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Book
xx. 681 p., [32] p. of col. plates : ill.
  • 1. Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration for the needs of biomedical optics and biophonics / Igor Meglinski and Alexander Doronin
  • 2. Quantitative polarimetry for tissue characterization and diagnosis / David Layden, Nirmalya Ghosh and Alex Vitkin
  • 3. Spatial and temporal frequency domain tissue optical imaging / Amaan Mazhar ... [et al.]
  • 4. Multiphon microscopy and SHG / Riccardo Cicchi, Leonardo Sacconi and Francesco S. Pavone
  • 5. Optical coherence tomography : technical aspects / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 6. Speckle in optical coherence tomography / Andrea Curatolo ... [et al.]
  • 7. Optical coherence tomography and light-induced fluorescence : optical slicing plus biochemical probing / Jennifer Kehlet Barton
  • 8. Multi-modal tomography combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) / Chao-Wei Chen and Yu Chen
  • 9. Advances in blood flow imaging / Susan M. Daly and Martin J. Leahy
  • 10. Optical microangiography / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 11. High-speed photoacoustic tomography / Liang Song and Zijian Guo and Lihong V. Wang
  • 12. Optoacoustic molecular imaging : methods and applications / Adrian Taruttis and Vasilis Ntziachristos
  • 13. Multimodal microscopy for comprehensive tissue characterizations / Shuliang Jiao and Hao F. Zhang
  • 14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) / Yuhua Zhang ... [et al.]
  • 15. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal function at cellular resolution / Xin-Cheng Yao
  • 16. Isometric 3D imaging of cellular samples using optical projection tomographic microscopy / Ryan L. Coe ... [et al.]
  • 17. Tissue optical clearing / Dan Zhu, Qingming Luo and Valery V. Tuchin.
"This reference provides an overview of optical imaging and manipulation technologies in biophotonics, covering both basic and advanced optical imaging techniques. It reviews the principles and fundamentals of bioimaging and molecular imaging/manipulation techniques. It also presents an overview of instrumentation, basic algorithms, and data processing methods. Accessible to students and researchers, the book discusses a range of application areas, including established and newer methodologies in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biophysics, medicine, and pharmacology"-- Provided by publisher.
  • 1. Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration for the needs of biomedical optics and biophonics / Igor Meglinski and Alexander Doronin
  • 2. Quantitative polarimetry for tissue characterization and diagnosis / David Layden, Nirmalya Ghosh and Alex Vitkin
  • 3. Spatial and temporal frequency domain tissue optical imaging / Amaan Mazhar ... [et al.]
  • 4. Multiphon microscopy and SHG / Riccardo Cicchi, Leonardo Sacconi and Francesco S. Pavone
  • 5. Optical coherence tomography : technical aspects / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 6. Speckle in optical coherence tomography / Andrea Curatolo ... [et al.]
  • 7. Optical coherence tomography and light-induced fluorescence : optical slicing plus biochemical probing / Jennifer Kehlet Barton
  • 8. Multi-modal tomography combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) / Chao-Wei Chen and Yu Chen
  • 9. Advances in blood flow imaging / Susan M. Daly and Martin J. Leahy
  • 10. Optical microangiography / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 11. High-speed photoacoustic tomography / Liang Song and Zijian Guo and Lihong V. Wang
  • 12. Optoacoustic molecular imaging : methods and applications / Adrian Taruttis and Vasilis Ntziachristos
  • 13. Multimodal microscopy for comprehensive tissue characterizations / Shuliang Jiao and Hao F. Zhang
  • 14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) / Yuhua Zhang ... [et al.]
  • 15. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal function at cellular resolution / Xin-Cheng Yao
  • 16. Isometric 3D imaging of cellular samples using optical projection tomographic microscopy / Ryan L. Coe ... [et al.]
  • 17. Tissue optical clearing / Dan Zhu, Qingming Luo and Valery V. Tuchin.
"This reference provides an overview of optical imaging and manipulation technologies in biophotonics, covering both basic and advanced optical imaging techniques. It reviews the principles and fundamentals of bioimaging and molecular imaging/manipulation techniques. It also presents an overview of instrumentation, basic algorithms, and data processing methods. Accessible to students and researchers, the book discusses a range of application areas, including established and newer methodologies in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biophysics, medicine, and pharmacology"-- Provided by publisher.
Book
1 online resource.
Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions.
Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions.
Book
1 online resource (223 p.)
