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1 online resource.
  • Part I. Concepts, Issues, and Policy Chapter 1. The Context and Scope of the Book Chapter 2. Introduction Part II. Methodologies for Evaluating Competitiveness Chapter 3. International Trade and Prices as Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 4. Price-Quality Tradeoffs and Multitrack Evaluations of Competitiveness Chapter 5. Track 1 Methodology: Cost-Price Measures of Competitiveness Chapter 6. Track 2 Methodology: Value Chains and Quality Criteria Part III. Case Studies in the Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture Chapter 7. Colombia: A Strategic Assessment of National Crop Competitiveness Chapter 8. Rwanda: Competitiveness by Quality Criteria, Track 2 Chapter 9. El Salvador: Crop Competitiveness and Factor Intensities Chapter 10. Colombia: Crop Competitiveness by Region Evaluated via Tracks 1 and 2 Part IV. Concluding Remarks Chapter 11. Assessing Agricultural Competitiveness and Its Determinants Chapter 12. Competitiveness in a Development Perspective.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
The Competitiveness of Tropical Agriculture: A Guide to Competitive Potential with Case Studies describes and synthesizes existing methodologies for evaluating competitiveness in agriculture, introduces extensions and refinements, and provides a novel approach based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. As exports of tropical fruit, nuts, and other high-value crops have been growing very rapidly from developing countries, but often encounter serious obstacles in their value chains, this book demonstrates how national agricultural policy is oftentimes not guided by considerations of inherent competitiveness. In addition, the book presents case studies that illustrate the application of these approaches using quantitative frameworks. A concluding chapter introduces policy considerations for competitiveness from work in Jordan, Colombia, Estonia, Peru, and elsewhere, also discussing the role of specific policies in raising competitiveness sustainably and its role in reducing rural poverty.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128053126 20170313
48 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
Les Examens environnementaux de l’OCDE sont des évaluations indépendantes des progrès accomplis par les pays pour tenir leurs objectifs environnementaux. Ces examens sont destinés à favoriser les échanges de bonnes pratiques, à aider les gouvernements à rendre compte de leurs politiques et à améliorer la performance environnementale, individuelle et collective, des pays. Les analyses s’appuient sur un large éventail de données économiques et environnementales. Au cours de chaque cycle d’examens environnementaux, l’OCDE passe en revue l’ensemble de ses pays membres ainsi que certains pays partenaires. Les derniers pays examinés sont le Brésil (2015), les Pays-Bas (2015) et la France (2016). Ce rapport est le deuxième examen environnemental du Chili. Il évalue ses progrès en matière de développement durable et de croissance verte, avec un accent particulier sur le changement climatique et sur la conservation et l’exploitation durable de la biodiversité. Cette version française est une version abrégée de la version originale de la publication, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Chile 2016. Elle inclut notamment l'avant-propos, le résumé et les recommandations qui donne une vue d'ensemble du rapport.
1 online resource (326 pages) : illustrations.
  • History of infectious diseases / Maria Ines Zanoli Sato
  • Global environmental change and emerging infectious diseases: macrolevel drivers and policy responses / Catherine Machalaba, Cristina Romanelli, Peter Stoett
  • Climate change-associated conflict and infectious disease / Devin C. Bowles
  • Waterborne diseases and climate change: impact and implications / Maha Bouzid
  • Environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases: a regional perspective from South America / Ulisses Confalonieri, Júlia Alves Menezes, Carina Margonari
  • Infectious diseases and climate vulnerability in Morocco: governance and adaptation options / Mohamed Behnassi [and 4 others]
  • Emergence of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa / Samir Dervisevic
  • Rift Valley Fever and the changing environment: a case study in East Africa / Johanna Lindahl [and 3 others]
  • Climate change effects on human health with a particular focus on vector-borne diseases and malaria in Africa: a case study from Kano State, Nigeria investigating perceptions about links between malaria epidemics, weather variables, and climate change / Salisu Lawal Halliru
  • Are climate change adaptation policies a game changer?: a case study of perspectives from public health officials in Ontario, Canada / Chris G. Buse.
