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  • Contributors vii Preface ix 1 Neotectonics and Earthquake Potential of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Introduction 1 Ibrahim Cemen and Yucel Y lmaz Part I: Morphotectonic Characteristics of Neotectonics in Anatolia and Its Surroundings 9 2 Morphotectonic Development of Anatolia and the Surrounding Regions 11 Yucel Y lmaz 3 Diversion of River Courses Across Major Strike Slip Faults and Keirogens 93 A. M. Celal S engor Part II: Neotectonics of the Aegean-Western Anatolian Region 103 4 Effect of Slab Tear on Crustal Structure in Southwestern Anatolia: Insight From Gravity Data Modeling 105 Rezene Mahatsente, Suleyman Alemdar, and Ibrahim Cemen 5 Geodynamical Models for Continental Delamination and Ocean Lithosphere Peel Away in an Orogenic Setting 121 Og uz H. Gog us , Russell N. Pysklywec, and Claudio Faccenna 6 Major Problems of Western Anatolian Geology 141 Yucel Yilmaz 7 The Cataldag Plutonic Complex in Western Anatolia: Roles of Different Granites on the Crustal Buildup in Connection With the Core Complex Development 189 Omer Kamac , Alp Unal, S afak Altunkaynak, Stoyan Georgiev, and Zeki M. Billor Part III: Seismotectonics in the Eastern Mediterranean Region 223 8 Fault Structures in Marmara Sea (Turkey) and Their Connection to Earthquake Generation Processes 225 Mustafa Aktar 9 North Aegean Active Fault Pattern and the 24 May 2014, Mw 6.9 Earthquake 239 Sotiris Sboras, Alex Chatzipetros, and Spyros B. Pavlides 10 Seismic Intensity Maps for the Eastern Part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) Based on Recorded and Simulated Ground Motion Data 273 Aysegul Askan, Shaghayegh Karimzadeh, and Mustafa Bilal Index 289.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118944981 20170522
Neotectonics involves the study of the motions and deformations of the Earth's crust that are current or recent in geologic time. The Mediterranean region is one of the most important regions for neotectonics and related natural hazards. This volume focuses on the neotectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has experienced many major extensive earthquakes, including the devastating Izmit, Turkey earthquake on August 17, 1999. The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing around 17,000 people, injuring 44,000 people, and leaving approximately half a million people homeless. Since then, several North American, European, and Turkish research groups have studied the neotectonics and earthquake potential of the region using different geological and geophysical methods, including GPS studies, geodesy, and passive source seismology. Some results from their studies were presented in major North American and European geological meetings. This volume highlights the work involving the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has one of the world's longest and best studied active strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault zone, which is very similar to the San Andreas fault in California. This volume features discussions of: Widespread applications in measuring plate motion that have strong implications in predicting natural disasters like earthquakes, both on a regional and a global scale Recent motions, particularly those produced by earthquakes, that provide insights on the physics of earthquake recurrence, the growth of mountains, orogenic movements, and seismic hazards Unique methodical approaches in collecting tectonophysical data, including field, seismic, experimental, computer-based, and theoretical approaches. Active Global Seismology is a valuable resource for geoscientists, particularly in the field of tectonophysics, geophysics, geodynamics, seismology, structural geology, environmental geology, and geoengineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118944981 20170522
Book
ix, 295 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color) ; 29 cm.
  • Contributors vii Preface ix 1 Neotectonics and Earthquake Potential of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Introduction 1 Ibrahim Cemen and Yucel Y lmaz Part I: Morphotectonic Characteristics of Neotectonics in Anatolia and Its Surroundings 9 2 Morphotectonic Development of Anatolia and the Surrounding Regions 11 Yucel Y lmaz 3 Diversion of River Courses Across Major Strike Slip Faults and Keirogens 93 A. M. Celal S engor Part II: Neotectonics of the Aegean-Western Anatolian Region 103 4 Effect of Slab Tear on Crustal Structure in Southwestern Anatolia: Insight From Gravity Data Modeling 105 Rezene Mahatsente, Suleyman Alemdar, and Ibrahim Cemen 5 Geodynamical Models for Continental Delamination and Ocean Lithosphere Peel Away in an Orogenic Setting 121 Og uz H. Gog us , Russell N. Pysklywec, and Claudio Faccenna 6 Major Problems of Western Anatolian Geology 141 Yucel Yilmaz 7 The Cataldag Plutonic Complex in Western Anatolia: Roles of Different Granites on the Crustal Buildup in Connection With the Core Complex Development 189 Omer Kamac , Alp Unal, S afak Altunkaynak, Stoyan Georgiev, and Zeki M. Billor Part III: Seismotectonics in the Eastern Mediterranean Region 223 8 Fault Structures in Marmara Sea (Turkey) and Their Connection to Earthquake Generation Processes 225 Mustafa Aktar 9 North Aegean Active Fault Pattern and the 24 May 2014, Mw 6.9 Earthquake 239 Sotiris Sboras, Alex Chatzipetros, and Spyros B. Pavlides 10 Seismic Intensity Maps for the Eastern Part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) Based on Recorded and Simulated Ground Motion Data 273 Aysegul Askan, Shaghayegh Karimzadeh, and Mustafa Bilal Index 289.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118944981 20170522
Neotectonics involves the study of the motions and deformations of the Earth's crust that are current or recent in geologic time. The Mediterranean region is one of the most important regions for neotectonics and related natural hazards. This volume focuses on the neotectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has experienced many major extensive earthquakes, including the devastating Izmit, Turkey earthquake on August 17, 1999. The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing around 17,000 people, injuring 44,000 people, and leaving approximately half a million people homeless. Since then, several North American, European, and Turkish research groups have studied the neotectonics and earthquake potential of the region using different geological and geophysical methods, including GPS studies, geodesy, and passive source seismology. Some results from their studies were presented in major North American and European geological meetings. This volume highlights the work involving the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has one of the world's longest and best studied active strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault zone, which is very similar to the San Andreas fault in California. This volume features discussions of: Widespread applications in measuring plate motion that have strong implications in predicting natural disasters like earthquakes, both on a regional and a global scale Recent motions, particularly those produced by earthquakes, that provide insights on the physics of earthquake recurrence, the growth of mountains, orogenic movements, and seismic hazards Unique methodical approaches in collecting tectonophysical data, including field, seismic, experimental, computer-based, and theoretical approaches. Active Global Seismology is a valuable resource for geoscientists, particularly in the field of tectonophysics, geophysics, geodynamics, seismology, structural geology, environmental geology, and geoengineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781118944981 20170522
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
237 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 31 cm.
