.4 Key Concepts 43 3.5 Hands-on Activities 43 4. Scientific Workflows and the Informatics of Model-Data Fusion 44 4.1 Transparency, Accountability, and Repeatability 44 4.2 Workflows and Automation 45 4.3 Best Practices for Scientific Computing 48 4.4 Key Concepts 51 4.5 Hands-on Activities 52 5. Introduction to Bayes 53 5.1 Confronting Models with Data 53 5.2 Probability 101 54 5.3 The Likelihood 56 5.4 Bayes' Theorem 61 5.5 Prior Information 65 5.6 Numerical Methods for Bayes 68 5.7 Evaluating MCMC Output 71 5.8 Key Concepts 74 5.9 Hands-on Activities 75 6. Characterizing Uncertainty 76 6.1 Non-Gaussian Error 76 6.2 Heteroskedasticity 82 6.3 Observation Error 83 6.4 Missing Data and Inverse Modeling 87 6.5 Hierarchical Models and Process Error 90 6.6 Autocorrelation 94 6.7 Key Concepts 96 6.8 Hands-on Activities 97 7. Case Study: Biodiversity, Populations, and Endangered Species 98 7.1 Endangered Species 98 7.2 Biodiversity 104 7.3 Key Concepts 106 7.4 Hands-on Activities 107 8. Latent Variables and State-Space Models 108 8.1 Latent Variables 108 8.2 State Space 110 8.3 Hidden Markov Time-Series Model 111 8.4 Beyond Time 114 8.5 Key Concepts 116 8.6 Hands-on Activities 117 9. Fusing Data Sources 118 9.1 Meta-analysis 120 9.2 Combining Data: Practice, Pitfalls, and Opportunities 123 9.3 Combining Data and Models across Space and Time 127 9.4 Key Concepts 130 9.5 Hands-on Activities 130 10. Case Study: Natural Resources 131 10.1 Fisheries 131 10.2 Case Study: Baltic Salmon 133 10.3 Key Concepts 137 11. Propagating, Analyzing, and Reducing Uncertainty 138 11.1 Sensitivity Analysis 138 11.2 Uncertainty Propagation 145 11.3 Uncertainty Analysis 155 11.4 Tools for Model-Data Feedbacks 158 11.5 Key Concepts 162 11.6 Hands-on Activities 163 Appendix A Properties of Means and Variances 163 Appendix B Common Variance Approximations 164 12. Case Study: Carbon Cycle 165 12.1 Carbon Cycle Uncertainties 165 12.2 State of the Science 166 12.3 Case Study: Model-Data Feedbacks 171 12.4 Key Concepts 174 12.5 Hands-on Activities 174 13. Data Assimilation 1: Analytical Methods 175 13.1 The Forecast Cycle 175 13.2 Kalman Filter 178 13.3 Extended Kalman Filter 183 13.4 Key Concepts 185 13.5 Hands-on Activities 186 14. Data Assimilation 2: Monte Carlo Methods 187 14.1 Ensemble Filters 187 14.2 Particle Filter 190 14.3 Model Averaging and Reversible Jump MCMC 194 14.4 Generalizing the Forecast Cycle 195 14.5 Key Concepts 197 14.6 Hands-on Activities 198 15. Epidemiology 199 15.1 Theory 200 15.2 Ecological Forecasting 201 15.3 Examples of Epidemiological Forecasting 202 15.4 Case Study: Influenza 205 15.5 Key Concepts 207 16. Assessing Model Performance 208 16.1 Visualization 208 16.2 Basic Model Diagnostics 211 16.3 Model Benchmarks 215 16.4 Data Mining the Residuals 217 16.5 Comparing Model Performance to Simple Statistics 217 16.6 Key Concepts 219 16.7 Hands-on Activities 219 17. Projection and Decision Support 221 17.1 Projections, Predictions, and Forecasting 222 17.2 Decision Support 223 17.3 Key Concepts 235 17.4 Hands-on Activities 236 18. Final Thoughts 237 18.1 Lessons Learned 237 18.2 Future Directions 240 References 245 Index 261.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691160573 20170621
An authoritative and accessible introduction to the concepts and tools needed to make ecology a more predictive science Ecologists are being asked to respond to unprecedented environmental challenges. How can they provide the best available scientific information about what will happen in the future? Ecological Forecasting is the first book to bring together the concepts and tools needed to make ecology a more predictive science. Ecological Forecasting presents a new way of doing ecology. A closer connection between data and models can help us to project our current understanding of ecological processes into new places and times. This accessible and comprehensive book covers a wealth of topics, including Bayesian calibration and the complexities of real-world data; uncertainty quantification, partitioning, propagation, and analysis; feedbacks from models to measurements; state-space models and data fusion; iterative forecasting and the forecast cycle; and decision support. * Features case studies that highlight the advances and opportunities in forecasting across a range of ecological subdisciplines, such as epidemiology, fisheries, endangered species, biodiversity, and the carbon cycle * Presents a probabilistic approach to prediction and iteratively updating forecasts based on new data* Describes statistical and informatics tools for bringing models and data together, with emphasis on: * Quantifying and partitioning uncertainties * Dealing with the complexities of real-world data * Feedbacks to identifying data needs, improving models, and decision support* Numerous hands-on activities in R available online.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691160573 20170621
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1 online resource.
  • Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; Part I: Introduction; Chapter 1: Urban Bird Research in a Global Perspective; References; Part II: General Patterns and Processes; Chapter 2: Global Patterns and Drivers of Urban Bird Diversity; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 The Types of Birds Found in Cities; 2.3 Patterns and Drivers of Urban Birds; 2.3.1 Global and Regional Drivers; 2.3.2 Seasonal Drivers; 2.3.3 Local Scale Drivers; 2.4 Next Steps in Urban Bird Ecology; 2.4.1 Questions in Basic Ecology; 2.4.2 Managing for Birds in Cities; 2.4.3 Cities and Climate Change; 2.4.4 Monitoring
  • 2.5 ConclusionsReferences; Chapter 3: Urbanization and Bird Communities: Spatial and Temporal Patterns Emerging from Southern South America; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Spatial Patterns of Diversity; 3.2.1 Latitudinal Patterns and Diversity-Environment Relationships; 3.2.2 Bird Community Responses to Urbanization Gradients; Bird Responses to Urbanization in Temperate Agrosystems; Influence of Town Size on Bird Community Responses; Variation of Functional Groups Between Urban and Rural Areas; 3.3 Temporal Variability in Community Attributes
  • 3.3.1 Seasonal Variability in Community Attributes3.3.2 Year-to-Year Variability in Community Attributes; 3.4 Future Directions; References; Chapter 4: Bird Diversities and Their Responses to Urbanization in China; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Methods; 4.3 Results and Discussions; 4.3.1 Urban Bird Studies in China; 4.3.2 Urban Bird Diversities in China; 4.3.3 Birdś Responses to Urbanizations in China; Community Patterns in Response to Urbanization; Different Species in Response to Urbanization; Individuals in Response to Urbanization; References
  • Chapter 5: Why Are Exotic Birds So Successful in Urbanized Environments?5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Why Are Exotic Birds Able to Succeed in Human-Altered Environments?; 5.2.1 Susceptibility of Urban Environments to Avian Invaders; 5.2.2 Adaptations to Find a Niche in Urbanized Environments; 5.2.3 Selective Filters Favouring Adaptations to Urbanized Environments; 5.3 Why Are Exotic Species Unable to Expand to More Natural Habitats?; 5.4 Conclusions; 5.5 Conservation Implications; References; Chapter 6: Becoming Citizens: Avian Adaptations to Urban Life; 6.1 There Was Once a Country Sparrow
  • 6.2 How Are Cities Different from Natural Areas?6.2.1 Habitat Structure and Seasonality; 6.2.2 Interspecific Interactions; 6.2.3 Pollution; 6.3 Which Avian Species Thrive in Cities?; 6.4 Recognising Adaptations; 6.5 Adapting to Life in the Cities; 6.5.1 Habitat Structure and Seasonality; 6.5.2 Food Availability; 6.5.3 Interspecific Interactions; 6.5.4 Pollution; 6.6 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Mechanisms of Behavioural Change in Urban Animals: The Role of Microevolution and Phenotypic Plasticity; 7.1 Introduction
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1 online resource (xx, 198 pages) : illustrations.
  • Introduction : What should you do with a beached whale?
  • Spring: Every day is April Fool's for some species
  • Tips for Earth Day and proper environmental etiquette
  • Easter is associated with many plants
  • Mothers of many animals are worthy of recognition
  • Some birds take care of their siblings
  • Bumblebees can make honey, too
  • We don't need to kill carpenter bees
  • What should you do if you find a baby bird?
  • The mating game has many rules
  • Spring is also a time for making New Year's resolutions
  • Ecological lessons are all around us
  • St. Patrick's Day means snakes are on the move
  • Summer: What can we learn from cicada killers?
  • Color means a lot in ecology
  • Questions about alligators never end. Part 1
  • Questions about alligators never end. Part 2
  • Let's go out in the swamp tonight
  • "But poison ivy, Lord'll make you itch!!"
