1. China Quake [2010]
- Video
- 1 online resource (streaming video file) (47 minutes) : digital, .flv file, sound
China Quake is an engrossing investigation into the massive 2008 earthquake in China, one of the most destructive quakes ever recorded, and an introduction into the science behind seismic activity. The 7.9 magnitude earthquake released a surge of energy that devastated an area the size of South Korea. In ninety unforgiving seconds, nearly 90,000 lives were lost, 5 million buildings were destroyed and 5 million people were left homeless. Dramatic video footage from the day of the quake and its aftermath, along with computer graphics, vividly illustrate the devastation and the mechanisms behind the megaquake. China Quake follows a team of international scientists a year after the monster quake as they search for clues that will help solve the mystery of the massive, unexpected disaster. Was the Sichuan earthquake a freak of nature or a predictable tragedy waiting to happen? And what can be learned from the quake to help reduce the devastation in the future? The scientists, including geologists, seismologists and engineers, use tools on the ground and in space to uncover the catastrophic chain of events that may have ruptured several faults at once. Among the scientists is Dr. Elizabeth Hausler, founder/CEO of Build Change, a nonprofit organization that teaches people in developing countries how to build earthquake resistant homes. The discoveries of these scientists solves the mystery of the quake’s origins and scale, and will help save lives in the future wherever and whenever killer quakes strike around the world..
China Quake is an engrossing investigation into the massive 2008 earthquake in China, one of the most destructive quakes ever recorded, and an introduction into the science behind seismic activity. The 7.9 magnitude earthquake released a surge of energy that devastated an area the size of South Korea. In ninety unforgiving seconds, nearly 90,000 lives were lost, 5 million buildings were destroyed and 5 million people were left homeless. Dramatic video footage from the day of the quake and its aftermath, along with computer graphics, vividly illustrate the devastation and the mechanisms behind the megaquake. China Quake follows a team of international scientists a year after the monster quake as they search for clues that will help solve the mystery of the massive, unexpected disaster. Was the Sichuan earthquake a freak of nature or a predictable tragedy waiting to happen? And what can be learned from the quake to help reduce the devastation in the future? The scientists, including geologists, seismologists and engineers, use tools on the ground and in space to uncover the catastrophic chain of events that may have ruptured several faults at once. Among the scientists is Dr. Elizabeth Hausler, founder/CEO of Build Change, a nonprofit organization that teaches people in developing countries how to build earthquake resistant homes. The discoveries of these scientists solves the mystery of the quake’s origins and scale, and will help save lives in the future wherever and whenever killer quakes strike around the world..
- Book
- xiv, 281 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 28 cm.
Sponsored by the Infrastructure Resilience Division of ASCE During 2010 and 2011, a sequence of strong earthquakes affected two communities in the province of Canterbury on the South Island of New Zealand. Christchurch, which is the second largest city in New Zealand, and Kaiapoi, in the Waimakariri District, suffered the greatest damage. Tens of thousands of buildings required demolition or significant reconstruction. Soil liquefaction, which was the leading cause of damage to lifelines, dictated that some areas of Christchurch could never be rebuilt. This report describes in detail the performance of lifeline systems in the Christchurch area, as observed during visits by an Earthquake Investigation Committee sent by ASCE's Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (TCLEE). This TCLEE Monograph discusses the following lifelines with recommendations for improving performance: electric power systems; telecommunications systems; water and wastewater infrastructure; gas and liquid fuel facilities; the port of Lyttelton; and transportation infrastructure, including the airport, roads and bridges, and railways. General seismology of the event, geotechnical features of the area, and applicable seismic codes are described. Other relevant issues, such as fire following the earthquakes, levees, lifeline interdependence, effects on building stock, damage to nonstructural building components, and debris management are considered. TCLEE 41 will be of interest to civil engineers, emergency managers and planners, and government officials charged with improving resilience of lifeline infrastructure systems during earthquakes, especially those characterized by significant soil liquefaction.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780784414217 20160830
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780784414217 20160830
Sponsored by the Infrastructure Resilience Division of ASCE During 2010 and 2011, a sequence of strong earthquakes affected two communities in the province of Canterbury on the South Island of New Zealand. Christchurch, which is the second largest city in New Zealand, and Kaiapoi, in the Waimakariri District, suffered the greatest damage. Tens of thousands of buildings required demolition or significant reconstruction. Soil liquefaction, which was the leading cause of damage to lifelines, dictated that some areas of Christchurch could never be rebuilt. This report describes in detail the performance of lifeline systems in the Christchurch area, as observed during visits by an Earthquake Investigation Committee sent by ASCE's Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (TCLEE). This TCLEE Monograph discusses the following lifelines with recommendations for improving performance: electric power systems; telecommunications systems; water and wastewater infrastructure; gas and liquid fuel facilities; the port of Lyttelton; and transportation infrastructure, including the airport, roads and bridges, and railways. General seismology of the event, geotechnical features of the area, and applicable seismic codes are described. Other relevant issues, such as fire following the earthquakes, levees, lifeline interdependence, effects on building stock, damage to nonstructural building components, and debris management are considered. TCLEE 41 will be of interest to civil engineers, emergency managers and planners, and government officials charged with improving resilience of lifeline infrastructure systems during earthquakes, especially those characterized by significant soil liquefaction.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780784414217 20160830
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780784414217 20160830
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner) | Status |
---|---|
Stacks | |
QE537.5 .C47 2016 | Unknown |
3. Data-driven numerical modelling in geodynamics [electronic resource] : methods and applications [2016]
- Book
- 1 online resource (x, 105 pages) : illustrations (some color).
- Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; 1 Introduction; 1.1 Inverse Problems in Geodynamics; 1.2 Forward and Backward Modelling and Source of Errors; 1.3 Data Assimilation Methods; References; 2 Backward Advection Method and Its Application to Modelling of Salt Tectonics; 2.1 Basic Idea of the Backward Advection (BAD) Method; 2.2 Modelling of Salt Diapirism; 2.3 Mathematical Statement; 2.4 Solution Method; 2.5 Forward and Backward Model Results; References; 3 Variational Method and Its Application to Modelling of Mantle Plume Evolution; 3.1 Basic Idea of the Variational (VAR) Method
- 3.2 Mathematical Statement3.3 Objective Functional; 3.4 Adjoint Problem; 3.5 Solution Method; 3.6 Restoration of Mantle Plumes; 3.6.1 Model and Methods; 3.6.2 Forward Modelling; 3.6.3 Backward Modelling; 3.6.4 Performance of the Numerical Algorithm; 3.7 Challenges in VAR Data Assimilation; 3.7.1 Data Smoothness; 3.7.2 Numerical Noise; References; 4 Application of the Variational Method to Lava Flow Modelling; 4.1 Lava Flow; 4.2 Reconstruction of Lava Properties; 4.3 Mathematical Statement; 4.4 Minimisation Problem; 4.5 Adjoint Problem; 4.6 Numerical Approach; 4.7 Model Results and Discussion
- 6.1 Plate Subduction Beneath the Japanese Islands6.2 Mathematical Statement; 6.3 Input Data: Seismic Temperature Model; 6.4 Boundary Conditions; 6.5 Rheological Model; 6.6 Numerical Approach; 6.7 Model Results; 6.8 Data Uncertainties; References; 7 Comparison of Data Assimilation Methods; References
- Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; 1 Introduction; 1.1 Inverse Problems in Geodynamics; 1.2 Forward and Backward Modelling and Source of Errors; 1.3 Data Assimilation Methods; References; 2 Backward Advection Method and Its Application to Modelling of Salt Tectonics; 2.1 Basic Idea of the Backward Advection (BAD) Method; 2.2 Modelling of Salt Diapirism; 2.3 Mathematical Statement; 2.4 Solution Method; 2.5 Forward and Backward Model Results; References; 3 Variational Method and Its Application to Modelling of Mantle Plume Evolution; 3.1 Basic Idea of the Variational (VAR) Method
- 3.2 Mathematical Statement3.3 Objective Functional; 3.4 Adjoint Problem; 3.5 Solution Method; 3.6 Restoration of Mantle Plumes; 3.6.1 Model and Methods; 3.6.2 Forward Modelling; 3.6.3 Backward Modelling; 3.6.4 Performance of the Numerical Algorithm; 3.7 Challenges in VAR Data Assimilation; 3.7.1 Data Smoothness; 3.7.2 Numerical Noise; References; 4 Application of the Variational Method to Lava Flow Modelling; 4.1 Lava Flow; 4.2 Reconstruction of Lava Properties; 4.3 Mathematical Statement; 4.4 Minimisation Problem; 4.5 Adjoint Problem; 4.6 Numerical Approach; 4.7 Model Results and Discussion
- 6.1 Plate Subduction Beneath the Japanese Islands6.2 Mathematical Statement; 6.3 Input Data: Seismic Temperature Model; 6.4 Boundary Conditions; 6.5 Rheological Model; 6.6 Numerical Approach; 6.7 Model Results; 6.8 Data Uncertainties; References; 7 Comparison of Data Assimilation Methods; References
4. Duration of earthquake ground motion [electronic resource] : influence on structural collapse risk and integration in design and assessment practice [2016] Online
- Book
- 1 online resource.
Amplitude, frequency content, and duration are widely recognized as the key characteristics of earthquake ground motions that influence structural response. Yet, in current structural design and assessment practice, ground motions are often explicitly characterized by just their pseudo acceleration response spectra-which quantify their amplitude and frequency content-while duration is commonly relegated to implicit, qualitative consideration. This study evaluates the need to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectra, in structural design and assessment. The influence of duration on structural collapse capacity is investigated by numerically simulating the response of structures under short and long duration ground motions. Realistic nonlinear structural models that incorporate the in-cycle and cyclic deterioration of the strength and stiffness of structural components, and the destabilizing P-Delta effect of gravity loads, are employed to successfully detect the effect of duration. Long duration ground motions from recent large magnitude earthquakes, like the 2008 Wenchuan (China, Mw 7.9), 2010 Maule (Chile, Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku (Japan, Mw 9.0) earthquakes, are used in the analyses. The effect of response spectral shape is controlled for by selecting sets of short and long duration ground motions with similar response spectra, and by employing appropriate statistical tools to post-process the analysis results. Significant duration, Ds, is identified as the duration metric best suited for use in structural design and assessment, since it is amenable to incorporation in a vector intensity measure alongside the response spectrum, and is an efficient predictor of structural collapse capacity. Response spectral shape and duration are together shown to be capable of explaining around 80% to 85% of the variance in the collapse intensities of ground motions used to analyze 51 reinforced concrete moment frame buildings. Response spectral shape or duration alone, are capable of explaining a significantly smaller fraction of the variance in the collapse intensities. This highlights the need to explicitly consider both response spectra and duration in structural design and assessment, and indicates that the additional consideration of other ground motion characteristics is likely to produce diminishing returns. A procedure based on the generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) framework is developed to compute source-specific conditional probability distributions of the durations of the ground motions anticipated at a site. Commonly used ground motion databases-like the PEER NGA-West2 database-are currently dominated by short duration ground motions, since many more low and moderate magnitude earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.5) have been recorded in recent history than large magnitude interface earthquakes (Mw ~ 9.0). Selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database without explicitly considering duration is, therefore, shown to result in the unconservative underestimation of structural collapse risk at sites located near active subduction zones, that are susceptible to long duration ground motions from large magnitude interface earthquakes. For example, selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database to explicitly match only conditional spectrum targets, and not duration targets, is shown underestimate the mean annual frequency of collapse of an eight-story reinforced concrete moment frame building by 29% when located in Seattle (Washington) and 59% when located in Eugene (Oregon). A relatively small influence of duration is observed at San Francisco (California), which is likely to experience short to moderate duration ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes. The prevalent practice of implicitly accounting for duration using causal parameters like rupture mechanism, earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site Vs30, is shown to result in the selection of records that poorly match conditional spectrum and duration targets, thereby producing biased collapse risk estimates. Strategies are proposed to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectral shape, in the analysis procedures contained in the following standards for structural performance assessment and design: (i) the FEMA P-58 seismic performance assessment methodology; (ii) the FEMA P695 methodology to quantify seismic performance factors; and (iii) the ASCE 7-16 seismic design provisions. The effect of duration is incorporated in multiple stripe analysis (MSA) by selecting records to match duration targets, in addition to conditional spectrum targets, at each intensity level. A structural reliability framework incorporating response spectral shape (quantified by a scalar parameter called SaRatio) and duration (quantified by Ds), is developed to compute a hazard-consistent collapse fragility curve by post-processing the results of an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) conducted using a generic record set. The procedure first involves defining a failure surface by fitting a multiple linear regression model to the computed ground motion collapse intensities using SaRatio and Ds as predictors. The probability of collapse at an intensity level is then computed by integrating the site-specific target distributions of SaRatio and Ds conditional on that intensity level, over the failure domain. A simplified method is additionally developed to efficiently compute just the hazard-consistent median collapse capacity. The effects of response spectral shape and duration are incorporated in ASCE 7-16's equivalent lateral force procedure by developing site and structural system-specific adjustment factors for the design base shear. These adjustment factors are computed based on the site-specific conditional median SaRatio and Ds targets and the sensitivity of the structure to the effects of response spectral shape and duration. The use of these adjustment factors ensures a more uniform distribution of structural collapse risk over different geographical regions, and between different structural systems. Sample calculations indicate that a 1s reinforced concrete moment frame building in San Francisco would need to be designed to a base shear that is 43% higher than the value used in current practice to maintain parity with a similar structure designed at a reference site, chosen here to be Los Angeles (California). A similar structure in Eugene would need to be designed to a base shear that is 67% higher. ASCE 7-16's nonlinear response history analysis procedure requires analyzing structures at the risk-target maximum considered earthquake (MCER) intensity level, at which a significant effect of duration on peak story drift ratio is unlikely to be observed. Hence, the imposed acceptance criteria are unlikely to reliably capture the effect of duration. It is, therefore, recommended that the selected records be scaled to an MCER level modified by a duration adjustment factor, analogous to the one developed for the equivalent lateral load procedure. The explicit central difference time integration scheme is proposed as a robust and efficient alternative to commonly used implicit schemes, like the Newmark average acceleration scheme, which often suffer from numerical non-convergence issues when used to simulate the dynamic response of nonlinear structural models, especially when simulating response under long duration ground motions. Its robustness stems from its non-iterative nature, while its efficiency is a consequence of the requirement to factorize a linear combination of only the mass and damping matrices at each time step. The use of a constant damping matrix, therefore, ensures that the matrix factorization needs to be performed just once for the entire analysis. It is shown to be more efficient than implicit schemes when conducting IDA in parallel, despite the limit on the maximum time step imposed by its stability criterion. Its benefits are believed to outweigh a few additional steps involved during model creation, including the assignment of mass to all degrees of freedom. Finally, efficient parallel algorithms are developed to conduct MSA and IDA on multi-core computers and distributed parallel clusters, to enable the use of these otherwise computationally intensive analysis techniques in research and practice.
