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Book
1 online resource ( x, 342 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • 1.Physico-chemical boundaries of life.- 2.Microbial diversity in deep hypersaline anoxic basins.- 3.Microbial speciation in the geothermal ecosystem.- 4.Bacterial adaptation to hot and dry deserts.- 5.Extremophiles in Antarctica: Life at low temperatures.- 6.Anhydrobiotic rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria: Potential for astrobiology and biotechnology.- 7.Psychrophilic microorganisms as important source for biotechnological processes.- 8.Halophilic microorganisms from man-made and natural hypersaline environments: Physiology, ecology, and biotechnological potential.- 9.Applications of extremophiles in astrobiology: Habitability and life detection strategies.- 10.Extremophiles in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.- 11.The Extreme Biology of Meteorites: Their Role in Understanding the Origin and Distribution of Life on Earth and in the Universe.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
This entirely updated second edition provides an overview on the biology, ecology and biodiversity of extremophiles. Unusual and less explored ecosystems inhabited by extremophiles such as marine hypersaline deeps, extreme cold, desert sands, and man-made clean rooms for spacecraft assembly are presented. An additional focus is put on the role of these highly specialized microorganism in applied research fields, ranging from biotechnology and nanotechnology to astrobiology. Examples such as novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection strategies for potential extraterrestrial life forms are discussed in detail. The book addresses researchers and advanced students in the fields of microbiology, microbial ecology and biotechnology.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319483252 20170502
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  • Preface; Contents; Part I: Air Pollution in East Asia; Chapter 1: Gaseous Species; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 SO2; 1.2.1 Japan; 1.2.2 China; 1.2.3 Korea; 1.3 NOx; 1.3.1 Japan; 1.3.2 China; 1.3.3 Korea; 1.4 Tropospheric Ozone; 1.4.1 Japan; 1.4.2 China; 1.4.3 Korea; 1.4.4 Trends in Ozone Concentrations Above the East China Sea Based on Aerial Observations; References; Chapter 2: Aerosols; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Aerosols and PM2.5; 2.3 Kosa and Chemical Species Transported with kosa; 2.4 Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC); 2.5 PAHs; 2.6 Metallic Elements and Source Apportionment
  • 2.7 Sulfate, Nitrate, and Ammonium Aerosols2.8 Trends of Ionic Species in Aerosols Transported from East Asia Measured by Aircraft; References; Chapter 3: Acid Deposition; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Acid Deposition Monitored by a Regional Network in East Asia; 3.2.1 Wet Deposition; 3.2.2 Dry and Total Deposition; 3.2.3 Observational Data in Forested Areas Obtained by the EANET: Relevant Studies; 3.3 Soil Acidification in Asian Countries; 3.4 Summary; References; Part II: Effects of Gaseous Air Pollutants on Plants in Japan; Chapter 4: Effects of Ozone on Japanese Agricultural Crops
  • 4.1 Introduction4.2 Studies in the 1970s; 4.3 Studies from the 1980s to 1990s; 4.4 Studies in the early 2000s and Beyond; References; Chapter 5: Effects of Ozone on Japanese Trees; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Effects of O3 on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Japanese Trees; 5.2.1 Effects of O3 on Growth; 5.2.1.1 Dry-Matter Growth; 5.2.1.2 Leaf Turnover; 5.2.1.3 Carbon Allocation; 5.2.1.4 Phenology; 5.2.2 O3 Effects on Physiology; 5.2.2.1 Stomatal Functions; 5.2.2.2 Photosynthesis; 5.2.2.3 Respiration; 5.3 Risk Assessment of Ozone Impact; 5.4 Free-Air Ozone Fumigation Experiment
  • 5.5 Biotic Relations5.5.1 Defense Capacity Against Biotic Stresses; 5.5.2 Symbiosis with Ectomycorrhizal Fungi; 5.6 Future Perspectives; References; Chapter 6: Combined Effects of Ozone and Other Environmental Factors on Japanese Trees; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Combined Effects of O3 and Elevated Atmospheric CO2; 6.3 Combined Effects of O3 and Soil Nitrogen Load; 6.4 Combined Effects of O3 and Soil Water Stress; 6.5 Future Perspectives; References; Chapter 7: Environmental Monitoring with Indicator Plants for Air Pollutants in Asia; 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Japanese Experience in the Application of Indicator Plants7.3 Bryophyte and Lichen Communities; 7.4 Chemical Analysis of Bryophytes and Lichens; 7.5 Use of Common Tree Species as Bio-indicators; 7.6 Summary and Future Perspectives; References; Part III: Case Studies in Japanese Forests; Chapter 8: Flux-Based O3 Risk Assessment for Japanese Temperate Forests; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Study Sites; 8.3 Estimation of Light-Saturated GPP; 8.4 Estimation of Cumulative O3 Uptake (COU); 8.5 Effects of Cumulative O3 Uptake (COU) on C Sequestering Capacity in the Beech and Oak Forests; 8.6 Conclusion
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  • Contents Introduction to the Application of Palaeoecological Techniques in Estuaries
  • Part I. Estuaries and their Management.- Estuary Form and Function: Implications for Palaeoecological Studies
  • Geology and Sedimentary History of Modern Estuaries