  • Introduction and history of mapping and research / P.C. Bandopadhyay-- Introduction to the geography and geomorphology of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands / P.C. Bandopadhyay & A. Carter
  • Regional context of the geology of the Andaman-Nicobar accretionary ridge / P.D. Clift
  • Cenozoic rifting, passive margin development and strike-slip faulting in the Andaman Sea: a discussion of established v. new tectonic models / C.K. Morley
  • Regional tectonics, structure and evolution of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands from ophiolite formation and obduction to collision and back-arc spreading / C.K. Morley & M. Searle
  • Geological framework of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands / P.C. Bandopadhyay & A. Carter
  • Andaman-Nicobar Ophiolites, India: origin, evolution and emplacement / B. Ghosh, D. Bandopadhyay & T. Morishita
  • Mithakhari deposits / P.C. Bandopadhyay & A. Carter
  • Submarine fan deposits: petrography and geochemistry of the Andaman Flysch / P.C. Bandopadhyay & A. Carter
  • Provenance of Oligocene Andaman sandstones (Andaman-Nicobar Islands): Ganga-Brahmaputra or Irrawaddy derived? / M. Limonta, A. Resentini, A. Carter, P.C. Bandopadhyay & E. Garzanti
  • The Archipelago Group: current understanding / P.C. Bandopadhyay & A. Carter
  • Inner-arc volcanism: Barren and Narcondam islands / P.C. Bandopadhyay
  • Anatomy of the Andaman-Nicobar subduction system from seismic reflection data / S.C. Singh & R. Moeremans
  • Seismicity of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Andaman Sea / A. Carter & P.C. Bandopadhyay
  • The 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami / A. Carter & P.C. Bandopadhyay
  • Natural resources / P.C. Bandopadhyay, B. Ghosh & A. Carter
  • Index.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
1 online resource : illustrations (some color)
  • * Introduction of Bridge Engineering* Bridge Planning and Design* Materials for Bridge Constructions* Loads and Load Distribution* Bridge Deck Systems* Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Bridges* Steel Bridges* Truss Bridges* Arch Bridges* Cable-Stayed Bridges* Suspension Bridges* Bridge Bearings and Substructures* Inspection, Monitoring, and Assessment* Repair, Strengthening, and Replacement.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128044322 20170612
Bridge Engineering: Classifications, Design Loading, and Analysis Methods begins with a clear and concise exposition of theory and practice of bridge engineering, design and planning, materials and construction, loads and load distribution, and deck systems. This is followed by chapters concerning applications for bridges, such as: Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Bridges, Steel Bridges, Truss Bridges, Arch Bridges, Cable Stayed Bridges, Suspension Bridges, Bridge Piers, and Bridge Substructures. In addition, the book addresses issues commonly found in inspection, monitoring, repair, strengthening, and replacement of bridge structures.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780128044322 20170612
Book
xvi, 451 pages, 88 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm
  • List of contributors, xi About the companion websites, xvii 1 Introduction, 1 Tom Gleeson and Steven Ingebritsen 2 DigitalCrust a 4D data system of material properties for transforming research on crustal fluid flow, 6 Ying Fan, Stephen Richard, R. Sky Bristol, Shanan E. Peters, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Nils Moosdorf, Aaron Packman, Tom Gleeson, I. Zaslavsky, S. Peckham, Lawrence Murdoch, Michael Fienen, Michael Cardiff, David Tarboton, Norman Jones, Richard Hooper, Jennifer Arrigo, D. Gochis, J. Olson and David Wolock Part I: The physics of permeability, 13 3 The physics of permeability, 15 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen 4 A pore-scale investigation of the dynamic response of saturated porous media to transient stresses, 16 Christian Huber and Yanqing Su 5 Flow of concentrated suspensions through fractures: small variations in solid concentration cause significant in-plane velocity variations, 27 Ricardo Medina, Jean E. Elkhoury, Joseph P. Morris, Romain Prioul, Jean Desroches and Russell L. Detwiler 6 Normal stress-induced permeability hysteresis of a fracture in a granite cylinder, 39 A. P. S. Selvadurai 7 Linking microearthquakes to fracture permeability evolution, 49 Takuya Ishibashi, Noriaki Watanabe, Hiroshi Asanuma and Noriyoshi Tsuchiya 8 Fractured rock stress permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical mechanical couplings, 65 Jonny Rutqvist Part II: Static permeability, 83 9 Static permeability, 85 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part II(A): Sediments and sedimentary rocks 10 How well can we predict permeability in sedimentary basins? Deriving and evaluating porosity permeability equations for noncemented sand and clay mixtures, 89 Elco Luijendijk and Tom Gleeson 11 Evolution of sediment permeability during burial and subduction, 104 Hugh Daigle and Elizabeth J. Screaton Part II(B): Igneous and metamorphic rocks 12 Is the permeability of crystalline rock in the shallow crust related to depth, lithology, or tectonic setting?, 125 Mark Ranjram, Tom Gleeson and Elco Luijendijk 13 Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: Insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, United States, 137 Erick R. Burns, Colin F. Williams, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Clifford I. Voss, Frank A. Spane and Jacob DeAngelo 14 Deep fluid circulation within crystalline basement rocks and the role of hydrologic windows in the formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature geothermal system, 155 Jeffrey Pepin, Mark Person, Fred Phillips, Shari Kelley, Stacy Timmons, Lara Owens, James Witcher and Carl W. Gable 15 Hydraulic conductivity of fractured upper crust: insights from hydraulic tests in boreholes and fluid rock interaction in crystalline basement rocks, 174 Ingrid Stober and Kurt Bucher Part III: Dynamic permeability, 189 16 Dynamic permeability, 191 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen Part III(A): Oceanic crust 17 Rapid generation of reaction permeability in the roots of black smoker systems, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, 195 Johnson R. Cann, Andrew M. Mccaig and Bruce W. D. Yardley Part III(B): Fault zones 18 The permeability of active subduction plate boundary faults, 209 Demian M. Saffer 19 Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes, 228 Simon C. Cox, Catriona D. Menzies, Rupert Sutherland, Paul H. Denys, Calum Chamberlain and Damon A. H. Teagle 20 Transient permeability in fault stepovers and rapid rates of orogenic gold deposit formation, 249 Steven Micklethwaite, Arianne Ford, Walter Witt and Heather A. Sheldon 21 Evidence for long-timescale (>103 years) changes