Amplitude, frequency content, and duration are widely recognized as the key characteristics of earthquake ground motions that influence structural response. Yet, in current structural design and assessment practice, ground motions are often explicitly characterized by just their pseudo acceleration response spectra-which quantify their amplitude and frequency content-while duration is commonly relegated to implicit, qualitative consideration. This study evaluates the need to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectra, in structural design and assessment. The influence of duration on structural collapse capacity is investigated by numerically simulating the response of structures under short and long duration ground motions. Realistic nonlinear structural models that incorporate the in-cycle and cyclic deterioration of the strength and stiffness of structural components, and the destabilizing P-Delta effect of gravity loads, are employed to successfully detect the effect of duration. Long duration ground motions from recent large magnitude earthquakes, like the 2008 Wenchuan (China, Mw 7.9), 2010 Maule (Chile, Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku (Japan, Mw 9.0) earthquakes, are used in the analyses. The effect of response spectral shape is controlled for by selecting sets of short and long duration ground motions with similar response spectra, and by employing appropriate statistical tools to post-process the analysis results. Significant duration, Ds, is identified as the duration metric best suited for use in structural design and assessment, since it is amenable to incorporation in a vector intensity measure alongside the response spectrum, and is an efficient predictor of structural collapse capacity. Response spectral shape and duration are together shown to be capable of explaining around 80% to 85% of the variance in the collapse intensities of ground motions used to analyze 51 reinforced concrete moment frame buildings. Response spectral shape or duration alone, are capable of explaining a significantly smaller fraction of the variance in the collapse intensities. This highlights the need to explicitly consider both response spectra and duration in structural design and assessment, and indicates that the additional consideration of other ground motion characteristics is likely to produce diminishing returns. A procedure based on the generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) framework is developed to compute source-specific conditional probability distributions of the durations of the ground motions anticipated at a site. Commonly used ground motion databases-like the PEER NGA-West2 database-are currently dominated by short duration ground motions, since many more low and moderate magnitude earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.5) have been recorded in recent history than large magnitude interface earthquakes (Mw ~ 9.0). Selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database without explicitly considering duration is, therefore, shown to result in the unconservative underestimation of structural collapse risk at sites located near active subduction zones, that are susceptible to long duration ground motions from large magnitude interface earthquakes. For example, selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database to explicitly match only conditional spectrum targets, and not duration targets, is shown underestimate the mean annual frequency of collapse of an eight-story reinforced concrete moment frame building by 29% when located in Seattle (Washington) and 59% when located in Eugene (Oregon). A relatively small influence of duration is observed at San Francisco (California), which is likely to experience short to moderate duration ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes. The prevalent practice of implicitly accounting for duration using causal parameters like rupture mechanism, earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site Vs30, is shown to result in the selection of records that poorly match conditional spectrum and duration targets, thereby producing biased collapse risk estimates. Strategies are proposed to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectral shape, in the analysis procedures contained in the following standards for structural performance assessment and design: (i) the FEMA P-58 seismic performance assessment methodology; (ii) the FEMA P695 methodology to quantify seismic performance factors; and (iii) the ASCE 7-16 seismic design provisions. The effect of duration is incorporated in multiple stripe analysis (MSA) by selecting records to match duration targets, in addition to conditional spectrum targets, at each intensity level. A structural reliability framework incorporating response spectral shape (quantified by a scalar parameter called SaRatio) and duration (quantified by Ds), is developed to compute a hazard-consistent collapse fragility curve by post-processing the results of an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) conducted using a generic record set. The procedure first involves defining a failure surface by fitting a multiple linear regression model to the computed ground motion collapse intensities using SaRatio and Ds as predictors. The probability of collapse at an intensity level is then computed by integrating the site-specific target distributions of SaRatio and Ds conditional on that intensity level, over the failure domain. A simplified method is additionally developed to efficiently compute just the hazard-consistent median collapse capacity. The effects of response spectral shape and duration are incorporated in ASCE 7-16's equivalent lateral force procedure by developing site and structural system-specific adjustment factors for the design base shear. These adjustment factors are computed based on the site-specific conditional median SaRatio and Ds targets and the sensitivity of the structure to the effects of response spectral shape and duration. The use of these adjustment factors ensures a more uniform distribution of structural collapse risk over different geographical regions, and between different structural systems. Sample calculations indicate that a 1s reinforced concrete moment frame building in San Francisco would need to be designed to a base shear that is 43% higher than the value used in current practice to maintain parity with a similar structure designed at a reference site, chosen here to be Los Angeles (California). A similar structure in Eugene would need to be designed to a base shear that is 67% higher. ASCE 7-16's nonlinear response history analysis procedure requires analyzing structures at the risk-target maximum considered earthquake (MCER) intensity level, at which a significant effect of duration on peak story drift ratio is unlikely to be observed. Hence, the imposed acceptance criteria are unlikely to reliably capture the effect of duration. It is, therefore, recommended that the selected records be scaled to an MCER level modified by a duration adjustment factor, analogous to the one developed for the equivalent lateral load procedure. The explicit central difference time integration scheme is proposed as a robust and efficient alternative to commonly used implicit schemes, like the Newmark average acceleration scheme, which often suffer from numerical non-convergence issues when used to simulate the dynamic response of nonlinear structural models, especially when simulating response under long duration ground motions. Its robustness stems from its non-iterative nature, while its efficiency is a consequence of the requirement to factorize a linear combination of only the mass and damping matrices at each time step. The use of a constant damping matrix, therefore, ensures that the matrix factorization needs to be performed just once for the entire analysis. It is shown to be more efficient than implicit schemes when conducting IDA in parallel, despite the limit on the maximum time step imposed by its stability criterion. Its benefits are believed to outweigh a few additional steps involved during model creation, including the assignment of mass to all degrees of freedom. Finally, efficient parallel algorithms are developed to conduct MSA and IDA on multi-core computers and distributed parallel clusters, to enable the use of these otherwise computationally intensive analysis techniques in research and practice.
- Book
- 256 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
"A truly welcome and refreshing study that puts earthquake impact on history into a proper perspective" --Amos Nur, Emeritus Professor of Geophysics, Stanford University, California, and author of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God. Since antiquity, on every continent, human beings in search of attractive landscapes and economic prosperity have made a Faustian bargain with the risk of devastation by an earthquake. Today, around half of the world's largest cities - as many as sixty - lie in areas of major seismic activity. Many, such as Lisbon, Naples, San Francisco, Tehran and Tokyo, have been severely damaged or destroyed by earthquakes in the past. But throughout history, starting with ancient Jericho, Rome and Sparta, cities have proved to be extraordinarily resilient: only one, Port Royal in the Caribbean, was abandoned after an earthquake. Earth-Shattering Events seeks to understand exactly how humans and earthquakes have interacted, not only in the short term but also in the long perspective of history. In some cases, physical devastation has been followed by decline. But in others, the political and economic reverberations of earthquake disasters have presented opportunities for renewal. After its wholesale destruction in 1906, San Francisco went on to flourish, eventually giving birth to the high-tech industrial area on the San Andreas fault known as Silicon Valley. An earthquake in Caracas in 1812 triggered the creation of new nations in the liberation of South America from Spanish rule. Another in Tangshan in 1976 catalysed the transformation of China into the world's second largest economy. The growth of the scientific study of earthquakes is woven into this far-reaching history. It began with a series of earthquakes in England in 1750. Today, seismologists can monitor the vibration of the planet second by second and the movement of tectonic plates millimetre by millimetre. Yet, even in the 21st century, great earthquakes are still essentially 'acts of God', striking with much less warning than volcanoes, floods, hurricanes and even tornadoes and tsunamis.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780500518595 20160718
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780500518595 20160718
"A truly welcome and refreshing study that puts earthquake impact on history into a proper perspective" --Amos Nur, Emeritus Professor of Geophysics, Stanford University, California, and author of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God. Since antiquity, on every continent, human beings in search of attractive landscapes and economic prosperity have made a Faustian bargain with the risk of devastation by an earthquake. Today, around half of the world's largest cities - as many as sixty - lie in areas of major seismic activity. Many, such as Lisbon, Naples, San Francisco, Tehran and Tokyo, have been severely damaged or destroyed by earthquakes in the past. But throughout history, starting with ancient Jericho, Rome and Sparta, cities have proved to be extraordinarily resilient: only one, Port Royal in the Caribbean, was abandoned after an earthquake. Earth-Shattering Events seeks to understand exactly how humans and earthquakes have interacted, not only in the short term but also in the long perspective of history. In some cases, physical devastation has been followed by decline. But in others, the political and economic reverberations of earthquake disasters have presented opportunities for renewal. After its wholesale destruction in 1906, San Francisco went on to flourish, eventually giving birth to the high-tech industrial area on the San Andreas fault known as Silicon Valley. An earthquake in Caracas in 1812 triggered the creation of new nations in the liberation of South America from Spanish rule. Another in Tangshan in 1976 catalysed the transformation of China into the world's second largest economy. The growth of the scientific study of earthquakes is woven into this far-reaching history. It began with a series of earthquakes in England in 1750. Today, seismologists can monitor the vibration of the planet second by second and the movement of tectonic plates millimetre by millimetre. Yet, even in the 21st century, great earthquakes are still essentially 'acts of God', striking with much less warning than volcanoes, floods, hurricanes and even tornadoes and tsunamis.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780500518595 20160718
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780500518595 20160718
SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving) | Status |
---|---|
Stacks | Request |
QE534.3 .R62 2016 | Unknown |
- Book
- 1 online resource (XIII, 488 p. 205 ill., 167 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
- This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved inthe design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structureswhich comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used asverification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs andof commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civil<engineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
- This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved inthe design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structureswhich comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used asverification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs andof commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civil<engineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
7. High-friction sliding seismic isolation for enhanced performance of light frame structures during earthquakes [electronic resource] [2016] Online
- Book
- 1 online resource.
The primary objectives of this research are to develop an isolation system geared towards light frame structures, and to demonstrate that seismic isolation can be both economical and highly effective for light-frame residential construction. Experience from past earthquakes has shown that light frame residential houses in the United States typically pose a low collapse risk, but they are susceptible to damage that can lead to significant financial loss and displacement of residents. This dissertation develops a low-cost seismic isolation system that balances the tradeoffs between isolator displacement demands and base shear force demands through a high-friction sliding system. The isolation system consists of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sliders on a flat or an upward concave galvanized steel sliding surface, with a sliding coefficient of friction between 0.15 and 0.25 at the isolation interface. The inherent strength and low mass of light frame residential construction allows for a high-friction isolation system to effectively eliminate superstructure damage during even large earthquakes. Parametric studies show that high friction interfaces reduce isolation displacement demands. Isolator sliding material and component tests have been conducted to characterize velocity and pressure dependent interface friction properties of the sliding isolators. New data is provided on low-pressure (2 MPa to 7 MPa) friction coefficients for HDPE and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding on different finished steel surfaces. Proof-of-concept shaking table tests of a full-scale light framed isolated two-story house have been conducted. Results of these tests have (a) confirmed that the isolation system can effectively eliminate damage to the light frame superstructure under repeated severe earthquake ground shaking (b) validated nonlinear computer models to determine sliding isolator demands and superstructure force demands, and (c) demonstrated the constructability and economic practicality of the proposed details for the foundation and wood-framed first floor isolation platform. Numerous findings regarding the behavior of isolated light frame structures are reported herein. The superstructure of an isolated house has a dynamic response during shaking causing higher normalized forces in the superstructure than at the isolation level. Superstructure seismic coefficients are recommended to be 1.8 times the coefficient of friction in the flat sliding system, and 1.2 times the normalized isolation force (assuming rigid body response) in the dish system, to achieve a 20% probability of the induced forces greater than design forces at MCE intensity shaking. The inclusion of the vertical component of the ground motion is shown to not significantly affect isolation response in high friction sliding systems, however, there can be large increases in superstructure and isolator force demands. While using velocity and pressure-dependent friction models can affect the sliding isolation response of systems subjected to individual ground motions, Coulomb friction is found to be sufficient for response prediction when looking at a suite of records. The controlling design variable for seismic isolation systems is the peak isolation displacement. Typically, traditional isolation systems with low yield force and high restoring stiffness are assumed to have an effective period, based on the secant stiffness at the expected displacement. This period is used to infer the seismic displacement demands on the isolator, using the spectral displacements at the assumed period. For a high-friction low-restoring sliding system, the effective period is sensitive to the expected displacement. Additionally, these isolation systems accumulate displacement through ratcheting-type behavior, controlled by the friction properties of the isolation system, rather than exhibiting harmonic-type response as would an equivalent linear system with an effective period. Risk-based methods for determining isolation displacements rely on an assumed period of the isolation system as well. Using the conditional spectrum when scaling records to have the same spectral acceleration at the assumed period and matching the expected median and dispersion of spectral acceleration away from the assumed period results in large dispersion in isolation displacements because spectral ordinates, which are based on linear analysis, do not correspond to nonlinear isolation response. Alternative intensity measures that account for the aspects of the ground motion and sliding system that lead to large isolation displacements are required to make robust predictions of isolation displacements. A new ground motion intensity measure for high friction sliding systems is derived herein from closed-form solutions for the peak sliding displacement of a rigid block subjected to simple pulses. The new intensity measure is analogous to the extra incremental ground velocity of the pulse beyond what it would take to yield the system times the duration of the pulse and is termed the Effective Incremental Ground Velocity (EIGV). EIGV is effective for predicting peak sliding displacements for high friction systems because the large sliding excursion in high friction systems is typically similar in magnitude to the overall peak isolation displacement, which can be captured by a pulse intensity measure. A first generation set of ground motion prediction equations are offered for conducting probabilistic seismic hazard analysis using EIGV, which in term can be used to generate isolation displacement demand curves, better informing design decisions.
