Hazardous area classification in petroleum and chemical plants : a guide to mitigating risk
- Bahadori, Alireza, author.
- Boca Raton : CRC Press, 
- Copyright notice
- Physical description
- 1 online resource : text file, PDF
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
- Classification of Fires and Fire Hazard Properties Introduction Classification of Fires Fire Hazard Properties Classification of Hazards Classification of Occupancy Hazards Classification of Construction Fire Protection in Buildings Hazard of Contents Ramps Fire Resistance Basic Methods of Firefighting Principles of Fire Protection Extinguishing Methods Suggested Hazard Identification Hazard and Operability Studies References Further Readings Hazardous Area Classification Introduction The Basic Physical Principles and Definitions Area Classification Ventilation Equipment Protection Level Gas Explosion Protection Concepts for Electrical Equipment Repair Combustible Dusts Class-Division Schemes References Further Readings Layout and Spacing Introduction Layout in Oil, Gas, and Chemical Facilities Basic Considerations Plant Layout Layout of Control Room and Electrical Substation Firefighting Requirements Building Requirements Layout in Process Units Distances/Clearances Requirements for Storage Tanks Layout of LPG Facilities Equipment Layout and Spacing Layout of Piping Utility Layout and Spacing Off-Site Facilities Waste Treatment Facilities Emergency Shutdown System Blowdown Drums Fire Training Areas Tetraethyl Lead Blending Plants References Further Readings Fire Alarm Systems and Automatic Detectors Introduction Basic Principles Alarms and Status Indication for Plant Units Buildings, Warehouses' Fire Detection, and Control Panel Fire Detection System Gas Detection System Gas Detectors: Materials Gas Detector Tubes Marking Instruction Manual Principle of Operation, Combustible Gas Detectors Use of Portable and Transportable Combustible Gas- Detection Apparatuses Maintenance Routine Procedures and General Administrative Control Combination Explosive, Toxic, and Oxygen Deficiency or Excess Detectors (Portable and Transportable) Chemical Sensing Detectors and Tubes References Firefighting Sprinkler Systems Introduction Outline Design Interaction with Other Fire Protection Measures Buildings to Be Sprinkler-Protected Classification of Occupancies Types Wet Pipe Installations Alternate (Wet and Dry Pipe) Installations Dry Pipe Installations Preaction Installations Recycling Installations Tail-End Alternate Pipe and Tail-End Dry Pipe Extensions Deluge Installations Water Supplies Design Density and Assumed Maximum Area of Operation for Fully Hydraulically Calculated Installations Water Supply Pressure-Flow Characteristics and Velocity Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Coding Hazard to Personnel Outside Sprinklers for Protection against Exposure Fires Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems Further Readings Carbon Dioxide Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction Characteristics and Uses of Carbon Dioxide Use and Limitations System Components Types of Systems Package Systems (Kits) Total Flooding Systems Carbon Dioxide for Surface Fires Carbon Dioxide for Deep-Seated Fires Rates of Application Local Application Systems Manual Hose Reel Systems Standpipe Systems and Mobile Supply Storage Containers Discharge Nozzles Additional Requirements for All Systems Safety Requirements Further Readings Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction General Information and Requirements Powder Dry Chemical and Expellant Gas Supply General Design Principles Types of Systems Total Flooding Systems Local Application Systems Monitor and Hose Reel Systems Alarms and Indicators Safety Precautions Further Readings Foam Generating and Proportioning Systems Introduction Foams System Design Subsurface Foam Systems Semisubsurface Systems Pressure Storage of C and Lighter Hydrocarbons LNG and NGL Atmospheric Refrigerated Storage Tanks Foam Monitors and Handlines Foam Concentrate and Solution Foam Quality Dike Area Protection Water Supplies and Pumps Storage Foam Concentrate Pumps Hydrants Foam Concentrate Facilities Automatically Operated Systems Detection and Alarm Equipment Foam Spray Systems Discharge Rate Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems Local Application Systems Safety Hazards Wetting Agents Reduction of Soil Pollution by Reducing Foam Exploitation The Dynamic Extinguishing Strategy Sample Calculation of Foam Compound Requirement for a Depot/Terminal Brief Summary of Fire-Fighting Foam References Fire-Fighting and Fire Protection Facilities Introduction Fire Prevention Practices in Offshore Facilities Fire-Fighting Equipment Water Monitors (Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations) Water Deluge Pumps and Water Deluge Main Water Deluge Systems Automatic Sprinkler, Fire Detection, and Fire Alarm Systems for Fixed Offshore Installations Pressure Water-Spraying Systems Fire-Extinguishing Systems Storage of Gas Cylinders Fire Protection for Onshore Installations Water Supplies Bases for a Fire-Fighting Water System Water Tanks for Fire Protection Sample Calculation of Fire Water Flow Rate for Storage Tanks Fire Protection System, Inspection, and Testing References Glossary Appendices.
- (source: Nielsen Book Data)
- Publisher's Summary
- Due to an increase in the wide-range of chemicals in petrochemical processing industries, as well as frequency of use, there has been a steady rise in flammability problems and other hazards. Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants: A Guide to Mitigating Risk outlines the necessities of explosion protection in oil, gas and chemical industries, and discusses fire and occupancy hazards, extinguishing methods, hazard identification, and classification of materials. This book addresses these issues and concerns and presents a simple hazard identification system to help offset future problems. It offers information on the hazards of various materials and their level of severity as it relates to fire prevention, exposure, and control. The system provides an alerting signal and on-the-spot information to help protect lives in an industrial plant or storage location during fire emergencies. Understanding the hazard helps to ensure that the process equipment is properly selected, installed, and operated to provide a safe operating system. This text also includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements for fighting a fire, introduces various hazard identification systems. * Includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements needed to extinguish a fire * Introduces various hazard identification systems * Includes concepts for layout and spacing of equipment in process plants The book serves as resource for plant design engineers as well as plant protection and safety personnel in planning for effective firefighting operations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
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- Alireza Bahadori.
- Also available in print format.
- Available in another form
- Print version: 9781482206456 (hardback)