in hydrothermal activity induced by seismic events, 260 Trevor Howald, Mark Person, Andrew Campbell, Virgil Lueth, Albert Hofstra, Donald Sweetkind, Carl W. Gable, Amlan Banerjee, Elco Luijendijk, Laura Crossey, Karl Karlstrom, Shari Kelley and Fred M. Phillips Part III(C): Crustal-scale behavior 22 The permeability of crustal rocks through the metamorphic cycle: an overview, 277 Bruce Yardley 23 An analytical solution for solitary porosity waves: dynamic permeability and fluidization of nonlinear viscous and viscoplastic rock, 285 James A. D. Connolly and Y. Y. Podladchikov 24 Hypocenter migration and crustal seismic velocity distribution observed for the inland earthquake swarms induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in NE Japan: implications for crustal fluid distribution and crustal permeability, 307 T. Okada, T. Matsuzawa, N. Umino, K. Yoshida, A. Hasegawa, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, M. Kosuga, Tetsuya Takeda, A. Kato, T. Igarashi, K. Obara, S. Sakai, A. Saiga, T. Iidaka, T. Iwasaki, N. Hirata, N. Tsumura, Y. Yamanaka, T. Terakawa, H. Nakamichi, T. Okuda, S. Horikawa, H. Katao, T. Miura, A. Kubo, T. Matsushima, K. Goto and H. Miyamachi 25 Continental-scale water-level response to a large earthquake, 324 Zheming Shi, Guang-Cai Wang, Michael Manga and Chi-Yuen Wang Part III(D): Effects of fluid injection at the scale of a reservoir or ore-deposit 26 Development of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection, 337 Giona Preisig, Erik Eberhardt, Valentin Gischig, Vincent Roche, Mirko van der Baan, Benoit Valley, Peter K. Kaiser, Damien Duff and Robert Lowther 27 Modeling enhanced geothermal systems and the essential nature of large-scale changes in permeability at the onset of slip, 353 Stephen A. Miller 28 Dynamics of permeability evolution in stimulated geothermal reservoirs, 363 Joshua Taron, Steve E. Ingebritsen, Stephen Hickman and Colin F. Williams 29 The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic hydrothermal systems, 373 Philipp Weis Part IV: Conclusion, 393 30 Toward systematic characterization, 395 Tom Gleeson and Steven E. Ingebritsen References, 398 Index, 447.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures. The practical importance of permeability and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production ( fracking ), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment. This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781119166566 20170117
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
1 online resource (523 pages) : illustrations.
  • Acoustic method for the suppression of acoustic and aerodynamically induced vibration on structures / Harijono Djojodihardjo
  • Agent based modelling of smart structures: the challenges of a new research domain / Andreea Ion, Monica Patrascu
  • Definition of static nonlinear procedure and flexibility-based model with application on 2D model for an existing structure and comparing results with time history analysis / Mourad Belgasmia
  • Experiments on a ring tension setup and FE analysis to evaluate transverse mechanical properties of tubular components / M.K. Samal, K.S. Balakrishnan
  • Dynamic analysis of offshore wind turbine structures / Arundhuti Banerjee [and 3 others]
  • Seismic reliability analysis in the framework of metamodelling based Monte Carlo simulation / Shyamal Ghosh [and 3 others]
  • Finite element analysis of pipe bends under external loads / Sumesh S., A. R. Veerappan, S. Shanmugam
  • Fuzzy structural analysis using surrogate models / A. S. Balu, B. N. Rao
  • FE analysis and experimental investigation of cracked and un-cracked thin-walled tubular components to evaluate mechanical and fracture properties / M.K. Samal
  • MARS and neural network models for shear strength prediction of squat reinforced concrete walls: shear strength of squat reinforced concrete walls / Anthony T.C. Goh, Wengang Zhang
  • Nonlinear system identification of smart buildings / Soroush Mohammadzadeh, Yeesock Kim
  • Polynomial correlated function expansion / Souvik Chakraborty, Rajib Chowdhury
  • Prevention of corrosion in austenitic stainless steel through a predictive numerical model simulating grain boundary chromium depletion / M.K. Samal
  • Risk analysis of structural engineering systems using Bayesian inference / Sharvil Alex Faroz [and 3 others]
  • Simulating post-earthquake fire loading in conventional RC structures / Behrouz Behnam
  • Structural integrity assessment and control of ageing onshore and offshore structures / R.M. Chandima Ratnayake, S.M. Samindi Samarakoon.
The development of new and effective analytical and numerical models is essential to understanding the performance of a variety of structures. As computational methods continue to advance, so too do their applications in structural performance modeling and analysis. Modeling and Simulation Techniques in Structural Engineering presents emerging research on computational techniques and applications within the field of structural engineering. This timely publication features practical applications as well as new research insights and is ideally designed for use by engineers, IT professionals, researchers, and graduate-level students.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781522505884 20161213
Book
1 online resource (345 p.) : digital, PDF file.
systems the concrete shall not only provide shielding but insures stability of the upright canister, facilitates anchoring, allows ventilation, and provides physical protection against theft, severe weather and natural (seismic) as well as man-made events (blast incidences). Given the need to remain functional for 40 years or even longer in case of interim storage, the concrete outerpack and the internal canister components need to be evaluated with regard to their long-term ability to perform their intended design functions. Just as evidenced by deteriorating concrete bridges, there are reported visible degradation mechanisms of dry storage systems especially when high corrosive environments are considered in maritime locations. The degradation of reinforced concrete is caused by multiple physical and chemical mechanisms, which may be summarized under the heading of environmental aging. The underlying hygro-thermal transport processes are accelerated by irradiation effects, hence creep and shrinkage need to include the effect of chloride penetration, alkali aggregate reaction as well as corrosion of the reinforcing steel. In light of the above, the two main objectives of this project are to (1) develop a probabilistic multi-hazard assessment framework, and (2) through experimental and numerical research perform a comprehensive assessment under combined earthquake loads and aging induced deterioration, which will also provide data for the development and validation of the probabilistic framework.
Book
1 online resource.
Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) is a class of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement-based Composite (HPFRCC) materials that has been developed and tailored over the last several decades. A composite material made from mortar and short, randomly disbursed fibers, ECC has enhanced tensile and compressive properties, in particular ductility, when compared to typical concrete. These improved material properties lend ECC to multiple uses in the built environment with the potential to increase structural performance and durability, and limit infrastructure maintenance and life-cycle cost. When reinforced with deformed steel bars, reinforced ECC and other reinforced HPFRCC components have enhanced seismic performance of structural components and systems such as coupling beams, steel moment frames with infill panels, joints, columns, and beams. But assessing seismic performance is complex, in part, because the deformations the next earthquake will induce on a structure are unknown. Based on the abundance of recorded ground motions from past earthquakes, it is clear that all ground motions do not induce the same deformation in structures. This dissertation provides the first insights of steel reinforced ECC flexural member response under different deformation histories through a variety of quasi-static laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Because a large pulse in a deformation history may cause fiber failure within the ECC material and alter the response on a material level, deformation histories that contain initial pulses are of particular interest. Being able to assess the structural response of reinforced ECC components due to a range of possible deformation histories is important if the material is to become widely adopted. The first portion of this dissertation presents the results of six physical experiments of flexural elements subjected to different deformation histories, three cast with reinforced concrete and three cast with reinforced ECC. The steel reinforcement ratio in flexure was 0.95% for all six specimens. Three different cyclic deformation histories were used throughout the experiments in this dissertation: one consisting of monotonically increasing cycles, one containing relatively small initial pulses followed by a series of monotonically increasing cycles, and one containing relatively large initial pulses followed by the same series of monotonically increasing cycles. Between materials, the reinforced ECC specimens maintained more residual stiffness and dissipated more energy than the reinforced concrete specimens. Small initial pulses did not reduce the ultimate drift of either reinforced concrete or reinforced ECC specimens relative to the drift achieved when no initial pulses were applied. Large initial pulses in the deformation history reduced the ultimate drift of the reinforced concrete specimen by 42%. In contrast, the reinforced ECC specimen was able to undergo the same ultimate drift across all three deformation histories tested. Additional experimental tests of reinforced ECC flexural components of different steel reinforcement ratios and bar sizes subjected to the aforementioned three deformation histories were conducted. On average, specimens subjected to the deformation history containing large initial pulses dissipated the least energy per cycle and had the least reloading stiffness of the three deformation histories used in this dissertation. The presence and size of initial deformation pulses had an impact on several response characteristics including cracking, strain development in the steel reinforcement, reloading stiffness, and energy dissipated depending on the steel reinforcement ratio and reinforcing bar size used. The failure mode of 17 of 18 reinforced ECC flexural members was fracture of the steel reinforcement. Specimen ductility was a function of steel reinforcement ratio, and did not vary significantly with the applied deformation history. It was believed bond degradation at the steel-ECC interface led to strain reductions in the steel reinforcement, which facilitated the indifference to deformation history. The ultimate drift achieved by the three reinforced ECC specimens with the lowest steel reinforcement ratio, 0.73%, however, decreased as initial pulse amplitude increased. At the 0.73% steel reinforcement ratio, the two 10 mm diameter reinforcing bars in flexure provided a relatively high bond capacity relative to the bond demand at the steel-ECC interface, which limited bond degradation during cycling. Limited bond degradation in specimens subjected to initial deformation pulses led to reinforcement strain accumulation, and subsequent reinforcing bar fracture at lower drifts than nominally identical specimens subjected to a deformation history consisting of monotonically increasing cycles. Data from strain gages on the steel reinforcing bars, in conjunction with visual observations of splitting crack formation in the ECC during testing, signaled a trend between bond degradation mechanism and deformation history. Splitting cracks and were the dominant bond degradation mechanisms induced by deformation histories containing large initial deformation pulses and interface crushing was the dominant bond degradation in specimens subjected to small or no initial deformation pulses. Two-dimensional models of reinforced ECC flexural members were then simulated to determine the significance of altering a phenomenological bond-slip model based on the applied deformation history. Varying the post-peak bond-slip softening stiffness had little effect on the hysteretic response of the reinforced ECC flexural models tested, which consisted of two different steel reinforcement ratios subjected to two different deformation histories. The post-peak bond-slip softening stiffness did, however, affect the magnitude of strain and the number of reinforcing bar elements that strain-hardened. Overall, a numerical model with constant bond-slip parameters represented well the cracking patterns, hysteretic response, and reinforcement strain across multiple steel reinforcement ratios and deformation histories. Numerical simulations were carried out in three dimensions to explore the formation of splitting cracks and interface crushing in reinforced ECC flexural members. Six beam-end models with varying thickness and material properties of the cementitious interface zone elements near the steel reinforcing bar elements were developed in order to replicate the bond-slip response of an experiment carried out by others. Reducing compressive strength, compressive fracture energy, and tensile fracture energy of the elements within a 2 mm interface zone, due to physical conditions that may result from casting difficulty or a reduced embedded fiber length, altered the bond-slip response and reduced bond strength by 33% relative to a model with homogeneous ECC material properties. A greater number of finite elements in the interface zone experienced compressive strains exceeding crushing strain when a three-dimensional model was subjected to a cyclic deformation history than when the same model was subjected to a monotonic deformation history. The increased crushing under simulated cyclic loading supported the experimental findings of this dissertation by associating a more crushing-dominant response with a deformation history containing monotonically increasing cyclic amplitudes than a deformation history containing large initial deformation pulses. This dissertation concludes with suggested research extensions in the areas of both experimental testing and numerical simulations.
Book
363 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 26 cm
  • Tectonics of the Deccan Large Igneous Province: an introduction
  • Deccan Plateau uplift: insights from parts of Western Uplands, Maharashtra, India
  • Alteration and submergence of basalts in Kachchh, Gujarat, India: implications for the role of the Deccan Traps in the India-Seychelles break-up
  • Tectonomagmatic setting of lava packages in the Mandla lobe of the eastern Deccan volcanic province, India: palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphic evidence
  • Rift-drift transition in a magma-rich system: the Gop Rift-Laxmi Basin case study, West India
  • Subsidence around oceanic ridges along passive margins: NE Arabian Sea
  • Investigations of continued reservoir triggered seismicity at Koyna, India
  • Influence of Deccan volcanism/synrift magmatism on the crust-mantle structure and its implications for the seismogenesis of earthquakes occurring in the Kachchh rift zone
  • Insight into the structures below the Deccan Trap-covered region of Maharashtra, India from geopotential data
  • A review and new data on neotectonic evolution of active faults in the Kachchh Basin, Western India: legacy of post-Deccan Trap tectonic inversion
  • Dyke-brittle shear relationships in the Western Deccan Strike-slip Zone around Mumbai (Maharashtra, India)
  • Dyke emplacement in the Narmada rift zone and implications for the evolution of the Deccan Traps
  • Morphotectonic expression of geological structures in the eastern part of the South East Deccan Volcanic Province (around Nanded, Maharashtra, India)
  • Evidence of the deformation of dykes from the Central Deccan Volcanic Province, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
Understanding the Deccan Trap Large Igneous Province in western India is important for deciphering the India--Seychelles rifting mechanism. This book presents 13 studies that address the development of this province from diverse perspectives including field structural geology, geochemistry, analytical modelling, geomorphology and geophysics (e.g., palaeomagnetism, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and seismic imaging). Together, these papers indicate that the tectonics of Deccan is much more complicated than previously thought. Key findings include: the Deccan province can be divided into several blocks; the existence of a rift-induced palaeo-slope; constraints on the eruption period; rift--drift transition mechanisms determined for magma-rich systems; the tectonic role of the Deccan or Réunion plumes; sub-surface structures reported from boreholes; the delineation of the crust--mantle structure; the documentation of sub-surface tectonic boundaries; post-Deccan-Trap basin inversion; deformed dykes around Mumbai, and also from the eastern part of the Deccan Traps, documented in the field.