  • Palaeoecological Evidence for Variability and Change in Estuaries: Insights for Management
  • Part II. Coring and Dating of Estuarine Sediments. Sediment Sampling in Estuaries ? Site Selection and Sampling Techniques
  • Some Practical Considerations Regarding the Application of 210Pb and 137Cs Dating to Estuarine Sediments
  • Radiocarbon Dating in Estuarine Environments
  • Part III. Techniques for Palaeoenvironmental Reconstructions in Estuaries. Lipid Biomarkers as Organic Geochemical Proxies for the Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of Estuarine Environments
  • C/N ratios and Carbon Isotope Composition of Organic Matter in Estuarine Environments
  • Physical and Chemical Factors to Consider when Studying Historical Contamination and Pollution in Estuaries
  • Diatoms as Indicators of Environmental Change in Estuaries
  • Dinoflagellate Cysts as Proxies for Holocene Environmental Change in Estuaries: Diversity, Abundance and Morphology
  • Applications of Foraminifera, Testate Amoebae and Tintinnids in Estuarine Palaeoecology
  • Ostracods as Recorders of Palaeoenvironmental Change in Estuaries
  • Application of Molluscan Analyses to the Reconstruction of Past Environmental Conditions in Estuaries
  • Corals in Estuarine Environments: Their Response to Environmental Changes and Application in Reconstructing Past Environmental Variability
  • Inferring Environmental Change in Estuaries from Plant Macrofossils
  • Applications of Pollen Analysis in Estuarine Systems
  • Part IV. Case Studies. Palaeo-Environmental Approaches to Reconstructing Sea Level Changes in Estuaries
  • Paleoecology Studies in Chesapeake Bay: A Model System for Understanding Interactions between Climate, Anthropogenic Activities and the Environment
  • Paleosalinity Changes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary and on the Adjacent Uruguayan Continental Shelf over the Past 1,200 Years: An Approach Using Diatoms as a Proxy
  • Application of Paleoecology to Ecosystem Restoration: A Case Study from South Florida's Estuaries
  • Paleolimnological History of The Coorong: Identifying the Natural Ecological Character of a Ramsar Wetland in Crisis
  • Palaeoenvironmental History of the Baltic Sea : One of the Largest Brackish-water Ecosystems in the World .
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  • Acknowledgments; Contents; About the Editors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 The Decline of Biodiversity in the Agro-ecosystems; 1.2 Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe Agriculture
  • The Role of History; 1.3 Conservation Tools: From the Protected Areas Approach and Nature2000 Network to the High Nature Value Areas in Europe; 1.3.1 A Concept of Protected Areas Application to Successful Conservation; 1.3.2 Theories for Fragmented Space; 1.3.3 Applying Ecological Terminology for Agricultural Landscapes of Whole Europe?; 1.4 HNV Farming Definition
  • 1.5 Approaches to Characterize HNV Farming1.5.1 Land Cover Approach; 1.5.2 Farm System Approach; 1.5.3 Species Approach; 1.6 The HNV as Support for Biodiversity and Public Goods; 1.7 This Book in Few Words; References; Chapter 2: Spread of the Concept of HNV Farmland in Europe: A Systematic Review; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Methods; 2.3 Results; 2.4 Discussion; Bibliography; Chapter 3: Identifying HNV Areas Using Geographic Information Systems and Landscape Metrics; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Simple Metrics for Identification of HNV Farmland; 3.3 Input Data for Calculation of Landscape Metrics
  • 3.4 Landscape Metrics Case Study: An Example of Using Landscape Metrics to Identify HNV FarmlandReferences; Chapter 4: Suitable Methods for Monitoring HNV Farmland Using Bird Species; 4.1 Bird Count Methods for Farmland Systems: Single-Habitat and Multi-habitat Species; 4.2 The Concept of Bioindicators or Environmental Surrogates and Common Measures of Diversity in Bird Communities; 4.2.1 The Concept of Bioindicators; 4.2.2 Common Diversity Metrics Useful for Bird Communities; 4.3 Species Distribution Models and Other Useful Statistical Tools; 4.3.1 SDMs in a Nutshell; 4.4 Other Useful Tools
  • 4.4.1 MRT-Multiregression Tree Analysis4.4.2 Indicator Species Analysis; References; Part I: Case Studies; Chapter 5: Case Study 1. Bird as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Farmlands from Central Italy; 5.1 Methodology; 5.1.1 Study Area; 5.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 5.1.3 Data Analysis; 5.2 Results; 5.2.1 Farmland Classification and Description; 5.2.2 Bird Indicators of HNV Farmland; 5.2.3 Relative Importance of HNV Farmland Characteristics for Bird Distribution; 5.3 Discussion; 5.3.1 Utility of the Proposed Methodology; References
  • Chapter 6: Case Study 2. Birds as Indicators of HNV: Case Study in Portuguese Cork Oak Montados6.1 Methodology; 6.1.1 Study Area; 6.1.2 Bird Census; 6.1.3 HNV Features and Explanatory Variables; 6.1.4 Data Analysis; 6.2 Results; 6.2.1 Environmental Variables; 6.2.2 Bird Guilds; 6.2.3 Modelling of Bird Guilds; 6.3 Discussion; 6.4 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Case Study 3. Using Indicator Species AnalysisIndVal to Identify Bird Indicators of HNV in Farmlands from Western P...; 7.1 Methodology; 7.1.1 Study Area; 7.1.2 Species and Environmental Data; 7.1.3 Data Analysis; 7.2 Results
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Book
48 p.