  • Few folks get to see a glossy strangle a craw
  • I wish everyone could visit Glacier Bay
  • Sea otters are unique
  • Controlled access works best for some parks
  • The Badlands offer an environmental paradox
  • Maine has abundant opportunities for nature watching
  • Autumn: Take a walk in a southern stream
  • Are large black cats more than a Halloween phenomenon?
  • This worm is creepier than a Halloween ghoul
  • Halloween is a time for scary thoughts
  • Africa doesn't need Bigfoot
  • National Hunting and Fishing Day is good for the environment
  • What are our top ten environmental problems?
  • Get a head start on this year's science fair
  • Predicting autumn leaf colors remains unpredictable
  • Everybody recognizes a hornet's nest
  • Snakes are much in evidence in autumn
  • Turkeys are here to stay
  • Cranberries are an all-American treat
  • Winter: Is gift giving unique to humans?
  • Deck your halls with boughs of holly
  • Mistletoe is America's most popular parasite
  • Where would you find twenty-two turtle doves?
  • What is the story behind poinsettias?
  • Rudolph is not a female reindeer
  • What is a groundhog?
  • MLK Day offers opportunity for environmental lessons
  • Make your environmental resolutions for the coming year
  • Why does a pine tree produce turpentine?
  • Why do animals turn white in the Arctic but not the Antarctic?
  • Valentine's Day signals the end of winter dormancy.
Ecoviews Too examines various human attitudes toward wildlife and the environment, focusing on seasonal occurrences and natural adaptations. Whit Gibbons and Anne R. Gibbons's Ecoviews Too: Ecology for All Seasons is based on the popular weekly column "Ecoviews, " published by numerous newspapers for more than thirty years. A follow-up to Ecoviews: Snakes, Snails and Environmental Tales, this lively and entertaining book provides a fascinating and thought-provoking look at the ecology of animals, plants, and their habitats, and promotes awareness of pressing environmental issues. Because nature, in all its myriad and amazing manifestations, can be enjoyed all year round, this collection is conveniently divided into four sections paralleling the seasons and tracking the adaptations and responses of wildlife to the relentless changes that occur at any location over time. The ecological vignettes focus on seasonal happenings, particularly holidays and historic events that define a moment when the connection between society and our natural surroundings was fundamentally altered. An intriguing and captivating publication, Ecoviews Too is comprised of fifty informative essays that address ecological topics such as camouflage and mimicry, hibernation and estivation, the human need to encounter scary animals, the mysteries of plant dormancy in winter, the comeback of the wild turkey coinciding with the decline of bobwhites, the chemistry behind the color change in fall leaves, and the top ten environmental problems facing the world today. Educating, entertaining, and delighting a general audience, especially those with an interest in nature, Ecoviews Too provides a useful resource for students and scientists alike.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780817358754 20170703
1 online resource (292 p).
Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) 2017, the third report in the EBA series, offers insights into how laws and regulations affect private sector development for agribusinesses, including producer organizations and other agricultural entrepreneurs. Globally comparable data and scored indicators encourage regulations that ensure safety and quality of agricultural inputs, goods and services but are not too costly or burdensome. The goal is to facilitate the operation of agribusinesses and allow them to thrive in a socially and environmentally responsible way, enabling them to provide essential agricultural inputs and services to farmers that could increase their productivity and profits. Regional, income-group and country-specific trends and data observations are presented for 62 countries and across twelve topics: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance, markets, transport, water, ICT, land, livestock, environmental sustainability and gender. Data are current as of June 30, 2016.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781464810213 20170626
48 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
Les Examens environnementaux de l’OCDE sont des évaluations indépendantes des progrès accomplis par les pays pour tenir leurs objectifs environnementaux. Ces examens sont destinés à favoriser les échanges de bonnes pratiques, à aider les gouvernements à rendre compte de leurs politiques et à améliorer la performance environnementale, individuelle et collective, des pays. Les analyses s’appuient sur un large éventail de données économiques et environnementales. Au cours de chaque cycle d’examens environnementaux, l’OCDE passe en revue l’ensemble de ses pays membres ainsi que certains pays partenaires. Les derniers pays examinés sont le Brésil (2015), les Pays-Bas (2015) et la France (2016). Ce rapport est le deuxième examen environnemental du Chili. Il évalue ses progrès en matière de développement durable et de croissance verte, avec un accent particulier sur le changement climatique et sur la conservation et l’exploitation durable de la biodiversité. Cette version française est une version abrégée de la version originale de la publication, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Chile 2016. Elle inclut notamment l'avant-propos, le résumé et les recommandations qui donne une vue d'ensemble du rapport.