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)

10. China Quake [2010]

Video
1 online resource (streaming video file) (47 minutes) : digital, .flv file, sound
China Quake is an engrossing investigation into the massive 2008 earthquake in China, one of the most destructive quakes ever recorded, and an introduction into the science behind seismic activity. The 7.9 magnitude earthquake released a surge of energy that devastated an area the size of South Korea. In ninety unforgiving seconds, nearly 90,000 lives were lost, 5 million buildings were destroyed and 5 million people were left homeless. Dramatic video footage from the day of the quake and its aftermath, along with computer graphics, vividly illustrate the devastation and the mechanisms behind the megaquake. China Quake follows a team of international scientists a year after the monster quake as they search for clues that will help solve the mystery of the massive, unexpected disaster. Was the Sichuan earthquake a freak of nature or a predictable tragedy waiting to happen? And what can be learned from the quake to help reduce the devastation in the future? The scientists, including geologists, seismologists and engineers, use tools on the ground and in space to uncover the catastrophic chain of events that may have ruptured several faults at once. Among the scientists is Dr. Elizabeth Hausler, founder/CEO of Build Change, a nonprofit organization that teaches people in developing countries how to build earthquake resistant homes. The discoveries of these scientists solves the mystery of the quake’s origins and scale, and will help save lives in the future wherever and whenever killer quakes strike around the world..
Book
xiv, 281 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 28 cm.
Sponsored by the Infrastructure Resilience Division of ASCE During 2010 and 2011, a sequence of strong earthquakes affected two communities in the province of Canterbury on the South Island of New Zealand. Christchurch, which is the second largest city in New Zealand, and Kaiapoi, in the Waimakariri District, suffered the greatest damage. Tens of thousands of buildings required demolition or significant reconstruction. Soil liquefaction, which was the leading cause of damage to lifelines, dictated that some areas of Christchurch could never be rebuilt. This report describes in detail the performance of lifeline systems in the Christchurch area, as observed during visits by an Earthquake Investigation Committee sent by ASCE's Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (TCLEE). This TCLEE Monograph discusses the following lifelines with recommendations for improving performance: electric power systems; telecommunications systems; water and wastewater infrastructure; gas and liquid fuel facilities; the port of Lyttelton; and transportation infrastructure, including the airport, roads and bridges, and railways. General seismology of the event, geotechnical features of the area, and applicable seismic codes are described. Other relevant issues, such as fire following the earthquakes, levees, lifeline interdependence, effects on building stock, damage to nonstructural building components, and debris management are considered. TCLEE 41 will be of interest to civil engineers, emergency managers and planners, and government officials charged with improving resilience of lifeline infrastructure systems during earthquakes, especially those characterized by significant soil liquefaction.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780784414217 20160830
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Book
1 online resource (x, 105 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; 1 Introduction; 1.1 Inverse Problems in Geodynamics; 1.2 Forward and Backward Modelling and Source of Errors; 1.3 Data Assimilation Methods; References; 2 Backward Advection Method and Its Application to Modelling of Salt Tectonics; 2.1 Basic Idea of the Backward Advection (BAD) Method; 2.2 Modelling of Salt Diapirism; 2.3 Mathematical Statement; 2.4 Solution Method; 2.5 Forward and Backward Model Results; References; 3 Variational Method and Its Application to Modelling of Mantle Plume Evolution; 3.1 Basic Idea of the Variational (VAR) Method
  • 3.2 Mathematical Statement3.3 Objective Functional; 3.4 Adjoint Problem; 3.5 Solution Method; 3.6 Restoration of Mantle Plumes; 3.6.1 Model and Methods; 3.6.2 Forward Modelling; 3.6.3 Backward Modelling; 3.6.4 Performance of the Numerical Algorithm; 3.7 Challenges in VAR Data Assimilation; 3.7.1 Data Smoothness; 3.7.2 Numerical Noise; References; 4 Application of the Variational Method to Lava Flow Modelling; 4.1 Lava Flow; 4.2 Reconstruction of Lava Properties; 4.3 Mathematical Statement; 4.4 Minimisation Problem; 4.5 Adjoint Problem; 4.6 Numerical Approach; 4.7 Model Results and Discussion
  • 6.1 Plate Subduction Beneath the Japanese Islands6.2 Mathematical Statement; 6.3 Input Data: Seismic Temperature Model; 6.4 Boundary Conditions; 6.5 Rheological Model; 6.6 Numerical Approach; 6.7 Model Results; 6.8 Data Uncertainties; References; 7 Comparison of Data Assimilation Methods; References
This book describes the methods and numerical approaches for data assimilation in geodynamical models and presents several applications of the described methodology in relevant case studies. The book starts with a brief overview of the basic principles in data-driven geodynamic modelling, inverse problems, and data assimilation methods, which is then followed by methodological chapters on backward advection, variational (or adjoint), and quasi-reversibility methods. The chapters are accompanied by case studies presenting the applicability of the methods for solving geodynamic problems; namely, mantle plume evolution; lithosphere dynamics in and beneath two distinct geological domains - the south-eastern Carpathian Mountains and the Japanese Islands; salt diapirism in sedimentary basins; and volcanic lava flow. Applications of data-driven modelling are of interest to the industry and to experts dealing with geohazards and risk mitigation. Explanation of the sedimentary basin evolution complicated by deformations due to salt tectonics can help in oil and gas exploration; better understanding of the stress-strain evolution in the past and stress localization in the present can provide an insight into large earthquake preparation processes; volcanic lava flow assessments can advise on risk mitigation in the populated areas. The book is an essential tool for advanced courses on data assimilation and numerical modelling in geodynamics.