The purpose of this working paper is to review existing chemical risk assessment methods in the context of supporting socio-economic cost-benefit analysis, focusing on more “typical” risk assessments that may not have strong epidemiologic data and/or were not originally designed to support socio-economic analyses. A number of case studies of such “typical” chemical risk assessments were reviewed with respect to their suitability for supporting socio-economic analyses.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 42999 ): digital, PDF file.
Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.
Book
1 online resource.
  • Part I. Concepts, Issues, and Policy Chapter 1. The Context and Scope of the Book Chapter 2. Introduction Part II. Methodologies for Evaluating Competitiveness Chapter 3. International Trade and Prices as Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 4. Price-Quality Tradeoffs and Multitrack Evaluations of Competitiveness Chapter 5. Track 1 Methodology: Cost-Price Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 6. Track 2 Methodology: Value Chains and Quality Criteria Part III. Case Studies in the Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture Chapter 7. Colombia: A Strategic Assessment of National Crop Competitiveness Chapter 8. Rwanda: Competitiveness by Quality Criteria, Track 2 Chapter 9. El Salvador: Crop Competitiveness and Factor Intensities Chapter 10. Colombia: Crop Competitiveness by Region Evaluated via Tracks 1 and 2 Part IV. Concluding Remarks Chapter 11. Assessing Agricultural Competitiveness and Its Determinants Chapter 12. Competitiveness in a Development Perspective.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
The Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture: A Guide to Competitive Potential with Case Studies describes and synthesizes existing methodologies for evaluating competitiveness in agriculture, introduces extensions and refinements, and provides a novel approach based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. As exports of tropical fruit, nuts, and other high-value crops have been growing very rapidly from developing countries, but often encounter serious obstacles in their value chains, this book demonstrates how national agricultural policy is oftentimes not guided by considerations of inherent competitiveness. In addition, the book presents case studies that illustrate the application of these approaches using quantitative frameworks. A concluding chapter introduces policy considerations for competitiveness from work in Jordan, Colombia, Estonia, Peru, and elsewhere, also discussing the role of specific policies in raising competitiveness sustainably and its role in reducing rural poverty.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
Book
1 online resource ( x, 87 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Abbreviations; Introduction; 1 New Perspectives on Ecological Networks; Abstract; 1.1 The Impact of Urbanization Processes on the Consumption of the Soil and on the Fragmentation; 1.2 From Protected Natural Areas to Reticular System; 1.3 The Paradigm of the Ecological Networks; 1.4 European Policies About Ecological Networks; References; 2 Ecological Networks and Planning; Abstract; 2.1 The Issue of Regulation; 2.2 The Re-processing of Values: New Types of Planning?; 2.3 Ecological Networks in Planning Instruments; 2.4 The Case of Italy
  • 2.5 The Italian Census of Local Scale Planning Instruments According to the Ecological Network ModelReferences; 3 Ecological Network, Application of a Model in Sicily; Abstract; 3.1 Soil Consumption and Fragmentation of the Regional Natural System; 3.2 Urban-Planning Versus Environment-Planning; 3.3 A Reticular System for the Protected Areas; 3.4 The Application of the Ecological Network in Wide-Area Planning in Sicily: The Case of the Metropolitan City of Palermo and of the Libero Consorzio Di Siracusa; References; Conclusions; References
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Book
1 online resource (xvi, 191 pages) : color illustrations.
