Includes bibliographical references (p. 343-459) and index.
Table of Contents List of Illustrations xi Acknowledgments xiii Introduction xv Historical Overview-Topics and Themes The American Environment and Native-European Encounters, 1000-1875 3 The Physical Environment and Natural Resources 3 Native Americans and the Land 4 Pueblo Indians and the Southwest 6 The Pueblo Indians and Spanish Settlement of the Southwest 9 Micmac Indians and French Settlement in the Northeast 11 Plains Indians and the Westward Movement 15 The European Transformation of the Plains 18 The Ecological Indian 21 Conclusion 22 The New England Wilderness Transformed, 1600-1850 24 The New England Forest and Indian Land Use 24 The Settlement of New England 26 Colonial Land Use 28 Marketing the Forest 29 The Forest Economy 32 Mind, Labor, and Nature 33 The Idea of Wilderness 34 Conclusion 37 The Tobacco and Cotton South, 1600-1900 39 The Chesapeake Environment and Indian-European Relations 39 Tobacco Cultivation 42 Slavery and Southern Agriculture 44 Rice and Slaves in the Low Country 46 Black Indians 49 Soil Depletion 50 The Cotton South 51 Environment and Society in the Cotton South 53 Cotton Production 55 Post-Civil War Sharecropping 56 The Impact of the Boll Weevil 57 Conclusion 60 Nature and the Market Economy, 1750-1850 62 The Inland Economy and the Environment 62 Land Use in the Inland Economy 64 The Inland Economy and the Worldview of Its People 65 Market Farming 67 The Transportation and Market Revolutions 68 Nature and Ambivalence About the Market Economy 72 African Americans and Wilderness 76 The Hudson River School of Painters 77 Artists and the Vanishing Indian 80 Conclusion 82 Western Frontiers: The Settlement of the Pacific Coast and the Great Plains, 1820-1930 85 Westward Expansion of the United States 85 California Native Peoples and the Advent of Europeans 86 The Russian Frontier in North America 87 California and the Gold Rush 89 Types of Gold Mining 92 Environmental Effects of Hydraulic Mining 94 Environmental Change in the Sierras 96 Salmon Extraction in the Pacific Northwest 97 European Settlement of the Great Plains 100 The Rancher's Frontier 102 The Farmer's Frontier 103 Narratives of Blacks and Women 105 The Dust Bowl of the 1930s 106 Conclusion 108 Urban Environments, 1850-1960 110 Urbanization 110 Industry and Energy 112 Industrial Cities and Labor 116 The City as Wilderness 118 Air Pollution 120 Garbage 122 Noise Pollution 123 Water Pollution 124 The Sanitary City 126 From City to Suburb 128 Minorities and Pollution 129 Conclusion 132 Conservation and Preservation, 1785-1950 134 Colonial Land Policy 134 Federal Land Policy 136 Land Law in the Arid West 138 Lands for Railroads and Education 140 The Conservation Movement 141 Reclamation and Water Law 144 The Preservation Movement 146 Creation of the National Parks 148 New Deal Conservation 153 Conclusion 155 Indian Land Policy, 1800-1990 157 Indian Land Treaties 157 Indian Removal 158 The Dawes Act 162 Indians and the Creation of the National Parks 162 Indian Removal from Yosemite and Yellowstone 163 Legal Maneuvers in Glacier and Mesa Verde 166 The Winters Decision 168 The Indian New Deal and Civil Rights 170 Indian Lands and Environmental Regulation 172 Conclusion 174 The Rise of Ecology, 1890-1990 177 Ernst Haeckel and the Origins of Ecology 177 Human Ecology 180 The Organismic Approach to Ecology 181 The Economic Approach to Ecology 185 The Influence of Chaos Theory 189 Conclusion 190 Environmentalism and Globalization, 1960-2005 193 From Conservation to Environmentalism 193 The Rise of Environmentalism 194 Population and the Environment 195 Environmental Regulation 196 Reactions to Environmental Regulation 199 Environmental Organizations 200 The Environmental Justice Movement 202 The Transformation of Consciousness 205 Globalization 206 Conclusion 209 American Environmental History A to Z-Agencies, Concepts, Laws, and People 211 Chronology-An Environmental History Timeline 267 Resource Guide 289 Visual Resources: Films and Videos 291 Electronic Resources 315 General Environmental History Resources 315 Environmental History Societies and Related Associations 316 Archival Materials 317 Bibliographies 317 Biographical Resources 318 Environmental Organizations and Information Centers 319 Environmental Philosophy and Ethics 320 Government Agencies 320 Natural History 321 Natural Resources 321 Regional Resources 322 Environmental Justice Resources 322 Teaching Resources 323 Course Syllabi in American Environmental History 324 General Environmental Education 324 Historical Overview Web Sites 325 Bibliographical Essay 331 Bibliography 343 What Is Environmental History? 343 Anthologies and Bibliographies 345 Biographies and Autobiographical Writings 347 African Americans and the Environment 353 American Indian Land Use 356 American Indian Religion 364 Asian Americans and the Environment 368 Environmental Philosophy and Landscape Perception 370 The Environmental Movement 378 The History of Ecology 382 The History of Environmental Science 384 Conservation History and Legislation 386 Agricultural History 392 Forest History 400 Mining History 415 Pollution 419 Range History 423 Religion and Environment 426 Urban Environments 428 Water and Irrigation History 434 Wilderness Preservation 443 Wildlife 449 Women and Environment 457 Index 461.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
By studying the many ways diverse peoples have changed, shaped, and conserved the natural world over time, environmental historians provide insight into humanity's unique relationship with nature and, more importantly, are better able to understand the origins of our current environmental crisis. Beginning with the precolonial land-use practice of Native Americans and concluding with our twenty-first century concerns over our global ecological crisis, "American Environmental History" addresses contentious issues such as the preservation of the wilderness, the expulsion of native peoples from national parks, and population growth, and considers the formative forces of gender, race, and class. Entries address a range of topics, from the impact of rice cultivation, slavery, and the growth of the automobile suburb to the effects of the Russian sea otter trade, Columbia River salmon fisheries, the environmental justice movement, and globalization.This illustrated reference is an essential companion for students interested in the ongoing transformation of the American landscape and the conflicts over its resources and conservation. It makes rich use of the tools and resources (climatic and geological data, court records, archaeological digs, and the writings of naturalists) that environmental historians rely on to conduct their research. The volume also includes a compendium of significant people, concepts, events, agencies, and legislation, and an extensive bibliography of critical films, books, and Web sites. (source: Nielsen Book Data)