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Physics and chemistry of interfaces / Hans-Jürgen Butt, Karlheinz Graf and Michael Kappl.

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Author/Creator:
Butt, Hans-Jürgen.
Language:
English.
Publication date:
2003
Imprint:
Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2003.
Format:
  • Book
  • xii, 361 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Contents:
  • Preface-- 1 Introduction-- 2 Liquid surfaces-- 2.1 Microscopic picture of the liquid surface-- 2.2 Surface tension-- 2.3 Equation of Young and Laplace-- 2.3.1 Curved liquid surfaces-- 2.3.2 Derivation of the Young-Laplace equation-- 2.3.3 Applying the Young-Laplace equation-- 2.4 Techniques to measure the surface tension-- 2.5 The Kelvin equation-- 2.6 Capillary condensation-- 2.7 Nucleation theory-- 2.8 Summary-- 2.9 Exercises-- 3 Thermodynamics of interfaces-- 3.1 The surface excess-- 3.2 Fundamental thermodynamic relations-- 3.2.1 Internal energy and Helmholtz energy-- 3.2.2 Equilibrium conditions-- 3.2.3 Location of the interface-- 3.2.4 Gibbs energy and definition of the surface tension-- 3.2.5 Free surface energy, interfacial enthalpy and Gibbs surface energy-- 3.3 The surface tension of pure liquids-- 3.4 Gibbs adsorption isotherm-- 3.4.1 Derivation-- 3.4.2 System of two components-- 3.4.3 Experimental aspects-- 3.4.4 The Marangoni effect-- 3.5 Summary-- 3.6 Exercises-- 4 The electric double layer-- 4.1 Introduction-- 4.2 Poisson-Boltzmann theory of the diffuse double layer-- 4.2.1 The Poisson-Boltzmann equation-- 4.2.2 Planar surfaces-- 4.2.3 The full one-dimensional case-- 4.2.4 The Grahame equation-- 4.2.5 Capacity of the diffuse electric double layer-- 4.3 Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann theory-- 4.3.1 Limitations of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory-- 4.3.2 The Stern layer-- 4.4 The Gibbs free energy of the electric double layer-- 4.5 Summary-- 4.6 Exercises-- 5 Effects at charged interfaces-- 5.1 Electrocapillarity-- 5.1.1 Theory-- 5.1.2 Measurement of electrocapillarity-- 5.2 Examples of charged surfaces-- 5.2.1 Mercury-- 5.2.2 Silver iodide-- 5.2.3 Oxides-- 5.2.4 Mica-- 5.2.5 Semiconductors-- 5.3 Measuring surface charge densities-- 5.3.1 Potentiometric colloid titration-- 5.3.2 Capacitances-- 5.4 Electrokinetic phenomena: The zeta potential-- 5.4.1 The Navier-Stokes equation-- 5.4.2 Electro-osmosis and streaming potential-- 5.4.3 Electrophoresis and sedimentation potential-- 5.5 Types of potentials-- 5.6 Summary-- 5.7 Exercises-- 6 Surface forces-- 6.1 Vander Waals forces between molecules-- 6.2 The van der Waals force between macroscopic solids-- 6.2.1 Microscopic approach-- 6.2.2 Macroscopic calculation Lifshitz theory-- 6.2.3 Surface energy and Hamaker constant-- 6.3 Concepts for the description of surface forces-- 6.3.1 The Derjaguin approximation-- 6.3.2 The disjoining pressure-- 6.4 Measurement of surface forces-- 6.5 The electrostatic double-layer force-- 6.5.1 General equations-- 6.5.2 Electrostatic interaction between two identical surfaces-- 6.5.3 The DLVO theory-- 6.6 Beyond DLVO theory-- 6.6.1 The solvation force and confined liquids-- 6.6.2 Non DLVO forces in an aqueous medium-- 6.7 Steric interaction-- 6.7.1 Properties of polymers-- 6.7.2 Force between polymer coated surfaces-- 6.8 Spherical particles in contact-- 6.9 Summary-- 6.10 Exercises-- 7 Contact angle phenomena and wetting-- 7.1 Young's equation-- 7.1.1 The contact angle-- 7.1.2 Derivation-- 7.1.3 The line tension-- 7.1.4 Complete wetting-- 7.2 Important wetting geometries-- 7.2.1 Capillary rise-- 7.2.2 Particles in the liquid-gas interface-- 7.2.3 Network of fibres-- 7.3 Measurement of the contact angle-- 7.3.1 Experimental methods-- 7.3.2 Hysteresis in contact angle measurements-- 7.3.3 Surface roughness and heterogeneity-- 7.4 Theoretical aspects of contact angle phenomena-- 7.5 Dynamics of wetting and dewetting-- 7.5.1 Wetting-- 7.5.2 Dewetting-- 7.6 Applications-- 7.6.1 Flotation-- 7.6.2 Detergency-- 7.6.3 Microfluidics-- 7.6.4 Adjustable wetting-- 7.7 Summary-- 7.8 Exercises-- 8 Solid surfaces-- 8.1 Introduction-- 8.2 Description of crystalline surfaces-- 8.2.1 The substrate structure-- 8.2.2 Surface relaxation and reconstruction-- 8.2.3 Description of adsorbate structures-- 8.3 Preparation of clean surfaces-- 8.4 Thermodynamics of solid surfaces-- 8.4.1 Surface stress and surface tension-- 8.4.2 Determination of the surface energy-- 8.4.3 Surface steps and defects-- 8.5 Solid-solid boundaries-- 8.6 Microscopy of solid surfaces-- 8.6.1 Optical microscopy-- 8.6.2 Electron microscopy-- 8.6.3 Scanning probe microscopy-- 8.7 Diffraction methods-- 8.7.1 Diffraction patterns of two-dimensional periodic structures-- 8.7.2 Diffraction with electrons, X-rays, and atoms-- 8.8 Spectroscopic methods-- 8.8.1 Spectroscopy using mainly inner electrons-- 8.8.2 Spectroscopy with outer electrons-- 8.8.