Climate change is one of the most widely debated and worrisome topics of our time. As environmental changes become more prevalent, there has been evidence to suggest that there is a correlation between the environment and a substantial increase of infectious diseases and viruses around the globe. Examining the Role of Environmental Change on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Pandemics investigates the impact of climate change in relation to the emergence and spread of global diseases. Highlighting epidemiological factors and policies to govern epidemics and pandemics, this publication is a critical reference source for medical professionals, students, environmental scientists, advocates, policy makers, academics, and researchers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522505532 20161213
20 p.
This Policy Paper describes the relatively new phenomenon of publicly-capitalised green investment banks and examines why they are being created and how they are mobilising private investment. It draws on the OECD report “Green Investment Banks: Scaling up Private Investment in Low-carbon, Climate-resilient Infrastructure".
1 online resource (330 pages) : illustrations.
  • Sustainable supply chains / Amulya Gurtu, Cory Searcy, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • An introduction to sustainable supply chain management and business implications / Gowri Vijayan, Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman
  • The development and analysis of environmentally responsible supply chain models / Ehab Bazan, Mohamad Y. Jaber
  • Assessing the green supply chain management for the United Arab Emirates construction industry / Sreejith Balasubramanian, Balan Sundarakani
  • A waste elimination process: an approach for lean and sustainable manufacturing systems / Sherif Mostafa, Jantanee Dumrak
  • Green supply chain management model for sustainable manufacturing practices / Surajit Bag, Neeraj Anand, Krishan Kumar Pandey
  • Recent developments in green supply chain management: sourcing and logistics / Jay R. Brown [and 3 others]
  • Integrated sustainable supply chain management: current practices and future direction / Geevaneswary Saththasivam, Yudi Fernando
  • Advocating sustainable supply chain management and sustainability in global supply chain / Kijpokin Kasemsap.
The issue of sustainability has become a vital discussion in many industries within the public and private sectors. In the business realm, incorporating such practices allows organizations to re-design their operations more effectively. Green Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Business Practice examines the challenges and benefits of implementing sustainability into the core functions of contemporary enterprises, focusing on how green approaches improve operations in an ecological way. Highlighting key concepts, emerging innovations, and future directions, this book is a pivotal reference source for professionals, managers, educators, and upper-level students.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522506355 20161213
72 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword
  • Abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • Increasing the longevity of wearing courses
  • Epoxy-asphalt road surfacing field trials
  • Field trials with high-performance cementitious materials
  • Working Group members.
This report is the third and final output of a ten-year international research project studying the costs and viability of long-life road pavement surfacings. It describes the results of tests conducted with epoxy asphalt and high performance cementitious materials (HPCM) on real road sections in France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The project was initiated to address a growing problem for road administrations and road users: frequent closures of roadways for repairs and repaving as a result of surface pavements that have improved but still barely kept up with increased loads and traffic density.
48 p.
This study was one of the first attempts to evaluate and quantify the benefits of transboundary co-operation between Georgia and Azerbaijan. A specific framework for inventorying these benefits, taking into account all the different dimensions of transboundary water management, was built and applied to the major transboundary water bodies. Though a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of transboundary co-operation in the two selected cases was not possible due to the lack of some quantitative and economic data, the assessment results highlighted the importance of promoting the integration of economic thinking in transboundary water management. The present and future prospects for transboundary co-operation on water management are still very positive: the two countries are working on a Transboundary Agreement, which will provide the necessary regulatory framework for co-operation and, most importantly, will set up a Joint Commission on Sustainable Use and Protection of the Kura River Basin. The outcomes of this study allowed for the identification of priorities for future work on transboundary co-operation between Georgia and Azerbaijan, and namely, support to developing guidelines on mechanisms to update databases, but also on new tools and systems.
1 online resource (31 p).