  • Front Cover; The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; Preface and Acknowledgments; 1 Introduction; Turtles Are Food, Pets, Lab Animals, and Majestic Creatures; Coccidia in Turtles: Perpetrators, Symptoms, and Disease; 2 Suborder Cryptodira, Hidden-Necked Turtles; Family Chelydridae, Snapping Turtles, 2 Genera, 4 Species; Genus Chelydra Schweigger, 1812 (3 Species); Eimeria chelydrae Ernst, Stewart, Sampson, & Fincher, 1969; Eimeria filamentifera Wacha & Christiansen, 1979a
  • Eimeria serpentina McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990bIsospora chelydrae McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990b; Genus Macrochelys Gray, 1856 (Monospecific); Eimeria harlani Upton, McAllister, & Trauth, 1992; Superfamily Testudinoidea; Family Emydidae, Pond, Box, Water Turtles, 11 Genera, 50 Species; Genus Chrysemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Eimeria chrysemydis Deeds & Jahn, 1939; Eimeria marginata (Deeds & Jahn, 1939) Pellérdy, 1974; Eimeria tetradacrutata Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828 (Monospecific); Genus Deirochelys Latreille, 1801 (Monospecific)
  • Genus Emydoidea Holbrook, 1838 (Monospecific)Genus Emys Duméril, 1805 (3 Species); Eimeria delagei (Labbé, 1893) Reichenow, 1921; Eimeria emydis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Eimeria gallaeciaensis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Genus Glyptemys Agassiz, 1857 (2 Species); Eimeria lecontei Upton, McAllister, & Garrett, 1995; Eimeria megalostiedae Wacha & Christiansen, 1974; Genus Graptemys Agassiz, 1857 (13 Species); Eimeria graptemydos Wacha & Christiansen, 1976
  • Eimeria juniataensis Pluto & Rothenbacher, 1976Eimeria pseudogeographica Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Malaclemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Genus Pseudemys Gray, 1856 (8 Species); Eimeria cooteri McAllister & Upton, 1989; Eimeria somervellensis McAllister & Upton, 1992; Eimeria texana McAllister & Upton, 1989b; Genus Terrapene Merrem, 1820 (4 Species); Eimeria carri Ernst & Forrester, 1973; Eimeria ornata McAllister & Upton, 1989a; Genus Trachemys Agassiz, 1857 (15 Species); Eimeria pseudemydis Lainson, 1968; Eimeria scriptae Sampson & Ernst, 1969
  • Eimeria stylosa McAllister & Upton, 1989bEimeria trachemydis McAllister & Upton, 1988; Family Testudinidae, Tortoises, 15 Genera, 57 Species; Genus Aldabrachelys Loveridge and Williams, 1957 (3 Species); Genus Astrochelys Gray, 1873 (2 Species); Genus Chelonoidis Fitzgerald, 1835 (13 Species); Eimeria amazonensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carajasensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carbonaria Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria geochelona Couch, Stone, Duszynski, Snell, & Snell, 1996
The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World is an invaluable resource for researchers in protozoology, coccidia, and parasitology, veterinary sciences, animal sciences, zoology, and biology. This first-of-its-kind work offers a taxonomic guide to apicomplexan parasites of turtles that enables easy parasite identification, with a summary of virtually everything known about the biology of each known parasite species. It is an important documentation of this specific area, useful to a broad base of readers, including researchers in biology, paras.
  • Front Cover; The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; Preface and Acknowledgments; 1 Introduction; Turtles Are Food, Pets, Lab Animals, and Majestic Creatures; Coccidia in Turtles: Perpetrators, Symptoms, and Disease; 2 Suborder Cryptodira, Hidden-Necked Turtles; Family Chelydridae, Snapping Turtles, 2 Genera, 4 Species; Genus Chelydra Schweigger, 1812 (3 Species); Eimeria chelydrae Ernst, Stewart, Sampson, & Fincher, 1969; Eimeria filamentifera Wacha & Christiansen, 1979a
  • Eimeria serpentina McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990bIsospora chelydrae McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990b; Genus Macrochelys Gray, 1856 (Monospecific); Eimeria harlani Upton, McAllister, & Trauth, 1992; Superfamily Testudinoidea; Family Emydidae, Pond, Box, Water Turtles, 11 Genera, 50 Species; Genus Chrysemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Eimeria chrysemydis Deeds & Jahn, 1939; Eimeria marginata (Deeds & Jahn, 1939) Pellérdy, 1974; Eimeria tetradacrutata Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828 (Monospecific); Genus Deirochelys Latreille, 1801 (Monospecific)
  • Genus Emydoidea Holbrook, 1838 (Monospecific)Genus Emys Duméril, 1805 (3 Species); Eimeria delagei (Labbé, 1893) Reichenow, 1921; Eimeria emydis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Eimeria gallaeciaensis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Genus Glyptemys Agassiz, 1857 (2 Species); Eimeria lecontei Upton, McAllister, & Garrett, 1995; Eimeria megalostiedae Wacha & Christiansen, 1974; Genus Graptemys Agassiz, 1857 (13 Species); Eimeria graptemydos Wacha & Christiansen, 1976
  • Eimeria juniataensis Pluto & Rothenbacher, 1976Eimeria pseudogeographica Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Malaclemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Genus Pseudemys Gray, 1856 (8 Species); Eimeria cooteri McAllister & Upton, 1989; Eimeria somervellensis McAllister & Upton, 1992; Eimeria texana McAllister & Upton, 1989b; Genus Terrapene Merrem, 1820 (4 Species); Eimeria carri Ernst & Forrester, 1973; Eimeria ornata McAllister & Upton, 1989a; Genus Trachemys Agassiz, 1857 (15 Species); Eimeria pseudemydis Lainson, 1968; Eimeria scriptae Sampson & Ernst, 1969
  • Eimeria stylosa McAllister & Upton, 1989bEimeria trachemydis McAllister & Upton, 1988; Family Testudinidae, Tortoises, 15 Genera, 57 Species; Genus Aldabrachelys Loveridge and Williams, 1957 (3 Species); Genus Astrochelys Gray, 1873 (2 Species); Genus Chelonoidis Fitzgerald, 1835 (13 Species); Eimeria amazonensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carajasensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carbonaria Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria geochelona Couch, Stone, Duszynski, Snell, & Snell, 1996
The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World is an invaluable resource for researchers in protozoology, coccidia, and parasitology, veterinary sciences, animal sciences, zoology, and biology. This first-of-its-kind work offers a taxonomic guide to apicomplexan parasites of turtles that enables easy parasite identification, with a summary of virtually everything known about the biology of each known parasite species. It is an important documentation of this specific area, useful to a broad base of readers, including researchers in biology, paras.