  • Part I: A Background to Design, 1. The Environment is Not a Human Construct, 2. Global Differences, Not Universals, 3. Shifting Adaptabilities, Not Static Concepts, Part II: Thinking about Design, 4. Multiple, Not Solo Voices, 5. Inquiries, Not Assumptions, 6. Thinking Backwards, Not as a Forward and Linear Narrative.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781138890220 20170515
Today, designers are shifting the practice of landscape architecture towards the need for a more complex understanding of ecological science. Constructed Ecologies presents ecology as critical theory for design, and provides major ideas for design that are supported with solid and imaginative science. In the questioning narrative of Constructed Ecologies, the author discards many old and tired theories in landscape architecture. With detailed documentation, she casts off the savannah theory, critiques the search for universals, reveals the needed role of designers in large-scale agriculture, abandons the overlay technique of McHarg, and introduces the ecological and urban health urgency of public night lighting. Margaret Grose presents wide-ranging new approaches and shows the importance of learning from science for design, of going beyond assumptions, of working in multiple rather than single issues, of disrupting linear design thinking, and of dealing with data. This book is written with a clear voice by an ecologist and landscape architect who has led design students into loving ecological science for the support it gives design.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781138890220 20170515
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Book
120 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword and Acknowledgements
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • The Water Quality Challenge
  • An overview of the main water pollutants in OECD countries
  • Economic costs and policy approaches to control diffuse source water pollution
  • Emerging policy instruments for the control of diffuse source water pollution
  • A policy framework for diffuse source water pollution management.
After decades of regulation and investment to reduce point source water pollution, OECD countries still face water quality challenges (e.g. eutrophication) from diffuse agricultural and urban sources of pollution, that is disperse pollution from surface runoff, soil filtration and atmospheric deposition. The relative lack of progress reflects the complexities of controlling multiple pollutants from multiple sources, their high spatial and temporal variability, associated transactions costs, and limited political acceptability of regulatory measures. This report outlines the water quality challenges facing OECD countries today, presents a range of policy instruments and innovative case studies of diffuse pollution control, and concludes with an integrated policy framework to tackle diffuse water pollution. An optimal approach will likely entail a mix of policy interventions reflecting the basic OECD principles of water quality management – pollution prevention, treatment at source, the polluter pays and beneficiary pays principles, equity, and policy coherence.
Book
1 online resource (Article No. 158 ): digital, PDF file.
Similar to mycorrhizal mutualists, the rhizospheric and endophytic fungi are also considered to act as active regulators of host fitness (e.g., nutrition and stress tolerance). Despite considerable work in selected model systems, it is generally poorly understood how plant-associated fungi are structured in habitats with extreme conditions and to what extent they contribute to improved plant performance. Here, we investigate the community composition of root and seed-associated fungi from six halophytes growing in saline areas of China, and found that the pleosporalean taxa (Ascomycota) were most frequently isolated across samples. A total of twenty-seven representative isolates were selected for construction of the phylogeny based on the multi-locus data (partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and transcription elongation factor 1-a), which classified them into seven families, one clade potentially representing a novel lineage. Fungal isolates were subjected to growth response assays by imposing temperature, pH, ionic and osmotic conditions. The fungi had a wide pH tolerance, while most isolates showed a variable degree of sensitivity to increasing concentration of either salt or sorbitol. Subsequent plant fungal co-culture assays indicated that most isolates had only neutral or even adverse effects on plant growth in the presence of inorganic nitrogen. Interestingly, when provided with organic nitrogen sources the majority of the isolates enhanced plant growth especially above ground biomass. Most of the fungi preferred organic nitrogen over its inorganic counterpart, suggesting that these fungi can readily mineralize organic nitrogen into inorganic nitrogen. Microscopy revealed that several isolates can successfully colonize roots and form melanized hyphae and/or microsclerotia-like structures within cortical cells suggesting a phylogenetic assignment as dark septate endophytes. Furthermore, this work provides a better understanding of the symbiotic relationship between plants and pleosporalean fungi, and initial evidence for the use of this fungal group in benefiting plant production.