Global poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and among households engaged in subsistence agriculture in environments characterized by uncertainty. Understanding how to achieve sustainable increases in household incomes in this context is key to ending extreme poverty. Uganda offers important lessons in this regard. Uganda experienced conflict, drought, and price volatility in the decade from 2003 to 2013, while at the same time experiencing the second fastest percentage point reduction in extreme poverty per year in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analyzes a nationally representative panel of 2,356 households visited four times between 2006 to 2012, in combination with data on conflict events, weather, and prices. The study describes the type of income growth households experienced and assesses the importance of these external events in determining progress. The study finds substantial growth in agricultural incomes, particularly among poorer households. Many of the gains in agricultural income growth came about because of good weather, peace, and prices, and not technological change or profound changes in agricultural production. Therefore, although overall progress during this period was good, there were years in which average income growth was negative. This was particularly the case in the poorer and more vulnerable Northern and Eastern regions, and thus their overall income growth was also slower.
136 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword
  • Abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • The potential effects of climate change on transport infrastructure
  • Transport infrastructure: Climate and extreme weather impacts and costs
  • Adaptation frameworks for transport infrastructure: Linking vulnerability assessment, risk management and performance objectives
  • Managing climate change uncertainty in transport infrastructure design and network planning
  • Glossary
  • Working Group Members.
This report addresses the fundamental challenges that climate change poses to infrastructure owners, who face two major challenges. First, they must ensure continued asset performance under sometimes significantly modified climate conditions that may decrease the present value of their networks or increase maintenance and refurbishment costs. Second, they must build new assets in the context of changing and uncertain climate variables. This creates a risk of over- or under-specification of infrastructure design standards, potentially resulting in non-productive investments or network service degradation. This report investigates strategies that can help transport authorities contain network performance risks inherent in changing patterns of extreme weather.
1 online resource (204 p.) : color illustrations Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Historical Times and Turning Points in a Turbulent Century: 1914, 1945, 1989 and 2014?.- Global Ecological Crisis: Structural violence and the tyranny of small decisions.- Loving Nature: The Emotional Dimensions of Ecological Peacebuilding.- Drowning in complexity? Preliminary findings on addressing gender, peacebuilding and climate change in Honduras.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319309897 20161213
Addressing global environmental challenges from a peace ecology perspective, the present book offers peer-reviewed texts that build on the expanding field of peace ecology and applies this concept to global environmental challenges in the Anthropocene. Hans Gunter Brauch (Germany) offers a typology of time and turning points in the 20th century; Juliet Bennett (Australia) discusses the global ecological crisis resulting from a "tyranny of small decisions"; Katharina Bitzker (Canada) debates "the emotional dimensions of ecological peacebuilding" through love of nature; Henri Myrttinen (UK) analyses "preliminary findings on gender, peacebuilding and climate change in Honduras" while Ursula Oswald Spring (Mexico) offers a critical review of the policy and scientific nexus debate on "the water, energy, food and biodiversity nexus", reflecting on security in Mexico. In closing, Brauch discusses whether strategies of sustainability transition may enhance the prospects for achieving sustainable peace in the Anthropocene.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319309897 20161213
70 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Germ cell/heritable mutations are important regulatory endpoints for international agencies interested in protecting the health of future generations. However, germ cell mutation analysis has been hampered by a lack of efficient tools. The motivation for developing this AOP was to provide context for new assays in this field, identify research gaps and facilitate the development of new methods. In this AOP, a compound capable of alkylating DNA is delivered to the testes causing germ cell mutations and subsequent mutations in the offspring of the exposed parents. Although there are some gaps surrounding some mechanistic aspects of this AOP, the overarching AOP is widely accepted and applies broadly to any species that produces sperm.
51 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and reproductive dysfunction, as measured through the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity and spawning. Initial development of this AOP draws heavily on evidence collected using repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay. The OECD 229 assay serves as screening assay for endocrine disruption and associated reproductive impairment (OECD 2012). Cumulative fecundity is one of several variables known to be of demographic significance in forecasting fish population trends. Therefore, this AOP has utility in supporting the application of measures of aromatase, or in silico predictions of the ability to inhibit aromatase, as a means to identify chemicals with known potential to adversely affect fish populations and potentially other oviparous vertebrates.