The primary objectives of this research are to develop an isolation system geared towards light frame structures, and to demonstrate that seismic isolation can be both economical and highly effective for light-frame residential construction. Experience from past earthquakes has shown that light frame residential houses in the United States typically pose a low collapse risk, but they are susceptible to damage that can lead to significant financial loss and displacement of residents. This dissertation develops a low-cost seismic isolation system that balances the tradeoffs between isolator displacement demands and base shear force demands through a high-friction sliding system. The isolation system consists of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sliders on a flat or an upward concave galvanized steel sliding surface, with a sliding coefficient of friction between 0.15 and 0.25 at the isolation interface. The inherent strength and low mass of light frame residential construction allows for a high-friction isolation system to effectively eliminate superstructure damage during even large earthquakes. Parametric studies show that high friction interfaces reduce isolation displacement demands. Isolator sliding material and component tests have been conducted to characterize velocity and pressure dependent interface friction properties of the sliding isolators. New data is provided on low-pressure (2 MPa to 7 MPa) friction coefficients for HDPE and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding on different finished steel surfaces. Proof-of-concept shaking table tests of a full-scale light framed isolated two-story house have been conducted. Results of these tests have (a) confirmed that the isolation system can effectively eliminate damage to the light frame superstructure under repeated severe earthquake ground shaking (b) validated nonlinear computer models to determine sliding isolator demands and superstructure force demands, and (c) demonstrated the constructability and economic practicality of the proposed details for the foundation and wood-framed first floor isolation platform. Numerous findings regarding the behavior of isolated light frame structures are reported herein. The superstructure of an isolated house has a dynamic response during shaking causing higher normalized forces in the superstructure than at the isolation level. Superstructure seismic coefficients are recommended to be 1.8 times the coefficient of friction in the flat sliding system, and 1.2 times the normalized isolation force (assuming rigid body response) in the dish system, to achieve a 20% probability of the induced forces greater than design forces at MCE intensity shaking. The inclusion of the vertical component of the ground motion is shown to not significantly affect isolation response in high friction sliding systems, however, there can be large increases in superstructure and isolator force demands. While using velocity and pressure-dependent friction models can affect the sliding isolation response of systems subjected to individual ground motions, Coulomb friction is found to be sufficient for response prediction when looking at a suite of records. The controlling design variable for seismic isolation systems is the peak isolation displacement. Typically, traditional isolation systems with low yield force and high restoring stiffness are assumed to have an effective period, based on the secant stiffness at the expected displacement. This period is used to infer the seismic displacement demands on the isolator, using the spectral displacements at the assumed period. For a high-friction low-restoring sliding system, the effective period is sensitive to the expected displacement. Additionally, these isolation systems accumulate displacement through ratcheting-type behavior, controlled by the friction properties of the isolation system, rather than exhibiting harmonic-type response as would an equivalent linear system with an effective period. Risk-based methods for determining isolation displacements rely on an assumed period of the isolation system as well. Using the conditional spectrum when scaling records to have the same spectral acceleration at the assumed period and matching the expected median and dispersion of spectral acceleration away from the assumed period results in large dispersion in isolation displacements because spectral ordinates, which are based on linear analysis, do not correspond to nonlinear isolation response. Alternative intensity measures that account for the aspects of the ground motion and sliding system that lead to large isolation displacements are required to make robust predictions of isolation displacements. A new ground motion intensity measure for high friction sliding systems is derived herein from closed-form solutions for the peak sliding displacement of a rigid block subjected to simple pulses. The new intensity measure is analogous to the extra incremental ground velocity of the pulse beyond what it would take to yield the system times the duration of the pulse and is termed the Effective Incremental Ground Velocity (EIGV). EIGV is effective for predicting peak sliding displacements for high friction systems because the large sliding excursion in high friction systems is typically similar in magnitude to the overall peak isolation displacement, which can be captured by a pulse intensity measure. A first generation set of ground motion prediction equations are offered for conducting probabilistic seismic hazard analysis using EIGV, which in term can be used to generate isolation displacement demand curves, better informing design decisions.
- Book
- 1 online resource.
- Cooperating Timber and Stone Antiseismic frames in Historic Structures of Greece
- The Role of a Post-Byzantine Timber Roof Structure in the Seismic Behavior of a Masonry Building
- The Case of a Unique Type of Timber-Roofed Basilicas in Cyprus (15th-19th century)
- Historic Earthquake-Resistant Constructive Techniques Reinforced by Wooden Logs in Algeria
- A Comparative Evaluation of the Results of Two Earthquakes: Istanbul and Lisbon Earthquake in 18th Century
- Some Examples of Turkısh Houses Wıth Wooden Frame in the Seısmıc Zone Anatolıa
- Traditional Timber Housing Structure in Zeyrek
- Possible Precursors of Pombalino cage
- Local Seismic Cultures: The use of timber frame structures in the South of Portugal
- The use Of Wood With an Anti-Seismic Function in the Architecture of Palermo During the 18th Century.
- Cooperating Timber and Stone Antiseismic frames in Historic Structures of Greece
- The Role of a Post-Byzantine Timber Roof Structure in the Seismic Behavior of a Masonry Building
- The Case of a Unique Type of Timber-Roofed Basilicas in Cyprus (15th-19th century)
- Historic Earthquake-Resistant Constructive Techniques Reinforced by Wooden Logs in Algeria
- A Comparative Evaluation of the Results of Two Earthquakes: Istanbul and Lisbon Earthquake in 18th Century
- Some Examples of Turkısh Houses Wıth Wooden Frame in the Seısmıc Zone Anatolıa
- Traditional Timber Housing Structure in Zeyrek
- Possible Precursors of Pombalino cage
- Local Seismic Cultures: The use of timber frame structures in the South of Portugal
- The use Of Wood With an Anti-Seismic Function in the Architecture of Palermo During the 18th Century.
- Book
- 1 online resource (ix, 573 pages) : illustrations (some color)
- Part I. Introduction.- 1. An Introduction to Multi-Hazard Approaches to Civil Infrastructure Engineering.- Part II. Probabilistic Methods for Risk Analysis.- 2. Correlated Maps for Regional Multi-Hazard Analysis: Ideas for a Novel Approach.- 3. Supporting Life-Cycle Management of Bridges Through Multi-Hazard Reliability and Risk Assessment.- 4. Natural Hazard Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through Surrogate Modeling.- 5. Risk and decision-Making for Extreme Events: Climate Change and Terrorism.- Part III. Earthquakes.- 6. Progressive Collapse Simulation of Vulnerable Reinforced Concrete Buildings.- 7. Existing Buildings: The New Italian Provisions for Probabilistic Seismic Assessment.- 8. Multi-Hazard Multi-Objective Optimization of Building Systems with Isolated Floors Under Seismic and Wind Demands.- 9. Energy Efficiency and Disaster Resilience: a Common Approach.- Part IV. Fire, Blast, Shock and Impact.- 10. Fire Following Earthquake: Historical Events and Evaluation Framework.- 11. Progressive Collapse Resistance for Steel Building Frames: a Cascading Multi-Hazard Approach with Subsequent Fire.- 12. Innovative Strategies for Enhancing Fire Performance of FRP-Strengthened Concrete Structures.- 13. Experimental and Analysis Methods for Blast Mitigating Designs in Civil Infrastructure.- Part V. Wind Hazards.- 14. Woodframe Residential Buildings in Windstorms: Past Performance and New Directions.- 15. An Engineering-Based Catastrophe Model to Predict Tornado Damage.- 16. Performance-Based Hurricane Engineering: A Multi-Hazard Approach.- 17. Wall of Wind Research and Testing to Enhance Resilience of Civil Infrastructure to Hurricane Multi-Hazards.- Part VI. Geo-Hazards.- 18. Accounting for Unknown Unknowns in Managing Multi-Hazard Risks.- 19. Bayesian Risk Assessment of a Tsunamigenic Rockslide at Aknes Norway.- 20. Rock Moisture Dynamics, Preferential Fow, and the Stability of Hillside Slopes.- 21. Innovation in Instrumentation, Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Infrastructure.- Part VII. Societal Impact of Extreme Events.- 22. Theories of Risk Management and Multiple Hazards.- 23. Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Earthquake-Prone Cities.- 24. Disaster Resilience of Communities: The Role of the Built Environment.- 25. Digital Technologies, Complex Systems, and Extreme Events: Measuring Change in Policy Networks.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
- Part I. Introduction.- 1. An Introduction to Multi-Hazard Approaches to Civil Infrastructure Engineering.- Part II. Probabilistic Methods for Risk Analysis.- 2. Correlated Maps for Regional Multi-Hazard Analysis: Ideas for a Novel Approach.- 3. Supporting Life-Cycle Management of Bridges Through Multi-Hazard Reliability and Risk Assessment.- 4. Natural Hazard Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through Surrogate Modeling.- 5. Risk and decision-Making for Extreme Events: Climate Change and Terrorism.- Part III. Earthquakes.- 6. Progressive Collapse Simulation of Vulnerable Reinforced Concrete Buildings.- 7. Existing Buildings: The New Italian Provisions for Probabilistic Seismic Assessment.- 8. Multi-Hazard Multi-Objective Optimization of Building Systems with Isolated Floors Under Seismic and Wind Demands.- 9. Energy Efficiency and Disaster Resilience: a Common Approach.- Part IV. Fire, Blast, Shock and Impact.- 10. Fire Following Earthquake: Historical Events and Evaluation Framework.- 11. Progressive Collapse Resistance for Steel Building Frames: a Cascading Multi-Hazard Approach with Subsequent Fire.- 12. Innovative Strategies for Enhancing Fire Performance of FRP-Strengthened Concrete Structures.- 13. Experimental and Analysis Methods for Blast Mitigating Designs in Civil Infrastructure.- Part V. Wind Hazards.- 14. Woodframe Residential Buildings in Windstorms: Past Performance and New Directions.- 15. An Engineering-Based Catastrophe Model to Predict Tornado Damage.- 16. Performance-Based Hurricane Engineering: A Multi-Hazard Approach.- 17. Wall of Wind Research and Testing to Enhance Resilience of Civil Infrastructure to Hurricane Multi-Hazards.- Part VI. Geo-Hazards.- 18. Accounting for Unknown Unknowns in Managing Multi-Hazard Risks.- 19. Bayesian Risk Assessment of a Tsunamigenic Rockslide at Aknes Norway.- 20. Rock Moisture Dynamics, Preferential Fow, and the Stability of Hillside Slopes.- 21. Innovation in Instrumentation, Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Infrastructure.- Part VII. Societal Impact of Extreme Events.- 22. Theories of Risk Management and Multiple Hazards.- 23. Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Earthquake-Prone Cities.- 24. Disaster Resilience of Communities: The Role of the Built Environment.- 25. Digital Technologies, Complex Systems, and Extreme Events: Measuring Change in Policy Networks.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
10. NOVA - Hagia Sophia: Istanbul's Mystery [2015]
- Video
- 1 online resource (streaming video file) (54 minutes) : digital, .flv file, sound
Whether serving as Christian church, Islamic mosque, or secular museum, Hagia Sophia and its soaring dome have inspired reverence and awe. For 800 years, it was the largest enclosed building in the world—the Statue of Liberty can fit beneath its dome with room to spare. How has it survived its location on one of the world's most active seismic faults, which has inflicted a dozen devastating earthquakes since it was built in 537?. As Istanbul braces for the next big quake, a team of architects and engineers is urgently investigating Hagia Sophia's seismic secrets. Follow engineers as they build a massive 8-ton model of the building's core structure, place it on a motorized shake table, and hit it with a series of simulated quakes, pushing it collapse—a fate that the team is determined to avoid with the real building..
Whether serving as Christian church, Islamic mosque, or secular museum, Hagia Sophia and its soaring dome have inspired reverence and awe. For 800 years, it was the largest enclosed building in the world—the Statue of Liberty can fit beneath its dome with room to spare. How has it survived its location on one of the world's most active seismic faults, which has inflicted a dozen devastating earthquakes since it was built in 537?. As Istanbul braces for the next big quake, a team of architects and engineers is urgently investigating Hagia Sophia's seismic secrets. Follow engineers as they build a massive 8-ton model of the building's core structure, place it on a motorized shake table, and hit it with a series of simulated quakes, pushing it collapse—a fate that the team is determined to avoid with the real building..
11. Poroelasticity [2016]
- Book
- 1 online resource (xxvi, 877 pages) : illustrations (some color).
- Introduction
- Constitutive Equation
- Micromechanics
- Variational Energy Formulation
- Anisotropy
- Governing Equation
- Analytical Solution
- Fundamental Solution and Integral Equation
- Poroelastodynamics
- Poroviscoelasticity
- Porothermoelasticity
- Porochemoelasticity
- Appendices
- Index.
- Introduction
- Constitutive Equation
- Micromechanics
- Variational Energy Formulation
- Anisotropy
- Governing Equation
- Analytical Solution
- Fundamental Solution and Integral Equation
- Poroelastodynamics
- Poroviscoelasticity
- Porothermoelasticity
- Porochemoelasticity
- Appendices
- Index.
12. Seismic loads [2016]
- Book
- vii, 377 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
- Contents Preface vii 1 Statement of the Problem 1 1.1 General Scheme of Estimation of Seismic Stability 3 1.2 Seismic Hazard 11 1.3 Variation of Seismic Hazard 15 1.4 Seismic Loads 20 2 The Definition of Seismic Actions 29 2.1 The Probability of Loads During the Earthquake of a Given Intensity 32 2.2 Recognition of Earthquake Foci 53 2.3 The Calculation of Seism Caused by Movement in the Earthquake Focus 61 2.4 Physics of Focus and Control of Seismicity 82 2.5 Seismic Forces for a Fixed Position and Energy of the Earthquake Source 99 3 The Influence of Topography and Soil Conditions Secondary Processes 113 3.1 Influence of the Canyons 113 3.2 Dynamics of Water-Saturated Soil Equivalent Single-Phase Environment 117 3.3 Dynamics of Water-Saturated Soil as Multiphase Medium 121 3.4 The Real Estimates of the Property of Soils 145 3.4.1 Mathematical Formulation of the Problem 147 3.4.2 Examples of Calculations 152 3.5 Landslides and Mudflows 158 3.6 Waves on the Water 162 4 Example of Determination of Seismic Loads on the Object in an Area of High Seismicity 167 4.1 Assessment of Seismotectonics and Choice of Calculation of Seismicity 167 4.2 The Parameters of Impacts 171 4.3 Selection of Unique 179 4.4 Numerical Models of the Focus 183 4.5 The Influence of the Shape of the Canyon 189 5 Examples of Determination of Seismic Effects on Objects in Areas of Low Seismicity 195 5.1 Preliminary Analysis 195 5.2 Assessment of Seismic Risk on Seismological Data 201 5.3 Tectonic Structure of the Area 205 5.4 Recognition of Seismically Active Nodes Morphostructure 212 5.5 The Types of Computational Seismic Effects 225 5.6 Analog Modeling of Seismic Effects 233 5.7 Mathematical Modeling of Seismic Effects 237 6 Stability of Structures During Earthquakes 247 6.1 Stability of Concrete Dams 248 6.2 Vibration and Strength Reserves of the High Dams 278 6.2.1 Stability and Final Displacements of the Dam 282 6.2.2 Stress and Strain of the Dam 287 6.2.3 Character and Form of Dam Failure 292 6.3 The Reliability of Groundwater Dams 296 6.4 The Stability of Underground Structures 333 6.5 Seismic Effects Caused by Missing Floods Through the Waterworks 340 6.5.1 The Vibration of the Dam 345 6.5.2 Soil Vibration Outside of the Dam 352 6.5.3 Vibration Houses 356 6.5.4 Results and Recomendation 360 Conclusion 362 References 365 Index 375.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118946244 20160704
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118946244 20160704
- Contents Preface vii 1 Statement of the Problem 1 1.1 General Scheme of Estimation of Seismic Stability 3 1.2 Seismic Hazard 11 1.3 Variation of Seismic Hazard 15 1.4 Seismic Loads 20 2 The Definition of Seismic Actions 29 2.1 The Probability of Loads During the Earthquake of a Given Intensity 32 2.2 Recognition of Earthquake Foci 53 2.3 The Calculation of Seism Caused by Movement in the Earthquake Focus 61 2.4 Physics of Focus and Control of Seismicity 82 2.5 Seismic Forces for a Fixed Position and Energy of the Earthquake Source 99 3 The Influence of Topography and Soil Conditions Secondary Processes 113 3.1 Influence of the Canyons 113 3.2 Dynamics of Water-Saturated Soil Equivalent Single-Phase Environment 117 3.3 Dynamics of Water-Saturated Soil as Multiphase Medium 121 3.4 The Real Estimates of the Property of Soils 145 3.4.1 Mathematical Formulation of the Problem 147 3.4.2 Examples of Calculations 152 3.5 Landslides and Mudflows 158 3.6 Waves on the Water 162 4 Example of Determination of Seismic Loads on the Object in an Area of High Seismicity 167 4.1 Assessment of Seismotectonics and Choice of Calculation of Seismicity 167 4.2 The Parameters of Impacts 171 4.3 Selection of Unique 179 4.4 Numerical Models of the Focus 183 4.5 The Influence of the Shape of the Canyon 189 5 Examples of Determination of Seismic Effects on Objects in Areas of Low Seismicity 195 5.1 Preliminary Analysis 195 5.2 Assessment of Seismic Risk on Seismological Data 201 5.3 Tectonic Structure of the Area 205 5.4 Recognition of Seismically Active Nodes Morphostructure 212 5.5 The Types of Computational Seismic Effects 225 5.6 Analog Modeling of Seismic Effects 233 5.7 Mathematical Modeling of Seismic Effects 237 6 Stability of Structures During Earthquakes 247 6.1 Stability of Concrete Dams 248 6.2 Vibration and Strength Reserves of the High Dams 278 6.2.1 Stability and Final Displacements of the Dam 282 6.2.2 Stress and Strain of the Dam 287 6.2.3 Character and Form of Dam Failure 292 6.3 The Reliability of Groundwater Dams 296 6.4 The Stability of Underground Structures 333 6.5 Seismic Effects Caused by Missing Floods Through the Waterworks 340 6.5.1 The Vibration of the Dam 345 6.5.2 Soil Vibration Outside of the Dam 352 6.5.3 Vibration Houses 356 6.5.4 Results and Recomendation 360 Conclusion 362 References 365 Index 375.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118946244 20160704
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118946244 20160704
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner) | Status |
---|---|
Stacks | |
TA654.6 .L49868 2016 | Unknown |
- Book
- xxi, 690 pages : illustrations, maps, charts ; 27 cm.