Book
1 online resource (x, 270 pages.) :
  • Preface ix Acknowledgments xi 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Why Forecast? 1 1.2 The Informatics Challenge in Forecasting 3 1.3 The Model-Data Loop 4 1.4 Why Bayes? 6 1.5 Models as Scaffolds 7 1.6 Case Studies and Decision Support 8 1.7 Key Concepts 10 1.8 Hands-on Activities 10 2. From Models to Forecasts 11 2.1 The Traditional Modeler's Toolbox 11 2.2 Example: The Logistic Growth Model 12 2.3 Adding Sources of Uncertainty 14 2.4 Thinking Probabilistically 23 2.5 Predictability 25 2.6 Key Concepts 33 2.7 Hands-on Activities 33 3. Data, Large and Small 34 3.1 The Data Cycle and Best Practices 34 3.2 Data Standards and Metadata 38 3.3 Handling Big Data 40 3.4 Key Concepts 43 3.5 Hands-on Activities 43 4. Scientific Workflows and the Informatics of Model-Data Fusion 44 4.1 Transparency, Accountability, and Repeatability 44 4.2 Workflows and Automation 45 4.3 Best Practices for Scientific Computing 48 4.4 Key Concepts 51 4.5 Hands-on Activities 52 5. Introduction to Bayes 53 5.1 Confronting Models with Data 53 5.2 Probability 101 54 5.3 The Likelihood 56 5.4 Bayes' Theorem 61 5.5 Prior Information 65 5.6 Numerical Methods for Bayes 68 5.7 Evaluating MCMC Output 71 5.8 Key Concepts 74 5.9 Hands-on Activities 75 6. Characterizing Uncertainty 76 6.1 Non-Gaussian Error 76 6.2 Heteroskedasticity 82 6.3 Observation Error 83 6.4 Missing Data and Inverse Modeling 87 6.5 Hierarchical Models and Process Error 90 6.6 Autocorrelation 94 6.7 Key Concepts 96 6.8 Hands-on Activities 97 7. Case Study: Biodiversity, Populations, and Endangered Species 98 7.1 Endangered Species 98 7.2 Biodiversity 104 7.3 Key Concepts 106 7.4 Hands-on Activities 107 8. Latent Variables and State-Space Models 108 8.1 Latent Variables 108 8.2 State Space 110 8.3 Hidden Markov Time-Series Model 111 8.4 Beyond Time 114 8.5 Key Concepts 116 8.6 Hands-on Activities 117 9. Fusing Data Sources 118 9.1 Meta-analysis 120 9.2 Combining Data: Practice, Pitfalls, and Opportunities 123 9.3 Combining Data and Models across Space and Time 127 9.4 Key Concepts 130 9.5 Hands-on Activities 130 10. Case Study: Natural Resources 131 10.1 Fisheries 131 10.2 Case Study: Baltic Salmon 133 10.3 Key Concepts 137 11. Propagating, Analyzing, and Reducing Uncertainty 138 11.1 Sensitivity Analysis 138 11.2 Uncertainty Propagation 145 11.3 Uncertainty Analysis 155 11.4 Tools for Model-Data Feedbacks 158 11.5 Key Concepts 162 11.6 Hands-on Activities 163 Appendix A Properties of Means and Variances 163 Appendix B Common Variance Approximations 164 12. Case Study: Carbon Cycle 165 12.1 Carbon Cycle Uncertainties 165 12.2 State of the Science 166 12.3 Case Study: Model-Data Feedbacks 171 12.4 Key Concepts 174 12.5 Hands-on Activities 174 13. Data Assimilation 1: Analytical Methods 175 13.1 The Forecast Cycle 175 13.2 Kalman Filter 178 13.3 Extended Kalman Filter 183 13.4 Key Concepts 185 13.5 Hands-on Activities 186 14. Data Assimilation 2: Monte Carlo Methods 187 14.1 Ensemble Filters 187 14.2 Particle Filter 190 14.3 Model Averaging and Reversible Jump MCMC 194 14.4 Generalizing the Forecast Cycle 195 14.5 Key Concepts 197 14.6 Hands-on Activities 198 15. Epidemiology 199 15.1 Theory 200 15.2 Ecological Forecasting 201 15.3 Examples of Epidemiological Forecasting 202 15.4 Case Study: Influenza 205 15.5 Key Concepts 207 16. Assessing Model Performance 208 16.1 Visualization 208 16.2 Basic Model Diagnostics 211 16.3 Model Benchmarks 215 16.4 Data Mining the Residuals 217 16.5 Comparing Model Performance to Simple Statistics 217 16.6 Key Concepts 219 16.7 Hands-on Activities 219 17. Projection and Decision Support 221 17.1 Projections, Predictions, and Forecasting 222 17.2 Decision Support 223 17.3 Key Concepts 235 17.4 Hands-on Activities 236 18. Final Thoughts 237 18.1 Lessons Learned 237 18.2 Future Directions 240 References 245 Index 261.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691160573 20170621
An authoritative and accessible introduction to the concepts and tools needed to make ecology a more predictive science Ecologists are being asked to respond to unprecedented environmental challenges. How can they provide the best available scientific information about what will happen in the future? Ecological Forecasting is the first book to bring together the concepts and tools needed to make ecology a more predictive science. Ecological Forecasting presents a new way of doing ecology. A closer connection between data and models can help us to project our current understanding of ecological processes into new places and times. This accessible and comprehensive book covers a wealth of topics, including Bayesian calibration and the complexities of real-world data; uncertainty quantification, partitioning, propagation, and analysis; feedbacks from models to measurements; state-space models and data fusion; iterative forecasting and the forecast cycle; and decision support. * Features case studies that highlight the advances and opportunities in forecasting across a range of ecological subdisciplines, such as epidemiology, fisheries, endangered species, biodiversity, and the carbon cycle * Presents a probabilistic approach to prediction and iteratively updating forecasts based on new data* Describes statistical and informatics tools for bringing models and data together, with emphasis on: * Quantifying and partitioning uncertainties * Dealing with the complexities of real-world data * Feedbacks to identifying data needs, improving models, and decision support* Numerous hands-on activities in R available online.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691160573 20170621
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1 online resource.
  • Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; Part I: Introduction; Chapter 1: Urban Bird Research in a Global Perspective; References; Part II: General Patterns and Processes; Chapter 2: Global Patterns and Drivers of Urban Bird Diversity; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 The Types of Birds Found in Cities; 2.3 Patterns and Drivers of Urban Birds; 2.3.1 Global and Regional Drivers; 2.3.2 Seasonal Drivers; 2.3.3 Local Scale Drivers; 2.4 Next Steps in Urban Bird Ecology; 2.4.1 Questions in Basic Ecology; 2.4.2 Managing for Birds in Cities; 2.4.3 Cities and Climate Change; 2.4.4 Monitoring
  • 2.5 ConclusionsReferences; Chapter 3: Urbanization and Bird Communities: Spatial and Temporal Patterns Emerging from Southern South America; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Spatial Patterns of Diversity; 3.2.1 Latitudinal Patterns and Diversity-Environment Relationships; 3.2.2 Bird Community Responses to Urbanization Gradients; 3.2.2.1 Bird Responses to Urbanization in Temperate Agrosystems; 3.2.2.2 Influence of Town Size on Bird Community Responses; 3.2.2.3 Variation of Functional Groups Between Urban and Rural Areas; 3.3 Temporal Variability in Community Attributes
  • 3.3.1 Seasonal Variability in Community Attributes3.3.2 Year-to-Year Variability in Community Attributes; 3.4 Future Directions; References; Chapter 4: Bird Diversities and Their Responses to Urbanization in China; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Methods; 4.3 Results and Discussions; 4.3.1 Urban Bird Studies in China; 4.3.2 Urban Bird Diversities in China; 4.3.3 Birdś Responses to Urbanizations in China; 4.3.3.1 Community Patterns in Response to Urbanization; 4.3.3.2 Different Species in Response to Urbanization; 4.3.3.3 Individuals in Response to Urbanization; References
  • Chapter 5: Why Are Exotic Birds So Successful in Urbanized Environments?5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Why Are Exotic Birds Able to Succeed in Human-Altered Environments?; 5.2.1 Susceptibility of Urban Environments to Avian Invaders; 5.2.2 Adaptations to Find a Niche in Urbanized Environments; 5.2.3 Selective Filters Favouring Adaptations to Urbanized Environments; 5.3 Why Are Exotic Species Unable to Expand to More Natural Habitats?; 5.4 Conclusions; 5.5 Conservation Implications; References; Chapter 6: Becoming Citizens: Avian Adaptations to Urban Life; 6.1 There Was Once a Country Sparrow
  • 6.2 How Are Cities Different from Natural Areas?6.2.1 Habitat Structure and Seasonality; 6.2.2 Interspecific Interactions; 6.2.3 Pollution; 6.3 Which Avian Species Thrive in Cities?; 6.4 Recognising Adaptations; 6.5 Adapting to Life in the Cities; 6.5.1 Habitat Structure and Seasonality; 6.5.2 Food Availability; 6.5.3 Interspecific Interactions; 6.5.4 Pollution; 6.6 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Mechanisms of Behavioural Change in Urban Animals: The Role of Microevolution and Phenotypic Plasticity; 7.1 Introduction
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1 online resource (292 p).
Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) 2017, the third report in the EBA series, offers insights into how laws and regulations affect private sector development for agribusinesses, including producer organizations and other agricultural entrepreneurs. Globally comparable data and scored indicators encourage regulations that ensure safety and quality of agricultural inputs, goods and services but are not too costly or burdensome. The goal is to facilitate the operation of agribusinesses and allow them to thrive in a socially and environmentally responsible way, enabling them to provide essential agricultural inputs and services to farmers that could increase their productivity and profits. Regional, income-group and country-specific trends and data observations are presented for 62 countries and across twelve topics: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance, markets, transport, water, ICT, land, livestock, environmental sustainability and gender. Data are current as of June 30, 2016.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781464810213 20170626
Book
48 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
Les Examens environnementaux de l’OCDE sont des évaluations indépendantes des progrès accomplis par les pays pour tenir leurs objectifs environnementaux. Ces examens sont destinés à favoriser les échanges de bonnes pratiques, à aider les gouvernements à rendre compte de leurs politiques et à améliorer la performance environnementale, individuelle et collective, des pays. Les analyses s’appuient sur un large éventail de données économiques et environnementales. Au cours de chaque cycle d’examens environnementaux, l’OCDE passe en revue l’ensemble de ses pays membres ainsi que certains pays partenaires. Les derniers pays examinés sont le Brésil (2015), les Pays-Bas (2015) et la France (2016). Ce rapport est le deuxième examen environnemental du Chili. Il évalue ses progrès en matière de développement durable et de croissance verte, avec un accent particulier sur le changement climatique et sur la conservation et l’exploitation durable de la biodiversité. Cette version française est une version abrégée de la version originale de la publication, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Chile 2016. Elle inclut notamment l'avant-propos, le résumé et les recommandations qui donne une vue d'ensemble du rapport.