Book
online resource (xxvi, 965 pages)
  • Biomedical Informatics: The Science and the Pragmatics
  • Biomedical Data: Their Acquisition, Storage, and Use
  • Biomedical Decision Making: Probabilistic Clinical Reasoning
  • Cognitive Science and Biomedical Informatics
  • Computer Architectures for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Software Engineering for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Standards in Biomedical Informatics
  • Natural Language Processing in Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Biomedical Imaging Informatics
  • Ethics and Biomedical and Health Informatics: Users, Standards, and Outcomes
  • Evaluation of Biomedical and Health Information Resources
  • Electronic Health Record Systems
  • The Health Information Infrastructure
  • Management of Information in Health Care Organizations
  • Patient-Centered Care Systems
  • Public Health Informatics
  • Consumer Health Informatics and Personal Health Records
  • Telehealth
  • Patient Monitoring Systems
  • Imaging Systems in Radiology
  • Information Retrieval and Digital Libraries
  • Clinical Decision-Support Systems
  • Computers in Health Care Education
  • Bioinformatics
  • Translational Bioinformatics
  • Clinical Research Informatics
  • Health Information Technology Policy
  • The Future of Informatics in Biomedicine.
Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine meets the growing demand of practitioners, researchers, educators, and students for a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the field and the underlying scientific issues that sit at the intersection of biomedical science, patient care, public health, and information technology (IT). This 4th edition reflects the remarkable changes in both computing and health care that continue to occur and the exploding interest in the role that IT must play in care coordination and the melding of genomics with innovations in clinical practice and treatment. New chapters have been introduced on the health information infrastructure, consumer health informatics, telemedicine, translational bioinformatics, clinical research informatics, and health IT policy, while the others have all undergone extensive revisions, in many cases with new authors. The organization and philosophy are unchanged, focusing on the science of information and knowledge management and the role of computers and communications in modern biomedical research, health, and health care. Emphasizing the conceptual basis of the field rather than technical details, it provides an introduction and extensive bibliography so that readers can comprehend, assess, and utilize biomedical informatics and health IT. The volume focuses on easy-to-understand examples, a guide to additional literature, chapter summaries, and a comprehensive glossary with concise definitions of recurring terms for self-study or classroom use.
  • Biomedical Informatics: The Science and the Pragmatics
  • Biomedical Data: Their Acquisition, Storage, and Use
  • Biomedical Decision Making: Probabilistic Clinical Reasoning
  • Cognitive Science and Biomedical Informatics
  • Computer Architectures for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Software Engineering for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Standards in Biomedical Informatics
  • Natural Language Processing in Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Biomedical Imaging Informatics
  • Ethics and Biomedical and Health Informatics: Users, Standards, and Outcomes
  • Evaluation of Biomedical and Health Information Resources
  • Electronic Health Record Systems
  • The Health Information Infrastructure
  • Management of Information in Health Care Organizations
  • Patient-Centered Care Systems
  • Public Health Informatics
  • Consumer Health Informatics and Personal Health Records
  • Telehealth
  • Patient Monitoring Systems
  • Imaging Systems in Radiology
  • Information Retrieval and Digital Libraries
  • Clinical Decision-Support Systems
  • Computers in Health Care Education
  • Bioinformatics
  • Translational Bioinformatics
  • Clinical Research Informatics
  • Health Information Technology Policy
  • The Future of Informatics in Biomedicine.
Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine meets the growing demand of practitioners, researchers, educators, and students for a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the field and the underlying scientific issues that sit at the intersection of biomedical science, patient care, public health, and information technology (IT). This 4th edition reflects the remarkable changes in both computing and health care that continue to occur and the exploding interest in the role that IT must play in care coordination and the melding of genomics with innovations in clinical practice and treatment. New chapters have been introduced on the health information infrastructure, consumer health informatics, telemedicine, translational bioinformatics, clinical research informatics, and health IT policy, while the others have all undergone extensive revisions, in many cases with new authors. The organization and philosophy are unchanged, focusing on the science of information and knowledge management and the role of computers and communications in modern biomedical research, health, and health care. Emphasizing the conceptual basis of the field rather than technical details, it provides an introduction and extensive bibliography so that readers can comprehend, assess, and utilize biomedical informatics and health IT. The volume focuses on easy-to-understand examples, a guide to additional literature, chapter summaries, and a comprehensive glossary with concise definitions of recurring terms for self-study or classroom use.
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Book
1 PDF (xxi, 211 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 What is a system?
  • 1.1.1 Cause and effect
  • 1.1.2 The systems of engineering
  • 1.2 What is a signal?