- Introduction What is this book about? Why a critical-state view? Experience of liquefaction Outline of the development of ideas Dilatancy and the state parameter Framework for soil behaviour State parameter approach Evaluating soil behaviour with the state parameter Determining the critical state Uniqueness of the CSL Soil properties Plane strain tests for soil behaviour General soil behaviour from triaxial properties Constitutive modelling for liquefaction Introduction Historical background Representing the critical state Cambridge view State parameter view NorSand constitutive model Comparison of NorSand to experimental data Commentary on aspects of NorSand Determining state parameter in situ Introduction SPT versus CPT Inverse problem: A simple framework Calibration chambers Stress normalization Determining I from CPT Moving from calibration chambers to real sands Elasticity in situ Horizontal geostatic stress Alternative in situ tests to the CPT Commentary on state determination using the CPT Soil variability and characteristic states Introduction Effect of loose pockets on performance Effect of variability of in situ state on cyclic performance Nerlerk case history Assessing the characteristic state of sands Summary Static liquefaction and post-liquefaction strength Introduction Data from laboratory experiments Trends in laboratory data for su and sr Nature of static liquefaction Undrained NorSand Understanding from NorSand Plane strain versus triaxial conditions Steady-state approach to liquefaction Trends from full-scale experience Lower San Fernando Dam revisited How dense is dense enough? Post-liquefaction residual strength Liquefaction assessment for silts Summary Cyclic stress-induced liquefaction (cyclic mobility and softening) Introduction Experimental data Trends in cyclic simple shear behaviour Berkeley school approach State parameter view of the Berkeley approach Theoretical framework for cyclic loading Dealing with soil fabric in situ Summary Finite element modelling of soil liquefaction Introduction Open-source finite element software Software verification Slope liquefaction Commentary Practical implementation of critical state approach Overview Scope of field investigations and laboratory testing Deriving soil properties from laboratory tests Laboratory measurement of cyclic strength Determining soil state by CPT soundings Application to typical problems in sands and silts Concluding remarks Model uncertainty and soil variability State as a geological principle In situ state determination Laboratory strength tests on undisturbed samples Soil plasticity and fabric Relationship to current practice What next? Do download ! A: Stress and strain measures B: Laboratory testing to determine the critical state of sands C: NorSand derivations D: Numerical implementation of NorSand E: Calibration chamber test data F: Some case histories involving liquefaction flow failure G: Seismic liquefaction case histories H: CamClay as a special case of NorSand References.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482213683 20160718
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482213683 20160718
- Introduction What is this book about? Why a critical-state view? Experience of liquefaction Outline of the development of ideas Dilatancy and the state parameter Framework for soil behaviour State parameter approach Evaluating soil behaviour with the state parameter Determining the critical state Uniqueness of the CSL Soil properties Plane strain tests for soil behaviour General soil behaviour from triaxial properties Constitutive modelling for liquefaction Introduction Historical background Representing the critical state Cambridge view State parameter view NorSand constitutive model Comparison of NorSand to experimental data Commentary on aspects of NorSand Determining state parameter in situ Introduction SPT versus CPT Inverse problem: A simple framework Calibration chambers Stress normalization Determining I from CPT Moving from calibration chambers to real sands Elasticity in situ Horizontal geostatic stress Alternative in situ tests to the CPT Commentary on state determination using the CPT Soil variability and characteristic states Introduction Effect of loose pockets on performance Effect of variability of in situ state on cyclic performance Nerlerk case history Assessing the characteristic state of sands Summary Static liquefaction and post-liquefaction strength Introduction Data from laboratory experiments Trends in laboratory data for su and sr Nature of static liquefaction Undrained NorSand Understanding from NorSand Plane strain versus triaxial conditions Steady-state approach to liquefaction Trends from full-scale experience Lower San Fernando Dam revisited How dense is dense enough? Post-liquefaction residual strength Liquefaction assessment for silts Summary Cyclic stress-induced liquefaction (cyclic mobility and softening) Introduction Experimental data Trends in cyclic simple shear behaviour Berkeley school approach State parameter view of the Berkeley approach Theoretical framework for cyclic loading Dealing with soil fabric in situ Summary Finite element modelling of soil liquefaction Introduction Open-source finite element software Software verification Slope liquefaction Commentary Practical implementation of critical state approach Overview Scope of field investigations and laboratory testing Deriving soil properties from laboratory tests Laboratory measurement of cyclic strength Determining soil state by CPT soundings Application to typical problems in sands and silts Concluding remarks Model uncertainty and soil variability State as a geological principle In situ state determination Laboratory strength tests on undisturbed samples Soil plasticity and fabric Relationship to current practice What next? Do download ! A: Stress and strain measures B: Laboratory testing to determine the critical state of sands C: NorSand derivations D: Numerical implementation of NorSand E: Calibration chamber test data F: Some case histories involving liquefaction flow failure G: Seismic liquefaction case histories H: CamClay as a special case of NorSand References.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482213683 20160718
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781482213683 20160718
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner) | Status |
---|---|
Stacks | |
TA710 .J365 2016 | Unknown |
- Book
- 1 online resource (xx, 992 pages) : illustrations, figures, tables ; 24 cm
- A. About the International Code Council
- B. About the Authors
- C. Online Bonus Resources
- D. Foreword
- E. Preface
- F. Acknowledgments
- 1. SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Applicability
- Department of Building Safety
- Duties and Powers of Building Official
- Permits
- Submittal Documents
- Temporary Structures and Uses
- Fees
- Inspections
- Certificate of Occupancy
- Service Utilities
- Board of Appeals
- Violations
- Stop Work Order
- Unsafe Structures and Equipment
- KEY POINTS
- 2. DEFINITIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Definitions
- KEY POINTS
- 3. USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Classification
- Assembly Group A
- Business Group B
- Educational Group E
- Factory Group F
- High-Hazard Group H
- Institutional Group I
- Mercantile Group M
- Residential Group R
- Storage Group S
- Utility and Miscellaneous Group U
- KEY POINTS
- 4. SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings
- High-Rise Buildings
- Atriums
- Underground Buildings
- Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies
- Group I-2
- Group I-3
- Motion-Picture Projection Rooms
- Stages, Platforms, and Technical Production Areas
- Special Amusement Buildings
- Aircraft-Related Occupancies
- Combustible Storage
- Hazardous Materials
- Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5
- Application of Flammable Finishes
- Drying Rooms
- Organic Coatings
- Live/Work Units
- Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-4
- Ambulatory Care Facilities
- Storm Shelters
- Children's Play Structures
- KEY POINTS
- 5. GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- General Building Height and Area Limitations
- Building Height and Number of Stories
- Mezzanines and Equipment Platforms
- Building Area
- Unlimited-Area Buildings
- Mixed Use and Occupancy
- Incidental Uses
- Special Provisions
- KEY POINTS
- 6. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Construction Classification
- Combustible Material in Type I and II Construction
- KEY POINTS
- 7. FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests
- Fire-Resistance Rating of Structural Members
- Exterior Walls
- Fire Walls
- Fire Barriers
- Fire Partitions
- Smoke Barriers
- Smoke Partitions
- Floor and Roof Assemblies
- Vertical Openings
- Shaft Enclosures
- Penetrations
- Joint Systems
- Opening Protectives
- Ducts and Air Transfer Openings
- Concealed Spaces
- Fire-Resistance Requirements for Plaster
- Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials
- Prescriptive Fire Resistance
- Calculated Fire Resistance
- KEY POINTS
- 8. INTERIOR FINISHES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Wall and Ceiling Finishes
- Interior Floor Finish
- Combustible Materials in Types I and II Construction
- KEY POINTS
- 9. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Automatic Sprinkler Systems
- Alternative Automatic Fire-Extinguishing Systems
- Standpipe Systems
- Fire Alarm and Detection Systems
- Smoke-Control Systems
- Smoke and Heat Removal
- Fire Command Center
- Emergency Responder Safety Features
- KEY POINTS
- 10. MEANS OF EGRESS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Administration
- Definitions
- General Means of Egress
- Occupant Load
- Means of Egress Sizing
- Number of Exits and Exit Access Doorways
- Exit and Exit Access Doorway Configuration
- Means of Egress Illumination
- Accessible Means of Egress
- Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles
- Stairways
- Ramps
- Exit Signs
- Handrails
- Guards
- Exit Access
- Exit Access Travel Distance
- Aisles
- Exit Access Stairways and Ramps
- Corridors
- Egress Balconies
- Exits
- Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps
- Exit Passageways
- Luminous Egress Path Markings
- Horizontal Exits
- Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps
- Exit Discharge
- Assembly
- Emergency Escape and Rescue
- KEY POINTS.
- 11. ACCESSIBILITY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Definitions
- Scoping Requirements
- Accessible Route
- Accessible Entrances
- Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities
- Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units
- Special Occupancies
- Other Features and Facilities
- Recreational Facilities
- Signage
- KEY POINTS
- 12. INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Ventilation
- Temperature Control
- Lighting
- Yards or Courts
- Sound Transmission
- Interior Space Dimensions
- Access to Unoccupied Spaces
- Toilet and Bathroom Requirements
- KEY POINTS
- 13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 14. EXTERIOR WALLS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Definitions
- Performance Requirements
- Materials
- Installation of Wall Coverings
- Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls
- Metal Composite Materials
- Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS)
- KEY POINTS
- 15. ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Definitions
- Performance Requirements
- Fire Classification
- Materials
- Rooftop Structures
- KEY POINTS
- A. INTRODUCTION TO THE STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Nonseismic
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Seismic
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Load Combinations
- 16. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions and Notations
- Construction Documents
- General Design Requirements
- Load Combinations
- Dead Loads
- Live Loads
- Snow Loads
- Wind Loads
- Soil Lateral Loads
- Rain Loads
- Flood Loads
- Earthquake Loads
- Atmospheric Ice Loads
- Structural Integrity
- KEY POINTS
- Example 16-1 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Strength Design)
- Example 16-2 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Allowable Stress Design Using Basic Load Combinations)
- Example 16-3 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Allowable Stress Design Using Alternate Basic Load Combinations)
- Example 16-4 Calculations of Live Load Reduction
- 17. SPECIAL INSPECTIONS AND TESTS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Approvals
- Special Inspections and Tests, Contractor Responsibility, and Structural Observations
- Required Special Inspections and Tests
- Design Strengths of Materials
- Alternate Test Procedures
- In Situ Load Tests
- Preconstruction Load Tests
- KEY POINTS
- 18. SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Geotechnical Investigations
- Excavation, Grading, and Fill
- Dampproofing and Waterproofing
- Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils
- Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls, and Embedded Posts and Poles
- Foundations
- Shallow Foundations
- Deep Foundations
- KEY POINTS
- 19. CONCRETE
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Specifications for Tests and Materials
- Durability Requirements
- Modifications to ACI 318
- Structural Plain Concrete
- Minimum Slab Provisions
- Shotcrete
- KEY POINTS
- 20. ALUMINUM
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- Materials
- KEY POINTS
- 21. MASONRY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions and Notations
- Masonry Construction Materials
- Construction
- Quality Assurance
- Seismic Design
- Allowable Stress Design
- Strength Design of Masonry
- Empirical Design of Masonry
- Glass Unit Masonry
- Masonry Fireplaces
- Masonry Heaters
- Masonry Chimneys
- KEY POINTS
- 22. STEEL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Identification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes
- Connections
- Structural Steel
- Composite Structural Steel and Concrete Structures
- Steel Joists
- Steel Cable Structures
- Steel Storage Racks
- Cold-Formed Steel
- Cold-Formed Steel Light-Framed Construction
- KEY POINTS.