Book
1 online resource.
Amplitude, frequency content, and duration are widely recognized as the key characteristics of earthquake ground motions that influence structural response. Yet, in current structural design and assessment practice, ground motions are often explicitly characterized by just their pseudo acceleration response spectra-which quantify their amplitude and frequency content-while duration is commonly relegated to implicit, qualitative consideration. This study evaluates the need to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectra, in structural design and assessment. The influence of duration on structural collapse capacity is investigated by numerically simulating the response of structures under short and long duration ground motions. Realistic nonlinear structural models that incorporate the in-cycle and cyclic deterioration of the strength and stiffness of structural components, and the destabilizing P-Delta effect of gravity loads, are employed to successfully detect the effect of duration. Long duration ground motions from recent large magnitude earthquakes, like the 2008 Wenchuan (China, Mw 7.9), 2010 Maule (Chile, Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku (Japan, Mw 9.0) earthquakes, are used in the analyses. The effect of response spectral shape is controlled for by selecting sets of short and long duration ground motions with similar response spectra, and by employing appropriate statistical tools to post-process the analysis results. Significant duration, Ds, is identified as the duration metric best suited for use in structural design and assessment, since it is amenable to incorporation in a vector intensity measure alongside the response spectrum, and is an efficient predictor of structural collapse capacity. Response spectral shape and duration are together shown to be capable of explaining around 80% to 85% of the variance in the collapse intensities of ground motions used to analyze 51 reinforced concrete moment frame buildings. Response spectral shape or duration alone, are capable of explaining a significantly smaller fraction of the variance in the collapse intensities. This highlights the need to explicitly consider both response spectra and duration in structural design and assessment, and indicates that the additional consideration of other ground motion characteristics is likely to produce diminishing returns. A procedure based on the generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) framework is developed to compute source-specific conditional probability distributions of the durations of the ground motions anticipated at a site. Commonly used ground motion databases-like the PEER NGA-West2 database-are currently dominated by short duration ground motions, since many more low and moderate magnitude earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.5) have been recorded in recent history than large magnitude interface earthquakes (Mw ~ 9.0). Selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database without explicitly considering duration is, therefore, shown to result in the unconservative underestimation of structural collapse risk at sites located near active subduction zones, that are susceptible to long duration ground motions from large magnitude interface earthquakes. For example, selecting records from the PEER NGA-West2 database to explicitly match only conditional spectrum targets, and not duration targets, is shown underestimate the mean annual frequency of collapse of an eight-story reinforced concrete moment frame building by 29% when located in Seattle (Washington) and 59% when located in Eugene (Oregon). A relatively small influence of duration is observed at San Francisco (California), which is likely to experience short to moderate duration ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes. The prevalent practice of implicitly accounting for duration using causal parameters like rupture mechanism, earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site Vs30, is shown to result in the selection of records that poorly match conditional spectrum and duration targets, thereby producing biased collapse risk estimates. Strategies are proposed to explicitly consider duration, in addition to response spectral shape, in the analysis procedures contained in the following standards for structural performance assessment and design: (i) the FEMA P-58 seismic performance assessment methodology; (ii) the FEMA P695 methodology to quantify seismic performance factors; and (iii) the ASCE 7-16 seismic design provisions. The effect of duration is incorporated in multiple stripe analysis (MSA) by selecting records to match duration targets, in addition to conditional spectrum targets, at each intensity level. A structural reliability framework incorporating response spectral shape (quantified by a scalar parameter called SaRatio) and duration (quantified by Ds), is developed to compute a hazard-consistent collapse fragility curve by post-processing the results of an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) conducted using a generic record set. The procedure first involves defining a failure surface by fitting a multiple linear regression model to the computed ground motion collapse intensities using SaRatio and Ds as predictors. The probability of collapse at an intensity level is then computed by integrating the site-specific target distributions of SaRatio and Ds conditional on that intensity level, over the failure domain. A simplified method is additionally developed to efficiently compute just the hazard-consistent median collapse capacity. The effects of response spectral shape and duration are incorporated in ASCE 7-16's equivalent lateral force procedure by developing site and structural system-specific adjustment factors for the design base shear. These adjustment factors are computed based on the site-specific conditional median SaRatio and Ds targets and the sensitivity of the structure to the effects of response spectral shape and duration. The use of these adjustment factors ensures a more uniform distribution of structural collapse risk over different geographical regions, and between different structural systems. Sample calculations indicate that a 1s reinforced concrete moment frame building in San Francisco would need to be designed to a base shear that is 43% higher than the value used in current practice to maintain parity with a similar structure designed at a reference site, chosen here to be Los Angeles (California). A similar structure in Eugene would need to be designed to a base shear that is 67% higher. ASCE 7-16's nonlinear response history analysis procedure requires analyzing structures at the risk-target maximum considered earthquake (MCER) intensity level, at which a significant effect of duration on peak story drift ratio is unlikely to be observed. Hence, the imposed acceptance criteria are unlikely to reliably capture the effect of duration. It is, therefore, recommended that the selected records be scaled to an MCER level modified by a duration adjustment factor, analogous to the one developed for the equivalent lateral load procedure. The explicit central difference time integration scheme is proposed as a robust and efficient alternative to commonly used implicit schemes, like the Newmark average acceleration scheme, which often suffer from numerical non-convergence issues when used to simulate the dynamic response of nonlinear structural models, especially when simulating response under long duration ground motions. Its robustness stems from its non-iterative nature, while its efficiency is a consequence of the requirement to factorize a linear combination of only the mass and damping matrices at each time step. The use of a constant damping matrix, therefore, ensures that the matrix factorization needs to be performed just once for the entire analysis. It is shown to be more efficient than implicit schemes when conducting IDA in parallel, despite the limit on the maximum time step imposed by its stability criterion. Its benefits are believed to outweigh a few additional steps involved during model creation, including the assignment of mass to all degrees of freedom. Finally, efficient parallel algorithms are developed to conduct MSA and IDA on multi-core computers and distributed parallel clusters, to enable the use of these otherwise computationally intensive analysis techniques in research and practice.
Book
1 electronic document (various pagings) : illustrations (some color).