Book
1 online resource (326 pages) : illustrations.
  • History of infectious diseases / Maria Ines Zanoli Sato
  • Global environmental change and emerging infectious diseases: macrolevel drivers and policy responses / Catherine Machalaba, Cristina Romanelli, Peter Stoett
  • Climate change-associated conflict and infectious disease / Devin C. Bowles
  • Waterborne diseases and climate change: impact and implications / Maha Bouzid
  • Environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases: a regional perspective from South America / Ulisses Confalonieri, Júlia Alves Menezes, Carina Margonari
  • Infectious diseases and climate vulnerability in Morocco: governance and adaptation options / Mohamed Behnassi [and 4 others]
  • Emergence of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa / Samir Dervisevic
  • Rift Valley Fever and the changing environment: a case study in East Africa / Johanna Lindahl [and 3 others]
  • Climate change effects on human health with a particular focus on vector-borne diseases and malaria in Africa: a case study from Kano State, Nigeria investigating perceptions about links between malaria epidemics, weather variables, and climate change / Salisu Lawal Halliru
  • Are climate change adaptation policies a game changer?: a case study of perspectives from public health officials in Ontario, Canada / Chris G. Buse.
Climate change is one of the most widely debated and worrisome topics of our time. As environmental changes become more prevalent, there has been evidence to suggest that there is a correlation between the environment and a substantial increase of infectious diseases and viruses around the globe. Examining the Role of Environmental Change on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Pandemics investigates the impact of climate change in relation to the emergence and spread of global diseases. Highlighting epidemiological factors and policies to govern epidemics and pandemics, this publication is a critical reference source for medical professionals, students, environmental scientists, advocates, policy makers, academics, and researchers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522505532 20161213
Book
1 online resource.
  • Acknowledgments Introduction to General Ecology: the Ecologization of Thinking (Erich Horl, Professor of Media Culture, Leuphana University of Luneburg, Germany) 1. Computational Logic and Ecological Rationality (Luciana Parisi, Reader in Cultural Theory, Goldsmith's, University of London, UK) 2. Elements for an Ecology of Separation: Beyond Ecological Constructivism (Frederic Neyrat, a French philosopher and Assistant professor in Comparative Literature at University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA) 3. General Ecology, Economy, and Organology (Bernard Stiegler, a French philosopher. He is head of the Institut de recherche et d'innovation (IRI), which he founded in 2006 at the Centre Georges-Pompidou, France) 4. Critique of the Cosmology of the Moderns (Didier Debaise, Professor of Philosophy, ULB, Brussels, Belgium) 5. Deep Times and Media Mines: A Descent into Ecological Materiality of Technology (Jussi Parikka, media theorist, writer and Professor in Technological Culture & Aesthetics at Winchester School of Art, University of Southampton, UK) 6. Planetary Immunity: Biopolitics, Gaia Theory, the Holobiont, and the Systems Counterculture (Bruce Clarke, Paul Whitfield Horn Professor of Literature and Science, Texas Tech University, USA) 7. Ecologizing Biopolitics, or, What is the "Bio-" of Biopolitics and Bioart? (Cary Wolfe, Bruce and Elizabeth Dunlevie Professor of English and Director, 3CT: Center for Critical and Cultural Theory, Rice University, USA) 8. Ecologies of Communication, Contagion and Bataille (David Wills, Professor of French Studies, Brown University, USA) 8. Metafiction and General Ecology: Making Worlds with Worlds (James Burton, fellow of ICI, Berlin, Germany) 9. An Ecology of Differences: Communication, the Web, and the Question of Borders (Elena Esposito, Professor of Sociology at the University Modena/Reggio Emilia, Italy) 10. Specters of Ecology (Timothy Morton, Rita Shea Guffey Chair in English, Rice University, USA) 11. Devastation (Matthew Fuller, Professor of Cultural Studies and Director of the Centre for Cultural Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK and Olga Goriunova, Senior Lecturer in Digital Culture, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK) 12. Virtual Ecology and the Question of Value (Brian Massumi, Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences at the University of Montreal, Canada) List of Contributors Bibliography Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781350014718 20170515
Ecology has become one of the most urgent and lively fields in both the humanities and sciences. In a dramatic widening of scope beyond its original concern with the coexistence of living organisms within a natural environment, it is now recognized that there are ecologies of mind, information, sensation, perception, power, participation, media, behavior, belonging, values, the social, the political... a thousand ecologies. This proliferation is not simply a metaphorical extension of the figurative potential of natural ecology: rather, it reflects the thoroughgoing imbrication of natural and technological elements in the constitution of the contemporary environments we inhabit, the rise of a cybernetic natural state, with its corresponding mode of power. Hence this ecology of ecologies initiates and demands that we go beyond the specificity of any particular ecology: a general thinking of ecology which may also constitute an ecological transformation of thought itself is required. In this ambitious and radical new volume of writings, some of the most exciting contemporary thinkers in the field take on the task of revealing and theorizing the extent of the ecologization of existence as the effect of our contemporary sociotechnological condition: together, they bring out the complexity and urgency of the challenge of ecological thought-one we cannot avoid if we want to ask and indeed have a chance of affecting what forms of life, agency, modes of existence, human or otherwise, will participate-and how-in this planet's future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781350014718 20170515
Book
20 p.
This Policy Paper describes the relatively new phenomenon of publicly-capitalised green investment banks and examines why they are being created and how they are mobilising private investment. It draws on the OECD report “Green Investment Banks: Scaling up Private Investment in Low-carbon, Climate-resilient Infrastructure".
Book
1 online resource (330 pages) : illustrations.
  • Sustainable supply chains / Amulya Gurtu, Cory Searcy, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • An introduction to sustainable supply chain management and business implications / Gowri Vijayan, Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman
  • The development and analysis of environmentally responsible supply chain models / Ehab Bazan, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • Assessing the green supply chain management for the United Arab Emirates construction industry / Sreejith Balasubramanian, Balan Sundarakani
  • A waste elimination process: an approach for lean and sustainable manufacturing systems / Sherif Mostafa, Jantanee Dumrak
  • Green supply chain management model for sustainable manufacturing practices / Surajit Bag, Neeraj Anand, Krishan Kumar Pandey
  • Recent developments in green supply chain management: sourcing and logistics / Jay R. Brown [and 3 others]
  • Integrated sustainable supply chain management: current practices and future direction / Geevaneswary Saththasivam, Yudi Fernando
  • Advocating sustainable supply chain management and sustainability in global supply chain / Kijpokin Kasemsap.
The issue of sustainability has become a vital discussion in many industries within the public and private sectors. In the business realm, incorporating such practices allows organizations to re-design their operations more effectively. Green Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Business Practice examines the challenges and benefits of implementing sustainability into the core functions of contemporary enterprises, focusing on how green approaches improve operations in an ecological way. Highlighting key concepts, emerging innovations, and future directions, this book is a pivotal reference source for professionals, managers, educators, and upper-level students.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522506355 20161213
Book
1 online resource ( xxxiii, 313 pages) :
The eighteenth-century naturalist Erasmus Darwin (grandfather of Charles) argued that plants are animate, living beings and attributed them sensation, movement, and a certain degree of mental activity, emphasizing the continuity between humankind and plant existence. Two centuries later, the understanding of plants as active and communicative organisms has reemerged in such diverse fields as plant neurobiology, philosophical posthumanism, and ecocriticism. The Language of Plants brings together groundbreaking essays from across the disciplines to foster a dialogue between the biological sciences and the humanities and to reconsider our relation to the vegetal world in new ethical and political terms.Viewing plants as sophisticated information-processing organisms with complex communication strategies (they can sense and respond to environmental cues and play an active role in their own survival and reproduction through chemical languages) radically transforms our notion of plants as unresponsive beings, ready to be instrumentally appropriated. By providing multifaceted understandings of plants, informed by the latest developments in evolutionary ecology, the philosophy of biology, and ecocritical theory, The Language of Plants promotes the freedom of imagination necessary for a new ecological awareness and more sustainable interactions with diverse life forms.Contributors: Joni Adamson, Arizona State U; Nancy E. Baker, Sarah Lawrence College; Karen L. F. Houle, U of Guelph; Luce Irigaray, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris; Erin James, U of Idaho; Richard Karban, U of California at Davis; Andre Kessler, Cornell U; Isabel Kranz, U of Vienna; Michael Marder, U of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU); Timothy Morton, Rice U; Christian Nansen, U of California at Davis; Robert A. Raguso, Cornell U; Catriona Sandilands, York U.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781517901844 20170605