- 23. WOOD
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Minimum Standards and Quality
- General Construction Requirements
- General Design Requirements for Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems
- Allowable Stress Design
- Load and Resistance Factor Design
- Conventional Light-Frame Construction
- Wood Frame Construction Manual
- KEY POINTS
- 24. GLASS AND GLAZING
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General Requirements for Glass
- Wind, Snow, Seismic, and Dead Loads on Glass
- Sloped Glazing and Skylights
- Safety Glazing
- Glass in Handrails and Guards
- Glazing in Athletic Facilities
- KEY POINTS
- 25. GYPSUM BOARD, GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCTS, AND PLASTER
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Scope
- Definitions
- Gypsum Construction
- Lathing and Furring for Cement Plaster (Stucco)
- Interior Plaster
- Exterior Plaster
- KEY POINTS
- 26. PLASTIC
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Foam Plastic Insulation
- Interior Finish and Trim
- Plastic Veneer
- Light-Transmitting Plastics
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Wall Panels
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Glazing
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Roof Panels
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing
- KEY POINTS
- 27. ELECTRICAL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Emergency and Standby Power Systems
- 28. MECHANICAL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 29. PLUMBING
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Minimum Plumbing Facilities
- KEY POINTS
- 30. ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Hoistway Enclosures
- Emergency Operations
- Elevator Lobbies and Hoistway Opening Protection
- Fire Service Access Elevator
- Occupant Evacuation Elevators
- KEY POINTS
- 31. SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Membrane Structures
- Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels
- Marquees
- KEY POINTS
- 32. ENCROACHMENTS IN THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Encroachments
- 33. SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Construction Safeguards
- Demolition
- Site Work
- Protection of Pedestrians
- Protection of Adjoining Property
- Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys, and Public Property
- Fire Extinguishers
- Means of Egress
- Standpipes
- KEY POINTS
- 34. RESERVED
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 35. REFERENCED STANDARDS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- B. APPENDICES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Appendix A Employee Qualifications
- Appendix B Board of Appeals
- Appendix C Group U Agricultural Buildings
- Appendix D Fire Districts
- Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements
- Appendix F Rodentproofing
- Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction
- Appendix H Signs
- Appendix I Patio Covers
- Appendix J Grading
- Appendix K Administrative Provisions
- Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation
- Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard
- C. METRIC CONVERSION TABLE
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Metric Units, System International (SI)
- Soft Metrication
- Hard Metrication.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781259586125 20160619
- A. About the International Code Council
- B. About the Authors
- C. Online Bonus Resources
- D. Foreword
- E. Preface
- F. Acknowledgments
- 1. SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Applicability
- Department of Building Safety
- Duties and Powers of Building Official
- Permits
- Submittal Documents
- Temporary Structures and Uses
- Fees
- Inspections
- Certificate of Occupancy
- Service Utilities
- Board of Appeals
- Violations
- Stop Work Order
- Unsafe Structures and Equipment
- KEY POINTS
- 2. DEFINITIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Definitions
- KEY POINTS
- 3. USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Classification
- Assembly Group A
- Business Group B
- Educational Group E
- Factory Group F
- High-Hazard Group H
- Institutional Group I
- Mercantile Group M
- Residential Group R
- Storage Group S
- Utility and Miscellaneous Group U
- KEY POINTS
- 4. SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings
- High-Rise Buildings
- Atriums
- Underground Buildings
- Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies
- Group I-2
- Group I-3
- Motion-Picture Projection Rooms
- Stages, Platforms, and Technical Production Areas
- Special Amusement Buildings
- Aircraft-Related Occupancies
- Combustible Storage
- Hazardous Materials
- Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5
- Application of Flammable Finishes
- Drying Rooms
- Organic Coatings
- Live/Work Units
- Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-4
- Ambulatory Care Facilities
- Storm Shelters
- Children's Play Structures
- KEY POINTS
- 5. GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- General Building Height and Area Limitations
- Building Height and Number of Stories
- Mezzanines and Equipment Platforms
- Building Area
- Unlimited-Area Buildings
- Mixed Use and Occupancy
- Incidental Uses
- Special Provisions
- KEY POINTS
- 6. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Construction Classification
- Combustible Material in Type I and II Construction
- KEY POINTS
- 7. FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests
- Fire-Resistance Rating of Structural Members
- Exterior Walls
- Fire Walls
- Fire Barriers
- Fire Partitions
- Smoke Barriers
- Smoke Partitions
- Floor and Roof Assemblies
- Vertical Openings
- Shaft Enclosures
- Penetrations
- Joint Systems
- Opening Protectives
- Ducts and Air Transfer Openings
- Concealed Spaces
- Fire-Resistance Requirements for Plaster
- Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials
- Prescriptive Fire Resistance
- Calculated Fire Resistance
- KEY POINTS
- 8. INTERIOR FINISHES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Wall and Ceiling Finishes
- Interior Floor Finish
- Combustible Materials in Types I and II Construction
- KEY POINTS
- 9. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Automatic Sprinkler Systems
- Alternative Automatic Fire-Extinguishing Systems
- Standpipe Systems
- Fire Alarm and Detection Systems
- Smoke-Control Systems
- Smoke and Heat Removal
- Fire Command Center
- Emergency Responder Safety Features
- KEY POINTS
- 10. MEANS OF EGRESS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Administration
- Definitions
- General Means of Egress
- Occupant Load
- Means of Egress Sizing
- Number of Exits and Exit Access Doorways
- Exit and Exit Access Doorway Configuration
- Means of Egress Illumination
- Accessible Means of Egress
- Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles
- Stairways
- Ramps
- Exit Signs
- Handrails
- Guards
- Exit Access
- Exit Access Travel Distance
- Aisles
- Exit Access Stairways and Ramps
- Corridors
- Egress Balconies
- Exits
- Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps
- Exit Passageways
- Luminous Egress Path Markings
- Horizontal Exits
- Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps
- Exit Discharge
- Assembly
- Emergency Escape and Rescue
- KEY POINTS.
- 11. ACCESSIBILITY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Definitions
- Scoping Requirements
- Accessible Route
- Accessible Entrances
- Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities
- Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units
- Special Occupancies
- Other Features and Facilities
- Recreational Facilities
- Signage
- KEY POINTS
- 12. INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Ventilation
- Temperature Control
- Lighting
- Yards or Courts
- Sound Transmission
- Interior Space Dimensions
- Access to Unoccupied Spaces
- Toilet and Bathroom Requirements
- KEY POINTS
- 13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 14. EXTERIOR WALLS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Definitions
- Performance Requirements
- Materials
- Installation of Wall Coverings
- Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls
- Metal Composite Materials
- Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS)
- KEY POINTS
- 15. ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Definitions
- Performance Requirements
- Fire Classification
- Materials
- Rooftop Structures
- KEY POINTS
- A. INTRODUCTION TO THE STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Nonseismic
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Seismic
- Structural Design (Chapter 16): Load Combinations
- 16. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions and Notations
- Construction Documents
- General Design Requirements
- Load Combinations
- Dead Loads
- Live Loads
- Snow Loads
- Wind Loads
- Soil Lateral Loads
- Rain Loads
- Flood Loads
- Earthquake Loads
- Atmospheric Ice Loads
- Structural Integrity
- KEY POINTS
- Example 16-1 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Strength Design)
- Example 16-2 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Allowable Stress Design Using Basic Load Combinations)
- Example 16-3 Design Axial Force, Shear Force, and Bending Moment for Shear Wall Due to Lateral and Gravity Loads (Allowable Stress Design Using Alternate Basic Load Combinations)
- Example 16-4 Calculations of Live Load Reduction
- 17. SPECIAL INSPECTIONS AND TESTS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Approvals
- Special Inspections and Tests, Contractor Responsibility, and Structural Observations
- Required Special Inspections and Tests
- Design Strengths of Materials
- Alternate Test Procedures
- In Situ Load Tests
- Preconstruction Load Tests
- KEY POINTS
- 18. SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Geotechnical Investigations
- Excavation, Grading, and Fill
- Dampproofing and Waterproofing
- Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils
- Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls, and Embedded Posts and Poles
- Foundations
- Shallow Foundations
- Deep Foundations
- KEY POINTS
- 19. CONCRETE
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Specifications for Tests and Materials
- Durability Requirements
- Modifications to ACI 318
- Structural Plain Concrete
- Minimum Slab Provisions
- Shotcrete
- KEY POINTS
- 20. ALUMINUM
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- Materials
- KEY POINTS
- 21. MASONRY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions and Notations
- Masonry Construction Materials
- Construction
- Quality Assurance
- Seismic Design
- Allowable Stress Design
- Strength Design of Masonry
- Empirical Design of Masonry
- Glass Unit Masonry
- Masonry Fireplaces
- Masonry Heaters
- Masonry Chimneys
- KEY POINTS
- 22. STEEL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Identification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes
- Connections
- Structural Steel
- Composite Structural Steel and Concrete Structures
- Steel Joists
- Steel Cable Structures
- Steel Storage Racks
- Cold-Formed Steel
- Cold-Formed Steel Light-Framed Construction
- KEY POINTS.
- 23. WOOD
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Introduction
- General
- Definitions
- Minimum Standards and Quality
- General Construction Requirements
- General Design Requirements for Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems
- Allowable Stress Design
- Load and Resistance Factor Design
- Conventional Light-Frame Construction
- Wood Frame Construction Manual
- KEY POINTS
- 24. GLASS AND GLAZING
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General Requirements for Glass
- Wind, Snow, Seismic, and Dead Loads on Glass
- Sloped Glazing and Skylights
- Safety Glazing
- Glass in Handrails and Guards
- Glazing in Athletic Facilities
- KEY POINTS
- 25. GYPSUM BOARD, GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCTS, AND PLASTER
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Scope
- Definitions
- Gypsum Construction
- Lathing and Furring for Cement Plaster (Stucco)
- Interior Plaster
- Exterior Plaster
- KEY POINTS
- 26. PLASTIC
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Foam Plastic Insulation
- Interior Finish and Trim
- Plastic Veneer
- Light-Transmitting Plastics
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Wall Panels
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Glazing
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Roof Panels
- Light-Transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing
- KEY POINTS
- 27. ELECTRICAL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Emergency and Standby Power Systems
- 28. MECHANICAL
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 29. PLUMBING
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Minimum Plumbing Facilities
- KEY POINTS
- 30. ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Hoistway Enclosures
- Emergency Operations
- Elevator Lobbies and Hoistway Opening Protection
- Fire Service Access Elevator
- Occupant Evacuation Elevators
- KEY POINTS
- 31. SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Membrane Structures
- Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels
- Marquees
- KEY POINTS
- 32. ENCROACHMENTS IN THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- General
- Encroachments
- 33. SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Construction Safeguards
- Demolition
- Site Work
- Protection of Pedestrians
- Protection of Adjoining Property
- Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys, and Public Property
- Fire Extinguishers
- Means of Egress
- Standpipes
- KEY POINTS
- 34. RESERVED
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- 35. REFERENCED STANDARDS
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- B. APPENDICES
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Appendix A Employee Qualifications
- Appendix B Board of Appeals
- Appendix C Group U Agricultural Buildings
- Appendix D Fire Districts
- Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements
- Appendix F Rodentproofing
- Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction
- Appendix H Signs
- Appendix I Patio Covers
- Appendix J Grading
- Appendix K Administrative Provisions
- Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation
- Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard
- C. METRIC CONVERSION TABLE
- CHAPTER PRELIMINARIES
- Metric Units, System International (SI)
- Soft Metrication
- Hard Metrication.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781259586125 20160619
- Book
- 1 online resource (viii, 125 pages) : illustrations.
- From the Contents: Building envelope and mechanical compatibility with building structure
- Glass curtain wall systems and seismic behavior
- Advanced connection devices for building envelope systems
- Rotational friction connection devices: a novel approach towards friction connection devices for glazed envelope systems.
- From the Contents: Building envelope and mechanical compatibility with building structure
- Glass curtain wall systems and seismic behavior
- Advanced connection devices for building envelope systems
- Rotational friction connection devices: a novel approach towards friction connection devices for glazed envelope systems.
- Book
- 1344 p. : ill., figs., tables.
- About the author
- B. Dedication
- C. Preface to the third edition
- D. Preface to the second edition
- E. Preface to the first edition
- F. Units and unit conversions
- Angle
- Length
- Area
- Volume
- Velocity
- Volumetric flow rate
- Permeability
- Mass
- Density
- Runoff or precipitation depth
- Pressure/stress
- Force
- Energy
- Power
- Concentration
- Earth parameters
- Universal constants
- 101. Strength of materials
- Sign convention for stresses
- Centroid of an area by integration
- Centroid of a compound area—weighted average
- Various section properties
- Bending stress
- Plastic collapse mechanisms
- Combined axial and bending stress
- Shear stress due to transverse load
- Shear stress due to torsion—circular sections
- Shear stress due to torsion—rectangular sections
- Shear stress due to torsion—thin-walled sections
- Stresses in pressure vessels
- Mohr's circle: normal (σ) and shear stress (τ) combination
- Indeterminate problems in strength of materials
- Tensile test
- Compression test
- Split cylinder test
- Third-point loading test of a beam (flexure)
- 102. Statically determinate structures
- Vector
- Dot product
- Cross product
- Equivalent force system
- Analysis of trusses
- Truss member forces—method of joints
- Truss member forces—method of sections
- Identification of zero-force members
- Truss deflection—method of virtual work
- Cables under point loads
- Cables under uniformly distributed load
- Shear force and bending moment
- Beam deflection—the elastic curve
- Direct integration method
- Moment-area method
- Conjugate beam method
- Unit load method
- Beam deflection equations
- Influence lines
- Shear at midspan of uniformly loaded beams
- Influence of a series of concentrated loads
- Calculating effect of concentrated and distributed loads
- 103. Introduction to indeterminate structures
- Stability and determinacy
- Determinate versus indeterminate structures
- The general force method
- Force method illustration
- Castigliano's method
- Castigliano's method applied to trusses
- Castigliano's method applied to beams
- Displacement methods
- Moment-distribution method
- The slope-deflection method
- Using results from moment-distribution or slope-deflection methods
- Fixed-end moments
- Approximate methods for building frames
- 104. Concrete fundamentals
- Absolute volume method
- Aci provisions
- Reinforcement
- Strength design approach
- Load combinations (asce-7)
- Significant changes from aci 318-08 to aci 318-11
- 105. Reinforced concrete beams
- General
- Design moments at critical locations
- Cracked section characteristics
- Aci limits on flexural reinforcement
- Spacing guidelines
- Flexural capacity of singly reinforced concrete beams
- Design problems
- Doubly reinforced rectangular section
- Singly reinforced t-beams
- Design of reinforced concrete beams for shear
- Shear at midspan of uniformly loaded beams
- Development length of reinforcement
- 106. Reinforced concrete slabs
- General
- One-way reinforced concrete slabs
- Minimum slab thickness
- Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement
- Two-way reinforced concrete slabs
- Slabs on grade
- Expansive soils
- Capacity of anchors in concrete
- Tension
- 107. Reinforced concrete columns
- Guidelines on longitudinal reinforcement
- Short versus long columns
- Axial load capacity of short rc columns
- Column interaction diagrams
- Long columns
- 108. Prestressed concrete
- General
- Combined stresses
- Allowable stresses (pci)
- Standard tables from pci design handbook
- Prestress losses.