  • 1.2.1 Signals in engineering
  • 1.2.2 Sensors
  • 1.3 System boundaries
  • 1.4 Design using signals and systems
  • 2. System types
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 conservative and non-conservative systems
  • 2.3 Open and closed systems
  • 2.4 Static and dynamic systems
  • 2.5 Continuous and discrete signals and systems
  • 2.6 Stable and unstable systems
  • 2.7 Time varying and time invariant systems
  • 2.8 Deterministic and non-deterministic systems
  • 2.9 Finite and infinite systems
  • 2.10 Linear and non-linear systems
  • 2.11 Stationary and non-stationary
  • 2.12 Memory and memoriless systems
  • 2.13 Time constants
  • 2.14 Conclusion
  • 2.15 Exercises
  • 3. System models
  • 3.1 What is a model
  • 3.2 Models using conservation
  • 3.2.1 Conservation of momentum
  • 3.2.2 Conservation of charge
  • 3.2.3 Conservation of mass
  • 3.2.4 Fluid mass and volume
  • 3.2.5 Conservation of energy
  • 3.2.6 Other models
  • 3.3 State and compartment models
  • 3.3.1 Volume balance
  • 3.3.2 Models of ion channels
  • 3.4 Reduction of a higher order equation
  • 3.5 Exercises
  • 4. Laplace transform
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Formal definitions
  • 4.2.1 Laplace transform
  • 4.2.2 Inverse Laplace transform
  • 4.3 Transform tables
  • 4.4 Four useful Laplace transforms
  • 4.4.1 The impulse
  • 4.4.The unit step
  • 4.4.3 The sinusoid
  • 4.4.4 The derivative
  • 4.5 From differential to algebraic equations
  • 4.6 From algebraic equations to a solution
  • 4.7 Other interesting applications
  • 4.7.1 The Fourier transform
  • 4.7.2 Non-time mapping
  • 4.8 The z-transform
  • 4.9 Exercises
  • 5. Block diagrams
  • 5.1 Block diagram of a pacemaker-defibrilator
  • 5.2 Parallel, series and junctions
  • 5.3 Transfer functions
  • 5.3.1 Reducing block diagrams
  • 5.3.2 Series connection reduction
  • 5.3.3 Parallel connection reduction
  • 5.3.4 Combining series and parallel
  • 5.4 Matlab, signals and systems
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6. Stability
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Stability and transfer function poles
  • 6.2.1 Finding poles and zeros
  • 6.2.2 Visualizing poles and zeros
  • 6.2.3 Relationship to stability in time
  • 6.3 The role of zeros
  • 6.4 Designing systems
  • 6.5 Matlab and stability
  • 6.6 Exercises
  • 7. Feedback
  • 7.1 Open and closed loop systems
  • 7.2 Feedback transfer functions
  • 7.3 Block diagram reductions
  • 7.4 Stability and feedback
  • 7.5 Feedforward
  • 7.6 Opening the loop
  • 7.7 Matlab and feedback
  • 7.8 Exercises
  • 8. System response
  • 8.1 Zero input and zero state response
  • 8.2 The impulse response
  • 8.2.1 A first order example
  • 8.2.2 A different first order example
  • 8.2.3 A second order example
  • 8.3 The step response
  • 8.3.1 The importance of the step response
  • 8.3.2 Comparing the step and impulse responses
  • 8.4 Quantifying a response
  • 8.4.1 Estimating a transfer function
  • 8.4.2 A generic second order system
  • 8.5 The sine response
  • 8.5.1 decibels
  • 8.5.2 The Bode plot
  • 8.5.3 The 3dB point
  • 8.6 Response to an arbitrary input
  • 8.6.1 Convolution
  • 8.6.2 Deconvolution
  • 8.7 Other applications
  • 8.7.1 Other useful test signals
  • 8.8 Matlab and system responses
  • 8.9 Exercises
  • 9. Control
  • 9.1 The generic control model
  • 9.2 Evaluating a controlled response
  • 9.2.1 Time domain evaluation
  • 9.2.2 Frequency domain evaluation
  • 9.3 On-off controllers
  • 9.4 PID controllers
  • 9.4.1 Proportional (P) control
  • 9.4.2 Proportional derivative (PD) controller
  • 9.4.3 Proportional integral (PI) controller
  • 9.4.4 Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
  • 9.4.5 Choosing constants
  • 9.4.6 Alternative formulation
  • 9.5 Example of a PID controlled system
  • 9.6 The problem of system delays
  • 9.7 Other controllers
  • 9.7.1 Lag-lead controllers
  • 9.8 Reverse engineering biological systems
  • 9.9 Matlab
  • 9.10 Exercises
  • 10. Time domain analysis
  • 10.1 Basic signal processing
  • 10.1.1 Average
  • 10.1.2 Signal power
  • 10.1.3 Variance and standard deviation
  • 10.1.4 Signal to noise ratio
  • 10.2 Correlations
  • 10.2.1 Cross-correlation
  • 10.2.2 Cross covariance
  • 10.2.3 Auto correlation
  • 10.3 Matlab
  • 10.4 Exercises
  • 11. Frequency domain analysis
  • 11.1 Comparing a signal to sinusoids
  • 11.1.1 Properties of sinusoids
  • 11.1.2 A problem with the cross-correlation
  • 11.2 The Fourier series
  • 11.3 The Fourier transform
  • 11.3.1 Power at a frequency
  • 11.3.2 Fourier transform properties
  • 11.3.3 The rectangle function
  • 11.3.4 Inverse Fourier transform
  • 11.4 The discrete Fourier transform
  • 11.4.1 Aliasing and the Nyquist rate
  • 11.4.2 The Nyquist rate and aliasing
  • 11.5 Matlab
  • 11.6 Exercises
  • 12. Filters
  • 12.1 Ideal filters
  • 12.1.1 Ideal filter phase shift
  • 12.1.2 The chirp signal
  • 12.2 Filters in reality
  • 12.2.1 Roll-off
  • 12.2.2 Ripples
  • 12.2.3 Phase shifts
  • 12.3 First and second order filters
  • 12.3.1 A first order filter
  • 12.3.2 A second order filter
  • 12.4 Higher order filters
  • 12.4.1 Butterworth
  • 12.4.2 Chebyshev
  • 12.4.3 Elliptical
  • 12.4.4 Bessel
  • 12.4.5 Filter evaluation
  • 12.4.6 High, bandpass and notch filter
  • 12.4.7 Electrical implementation
  • 12.5 Windowing in the time domain
  • 12.6 Matlab
  • 12.7 Exercises
  • A. Complex numbers
  • A.1 Introduction
  • A.2 The complex plane
  • A.3 Euler's identity
  • A.4 Mathematical operations
  • A.4.1 Addition and subtraction
  • A.4.2 Multiplication
  • A.4.3 Conjugation
  • B. Partial fraction expansion
  • C. Laplace transform table
  • D. Fourier transform table
  • Author's biography.
Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply them. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 What is a system?
  • 1.1.1 Cause and effect
  • 1.1.2 The systems of engineering
  • 1.2 What is a signal?
