Preface Section I. Foundations of Formative Assessment 1. An Introduction to Formative Assessment: History, Characteristics, and Challenges, Gregory J. Cizek 2. An Integrative Summary of the Research Literature and Implications for a New Theory of Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam 3. The Practical Implications of Educational Aims and Contexts for Formative Assessment, James McMillan Section II. Formative Assessment Methods and Practice 4. Peers as a Source of Formative Assessment, Keith J. Topping 5. Formative Assessment Applications of Culminating Demonstrations of Mastery, Jill Davidson and Jay Feldman 6. Students as the Definitive Source of Formative Assessment: Academic Self-Assessment and the Self-Regulation of Learning, Heidi L. Andrade 7. Formative Assessment: The Contribution of Benjamin S. Bloom, Thomas R. Guskey 8. Technology-Aided Formative Assessment of Learning: New Developments and Applications, Michael K. Russell 9. Formative Assessment, Motivation, and Science Learning, Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Erin Marie Furtak, Carlos Ayala, Yue Yin, and Richard J. Shavelson 10. Research and Strategies for Adapting Formative Assessment for Students with Special Needs, Stephen N. Elliott, Ryan J. Kettler, Peter A. Beddow, and Alexander Kurz 11. Research and Recommendations for Formative Assessment with English Language Learners, Jamal Abedi 12. Moment-by-moment Formative Assessment of Second Language Development: ESOL Professionals at Work, Carla Meskill 13. Formative Assessment Practices that Maximize Learning for Students At-Risk, Gerunda B. Hughes 14. Essential Formative Assessment Competencies for Teachers and School Leaders, Rick Stiggins 15. Research on Characteristics of Effective Professional Development Programs for Enhancing Educators' Skills in Formative Assessment, M. Christina Schneider and Bruce Randel Section III: Challenges and Future Directions for Formative Assessment 16. Mixing It Up: Combining Sources of Classroom Achievement Information for Formative and Summative Purposes, Susan M. Brookhart 17. Psychometric Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing Formative Assessment, Walter D. Way, Robert P. Dolan, and Paul Nichols 18. Strategies and Policies for Incorporating Formative Assessment into Comprehensive and Balanced State Assessment Systems, Doug A. Rindone and Duncan MacQuarrie 19. Keeping the Focus, Expanding the Vision, Maintaining the Balance: Preserving and Enhancing Formative Assessment in Nebraska, Chris W. Gallagher 20. Summing Up and Moving Forward: Key Challenges and Future Directions for Research and Development in Formative Assessment, Heidi L. Andrade About the Authors Author Index Subject Index.