  • Table of Contents: Introduction / On the Subject of Waves / Wave Motion and Propagation / Natural and Driven Frequencies / Synthesis and Spectrum Analysis / Final Thoughts.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9781681743288 20161003
This book is an introduction to wave dynamics as they apply to earthquakes, among the scariest, most unpredictable, and deadliest natural phenomena on Earth. Since studying seismic activity is essentially a study of wave dynamics, this text starts with a discussion of types and representations, including wave-generation mechanics, superposition, and spectral analysis. Simple harmonic motion is used to analyze the mechanisms of wave propagation, and driven and damped systems are used to model the decay rates of various modal frequencies in different media. Direct correlation to earthquakes in California, Mexico, and Japan is used to illustrate key issues, and actual data from an event in California is presented and analyzed. Our Earth is a dynamic and changing planet, and seismic activity is the result. Hundreds of waves at different frequencies, modes, and amplitudes travel through a variety of different media, from solid rock to molten metals. Each media responds differently to each mode; consequently the result is an enormously complicated dynamic behavior. Earthquakes should serve well as a complimentary text for an upper-school course covering waves and wave mechanics, including sound and acoustics and basic geology. The mathematical requirement includes trigonometry and series summations, which should be accessible to most upper-school and college students. Animation, sound files, and videos help illustrate major topics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9781681743288 20161003
Book
256 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
"A truly welcome and refreshing study that puts earthquake impact on history into a proper perspective" --Amos Nur, Emeritus Professor of Geophysics, Stanford University, California, and author of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God. Since antiquity, on every continent, human beings in search of attractive landscapes and economic prosperity have made a Faustian bargain with the risk of devastation by an earthquake. Today, around half of the world's largest cities - as many as sixty - lie in areas of major seismic activity. Many, such as Lisbon, Naples, San Francisco, Tehran and Tokyo, have been severely damaged or destroyed by earthquakes in the past. But throughout history, starting with ancient Jericho, Rome and Sparta, cities have proved to be extraordinarily resilient: only one, Port Royal in the Caribbean, was abandoned after an earthquake. Earth-Shattering Events seeks to understand exactly how humans and earthquakes have interacted, not only in the short term but also in the long perspective of history. In some cases, physical devastation has been followed by decline. But in others, the political and economic reverberations of earthquake disasters have presented opportunities for renewal. After its wholesale destruction in 1906, San Francisco went on to flourish, eventually giving birth to the high-tech industrial area on the San Andreas fault known as Silicon Valley. An earthquake in Caracas in 1812 triggered the creation of new nations in the liberation of South America from Spanish rule. Another in Tangshan in 1976 catalysed the transformation of China into the world's second largest economy. The growth of the scientific study of earthquakes is woven into this far-reaching history. It began with a series of earthquakes in England in 1750. Today, seismologists can monitor the vibration of the planet second by second and the movement of tectonic plates millimetre by millimetre. Yet, even in the 21st century, great earthquakes are still essentially 'acts of God', striking with much less warning than volcanoes, floods, hurricanes and even tornadoes and tsunamis.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780500518595 20160718
SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
Book
1 online resource (XIII, 488 p. 205 ill., 167 illus. in color.) : online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved inthe design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structureswhich comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used asverification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs andof commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civil<engineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved in the design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structures which comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used as verification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs and of commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civilengineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319252698 20160619
Book
1 online resource.
The primary objectives of this research are to develop an isolation system geared towards light frame structures, and to demonstrate that seismic isolation can be both economical and highly effective for light-frame residential construction. Experience from past earthquakes has shown that light frame residential houses in the United States typically pose a low collapse risk, but they are susceptible to damage that can lead to significant financial loss and displacement of residents. This dissertation develops a low-cost seismic isolation system that balances the tradeoffs between isolator displacement demands and base shear force demands through a high-friction sliding system. The isolation system consists of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sliders on a flat or an upward concave galvanized steel sliding surface, with a sliding coefficient of friction between 0.15 and 0.25 at the isolation interface. The inherent strength and low mass of light frame residential construction allows for a high-friction isolation system to effectively eliminate superstructure damage during even large earthquakes. Parametric studies show that high friction interfaces reduce isolation displacement demands. Isolator sliding material and component tests have been conducted to characterize velocity and pressure dependent interface friction properties of the sliding isolators. New data is provided on low-pressure (2 MPa to 7 MPa) friction coefficients for HDPE and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding on different finished steel surfaces. Proof-of-concept shaking table tests of a full-scale light framed isolated two-story house have been conducted. Results of these tests have (a) confirmed that the isolation system can effectively eliminate damage to the light frame superstructure under repeated severe earthquake ground shaking (b) validated nonlinear computer models to determine sliding isolator demands and superstructure force demands, and (c) demonstrated the constructability and economic practicality of the proposed details for the foundation and wood-framed first floor isolation platform. Numerous findings regarding the behavior of isolated light frame structures are reported herein. The superstructure of an isolated house has a dynamic response during shaking causing higher normalized forces in the superstructure than at the isolation level. Superstructure seismic coefficients are recommended to be 1.8 times the coefficient of friction in the flat sliding system, and 1.2 times the normalized isolation force (assuming rigid body response) in the dish system, to achieve a 20% probability of the induced forces greater than design forces at MCE intensity shaking. The inclusion of the vertical component of the ground motion is shown to not significantly affect isolation response in high friction sliding systems, however, there can be large increases in superstructure and isolator force demands. While using velocity and pressure-dependent friction models can affect the sliding isolation response of systems subjected to individual ground motions, Coulomb friction is found to be sufficient for response prediction when looking at a suite of records. The controlling design variable for seismic isolation systems is the peak isolation displacement. Typically, traditional isolation systems with low yield force and high restoring stiffness are assumed to have an effective period, based on the secant stiffness at the expected displacement. This period is used to infer the seismic displacement demands on the isolator, using the spectral displacements at the assumed period. For a high-friction low-restoring sliding system, the effective period is sensitive to the expected displacement. Additionally, these isolation systems accumulate displacement through ratcheting-type behavior, controlled by the friction properties of the isolation system, rather than exhibiting harmonic-type response as would an equivalent linear system with an effective period. Risk-based methods for determining isolation displacements rely on an assumed period of the isolation system as well. Using the conditional spectrum when scaling records to have the same spectral acceleration at the assumed period and matching the expected median and dispersion of spectral acceleration away from the assumed period results in large dispersion in isolation displacements because spectral ordinates, which are based on linear analysis, do not correspond to nonlinear isolation response. Alternative intensity measures that account for the aspects of the ground motion and sliding system that lead to large isolation displacements are required to make robust predictions of isolation displacements. A new ground motion intensity measure for high friction sliding systems is derived herein from closed-form solutions for the peak sliding displacement of a rigid block subjected to simple pulses. The new intensity measure is analogous to the extra incremental ground velocity of the pulse beyond what it would take to yield the system times the duration of the pulse and is termed the Effective Incremental Ground Velocity (EIGV). EIGV is effective for predicting peak sliding displacements for high friction systems because the large sliding excursion in high friction systems is typically similar in magnitude to the overall peak isolation displacement, which can be captured by a pulse intensity measure. A first generation set of ground motion prediction equations are offered for conducting probabilistic seismic hazard analysis using EIGV, which in term can be used to generate isolation displacement demand curves, better informing design decisions.