  • 1.2.1 Signals in engineering
  • 1.2.2 Sensors
  • 1.3 System boundaries
  • 1.4 Design using signals and systems
  • 2. System types
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 conservative and non-conservative systems
  • 2.3 Open and closed systems
  • 2.4 Static and dynamic systems
  • 2.5 Continuous and discrete signals and systems
  • 2.6 Stable and unstable systems
  • 2.7 Time varying and time invariant systems
  • 2.8 Deterministic and non-deterministic systems
  • 2.9 Finite and infinite systems
  • 2.10 Linear and non-linear systems
  • 2.11 Stationary and non-stationary
  • 2.12 Memory and memoriless systems
  • 2.13 Time constants
  • 2.14 Conclusion
  • 2.15 Exercises
  • 3. System models
  • 3.1 What is a model
  • 3.2 Models using conservation
  • 3.2.1 Conservation of momentum
  • 3.2.2 Conservation of charge
  • 3.2.3 Conservation of mass
  • 3.2.4 Fluid mass and volume
  • 3.2.5 Conservation of energy
  • 3.2.6 Other models
  • 3.3 State and compartment models
  • 3.3.1 Volume balance
  • 3.3.2 Models of ion channels
  • 3.4 Reduction of a higher order equation
  • 3.5 Exercises
  • 4. Laplace transform
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Formal definitions
  • 4.2.1 Laplace transform
  • 4.2.2 Inverse Laplace transform
  • 4.3 Transform tables
  • 4.4 Four useful Laplace transforms
  • 4.4.1 The impulse
  • 4.4.The unit step
  • 4.4.3 The sinusoid
  • 4.4.4 The derivative
  • 4.5 From differential to algebraic equations
  • 4.6 From algebraic equations to a solution
  • 4.7 Other interesting applications
  • 4.7.1 The Fourier transform
  • 4.7.2 Non-time mapping
  • 4.8 The z-transform
  • 4.9 Exercises
  • 5. Block diagrams
  • 5.1 Block diagram of a pacemaker-defibrilator
  • 5.2 Parallel, series and junctions
  • 5.3 Transfer functions
  • 5.3.1 Reducing block diagrams
  • 5.3.2 Series connection reduction
  • 5.3.3 Parallel connection reduction
  • 5.3.4 Combining series and parallel
  • 5.4 Matlab, signals and systems
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6. Stability
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Stability and transfer function poles
  • 6.2.1 Finding poles and zeros
  • 6.2.2 Visualizing poles and zeros
  • 6.2.3 Relationship to stability in time
  • 6.3 The role of zeros
  • 6.4 Designing systems
  • 6.5 Matlab and stability
  • 6.6 Exercises
  • 7. Feedback
  • 7.1 Open and closed loop systems
  • 7.2 Feedback transfer functions
  • 7.3 Block diagram reductions
  • 7.4 Stability and feedback
  • 7.5 Feedforward
  • 7.6 Opening the loop
  • 7.7 Matlab and feedback
  • 7.8 Exercises
  • 8. System response
  • 8.1 Zero input and zero state response
  • 8.2 The impulse response
  • 8.2.1 A first order example
  • 8.2.2 A different first order example
  • 8.2.3 A second order example
  • 8.3 The step response
  • 8.3.1 The importance of the step response
  • 8.3.2 Comparing the step and impulse responses
  • 8.4 Quantifying a response
  • 8.4.1 Estimating a transfer function
  • 8.4.2 A generic second order system
  • 8.5 The sine response
  • 8.5.1 decibels
  • 8.5.2 The Bode plot
  • 8.5.3 The 3dB point
  • 8.6 Response to an arbitrary input
  • 8.6.1 Convolution
  • 8.6.2 Deconvolution
  • 8.7 Other applications
  • 8.7.1 Other useful test signals
  • 8.8 Matlab and system responses
  • 8.9 Exercises
  • 9. Control
  • 9.1 The generic control model
  • 9.2 Evaluating a controlled response
  • 9.2.1 Time domain evaluation
  • 9.2.2 Frequency domain evaluation
  • 9.3 On-off controllers
  • 9.4 PID controllers
  • 9.4.1 Proportional (P) control
  • 9.4.2 Proportional derivative (PD) controller
  • 9.4.3 Proportional integral (PI) controller
  • 9.4.4 Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
  • 9.4.5 Choosing constants
  • 9.4.6 Alternative formulation
  • 9.5 Example of a PID controlled system
  • 9.6 The problem of system delays
  • 9.7 Other controllers
  • 9.7.1 Lag-lead controllers
  • 9.8 Reverse engineering biological systems
  • 9.9 Matlab
  • 9.10 Exercises
  • 10. Time domain analysis
  • 10.1 Basic signal processing
  • 10.1.1 Average
  • 10.1.2 Signal power
  • 10.1.3 Variance and standard deviation
  • 10.1.4 Signal to noise ratio
  • 10.2 Correlations
  • 10.2.1 Cross-correlation
  • 10.2.2 Cross covariance
  • 10.2.3 Auto correlation
  • 10.3 Matlab
  • 10.4 Exercises
  • 11. Frequency domain analysis
  • 11.1 Comparing a signal to sinusoids
  • 11.1.1 Properties of sinusoids
  • 11.1.2 A problem with the cross-correlation
  • 11.2 The Fourier series
  • 11.3 The Fourier transform
  • 11.3.1 Power at a frequency
  • 11.3.2 Fourier transform properties
  • 11.3.3 The rectangle function
  • 11.3.4 Inverse Fourier transform
  • 11.4 The discrete Fourier transform
  • 11.4.1 Aliasing and the Nyquist rate
  • 11.4.2 The Nyquist rate and aliasing
  • 11.5 Matlab
  • 11.6 Exercises
  • 12. Filters
  • 12.1 Ideal filters
  • 12.1.1 Ideal filter phase shift
  • 12.1.2 The chirp signal
  • 12.2 Filters in reality
  • 12.2.1 Roll-off
  • 12.2.2 Ripples
  • 12.2.3 Phase shifts
  • 12.3 First and second order filters
  • 12.3.1 A first order filter
  • 12.3.2 A second order filter
  • 12.4 Higher order filters
  • 12.4.1 Butterworth
  • 12.4.2 Chebyshev
  • 12.4.3 Elliptical
  • 12.4.4 Bessel
  • 12.4.5 Filter evaluation
  • 12.4.6 High, bandpass and notch filter
  • 12.4.7 Electrical implementation
  • 12.5 Windowing in the time domain
  • 12.6 Matlab
  • 12.7 Exercises
  • A. Complex numbers
  • A.1 Introduction
  • A.2 The complex plane
  • A.3 Euler's identity
  • A.4 Mathematical operations
  • A.4.1 Addition and subtraction
  • A.4.2 Multiplication
  • A.4.3 Conjugation
  • B. Partial fraction expansion
  • C. Laplace transform table
  • D. Fourier transform table
  • Author's biography.
Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply them. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them.
Book
online resource (xi, 462 pages) : illustrations
"The volume is intended as an introduction to the physical principles governing the main processes that occur in photosynthesis, with emphasis on the light reactions and electron transport chain. A unique feature of the photosynthetic apparatus is the fact that the molecular structures are known in detail for essentially all of its major components. The availability of this data has allowed their functions to be probed at a very fundamental level to discover the design principles that have guided evolution. Other volumes on photosynthesis have tended to focus on single components or on a specific set of biophysical techniques, and the authors' goal is to provide new researchers with an introduction to the overall field of photosynthesis. The book is divided into sections, each dealing with one of the main physical processes in photosynthetic energy conversion. Each section has several chapters each describing the role that a basic physical property, such as charge or spin, plays in governing the process being discussed. The chapters proceed in an orderly fashion from a quantum mechanical description of early processes on an ultrafast timescale to a classical treatment of electron transfer and catalysis on a biochemical timescale culminating in evolutionary principles on a geological timescale."--Publisher's website.
"The volume is intended as an introduction to the physical principles governing the main processes that occur in photosynthesis, with emphasis on the light reactions and electron transport chain. A unique feature of the photosynthetic apparatus is the fact that the molecular structures are known in detail for essentially all of its major components. The availability of this data has allowed their functions to be probed at a very fundamental level to discover the design principles that have guided evolution. Other volumes on photosynthesis have tended to focus on single components or on a specific set of biophysical techniques, and the authors' goal is to provide new researchers with an introduction to the overall field of photosynthesis. The book is divided into sections, each dealing with one of the main physical processes in photosynthetic energy conversion. Each section has several chapters each describing the role that a basic physical property, such as charge or spin, plays in governing the process being discussed. The chapters proceed in an orderly fashion from a quantum mechanical description of early processes on an ultrafast timescale to a classical treatment of electron transfer and catalysis on a biochemical timescale culminating in evolutionary principles on a geological timescale."--Publisher's website.
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Book
1 online resource (x, 494 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • Medical Informatics as a scientific discipline
  • Medical vocabulary, terminological resources, health information coding
  • The management and dissemination of knowledge in Healthcare
  • The representation of the patient data in the health information systems and the electronic medical record
  • Medical Image processing: principles, main applications and prospects
  • Augmented Medical Interventions : Surgetics and Robotics
  • Clinical diagnostic decision making support
  • Therapeutic decision making support
  • Medico-economic decision making support
  • Public health decision making
  • Security, legal and ethical aspects of computerized health data
  • Clinical Information Systems in hospitals
  • Shared medical records
  • Computerizing the medical office
  • Computerizing the dental office
  • Computerizing the pharmacy
  • The development of E-Health
  • Translational Medical Informatics
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics for Medical Informatics.
Over the years, medical informatics has matured into a true scientific discipline. Fundamental and applied aspects are now taught in various fields of health, including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and public health. Medical informatics is also often included in the curricula of many other disciplines, including the life sciences, engineering and economics. Medical informatics is a complex and rapidly changing discipline. Relatively few books have been published on the subject, and they rapidly become obsolete. This book is the fruit of a collaborative effort between authors teaching medical informatics in France and others who are conducting research in this field. In addition, an international perspective was pursued, as reflected in the inclusion of various developments and actions in both the USA and Europe. This book is divided into 18 chapters, all of which include learning objectives, recommendations for further reading, exercises and bibliographic references.
  • Medical Informatics as a scientific discipline
  • Medical vocabulary, terminological resources, health information coding
  • The management and dissemination of knowledge in Healthcare
  • The representation of the patient data in the health information systems and the electronic medical record
  • Medical Image processing: principles, main applications and prospects
  • Augmented Medical Interventions : Surgetics and Robotics
  • Clinical diagnostic decision making support
  • Therapeutic decision making support
  • Medico-economic decision making support
  • Public health decision making
  • Security, legal and ethical aspects of computerized health data
  • Clinical Information Systems in hospitals
  • Shared medical records
  • Computerizing the medical office
  • Computerizing the dental office
  • Computerizing the pharmacy
  • The development of E-Health
  • Translational Medical Informatics
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics for Medical Informatics.