119 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Under physiological conditions activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDARs), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPARs) and kainate (KARs) is responsible for basal excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. However, sustained over-activation of these receptors can induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Increased Ca2+ influx through NMDARs promotes many pathways of toxicity due to generation of free radical species, reduced ATP production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein aggregation. Neuronal injury induced by over-activation of these receptors and the excessive Ca2+ influx is considered an early key event of excitotoxicity. The proposed AOP is relevant to adult neurotoxicity. The MIE has been defined as a direct binding of agonists to NMDARs or indirect, through prior activation of AMPARs and/or KARs resulting in sustained NMDARs over-activation causing excitotoxic neuronal cell death, mainly in hippocampus and cortex, two brain structures fundamental for learning and memory processes.
100 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
It is well documented and accepted that learning and memory processes rely on physiological functioning of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR). Both animal and human studies investigating NMDA itself, experiments with NMDAR antagonists and mutant mice lacking NMDAR subunits strongly support this statement (Rezvani, 2006). Activation of NMDARs results in long-term potentiation (LTP), which is related to increased synaptic strength, plasticity and memory formation in the hippocampus (Johnston et al., 2009). LTP induced by activation of NMDA receptors has been found to be elevated in the developing rodent brain compared to the mature brain, partially due to 'developmental switch' of the NMDAR 2A and 2B subunits (Johnston et al., 2009). Activation of the NMDAR also enhances brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptogenesis (Tyler et al., 2002; Johnston et al., 2009). Consequently, the blockage of NMDAR by chemical substances during synaptogenesis disrupts neuronal network formation resulting in the impairment of learning and memory processes (Toscano and Guilarte, 2005). This AOP is relevant to developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The molecular initiating event (MIE) is described as the chronic binding of antagonist to NMDAR in neurons during synaptogenesis (development) in hippocampus (one of the critical brain structures for learning and memory formation). One of the chemicals that blocks NMDAR after chronic exposure is lead (Pb2+), a well-known developmental neurotoxicant.
73 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Liver fibrosis is an important human health issue associated with chemical exposure. It is a typical result of chronic toxic injury and one of the considered endpoints for regulatory purposes. This AOP describes the linkage between hepatic injury caused by protein alkylation and the formation of liver fibrosis. Fibrogenesis is a long-term and complex process for which an adequate cell model is not available and an in vitro evaluation of fibrogenic potential is therefore not feasible yet. This systematic and coherent display of currently available mechanistic-toxicological information can serve as a knowledge-based repository for identification/selection/development of in vitro methods suitable for measuring key events and their relationships along the AOP and to facilitate the use of alternative data for regulatory purposes. Identified uncertainties and knowledge gaps can indicate priorities for future research.
34 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper identifies opportunities to refine OECD’s indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution, and their periodic production for OECD and G20 countries. First, a comprehensive review is conducted of the publicly available ground-level air monitoring data for the selected countries, including their geographic coverage, data quality, comparability, etc. Second, the paper evaluates the potential applications of ground monitoring measurements for the construction of policy-relevant and internationally comparable indicators across OECD and G20 countries. Given the limited public availability of data and the incomplete geographic coverage in countries outside of Europe and North America, this paper concludes that such data are not suitable for the development of the OECD indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution that need to be harmonised across countries and over time. A hybrid approach is instead recommended as a superior alternative that draws on both satellite data combined with a chemical transport model calibrated using ground-based measurements.