- 109. Steel tension members
- Allowable strength design (asd)
- Load and resistance factor design (lrfd)
- Analysis and design of tension members
- Nominal strength
- Net area in tension
- Net area for staggered bolt lines
- Effective net area
- Aisc load tables
- Block shear
- Pin-connected tension members
- 110. Steel compression members
- Stability of axially loaded columns—euler buckling
- Critical buckling stress for steel columns
- Braced columns
- Effective length for columns in a frame
- Column with slender elements
- Single-angle compression elements
- Built-up compression members
- Column base plates
- 111. Steel beams
- General flexure theory
- Progressive increase of flexural stresses
- Elastic section modulus
- Plastic section modulus
- Design of steel beams—aisc specifications
- Bending coefficient cb
- Beam design using zx tables
- Beam design using charts
- Compactness criteria
- Flexural strength of noncompact sections
- Design for shear
- Floor framing systems
- Composite construction
- Use of composite beam design tables in aisc steel construction manual
- Beam bearing plate design
- Design of built-up beams (plate girders)
- Flexural strength of built-up beams
- Shear strength of built-up beams
- Web plate buckling coefficient (kv)
- Web shear coefficient (cv)
- Tension field action
- 112. Bolted and welded connections
- General
- Snug-tight versus slip-critical connections
- Bearing type connections
- Slip-critical connections
- Bolt group subject to shear and torsion
- Capacity of bolted connections—design tables in scm, 14th edition
- Bolts subject to shear and tension
- Basic weld symbols
- Weld specifications
- Fillet-welded joints
- Fillet weld features
- Strength of a fillet weld
- Second moments of weld runs
- Inspection criteria for welds and bolts
- 113. Bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Design philosophy—lrfd
- Lrfd load combinations
- Deflection limits
- Minimum depth of superstructure
- Multiple presence of live load
- Vehicular live load
- Pedestrian loads
- Dynamic load allowance
- Wind on superstructure (w)
- Wind on live load (wl)
- Design of deck cantilever and railings
- Deck design
- Bending moment in slab
- Concrete design
- Distribution of wheel loads to girders
- Effective width of flange
- Shear connector design
- Steps in shear connector design
- Deflections
- 114. Timber design
- Bending stress
- Shear stress
- Modulus of elasticity
- Stress modification factors
- Design of timber columns
- Section properties of beams and joists
- Section properties of planks
- Section properties of decking
- 115. Masonry design
- Strain compatibility
- Modulus of elasticity of masonry
- Transformed section
- Allowable stresses in masonry
- Modulus of rupture
- Design coefficients (working stress design)
- Design for flexure
- Design of masonry lintels
- Cracking moment
- Design for axial compression
- Design for shear
- Reinforced masonry walls
- 116. Design loads on buildings and other structures
- Introduction
- Risk category
- Live loads
- Snow loads
- Lateral force resisting system (lfrs)
- Wind loads
- Wind loads on buildings—directional procedure
- Seismic loads
- Structural systems
- Response modification factor (r)
- Seismic spectra
- Diaphragms
- Shear wall system—center of rigidity
- 201. Phase relationships for soils
- Soil as a three-phase system
- Fundamental definitions
- Shrinkage and swell.
- 202. Soil sampling and testing
- Guidelines for subsurface sampling
- Interpretation of boring logs
- Soil sampling techniques
- Rock quality designation
- Unconfined compression strength of rock
- Rock mass rating system
- Effective stress
- Soil consistency
- Atterberg limit tests
- Standard penetration test
- Correlation between n value and bearing capacity
- Relative density
- Cone penetrometer test (cpt)
- Vane shear test
- Direct shear test
- Unconfined compression test
- Compaction
- Standard proctor test
- Compaction effort
- Dynamic compaction techniques
- Field monitoring of compaction
- Triaxial test fundamentals
- Relevance of various types of triaxial tests
- Consolidation
- Consolidation settlement (primary)
- Consolidation rate
- Settlement from secondary consolidation
- Effect of sample disturbance
- California bearing ratio test
- Hveem stabilometer test
- Shear strength by direct methods
- Deformation moduli
- Permeability tests
- In-place density
- 203. Soil classification
- Sieve sizes
- Usda textural classification of soils
- Particle size distribution curves
- Hydrometer analysis
- Unified soil classification system (uscs)
- Aashto soil classification
- Group index (gi)
- Burmister soil classification system
- 204. Vertical stress increase at depth
- Approximate methods
- Boussinesq model for stress under uniformly loaded area
- Newmark's chart for graphical solution of boussinesq's equation
- Stress increase due to a point load
- Stress increase due to a line load
- Stress increase due to a strip load
- Stress increase due to uniformly loaded circular footing
- Load on buried pipes
- 205. Flow through porous media
- Groundwater distribution
- Darcy's law for seepage
- Hydraulic conductivity
- Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity
- Equivalent hydraulic conductivity (layered soils)
- Field measurement of hydraulic conductivity
- Flow nets
- Calculation of seepage flow from flow nets
- Anisotropic soils
- Uplift pressure under hydraulic structures
- Expansive soils
- Gravity dams
- Aquifers
- Karst
- Unsteady well hydraulics—theis method
- Groundwater dewatering
- Wellpoint systems
- Dewatering using a circular array of wellpoints
- 206. Shallow foundations
- Shallow foundations
- General
- Ultimate bearing capacity
- Shape correction factors
- Depth correction factors
- Load inclination correction factors
- Factor of safety for bearing capacity
- Local shear failure
- Dynamic loads
- Allowable bearing pressure in sand based on settlement
- Effect of water table on bearing capacity
- Coefficient of subgrade reaction
- Combined footing
- Combined footing—design
- Mat foundations
- Differential settlement of mats
- Compensated foundations
- Strap footing—design
- Eccentric load on a shallow footing
- Shear in footings—one-way and two-way shear
- Elastic settlement under shallow foundations
- Settlement of granular soils—schmertmann and hartman
- 207. Deep foundations
- Deep foundations
- Site conditions
- Materials
- Pile classification
- Point bearing capacity
- Side friction capacity
- Skin friction coefficient
- Capacity of pile groups
- Special consideration for steel h-section piles
- Pile groups subject to overturning moment
- Caissons
- Batter piles
- Laterally loaded long piles
- Pullout resistance
- Negative skin friction
- Settlement of piles
- Elastic settlement of pile groups
- Consolidation settlement of pile groups
- Pile-driving formula.
- 208. Retaining walls
- General
- Retaining wall types
- Typical damage to retaining walls
- Planning
- Recommendations for design and construction
- Lateral earth pressure
- Wall movement necessary to develop lateral pressures
- Stability and strength checks
- Active earth pressure
- Passive earth pressure
- Rankine's theory for earth pressure
- Suitability number
- Steps for evaluating stability of a retaining wall
- Retaining wall with key
- Horizontal pressure on retaining walls due to surface loads
- Mechanically stabilized earth (mse) walls
- 209. Support of excavation
- Types of excavation
- Modes of failure
- Stabilization
- Bottom heave in a cut in clay
- Typical plan and elevation of a braced excavation
- Equivalent pressure diagrams for braced cuts
- Design of sheet pile walls
- Ultimate resistance of tiebacks
- Secant piles
- Tangent pile wall
- Osha regulations for excavations
- 1926 cfr subpart p appendix b—sloping and benching
- 210. Slope stability
- Modes of slope failure
- Causes of slope failure
- Total versus effective stress analysis
- Stability of infinite slopes (no seepage)
- Stability of infinite slopes (with seepage)
- Stability of finite slopes
- Stability of finite slope in clay (taylor)
- Slope stabilization methods
- Recommended safety factors
- Slope protection
- 211. Seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Seismic stress waves
- Vibration transmission through soils
- Liquefaction
- Liquefaction mitigation techniques
- Bearing capacity under dynamic loading
- Cyclic stress ratio
- Glossary of earthquake-related terms
- 212. Earthwork
- General
- Area by coordinates
- Shrinkage and bulking
- Using the mass diagram
- Earthwork—borrow pit method (also known as grid method)
- 301. Basic fluid mechanics
- Conservation of mass
- Conservation of energy
- Conservation of momentum
- Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line
- Viscosity
- Static pressure on submerged surfaces
- Dynamic similarity
- Laminar versus turbulent flow
- 302. Closed conduit hydraulics
- General
- Darcy-weisbach equation
- Hazen-williams equation
- Minor losses
- Pipe networks
- Two-node network
- Flow measurement devices
- Pumps
- Pump affinity laws
- Improving pipeline efficiency
- System curve
- Pump curves
- Pumps in series
- Pumps in parallel
- Cavitation
- Cavitation index
- Water hammer (surge)
- Variation of atmospheric pressure with elevation
- 303. Open channel hydraulics
- Fundamentals
- Velocity in open channels
- Hydraulic parameters of straight-sided open channels
- Hydraulic parameters of circular open channels
- Friction loss in open channels
- Rectangular open channels
- Alternate depths
- Effect of variations in the channel floor
- Momentum in open channels
- Most efficient channel section
- Normal depth of flow in circular open channels
- Normal depth of flow in channels with straight sides
- Critical depth of flow in open channels
- Critical depth in circular conduits
- Critical depth in straight-sided channels
- Occurrence of critical depth in open channels
- Open channels having compound cross sections
- Flow in gutters and swales
- Flow measurement with weirs
- Gradually varied flow in open channels
- Classification of surface profiles
- Hydraulic jump
- Conservation of momentum—nonrectangular open channel
- Shear stress on channel bed
- Flow in culverts
- 304. Hydrology
- Hydrologic balance
- Precipitation
- Rainfall intensity
- Recorded precipitation data
- Intensity-duration-frequency curves
- Time of concentration
- Rainfall distribution by storm type
- Hydrograph separation
- Unit hydrograph
- Nrcs synthetic unit hydrograph
- Hydrograph synthesis
- Runoff estimation by nrcs curve number
- Peak discharge
- Rational method for predicting runoff
- Modified rational method
- Reservoir sizing using the rippl diagram.
- 305. Water supply quantity and quality
- Determination of needed fire flow
- Drinking water treatment and distribution
- National primary drinking water standards (epa)
- National secondary drinking water standards (epa)
- Dissolved oxygen in water
- Saturated dissolved oxygen
- Biochemical oxygen demand
- Temperature dependence of bod rate constant
- Standard bod test
- Seeded bod test
- Carbonaceous versus nitrogenous oxygen demand
- Limitations of the bod test
- Chemical oxygen demand
- Total organic carbon
- Dilution purification of wastewater streams
- Streeter-phelps equations
- Hardness in water
- Hardness removal
- Ph and poh
- Calculation of ph for weak and strong acids
- Equilibrium constant, dissociation, and ph
- Alkalinity
- Analysis of solids data
- Toxicity
- 306. Water and wastewater treatment
- Total maximum daily load (tmdl)
- National pollutant discharge elimination system
- Municipal separate storm sewer system (ms4)
- Water quality–based effluent limits (wqbel)
- Wastewater flow rates for various sources
- Municipal wastewater treatment
- Lift stations
- Reactors used for wastewater treatment
- Reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics
- Physical unit operations in wastewater treatment
- Screening
- Mixing and flocculation
- Settling of particles
- Settling column data—analysis
- Grit removal
- Primary sedimentation tanks
- Absorption versus adsorption
- Chemical processes for wastewater treatment
- Chemical neutralization
- Log inactivation
- Biological wastewater treatment
- Bacterial biochemistry
- Aerobic versus anaerobic biological treatment
- Population growth of bacteria
- Hydraulic detention time
- Indicator organisms
- Identification, isolation, and enumeration of bacteria
- Activated sludge process
- Mass balance for a closed system boundary
- Sludge bulking
- Completely mixed aerated lagoons
- Rotating biological contactors
- Trickling filters
- Nutrient removal from wastewater streams
- Biological nitrification and denitrification
- 401. Capacity analysis
- Transportation planning
- Trip generation
- Gravity model for trip distribution
- Modal split by the logit model
- Travel speed
- Design traffic volume
- Speed-volume-density relationships
- Time-mean speed versus space-mean speed
- Speed-volume-density models
- Shockwave in traffic stream
- Queueing theory—m/m/1 queue
- Constant acceleration and deceleration
- Level of service for transit facilities
- Choice to use public transit
- Parking facilities
- 402. Highway safety
- Postimpact behavior of vehicles
- Design of crash cushions
- Accident rates
- Accident countermeasures
- Clear zone
- 403. Sight distance
- Aashto recommendations
- Acceleration and deceleration
- Sight distance on vertical curves
- Horizontal curves
- Decision sight distance
- Passing sight distance
- 404. Highway curves
- Elements of surveying
- Horizontal curves
- Horizontal curve layout—by deflection angle
- Horizontal curve layout—by chord offset
- Horizontal curve layout—by tangent offset
- Offtracking and pavement widening
- Turning roadways at intersections
- Compound curves
- Vertical curves
- Parabolic curve to pass through a given point
- Unsymmetrical vertical curves
- Spiral curves
- 405. Superelevation
- Forces acting on a turning vehicle
- Maximum superelevation rates
- Coefficient of side friction
- Distribution of e and f over a range of curves
- Transition to superelevation
- Maximum gradient for superelevation runoff
- Spiral curves
- 406. Freeways
- Level of service
- Default values of parameters
- Free-flow speed
- Flow rate
- Peak-hour factor
- Heavy vehicle factor
- Driver population factor
- Determining level of service
- Weaving.
- 407. Multilane highways
- Level of service
- Default values of parameters
- Free-flow speed
- Flow rate
- Peak-hour factor
- Heavy vehicle factor
- Driver population factor
- Determining level of service
- Urban streets
- 408. Two-lane highways
- General
- Classification of two-lane highways
- Level of service
- Methodology for class i two-lane highways
- Methodology for class ii two-lane highways
- Methodology for class iii two-lane highways
- 409. Signalization warrants
- Warrant 1—eight-hour vehicular volume
- Warrant 2—four-hour vehicular volume
- Warrant 3—peak-hour volume
- Warrant 4—pedestrian volume
- Warrant 5—school crossing
- Warrant 6—coordinated signal system
- Warrant 7—crash experience
- Warrant 8—roadway network
- Warrant 9—signalization of an intersection near a grade crossing
- 410. Intersections
- General
- Level of service
- Sight distance at intersections
- Critical gap
- Criteria for installing multiway stop control (mutcd)
- Geometric characteristics of intersections
- Capacity and level of service at signalized intersections
- Critical lane volumes at an intersection
- Length of storage bay in a dedicated left turn lane
- Storage length at unsignalized intersections
- Auxiliary lanes
- Change and clearance intervals at an intersection
- Effective green time
- Saturation flow rate
- Capacity of a lane group
- Optimal signal cycle length—webster's theory
- Time-space diagram
- Guidelines for pedestrian facilities
- Level of service for pedestrians
- Effective walkway width
- Minimum green time for pedestrians
- Highway interchanges
- Roundabout design
- Provisions of the aashto guide for the planning, design, and operation of pedestrian facilities
- Provisions of the aashto policy on geometric design of highways and streets (green book)
- 411. Design of highway pavements
- Equivalent single axle load
- Flexible pavements
- Stress distribution within the pavement thickness
- Structural number
- Flexible pavement design
- Purposes of compaction
- Asphalt
- Superpave
- Aggregates in asphalt mix
- Hot-mix asphalt-volumetric relationships
- Rigid pavement design
- Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (aashto) principles
- Frost action
- 501. Engineering economics
- Types of cash flow
- The year-end accounting convention
- Nonannual compounding
- Engineering economics factors
- Present worth
- Principal in a sinking fund
- Nonannual compounding
- Capitalized cost
- Equivalent uniform annual cost
- Depreciation
- Tax issues
- Bonds
- Break-even analysis
- Benefit-cost analysis
- 502. Probability and statistics
- Probabilistic basis for design
- System reliability
- Normal distribution
- Student's t-distribution
- Binomial distribution
- Quality control
- Lot size and inspection level
- Linear regression
- 503. Project scheduling
- Gantt charts
- Critical path analysis
- Lag information
- Time-cost tradeoff
- Earned value management (evm)
- Project crashing
- Resource leveling
- Machine production
- Production cycle time
- Equipment balancing
- Pert
- 504. Design loads during construction
- Load combinations
- Personnel and vehicle loads (cp)
- Material loads
- Horizontal construction load (ch)
- Form pressure
- Personnel and equipment load reduction (asce 37)
- Operational class of working surfaces
- Importance factor
- Lifting and rigging
- 505. Scaffolding
- Definitions
- Capacity of scaffold components
- Required width of scaffold platforms
- Allowable span and overhang specifications for platforms
- Criteria for supported scaffolds
- Criteria for suspension scaffolds
- Access
- Ramps and walkways
- Clearance between scaffolds and power lines
- Fall protection
- Protection from falling objects
- Specifications for guardrails
- Examples of scaffolds.