Over the years, medical informatics has matured into a true scientific discipline. Fundamental and applied aspects are now taught in various fields of health, including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and public health. Medical informatics is also often included in the curricula of many other disciplines, including the life sciences, engineering and economics. Medical informatics is a complex and rapidly changing discipline. Relatively few books have been published on the subject, and they rapidly become obsolete. This book is the fruit of a collaborative effort between authors teaching medical informatics in France and others who are conducting research in this field. In addition, an international perspective was pursued, as reflected in the inclusion of various developments and actions in both the USA and Europe. This book is divided into 18 chapters, all of which include learning objectives, recommendations for further reading, exercises and bibliographic references.
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 260 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Interchanging geometry conventions in 3DEM: Mathematical context for the development of standards
  • Fully automated particle selection and verification in single-particle cryo-EM
  • Quantitative analysis in iterative classification schemes for cryo-EM applications
  • High-resolution cryo-EM structure of the Trypanosoma brucei ribosome of a case study
  • Computational methods for electron tomography of influenza virus
  • Reconstruction from microscopic projections with defocus-gradient and attenuation effects
  • Soft X-ray tomography imaging for biological samples
  • Using component trees to explore biological structures.
Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology. Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.
  • Interchanging geometry conventions in 3DEM: Mathematical context for the development of standards
  • Fully automated particle selection and verification in single-particle cryo-EM
  • Quantitative analysis in iterative classification schemes for cryo-EM applications
  • High-resolution cryo-EM structure of the Trypanosoma brucei ribosome of a case study
  • Computational methods for electron tomography of influenza virus
  • Reconstruction from microscopic projections with defocus-gradient and attenuation effects
  • Soft X-ray tomography imaging for biological samples
  • Using component trees to explore biological structures.
Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology. Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.
Book
1 online resource.
  • Molecular simulations: methodology
  • Molecular simulations: applications
  • Use of structural database or experimental information in modeling protein structure and dynamics
  • Applications of molecular quantum mechanics.
Since the second half of the 20th century machine computations have played a critical role in science and engineering. Computer-based techniques have become especially important in molecular biology, since they often represent the only viable way to gain insights into the behavior of a biological system as a whole. The complexity of biological systems, which usually needs to be analyzed on different time- and size-scales and with different levels of accuracy, requires the application of different approaches, ranging from comparative analysis of sequences and structural databases, to the analysis of networks of interdependence between cell components and processes, through coarse-grained modeling to atomically detailed simulations, and finally to molecular quantum mechanics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern computer-based techniques for computing the structure, properties and dynamics of biomolecules and biomolecular processes. The twenty-two chapters, written by scientists from all over the world, address the theory and practice of computer simulation techniques in the study of biological phenomena. The chapters are grouped into four thematic sections dealing with the following topics: the methodology of molecular simulations; applications of molecular simulations; bioinformatics methods and use of experimental information in molecular simulations; and selected applications of molecular quantum mechanics. The book includes an introductory chapter written by Harold A. Scheraga, one of the true pioneers in simulation studies of biomacromolecules.
  • Molecular simulations: methodology
  • Molecular simulations: applications
  • Use of structural database or experimental information in modeling protein structure and dynamics
  • Applications of molecular quantum mechanics.
Since the second half of the 20th century machine computations have played a critical role in science and engineering. Computer-based techniques have become especially important in molecular biology, since they often represent the only viable way to gain insights into the behavior of a biological system as a whole. The complexity of biological systems, which usually needs to be analyzed on different time- and size-scales and with different levels of accuracy, requires the application of different approaches, ranging from comparative analysis of sequences and structural databases, to the analysis of networks of interdependence between cell components and processes, through coarse-grained modeling to atomically detailed simulations, and finally to molecular quantum mechanics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern computer-based techniques for computing the structure, properties and dynamics of biomolecules and biomolecular processes. The twenty-two chapters, written by scientists from all over the world, address the theory and practice of computer simulation techniques in the study of biological phenomena. The chapters are grouped into four thematic sections dealing with the following topics: the methodology of molecular simulations; applications of molecular simulations; bioinformatics methods and use of experimental information in molecular simulations; and selected applications of molecular quantum mechanics. The book includes an introductory chapter written by Harold A. Scheraga, one of the true pioneers in simulation studies of biomacromolecules.
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 533 p.) : ill.
  • Half Title; Title Page; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Preface; 1 Introducing Computational Systems Biology; 1 Prologue; 2 Overview of the content; 3 Outlook; References; 2 Structural Systems Biology: Modeling Interactions and Networks for Systems Studies; 1 Introduction; 2 A brief history of structural bioinformatics; 3 Structural analysis of interaction data; 4 Other interaction types; 5 Systems biology applications; 6 New datasets-specific protein sites; 7 Current and future needs; 8 Concluding remarks; Acknowledgments; References
  • 3 Understanding Principles of the Dynamic Biochemical Networks of Life Through Systems Biology1 Principles based on topology of the genome-wide metabolic network: limited numbers of possible flux patterns; 2 Principles based on topology of the genome-wide metabolic network: toward personalized medicine; 3 Industrially relevant applications of topology and objective-based modeling; 4 Applications of topology and objective-based modeling to cancer research and drug discovery; 5 Principles of control; 6 Principles of regulation; 7 Regulation versus control
  • 8 Robustness and fragility and application to the cell cycle9 Perfect adaptation and integral control in metabolism; Acknowledgments; References; 4 Biological Foundations of Signal Transduction, Systems Biology and Aberrations in Disease; 1 Introduction; 2 Concepts in signal transduction; 2.1 The cell-structural organization; 2.2 Principles of signal transduction-signal transmission from the cell surface to the nucleus; 2.2.1 Phosphorylation; 2.2.2 Complex formation; 2.2.3 Proteolytic cleavage and degradation; 2.2.4 Second messenger; 2.2.5 MicroRNA
  • 2.3 Signaling pathways-formation of networks2.3.1 Cell surface receptors; 2.3.2 Intracellular signaling; 3 Mathematical modeling of signaling pathways; 3.1 Modeling approaches; 3.2 Signaling pathways model: parameter estimation and ode-model analysis; 3.3 Challenges for performing kinetic measurements on large scale; 4 Conclusion; References; 5 Complexities in Quantitative Systems Analysis of Signaling Networks; 1 Introduction; 2 Requirements for a quantitative systems analysis of signaling networks; 2.1 Identification and quantification of components
  • 2.1.1 Absolute protein abundances in whole cells2.1.2 Subcellular localization; 2.1.3 Posttranslational modifications; 2.2 Connectivity, binding constants, information processing, and feedback control; 2.2.1 Protein interactions; 2.2.2 Binding affinities; 2.2.3 Directionality; 2.2.4 Feedback loops; 2.3 Quantification of protein activation and cellular localization changes over time; 2.3.1 Phosphoproteomics; 2.3.2 Single cell analysis; 2.3.3 Spatial signaling through compartmentalization; 2.3.4 Spatial signaling through scaffolds
This comprehensively revised second edition of Computational Systems Biology discusses the experimental and theoretical foundations of the function of biological systems at the molecular, cellular or organismal level over temporal and spatial scales, as systems biology advances to provide clinical solutions to complex medical problems. In particular the work focuses on the engineering of biological systems and network modeling.Logical information flow aids understanding of basic building blocks of life through disease phenotypesEvolved principles gives insight i.