Book
1 online resource.
  • Cooperating Timber and Stone Antiseismic frames in Historic Structures of Greece
  • The Role of a Post-Byzantine Timber Roof Structure in the Seismic Behavior of a Masonry Building
  • The Case of a Unique Type of Timber-Roofed Basilicas in Cyprus (15th-19th century)
  • Historic Earthquake-Resistant Constructive Techniques Reinforced by Wooden Logs in Algeria
  • A Comparative Evaluation of the Results of Two Earthquakes: Istanbul and Lisbon Earthquake in 18th Century
  • Some Examples of Turkısh Houses Wıth Wooden Frame in the Seısmıc Zone Anatolıa
  • Traditional Timber Housing Structure in Zeyrek
  • Possible Precursors of Pombalino cage
  • Local Seismic Cultures: The use of timber frame structures in the South of Portugal
  • The use Of Wood With an Anti-Seismic Function in the Architecture of Palermo During the 18th Century.
This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance and is compatible with modern theoretical principles and conservation criteria. It is hoped that, by contributing to the knowledge of this construction technique, the book will help to promote conservation of this important component of Europe?s architectural heritage.
Book
1 online resource (ix, 573 pages) : illustrations (some color)
  • Part I. Introduction.- 1. An Introduction to Multi-Hazard Approaches to Civil Infrastructure Engineering.- Part II. Probabilistic Methods for Risk Analysis.- 2. Correlated Maps for Regional Multi-Hazard Analysis: Ideas for a Novel Approach.- 3. Supporting Life-Cycle Management of Bridges Through Multi-Hazard Reliability and Risk Assessment.- 4. Natural Hazard Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through Surrogate Modeling.- 5. Risk and decision-Making for Extreme Events: Climate Change and Terrorism.- Part III. Earthquakes.- 6. Progressive Collapse Simulation of Vulnerable Reinforced Concrete Buildings.- 7. Existing Buildings: The New Italian Provisions for Probabilistic Seismic Assessment.- 8. Multi-Hazard Multi-Objective Optimization of Building Systems with Isolated Floors Under Seismic and Wind Demands.- 9. Energy Efficiency and Disaster Resilience: a Common Approach.- Part IV. Fire, Blast, Shock and Impact.- 10. Fire Following Earthquake: Historical Events and Evaluation Framework.- 11. Progressive Collapse Resistance for Steel Building Frames: a Cascading Multi-Hazard Approach with Subsequent Fire.- 12. Innovative Strategies for Enhancing Fire Performance of FRP-Strengthened Concrete Structures.- 13. Experimental and Analysis Methods for Blast Mitigating Designs in Civil Infrastructure.- Part V. Wind Hazards.- 14. Woodframe Residential Buildings in Windstorms: Past Performance and New Directions.- 15. An Engineering-Based Catastrophe Model to Predict Tornado Damage.- 16. Performance-Based Hurricane Engineering: A Multi-Hazard Approach.- 17. Wall of Wind Research and Testing to Enhance Resilience of Civil Infrastructure to Hurricane Multi-Hazards.- Part VI. Geo-Hazards.- 18. Accounting for Unknown Unknowns in Managing Multi-Hazard Risks.- 19. Bayesian Risk Assessment of a Tsunamigenic Rockslide at Aknes Norway.- 20. Rock Moisture Dynamics, Preferential Fow, and the Stability of Hillside Slopes.- 21. Innovation in Instrumentation, Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Infrastructure.- Part VII. Societal Impact of Extreme Events.- 22. Theories of Risk Management and Multiple Hazards.- 23. Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Earthquake-Prone Cities.- 24. Disaster Resilience of Communities: The Role of the Built Environment.- 25. Digital Technologies, Complex Systems, and Extreme Events: Measuring Change in Policy Networks.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
This collection focuses on the development of novel approaches to address one of the most pressing challenges of civil engineering, namely the mitigation of natural hazards. Numerous engineering books to date have focused on, and illustrate considerable progress toward, mitigation of individual hazards (earthquakes, wind, and so forth.). The current volume addresses concerns related to overall safety, sustainability and resilience of the built environment when subject to multiple hazards: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake). The authors examine a range of specific topics including methodologies for vulnerability assessment of structures, new techniques to reduce the system demands through control systems; instrumentation, monitoring and condition assessment of structures and foundations; new techniques for repairing structures that have suffered damage during past events, or for structures that have been found in need of strengthening; development of new design provisions that consider multiple hazards, as well as questions from law and the humanities relevant to the management of natural and human-made hazards.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9783319297118 20160912
Book
1 online resource (139-149 ): digital, PDF file.
Subduction beneath the northernmost Andes in Colombia is complex. Based on seismicity distributions, multiple segments of slab appear to be subducting, and arc volcanism ceases north of 5° N. Here, we illuminate the subduction system through hypocentral relocations and Vp and Vs models resulting from the joint inversion of local body wave arrivals, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data. The simultaneous use of multiple data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in velocity models that have improved resolution at both shallower and deeper depths than would result from traditional travel time tomography alone. The relocated earthquake dataset and velocity model clearly indicate a tear in the Nazca slab at 5° N, corresponding to a 250-km shift in slab seismicity and the termination of arc volcanism. North of this tear, the slab is flat, and it comprises slabs of two sources: the Nazca and Caribbean plates. The Bucaramanga nest, a small region of among the most intense intermediate-depth seismicity globally, is associated with the boundary between these two plates and possibly with a zone of melting or elevated water content, based on reduced Vp and increased Vp/Vs. As a result, we also use relocated seismicity to identify two new faults in the South American plate, one related to plate convergence and one highlighted by induced seismicity.