- 506. Formwork for concrete
- Terminology
- General
- Materials
- Causes of formwork failure
- Shoring/reshoring of concrete multistory buildings
- Design loads on concrete formwork
- Lateral pressure from fresh concrete
- Modifications to form pressure
- Formwork components
- Concrete maturity
- Nurse-saul function
- Mass concrete
- Guidelines for form removal
- Labor costs for forming
- Falsework
- Slipforming
- 507. Excavations
- Site layout and control
- Terminology
- Classification of soil and rock deposits
- Maximum allowable slopes
- Underpinning
- 508. Erosion control
- General
- Storm water discharge permits
- Pollution prevention plan
- Storm water management
- Energy dissipaters
- Natural methods of erosion control
- Structural methods of erosion control
- 509. Occupational safety
- Osha regulations for construction projects
- Rules of construction
- Personal protective equipment (ppe)
- Emergency response
- Toilets
- Noise exposure
- Light exposure
- Signs, signals, and barricades
- Fall protection
- Bracing of masonry walls
- Steel erection
- 510. Quantity estimating
- Quantity estimation for excavations
- A. End-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety
- B. Solutions to end-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals.
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety
- B. Solutions to end-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780071821957 20160618
- About the author
- B. Dedication
- C. Preface to the third edition
- D. Preface to the second edition
- E. Preface to the first edition
- F. Units and unit conversions
- Angle
- Length
- Area
- Volume
- Velocity
- Volumetric flow rate
- Permeability
- Mass
- Density
- Runoff or precipitation depth
- Pressure/stress
- Force
- Energy
- Power
- Concentration
- Earth parameters
- Universal constants
- 101. Strength of materials
- Sign convention for stresses
- Centroid of an area by integration
- Centroid of a compound area—weighted average
- Various section properties
- Bending stress
- Plastic collapse mechanisms
- Combined axial and bending stress
- Shear stress due to transverse load
- Shear stress due to torsion—circular sections
- Shear stress due to torsion—rectangular sections
- Shear stress due to torsion—thin-walled sections
- Stresses in pressure vessels
- Mohr's circle: normal (σ) and shear stress (τ) combination
- Indeterminate problems in strength of materials
- Tensile test
- Compression test
- Split cylinder test
- Third-point loading test of a beam (flexure)
- 102. Statically determinate structures
- Vector
- Dot product
- Cross product
- Equivalent force system
- Analysis of trusses
- Truss member forces—method of joints
- Truss member forces—method of sections
- Identification of zero-force members
- Truss deflection—method of virtual work
- Cables under point loads
- Cables under uniformly distributed load
- Shear force and bending moment
- Beam deflection—the elastic curve
- Direct integration method
- Moment-area method
- Conjugate beam method
- Unit load method
- Beam deflection equations
- Influence lines
- Shear at midspan of uniformly loaded beams
- Influence of a series of concentrated loads
- Calculating effect of concentrated and distributed loads
- 103. Introduction to indeterminate structures
- Stability and determinacy
- Determinate versus indeterminate structures
- The general force method
- Force method illustration
- Castigliano's method
- Castigliano's method applied to trusses
- Castigliano's method applied to beams
- Displacement methods
- Moment-distribution method
- The slope-deflection method
- Using results from moment-distribution or slope-deflection methods
- Fixed-end moments
- Approximate methods for building frames
- 104. Concrete fundamentals
- Absolute volume method
- Aci provisions
- Reinforcement
- Strength design approach
- Load combinations (asce-7)
- Significant changes from aci 318-08 to aci 318-11
- 105. Reinforced concrete beams
- General
- Design moments at critical locations
- Cracked section characteristics
- Aci limits on flexural reinforcement
- Spacing guidelines
- Flexural capacity of singly reinforced concrete beams
- Design problems
- Doubly reinforced rectangular section
- Singly reinforced t-beams
- Design of reinforced concrete beams for shear
- Shear at midspan of uniformly loaded beams
- Development length of reinforcement
- 106. Reinforced concrete slabs
- General
- One-way reinforced concrete slabs
- Minimum slab thickness
- Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement
- Two-way reinforced concrete slabs
- Slabs on grade
- Expansive soils
- Capacity of anchors in concrete
- Tension
- 107. Reinforced concrete columns
- Guidelines on longitudinal reinforcement
- Short versus long columns
- Axial load capacity of short rc columns
- Column interaction diagrams
- Long columns
- 108. Prestressed concrete
- General
- Combined stresses
- Allowable stresses (pci)
- Standard tables from pci design handbook
- Prestress losses.
- 109. Steel tension members
- Allowable strength design (asd)
- Load and resistance factor design (lrfd)
- Analysis and design of tension members
- Nominal strength
- Net area in tension
- Net area for staggered bolt lines
- Effective net area
- Aisc load tables
- Block shear
- Pin-connected tension members
- 110. Steel compression members
- Stability of axially loaded columns—euler buckling
- Critical buckling stress for steel columns
- Braced columns
- Effective length for columns in a frame
- Column with slender elements
- Single-angle compression elements
- Built-up compression members
- Column base plates
- 111. Steel beams
- General flexure theory
- Progressive increase of flexural stresses
- Elastic section modulus
- Plastic section modulus
- Design of steel beams—aisc specifications
- Bending coefficient cb
- Beam design using zx tables
- Beam design using charts
- Compactness criteria
- Flexural strength of noncompact sections
- Design for shear
- Floor framing systems
- Composite construction
- Use of composite beam design tables in aisc steel construction manual
- Beam bearing plate design
- Design of built-up beams (plate girders)
- Flexural strength of built-up beams
- Shear strength of built-up beams
- Web plate buckling coefficient (kv)
- Web shear coefficient (cv)
- Tension field action
- 112. Bolted and welded connections
- General
- Snug-tight versus slip-critical connections
- Bearing type connections
- Slip-critical connections
- Bolt group subject to shear and torsion
- Capacity of bolted connections—design tables in scm, 14th edition
- Bolts subject to shear and tension
- Basic weld symbols
- Weld specifications
- Fillet-welded joints
- Fillet weld features
- Strength of a fillet weld
- Second moments of weld runs
- Inspection criteria for welds and bolts
- 113. Bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Design philosophy—lrfd
- Lrfd load combinations
- Deflection limits
- Minimum depth of superstructure
- Multiple presence of live load
- Vehicular live load
- Pedestrian loads
- Dynamic load allowance
- Wind on superstructure (w)
- Wind on live load (wl)
- Design of deck cantilever and railings
- Deck design
- Bending moment in slab
- Concrete design
- Distribution of wheel loads to girders
- Effective width of flange
- Shear connector design
- Steps in shear connector design
- Deflections
- 114. Timber design
- Bending stress
- Shear stress
- Modulus of elasticity
- Stress modification factors
- Design of timber columns
- Section properties of beams and joists
- Section properties of planks
- Section properties of decking
- 115. Masonry design
- Strain compatibility
- Modulus of elasticity of masonry
- Transformed section
- Allowable stresses in masonry
- Modulus of rupture
- Design coefficients (working stress design)
- Design for flexure
- Design of masonry lintels
- Cracking moment
- Design for axial compression
- Design for shear
- Reinforced masonry walls
- 116. Design loads on buildings and other structures
- Introduction
- Risk category
- Live loads
- Snow loads
- Lateral force resisting system (lfrs)
- Wind loads
- Wind loads on buildings—directional procedure
- Seismic loads
- Structural systems
- Response modification factor (r)
- Seismic spectra
- Diaphragms
- Shear wall system—center of rigidity
- 201. Phase relationships for soils
- Soil as a three-phase system
- Fundamental definitions
- Shrinkage and swell.
- 202. Soil sampling and testing
- Guidelines for subsurface sampling
- Interpretation of boring logs
- Soil sampling techniques
- Rock quality designation
- Unconfined compression strength of rock
- Rock mass rating system
- Effective stress
- Soil consistency
- Atterberg limit tests
- Standard penetration test
- Correlation between n value and bearing capacity
- Relative density
- Cone penetrometer test (cpt)
- Vane shear test
- Direct shear test
- Unconfined compression test
- Compaction
- Standard proctor test
- Compaction effort
- Dynamic compaction techniques
- Field monitoring of compaction
- Triaxial test fundamentals
- Relevance of various types of triaxial tests
- Consolidation
- Consolidation settlement (primary)
- Consolidation rate
- Settlement from secondary consolidation
- Effect of sample disturbance
- California bearing ratio test
- Hveem stabilometer test
- Shear strength by direct methods
- Deformation moduli
- Permeability tests
- In-place density
- 203. Soil classification
- Sieve sizes
- Usda textural classification of soils
- Particle size distribution curves
- Hydrometer analysis
- Unified soil classification system (uscs)
- Aashto soil classification
- Group index (gi)
- Burmister soil classification system
- 204. Vertical stress increase at depth
- Approximate methods
- Boussinesq model for stress under uniformly loaded area
- Newmark's chart for graphical solution of boussinesq's equation
- Stress increase due to a point load
- Stress increase due to a line load
- Stress increase due to a strip load
- Stress increase due to uniformly loaded circular footing
- Load on buried pipes
- 205. Flow through porous media
- Groundwater distribution
- Darcy's law for seepage
- Hydraulic conductivity
- Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity
- Equivalent hydraulic conductivity (layered soils)
- Field measurement of hydraulic conductivity
- Flow nets
- Calculation of seepage flow from flow nets
- Anisotropic soils
- Uplift pressure under hydraulic structures
- Expansive soils
- Gravity dams
- Aquifers
- Karst
- Unsteady well hydraulics—theis method
- Groundwater dewatering
- Wellpoint systems
- Dewatering using a circular array of wellpoints
- 206. Shallow foundations
- Shallow foundations
- General
- Ultimate bearing capacity
- Shape correction factors
- Depth correction factors
- Load inclination correction factors
- Factor of safety for bearing capacity
- Local shear failure
- Dynamic loads
- Allowable bearing pressure in sand based on settlement
- Effect of water table on bearing capacity
- Coefficient of subgrade reaction
- Combined footing
- Combined footing—design
- Mat foundations
- Differential settlement of mats
- Compensated foundations
- Strap footing—design
- Eccentric load on a shallow footing
- Shear in footings—one-way and two-way shear
- Elastic settlement under shallow foundations
- Settlement of granular soils—schmertmann and hartman
- 207. Deep foundations
- Deep foundations
- Site conditions
- Materials
- Pile classification
- Point bearing capacity
- Side friction capacity
- Skin friction coefficient
- Capacity of pile groups
- Special consideration for steel h-section piles
- Pile groups subject to overturning moment
- Caissons
- Batter piles
- Laterally loaded long piles
- Pullout resistance
- Negative skin friction
- Settlement of piles
- Elastic settlement of pile groups
- Consolidation settlement of pile groups
- Pile-driving formula.
- 208. Retaining walls
- General
- Retaining wall types
- Typical damage to retaining walls
- Planning
- Recommendations for design and construction
- Lateral earth pressure
- Wall movement necessary to develop lateral pressures
- Stability and strength checks
- Active earth pressure
- Passive earth pressure
- Rankine's theory for earth pressure
- Suitability number
- Steps for evaluating stability of a retaining wall
- Retaining wall with key
- Horizontal pressure on retaining walls due to surface loads
- Mechanically stabilized earth (mse) walls
- 209. Support of excavation
- Types of excavation
- Modes of failure
- Stabilization
- Bottom heave in a cut in clay
- Typical plan and elevation of a braced excavation
- Equivalent pressure diagrams for braced cuts
- Design of sheet pile walls
- Ultimate resistance of tiebacks
- Secant piles
- Tangent pile wall
- Osha regulations for excavations
- 1926 cfr subpart p appendix b—sloping and benching
- 210. Slope stability
- Modes of slope failure
- Causes of slope failure
- Total versus effective stress analysis
- Stability of infinite slopes (no seepage)
- Stability of infinite slopes (with seepage)
- Stability of finite slopes
- Stability of finite slope in clay (taylor)
- Slope stabilization methods
- Recommended safety factors
- Slope protection
- 211. Seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Seismic stress waves
- Vibration transmission through soils
- Liquefaction
- Liquefaction mitigation techniques
- Bearing capacity under dynamic loading
- Cyclic stress ratio
- Glossary of earthquake-related terms
- 212. Earthwork
- General
- Area by coordinates
- Shrinkage and bulking
- Using the mass diagram
- Earthwork—borrow pit method (also known as grid method)
- 301. Basic fluid mechanics
- Conservation of mass
- Conservation of energy
- Conservation of momentum
- Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line
- Viscosity
- Static pressure on submerged surfaces
- Dynamic similarity
- Laminar versus turbulent flow
- 302. Closed conduit hydraulics
- General
- Darcy-weisbach equation
- Hazen-williams equation
- Minor losses
- Pipe networks
- Two-node network
- Flow measurement devices
- Pumps
- Pump affinity laws
- Improving pipeline efficiency
- System curve
- Pump curves
- Pumps in series
- Pumps in parallel
- Cavitation
- Cavitation index
- Water hammer (surge)
- Variation of atmospheric pressure with elevation
- 303. Open channel hydraulics
- Fundamentals
- Velocity in open channels
- Hydraulic parameters of straight-sided open channels
- Hydraulic parameters of circular open channels
- Friction loss in open channels
- Rectangular open channels
- Alternate depths
- Effect of variations in the channel floor
- Momentum in open channels
- Most efficient channel section
- Normal depth of flow in circular open channels
- Normal depth of flow in channels with straight sides
- Critical depth of flow in open channels
- Critical depth in circular conduits
- Critical depth in straight-sided channels
- Occurrence of critical depth in open channels
- Open channels having compound cross sections
- Flow in gutters and swales
- Flow measurement with weirs
- Gradually varied flow in open channels
- Classification of surface profiles
- Hydraulic jump
- Conservation of momentum—nonrectangular open channel
- Shear stress on channel bed
- Flow in culverts
- 304. Hydrology
- Hydrologic balance
- Precipitation
- Rainfall intensity
- Recorded precipitation data
- Intensity-duration-frequency curves
- Time of concentration
- Rainfall distribution by storm type
- Hydrograph separation
- Unit hydrograph
- Nrcs synthetic unit hydrograph
- Hydrograph synthesis
- Runoff estimation by nrcs curve number
- Peak discharge
- Rational method for predicting runoff
- Modified rational method
- Reservoir sizing using the rippl diagram.