  • Half Title; Title Page; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Preface; 1 Introducing Computational Systems Biology; 1 Prologue; 2 Overview of the content; 3 Outlook; References; 2 Structural Systems Biology: Modeling Interactions and Networks for Systems Studies; 1 Introduction; 2 A brief history of structural bioinformatics; 3 Structural analysis of interaction data; 4 Other interaction types; 5 Systems biology applications; 6 New datasets-specific protein sites; 7 Current and future needs; 8 Concluding remarks; Acknowledgments; References
  • 3 Understanding Principles of the Dynamic Biochemical Networks of Life Through Systems Biology1 Principles based on topology of the genome-wide metabolic network: limited numbers of possible flux patterns; 2 Principles based on topology of the genome-wide metabolic network: toward personalized medicine; 3 Industrially relevant applications of topology and objective-based modeling; 4 Applications of topology and objective-based modeling to cancer research and drug discovery; 5 Principles of control; 6 Principles of regulation; 7 Regulation versus control
  • 8 Robustness and fragility and application to the cell cycle9 Perfect adaptation and integral control in metabolism; Acknowledgments; References; 4 Biological Foundations of Signal Transduction, Systems Biology and Aberrations in Disease; 1 Introduction; 2 Concepts in signal transduction; 2.1 The cell-structural organization; 2.2 Principles of signal transduction-signal transmission from the cell surface to the nucleus; 2.2.1 Phosphorylation; 2.2.2 Complex formation; 2.2.3 Proteolytic cleavage and degradation; 2.2.4 Second messenger; 2.2.5 MicroRNA
  • 2.3 Signaling pathways-formation of networks2.3.1 Cell surface receptors; 2.3.2 Intracellular signaling; 3 Mathematical modeling of signaling pathways; 3.1 Modeling approaches; 3.2 Signaling pathways model: parameter estimation and ode-model analysis; 3.3 Challenges for performing kinetic measurements on large scale; 4 Conclusion; References; 5 Complexities in Quantitative Systems Analysis of Signaling Networks; 1 Introduction; 2 Requirements for a quantitative systems analysis of signaling networks; 2.1 Identification and quantification of components
  • 2.1.1 Absolute protein abundances in whole cells2.1.2 Subcellular localization; 2.1.3 Posttranslational modifications; 2.2 Connectivity, binding constants, information processing, and feedback control; 2.2.1 Protein interactions; 2.2.2 Binding affinities; 2.2.3 Directionality; 2.2.4 Feedback loops; 2.3 Quantification of protein activation and cellular localization changes over time; 2.3.1 Phosphoproteomics; 2.3.2 Single cell analysis; 2.3.3 Spatial signaling through compartmentalization; 2.3.4 Spatial signaling through scaffolds
This comprehensively revised second edition of Computational Systems Biology discusses the experimental and theoretical foundations of the function of biological systems at the molecular, cellular or organismal level over temporal and spatial scales, as systems biology advances to provide clinical solutions to complex medical problems. In particular the work focuses on the engineering of biological systems and network modeling.Logical information flow aids understanding of basic building blocks of life through disease phenotypesEvolved principles gives insight i.
Book
1 online resource (XL, 422 p.)
  • Cover; Related Titles; Title Page; Copyright; List of Contributors; Introduction and Preface; Reference; Abbreviations; Chapter 1: Real-Time and Continuous Sensors of Protein Kinase Activity Utilizing Chelation-Enhanced Fluorescence; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 The Biological Problem; 1.3 The Chemical Approach; 1.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 1.5 Conclusions; References; Chapter 2: FLiK and FLiP: Direct Binding Assays for the Identification of Stabilizers of Inactive Kinase and Phosphatase Conformations; 2.1 Introduction
  • The Biological Problem; 2.2 The Chemical Approach
  • 2.3 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation2.4 Conclusions; References; Chapter 3: Strategies for Designing Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibitors and Their Intracellular Activation; 3.1 Introduction
  • The Biological Problem; 3.2 The Chemical Approach; 3.3 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 3.4 Conclusions; References; Chapter 4: Design and Application of Chemical Probes for Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatase Activation; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 The Biological Problem; 4.3 The Chemical Approach; 4.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 4.5 Conclusion; References
  • 7.5 ConclusionsReferences; