Acknowledgments About the Authors 1. Introduction to the Achievement Gap and the "Literacy Gaps Model" Demographic Patterns Language Spoken and Socioeconomic Factors ELL Achievement Standard English Learners The National Literacy Panel The Literacy Gaps Model Overview of Book Chapters Summary 2. Decoding: Word Recognition Strategies and Fluency Introduction The Gap Between the Student and the Text Decoding and Readability of Text Decoding English Language Development Background Knowledge Summary 3. Background Knowledge and Experiences Schema Fit: Becoming a Text Participant Context: Becoming a Text User (Active Participant) Linkages: Becoming a Text Analyst (Reading Critically) Summary 4. Comprehension Comprehension Gap Academic Language Passage Comprehension Summary 5. English Language Development and Academic English Specialized Language Needs of ELLs Needs of Standard English Learners Academic Language Development Lesson Plan Summary 6. Perceptions and Expectations Were Called on Less Frequently and Were Provided Less Time to Respond Were Given the Answer Rather Than Helped to Solve the Problem Themselves Were Criticized More Often, and Praised Less Were Paid Less Positive Attention, but Disciplined More Strictly 7. Cultural Differences Connecting the Literacy Domains in Second Language Acquisition Parental Involvement and the Literacy Domains Culturally Responsive Teaching Comprehensive Education Multidimensional Approaches Empowerment Transformative Learning Emancipatory Education Summary 8. Socioeconomic Differences Implicit and Explicit Codes Discourse Patterns Interactional Styles Written Language Codes Resource Access Summary 9. Language Variables Academic Language Competence Summary 10. Grouping Strategies Micro Structures That Bridge Language Proficiency Gaps Macro Structures That Bridge Language Proficiency Gaps Summary 11. Beyond the Gap/Envisioning the Future The Literacy Gaps Model Summary Glossary Index.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
'The book makes a contribution to the education of English language learners. It provides practical instructional suggestions for teachers of both ELLs and SELs that are informed by a deep understanding of theories of second language and second dialect acquisition and the development of reading and writing proficiencies' - Guadalupe Valdes, Professor of Education, Stanford University. 'The concepts of gaps and bridges are clearly articulated up front and provide a well-structured theme that unites the various parts of the text. The use of this structure provides a logical and coherent mechanism for providing a complete picture of the problem - the literacy gap between ELs and native speakers - and a means for addressing this problem' - Kristina Anstrom, Senior Research Scientist, The George Washington University Center for Equity and Excellence in Education. This work helps to build bridges of support so English language learners can learn alongside their peers! English language learners (ELLs) and standard English learners (SELs) face multiple gaps as they strive to achieve, so educators need to take a holistic, comprehensive approach to bridge those gaps and meet the needs of ELLs and SELs in the classroom. Based on an original, well-researched framework, this much-needed resource provides practical strategies for supporting learning and success for ELLs. The authors provide strategies, examples, and classroom tools to address: the gap between students and texts: covering word recognition, background knowledge, comprehension, and academic language development; the gap between students and teachers: including socio-cultural differences between teachers and students, and teacher perceptions and expectations; and, the gap between students and their peers: discussing language proficiency differences, grouping strategies, and grade-level and schoolwide programmes. "The Literacy Gaps" helps educators give ELLs the skills they need to close the most important gap of all: the achievement gap. (source: Nielsen Book Data)