- 305. Water supply quantity and quality
- Determination of needed fire flow
- Drinking water treatment and distribution
- National primary drinking water standards (epa)
- National secondary drinking water standards (epa)
- Dissolved oxygen in water
- Saturated dissolved oxygen
- Biochemical oxygen demand
- Temperature dependence of bod rate constant
- Standard bod test
- Seeded bod test
- Carbonaceous versus nitrogenous oxygen demand
- Limitations of the bod test
- Chemical oxygen demand
- Total organic carbon
- Dilution purification of wastewater streams
- Streeter-phelps equations
- Hardness in water
- Hardness removal
- Ph and poh
- Calculation of ph for weak and strong acids
- Equilibrium constant, dissociation, and ph
- Alkalinity
- Analysis of solids data
- Toxicity
- 306. Water and wastewater treatment
- Total maximum daily load (tmdl)
- National pollutant discharge elimination system
- Municipal separate storm sewer system (ms4)
- Water quality–based effluent limits (wqbel)
- Wastewater flow rates for various sources
- Municipal wastewater treatment
- Lift stations
- Reactors used for wastewater treatment
- Reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics
- Physical unit operations in wastewater treatment
- Screening
- Mixing and flocculation
- Settling of particles
- Settling column data—analysis
- Grit removal
- Primary sedimentation tanks
- Absorption versus adsorption
- Chemical processes for wastewater treatment
- Chemical neutralization
- Log inactivation
- Biological wastewater treatment
- Bacterial biochemistry
- Aerobic versus anaerobic biological treatment
- Population growth of bacteria
- Hydraulic detention time
- Indicator organisms
- Identification, isolation, and enumeration of bacteria
- Activated sludge process
- Mass balance for a closed system boundary
- Sludge bulking
- Completely mixed aerated lagoons
- Rotating biological contactors
- Trickling filters
- Nutrient removal from wastewater streams
- Biological nitrification and denitrification
- 401. Capacity analysis
- Transportation planning
- Trip generation
- Gravity model for trip distribution
- Modal split by the logit model
- Travel speed
- Design traffic volume
- Speed-volume-density relationships
- Time-mean speed versus space-mean speed
- Speed-volume-density models
- Shockwave in traffic stream
- Queueing theory—m/m/1 queue
- Constant acceleration and deceleration
- Level of service for transit facilities
- Choice to use public transit
- Parking facilities
- 402. Highway safety
- Postimpact behavior of vehicles
- Design of crash cushions
- Accident rates
- Accident countermeasures
- Clear zone
- 403. Sight distance
- Aashto recommendations
- Acceleration and deceleration
- Sight distance on vertical curves
- Horizontal curves
- Decision sight distance
- Passing sight distance
- 404. Highway curves
- Elements of surveying
- Horizontal curves
- Horizontal curve layout—by deflection angle
- Horizontal curve layout—by chord offset
- Horizontal curve layout—by tangent offset
- Offtracking and pavement widening
- Turning roadways at intersections
- Compound curves
- Vertical curves
- Parabolic curve to pass through a given point
- Unsymmetrical vertical curves
- Spiral curves
- 405. Superelevation
- Forces acting on a turning vehicle
- Maximum superelevation rates
- Coefficient of side friction
- Distribution of e and f over a range of curves
- Transition to superelevation
- Maximum gradient for superelevation runoff
- Spiral curves
- 406. Freeways
- Level of service
- Default values of parameters
- Free-flow speed
- Flow rate
- Peak-hour factor
- Heavy vehicle factor
- Driver population factor
- Determining level of service
- Weaving.
- 407. Multilane highways
- Level of service
- Default values of parameters
- Free-flow speed
- Flow rate
- Peak-hour factor
- Heavy vehicle factor
- Driver population factor
- Determining level of service
- Urban streets
- 408. Two-lane highways
- General
- Classification of two-lane highways
- Level of service
- Methodology for class i two-lane highways
- Methodology for class ii two-lane highways
- Methodology for class iii two-lane highways
- 409. Signalization warrants
- Warrant 1—eight-hour vehicular volume
- Warrant 2—four-hour vehicular volume
- Warrant 3—peak-hour volume
- Warrant 4—pedestrian volume
- Warrant 5—school crossing
- Warrant 6—coordinated signal system
- Warrant 7—crash experience
- Warrant 8—roadway network
- Warrant 9—signalization of an intersection near a grade crossing
- 410. Intersections
- General
- Level of service
- Sight distance at intersections
- Critical gap
- Criteria for installing multiway stop control (mutcd)
- Geometric characteristics of intersections
- Capacity and level of service at signalized intersections
- Critical lane volumes at an intersection
- Length of storage bay in a dedicated left turn lane
- Storage length at unsignalized intersections
- Auxiliary lanes
- Change and clearance intervals at an intersection
- Effective green time
- Saturation flow rate
- Capacity of a lane group
- Optimal signal cycle length—webster's theory
- Time-space diagram
- Guidelines for pedestrian facilities
- Level of service for pedestrians
- Effective walkway width
- Minimum green time for pedestrians
- Highway interchanges
- Roundabout design
- Provisions of the aashto guide for the planning, design, and operation of pedestrian facilities
- Provisions of the aashto policy on geometric design of highways and streets (green book)
- 411. Design of highway pavements
- Equivalent single axle load
- Flexible pavements
- Stress distribution within the pavement thickness
- Structural number
- Flexible pavement design
- Purposes of compaction
- Asphalt
- Superpave
- Aggregates in asphalt mix
- Hot-mix asphalt-volumetric relationships
- Rigid pavement design
- Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (aashto) principles
- Frost action
- 501. Engineering economics
- Types of cash flow
- The year-end accounting convention
- Nonannual compounding
- Engineering economics factors
- Present worth
- Principal in a sinking fund
- Nonannual compounding
- Capitalized cost
- Equivalent uniform annual cost
- Depreciation
- Tax issues
- Bonds
- Break-even analysis
- Benefit-cost analysis
- 502. Probability and statistics
- Probabilistic basis for design
- System reliability
- Normal distribution
- Student's t-distribution
- Binomial distribution
- Quality control
- Lot size and inspection level
- Linear regression
- 503. Project scheduling
- Gantt charts
- Critical path analysis
- Lag information
- Time-cost tradeoff
- Earned value management (evm)
- Project crashing
- Resource leveling
- Machine production
- Production cycle time
- Equipment balancing
- Pert
- 504. Design loads during construction
- Load combinations
- Personnel and vehicle loads (cp)
- Material loads
- Horizontal construction load (ch)
- Form pressure
- Personnel and equipment load reduction (asce 37)
- Operational class of working surfaces
- Importance factor
- Lifting and rigging
- 505. Scaffolding
- Definitions
- Capacity of scaffold components
- Required width of scaffold platforms
- Allowable span and overhang specifications for platforms
- Criteria for supported scaffolds
- Criteria for suspension scaffolds
- Access
- Ramps and walkways
- Clearance between scaffolds and power lines
- Fall protection
- Protection from falling objects
- Specifications for guardrails
- Examples of scaffolds.
- 506. Formwork for concrete
- Terminology
- General
- Materials
- Causes of formwork failure
- Shoring/reshoring of concrete multistory buildings
- Design loads on concrete formwork
- Lateral pressure from fresh concrete
- Modifications to form pressure
- Formwork components
- Concrete maturity
- Nurse-saul function
- Mass concrete
- Guidelines for form removal
- Labor costs for forming
- Falsework
- Slipforming
- 507. Excavations
- Site layout and control
- Terminology
- Classification of soil and rock deposits
- Maximum allowable slopes
- Underpinning
- 508. Erosion control
- General
- Storm water discharge permits
- Pollution prevention plan
- Storm water management
- Energy dissipaters
- Natural methods of erosion control
- Structural methods of erosion control
- 509. Occupational safety
- Osha regulations for construction projects
- Rules of construction
- Personal protective equipment (ppe)
- Emergency response
- Toilets
- Noise exposure
- Light exposure
- Signs, signals, and barricades
- Fall protection
- Bracing of masonry walls
- Steel erection
- 510. Quantity estimating
- Quantity estimation for excavations
- A. End-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety
- B. Solutions to end-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals.
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety
- B. Solutions to end-of-chapter practice problems
- Chapter 101: strength of materials
- Chapter 102: statically determinate structures
- Chapter 103: introduction to indeterminate structures
- Chapter 104: concrete fundamentals
- Chapter 105: reinforced concrete beams
- Chapter 106: reinforced concrete slabs
- Chapter 107: reinforced concrete columns
- Chapter 108: prestressed concrete
- Chapter 109: steel tension members
- Chapter 110: steel compression members
- Chapter 111: steel beams
- Chapter 112: bolted and welded connections
- Chapter 113: bridge design (aashto lrfd)
- Chapter 114: timber design
- Chapter 115: masonry design
- Chapter 201: phase relationships for soils
- Chapter 202: soil sampling and testing
- Chapter 203: soil classification
- Chapter 204: vertical stress increase at depth
- Chapter 205: flow through porous media
- Chapter 206: shallow foundations
- Chapter 207: deep foundations
- Chapter 208: retaining walls
- Chapter 209: support of excavation
- Chapter 210: slope stability
- Chapter 211: seismic topics in geotechnical engineering
- Chapter 212: earthwork
- Chapter 301: basic fluid mechanics
- Chapter 302: closed conduit hydraulics
- Chapter 303: open channel hydraulics
- Chapter 304: hydrology
- Chapter 305: water supply quantity and quality
- Chapter 306: water and wastewater treatment
- Chapter 401: capacity analysis
- Chapter 402: highway safety
- Chapter 403: sight distance
- Chapter 404: highway curves
- Chapter 405: superelevation
- Chapter 406: freeways
- Chapter 407: multilane highways
- Chapter 408: two-lane highways
- Chapter 409: signalization warrants
- Chapter 410: intersections
- Chapter 411: design of highway pavements
- Chapter 501: engineering economics
- Chapter 502: probability and statistics
- Chapter 503: project scheduling
- Chapter 504: design loads during construction
- Chapter 505: scaffolding
- Chapter 506: formwork for concrete
- Chapter 507: excavations
- Chapter 508: erosion control
- Chapter 509: occupational safety.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780071821957 20160618
17. Code and data supplement for "Ground motion selection for simulation-based seismic hazard and structural reliability assessment." [2015] Online
This page provides data and code to document the referenced paper, which examines four methods by which ground motions can be selected for dynamic seismic response analyses of engineered systems when the underlying seismic hazard is quantified via ground motion simulation rather than empirical ground motion prediction equations. Even with simulation-based seismic hazard, a ground motion selection process is still required in order to extract a small number of time series from the much larger set developed as part of the hazard calculation. Four specific methods are presented for ground motion selection from simulation-based seismic hazard analyses. One of the four methods provides a ‘benchmark’ result (i.e. using all simulated ground motions), enabling the consistency of the other three more efficient selection methods to be addressed.
This page provides data and code to document the referenced paper, which examines four methods by which ground motions can be selected for dynamic seismic response analyses of engineered systems when the underlying seismic hazard is quantified via ground motion simulation rather than empirical ground motion prediction equations. Even with simulation-based seismic hazard, a ground motion selection process is still required in order to extract a small number of time series from the much larger set developed as part of the hazard calculation. Four specific methods are presented for ground motion selection from simulation-based seismic hazard analyses. One of the four methods provides a ‘benchmark’ result (i.e. using all simulated ground motions), enabling the consistency of the other three more efficient selection methods to be addressed.
18. Design of Composite RCS Special Moment Frames [2015] Online
This document was developed to assist practicing engineers in the design of Composite Special Moment Frame (C-SMF) systems utilizing reinforced concrete columns and steel beams (known as Composite RCS frames). These systems utilize the intrinsic advantages of each material which are optimized in resisting the applied loads.
Seismic design requirements for C-SMF systems are included in ASCE 7 (2010) and AISC 341 (2010). These system-level requirements are supported by research and other documents on the design and detailing of beam-column connections between the steel beams and concrete (or encased composite) columns. In 1994, the ASCE Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete issued guidelines for the Design of Joints between Steel Beams and Reinforced Concrete Columns in 1994 (ASCE 1994). Based on research at the time, it was recommended to limit the use of Composite RCS systems to regions of low seismicity. Since then, further research has been performed which has demonstrated that Composite RCS systems can be designed to have reliable ductile performance, making them an attractive design alternative for high seismic areas. Based on this research, a draft Pre-Standard for the Design of Moment Connections between Steel Beams and Concrete Columns (ASCE 2015 draft) has been prepared as an update to the 1994 ASCE connection design guidelines. This draft is utilized for the design studies presented herein.
This document was developed to assist practicing engineers in the design of Composite Special Moment Frame (C-SMF) systems utilizing reinforced concrete columns and steel beams (known as Composite RCS frames). These systems utilize the intrinsic advantages of each material which are optimized in resisting the applied loads.
Seismic design requirements for C-SMF systems are included in ASCE 7 (2010) and AISC 341 (2010). These system-level requirements are supported by research and other documents on the design and detailing of beam-column connections between the steel beams and concrete (or encased composite) columns. In 1994, the ASCE Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete issued guidelines for the Design of Joints between Steel Beams and Reinforced Concrete Columns in 1994 (ASCE 1994). Based on research at the time, it was recommended to limit the use of Composite RCS systems to regions of low seismicity. Since then, further research has been performed which has demonstrated that Composite RCS systems can be designed to have reliable ductile performance, making them an attractive design alternative for high seismic areas. Based on this research, a draft Pre-Standard for the Design of Moment Connections between Steel Beams and Concrete Columns (ASCE 2015 draft) has been prepared as an update to the 1994 ASCE connection design guidelines. This draft is utilized for the design studies presented herein.
- Book
- 1 online resource (10 p. ) : digital, PDF file.
Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business plan). Key parameters to be automatically determined are event origin time (within 0.1 sec), location (within 1 km) and size (within 0.3 magnitude units) without any human intervention. The key parameter ground truth information from explosions greater than magnitude 2.5 will be transmitted to a recording and transmitting site. Because we have identified a limited bandwidth, inexpensive two-way satellite communication (ORBCOMM), we have devised the concept of an accompanying Ground-Truth Processing Center that would enable calibration and ground-truth accuracy to improve over the duration of a deployment.
Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business plan). Key parameters to be automatically determined are event origin time (within 0.1 sec), location (within 1 km) and size (within 0.3 magnitude units) without any human intervention. The key parameter ground truth information from explosions greater than magnitude 2.5 will be transmitted to a recording and transmitting site. Because we have identified a limited bandwidth, inexpensive two-way satellite communication (ORBCOMM), we have devised the concept of an accompanying Ground-Truth Processing Center that would enable calibration and ground-truth accuracy to improve over the duration of a deployment.
- Book
- 1 online resource (0:01:06 ) : digital, PDF file.
Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.
Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.