Dordrecht [Netherlands] ; New York : Springer, c2009.
xiii, 382 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Subtitle on cover: Scientific data extracted from historical documents
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Preface.- The Sun.- The Solar Structure.- The Photosphere.- Observing the Solar Surface.- The Chromosphere.- The Corona.- The Solar Wind.- 3-D Topology of the Magnetic Field.- Observing the Outer Layers.- Time Scales of Solar Variability.- Solar Terrestrial Relations.- Naked-eye Sunspots.- The Human Eye as a Detector of Light.- Visibility Criteria.- Naked-eye Sunspot Observations.- Naked-eye Sunspots and Temporal Evolution of Solar Activity.- Solar Drawings.- Pretelescopic Instruments.- The Invention of the Telescope.- First Telescopic Observations of Sunspots.- The Maunder Minimum.- The Rise of Solar Activity and the Dalton Minimum: 18th and 19th Centuries.- Sunspots Drawings in the Photography Era.- The First Granulation Drawings.- Sunspot Fine Structures.- Faculae.- White-light Flares.- The Outer Layers of the Sun.- The Influence of the Eye in Solar Drawings.- Physics from Drawings.- Modern Solar Drawings.- Solar Eclipses.- The Basics of Solar Eclipses.- Historical Solar Eclipse Observations.- Science Using Early Reports of Solar Eclipses.- The Solar Diameter and the Astronomical Unit.- The Earth's Orbit.- Measuring the Known World.- Observing Methods of Solar Diameter.- Theoretical Background.- Long-term Variations.- Planetary Transits.- Terrestrial Aurorae and Solar-Terrestrial Relations.- Auroral Physics in Brief.- Folklore, Omen and Myths.- Reports During the Last Two Millennia.- The Search for the Cause.- Catalogues of Aurorae Observations.- Aurorae and Secular Solar Activity.- Aurora and Great Space Weather Events.- Reconstruction of Solar Activity During the Telescopic Era.- Wolf's Reconstruction.- The Reconstruction by Hoyt and Schatten.- Improving and Finding Lost Observations.- Final Comments.- Index.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Today, the Sun is observed using different techniques that provide an almost instantaneous 3-D mapping of its structure. Of particular interest is the study of its variability characterised by the 11-year cycle. However, solar activity also varies on longer time scales, as has been attested through indirect methods as the number of sunspots and the records of cosmogenic isotopes, such as 14C and 10Be. The reconstruction of past solar activity may be also complemented by the study of historical accounts. In this book we will describe how these events can be used to obtain information on parameters as solar rotation (sunspot drawings), coronal structure (aurorae and total eclipses) and radius determinations (total eclipses). (source: Nielsen Book Data)