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry-- 8.9 Summary-- 8.10 Exercises-- 9 Adsorption-- 9.1 Introduction-- 9.1.1 Definitions-- 9.1.2 The adsorption time-- 9.1.3 Classification of adsorption isotherms-- 9.1.4 Presentation of adsorption isotherms-- 9.2 Thermodynamics of adsorption-- 9.2.1 Heats of adsorption-- 9.2.2 Differential quantities of adsorption and experimental results-- 9.3 Adsorption models-- 9.3.1 The Langmuir adsorption isotherm-- 9.3.2 The Langmuir constant and the Gibbs energy of adsorption-- 9.3.3 Langmuir adsorption with lateral interactions-- 9.3.4 The BET adsorption isotherm-- 9.3.5 Adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces-- 9.3.6 The potential theory of Polanyi-- 9.4 Experimental aspects of adsorption from the gas phase-- 9.4.1 Measurement of adsorption isotherms-- 9.4.2 Procedures to measure the specific surface area-- 9.4.3 Adsorption on porous solids hysteresis-- 9.4.4 Special aspects of chemisorption-- 9.5 Adsorption from solution-- 9.6 Summary-- 9.7 Exercises-- 10 Surface modification-- 10.1 Introduction-- 10.2 Chemical vapor deposition-- 10.3 Soft matter deposition-- 10.3.1 Self-assembled monolayers-- 10.3.2 Physisorption of Polymers-- 10.3.3 Polymerization on surfaces-- 10.4 Etching techniques-- 10.5 Summary-- 10.6 Exercises-- 11 Friction, lubrication, and wear-- 11.1 Friction-- 11.1.1 Introduction-- 11.1.2 Amontons' and Coulomb's Law-- 11.1.3 Static, kinetic, and stick-slip friction-- 11.1.4 Rolling friction-- 11.1.5 Friction and adhesion-- 11.1.6 Experimental Aspects-- 11.1.7 Techniques to measure friction-- 11.1.8 Macroscopic friction-- 11.1.9 Microscopic friction-- 11.2 Lubrication-- 11.2.1 Hydrodynamic lubrication-- 11.2.2 Boundary lubrication-- 11.2.3 Thin film lubrication-- 11.2.4 Lubricants-- 11.3 Wear-- 11.4 Summary-- 11.5 Exercises-- 12 Surfactants, micelles, emulsions, and foams-- 12.1 Surfactants-- 12.2 Spherical micelles, cylinders, and bilayers-- 12.2.1 The critical micelle concentration-- 12.2.2 Influence of temperature-- 12.2.3 Thermodynamics of micellization-- 12.2.4 Structure of surfactant aggregates-- 12.2.5 Biological membranes-- 12.3 Macroemulsions-- 12.3.1 General properties-- 12.3.2 Formation-- 12.3.3 Stabilization-- 12.3.4 Evolution bandaging-- 12.3.5 Coalescence and demulsification-- 12.4 Microemulsions-- 12.4.1 Size of droplets-- 12.4.2 Elastic properties of surfactant films-- 12.4.3 Factors influencing the structure of microemulsions-- 12.5 Foams-- 12.5.1 Classification, application and formation-- 12.5.2 Structure of foams-- 12.5.3 Soap films-- 12.5.4 Evolution of foams-- 12.6 Summary-- 12.7 Exercises-- 13 Thin films on surfaces of liquids-- 13.1 Introduction-- 13.2 Phases of monomolecular films-- 13.3 Experimental techniques to study monolayers-- 13.3.1 Optical methods-- 13.3.2 X-ray reflection and diffraction-- 13.3.3 The surface potential-- 13.3.4 Surface elasticity and viscosity-- 13.4 Langmuir-Blodgett transfer-- 13.5 Thick films - spreading of one liquid on another-- 13.6 Summary-- 13.7 Exercises-- 14 Solutions to exercises-- Appendix-- A Analysis of diffraction patterns-- A.1 Diffraction at three dimensional crystals-- A.1.1 Bragg condition-- A.1.2 Laue condition-- A.1.3 The reciprocal lattice-- A.1.4 Ewald construction-- A.2 Diffraction at Surfaces-- A.3 Intensity of diffraction peaks-- B Symbols and abbreviations-- Bibliography-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Publisher's Summary:
Serving as a general introduction to surface and interface science, this book focuses on essential concepts rather than specific details, on intuitive understanding rather than learning facts. The text reflects the fact that the physics and chemistry of surfaces is a diverse field of research and shows this in its Interdisciplinary conceptual design. Once the most important techniques and methods have been introduced, readers will be able to apply simple models to their own scientific problems. Furthermore, manifold high-end technological applications from surface technology, biotechnology, or microelectronics illustrate the basic scientific treatment. The authors address advanced students of chemistry, physics, materials science, chemical engineering and related subjects with a basic knowledge of natural sciences and mathematics, since the mathematical calculations are thoroughly explained and made comprehensible for the reader. As such, non-specialists in surface science who want to learn more about this important subject will also benefit from the book.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Contributor:
Graf, Kh. (Karlheinz)
Kappl, Michael, 1963-
Subjects:
ISBN:
3527404139
9783527404131

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