254 p. ; 21x28 cm
El programa de la OCDE sobre Análisis de los resultados medioambientales proporciona una evaluación independiente del progreso de los países para cumplir los compromisos nacionales e internacionales en materia de políticas ambientales junto con recomendaciones relevantes a dichas políticas. Las evaluaciones están dirigidas para promover el aprendizaje entre pares, estimular una mayor rendición de cuentas entre países y ante la opinión pública y para que los países mejoren su comportamiento individual y colectivo en la gestión del medio ambiente. Los análisis están avalados por un amplio espectro de datos económicos y ambientales. Cada ciclo de Análisis de los resultados medioambientales cubre todos los países miembros de la OCDE y algunos países socios. Entre las más recientes evaluaciones se encuentran: Islandia (2014), Suecia (2014) y Colombia (2014). Este informe es el tercer análisis de los resultados medioambientales de España. Evalúa el progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible y el crecimiento verde y se centra en políticas sobre biodiversidad y resultados medioambientales del sector industrial. Contenido: Parte I. Progreso hacia el desarrollo sostenible Capítulo 1. Principales tendencias medioambientales Capítulo 2. Entorno decisorio Capítulo 3. Hacia el crecimiento verde Parte II. Progreso hacia objetivos medioambientales seleccionados Capítulo 4. Conservación y uso sostenible del medio ambiente marino y terrestre Capítulo 5. Resultados medioambientales del sector industrial
48 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents a review of existing approaches to estimate the costs of inaction, as well as the benefits of policy action, for air pollution. It focuses primarily on health impacts from air pollution. The paper presents the "impact pathway approach", which includes various steps in the analysis of the costs of air pollution. These include quantifying emissions, calculating the concentrations of the pollutants, applying epidemiologic studies to calculate the physical health effects and applying valuation methods to calculate the economic costs of the health impacts. The report also reviews applications of the impact pathway approach to applied economic studies that aim at calculating the macroeconomic costs of air pollution. It proposes possible approaches for including the feedbacks from the health impacts of air pollution in an applied economic framework. While ideally this requires serious modifications of the modelling frameworks and an improvement of the available empirical results, some impacts, such as changes in health expenditures and labour productivity, can easily been incorporated, following the literature on the economic costs of the health impacts of climate change.
1 online resource (xxiv, 435 p.) Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Foreword; Preface; Prelude; Arthropod Diversity and Conservation in the Tropics and Subtropics; Acknowledgements; Contents; Contributors; About the Editors; 1: Impact of Climate Change on Arthropod Diversity; 1.1 Introduction; 1.1.1 Impact of Climate Change on Arthropod Diversity; 1.2 Effect on Trophic Level; 1.2.1 Effect of Rainfall on Arthropod Diversity; 1.3 Impact of Temperature on Arthropods; 1.4 Impact of Elevated CO2 on Arthropod Pests; 1.5 Effect of Climate Change on Species Interactions; 1.5.1 Effects on Farmers; What Farmers Can Do?; 1.6 The Paris Agreement
  • 1.7 ConclusionsReferences; 2: Prospecting Arthropod Biomolecules for Medicinal and Therapeutic Use: Recent Breakthroughs; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Entomotherapy and Ethnoentomology; 2.3 Venom and Neurotoxins; 2.4 Honey; 2.5 Medical Entomology/Pharmaceutical Entomology; 2.6 Cytotoxins and Anticancer Compounds; 2.7 Antibiotics; 2.8 Antiviral; References; 3: Conservation of Arthropod Parasites: Restoring Crucial Ecological Linkages; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Why Study Parasites?; 3.2.1 Major Ecological and Evolutionary Effects of Parasites
  • 3.2.2 Coexistence and Evolution of Parasites and Humans3.2.3 Taxonomic Revision; 3.2.4 Parasites in Biological Control; 3.2.5 In Agri-Horticultural Ecosystems; 3.2.6 In Animal Husbandry; Transmission via Vectors; 3.3 Concerns and Threats: Parasite Paradox; 3.3.1 Ticks; 3.3.2 Mites; 3.3.3 Mosquitoes; 3.3.4 Mosquito-Borne Encephalitis; 3.4 Conservation Initiatives; 3.4.1 Co-extinction of Species; 3.4.2 Regulation of Host Populations; 3.4.3 Modulators of Competitive Interactions; 3.4.4 Conservation vs Control; References
  • 4: Diversity and Ecology of Scorpions: Evolutionary Success Through Venom4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Scorpion Classification; 4.2.1 Superfamily: Bothriuroidea Simon, 1880 (With One Family); 4.2.2 Superfamily: Buthoidea C.L. Koch, 1837 (With Two Families); 4.2.3 Superfamily: Chaeriloidea Pocock, 1893 (With Two Families); 4.2.4 Superfamily: Chactoidea Pocock, 1893 (With Five Families); 4.2.5 Superfamily: Vaejovoidea Thorell, 1876 (With Two Families); 4.2.6 Superfamily: Scorpionoidea Latreille, 1802 (With Eight Families); 4.3 Ecology and Behaviour; 4.4 Life Cycle
  • 4.5 Metabolism and Physiology4.6 Antipredator Behaviour; 4.7 Social Life; 4.7.1 Survival Strategies; Parthenogenesis; Polymorphism; Natural Threats; Scorpion Venom; Epidemiology of Scorpion Bites; Clinical Manifestations; 4.8 Venom Protein as Fingerprinting Tool for Taxonomy; 4.9 Scorpion Diversity and Distribution; 4.9.1 Algeria; 4.9.2 Australia; 4.9.3 Brazil; 4.9.4 China; 4.9.5 India; Species Diversity Studies; Social Behaviour; Breeding and Reproduction; Laboratory Studies; 4.9.6 Iran
Arthropods are invertebrates that constitute over 90% of the animal kingdom, and their bio-ecology is closely linked with global functioning and survival. Arthropods play an important role in maintaining the health of ecosystems, provide livelihoods and nutrition to human communities, and are important indicators of environmental change. Yet the population trends of several arthropods species show them to be in decline. Arthropods constitute a dominant group with 1.2 million species influencing earth’s biodiversity. Among arthropods, insects are predominant, with ca. 1 million species and having evolved some 350 million years ago. Arthropods are closely associated with living and non-living entities alike, making the ecosystem services they provide crucially important. In order to be effective, plans for the conservation of arthropods and ecosystems should include a mixture of strategies like protecting key habitats and genomic studies to formulate relevant policies for in situ and ex situ conservation. This two-volume book focuses on capturing the essentials of arthropod inventories, biology, and conservation. Further, it seeks to identify the mechanisms by which arthropod populations can be sustained in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and by means of which certain problematic species be managed without producing harmful environmental side-effects. This edited compilation includes chapters contributed by over 80 biologists on a wide range of topics embracing the diversity, distribution, utility and conservation of arthropods and select groups of insect taxa. More importantly, it describes in detail the mechanisms of sustaining arthropod ecosystems, services and populations. It addresses the contribution of modern biological tools such as molecular and genetic techniques regulating gene expression, as well as conventional, indigenous practices in arthropod conservation. The contributors reiterate the importance of documenting and understanding the biology of arthropods from a holistic perspective before addressing conservation issues at large. This book offers a valuable resource for all zoologists, entomologists, ecologists, conservation biologists, policy makers, teachers and students interested in the conservation of biological resources.
1 online resource (29 p.)
This paper presents a model to assess the socioeconomic resilience to natural disasters of an economy, defined as its capacity to mitigate the impact of disaster-related asset losses on welfare, and a tool to help decision makers identify the most promising policy options to reduce welfare losses due to floods. Calibrated with household surveys, the model suggests that welfare losses from the July 2005 floods in Mumbai were almost double the asset losses, because losses were concentrated on poor and vulnerable populations. Applied to river floods in 90 countries, the model provides estimates of country-level socioeconomic resilience. Because floods disproportionally affect poor people, each of global flood asset loss is equivalent to a .6 reduction in the affected country's national income, on average. The model also assesses and ranks policy levers to reduce flood losses in each country. It shows that considering asset losses is insufficient to assess disaster risk management policies. The same reduction in asset losses results in different welfare gains depending on who benefits. And some policies, such as adaptive social protection, do not reduce asset losses, but still reduce welfare losses. Asset and welfare losses can even move in opposite directions: increasing by one percentage point the share of income of the bottom 20 percent in the 90 countries would increase asset losses by 0.6 percent, since more wealth would be at risk. But it would also reduce the impact of income losses on wellbeing, and ultimately reduce welfare losses by 3.4 percent.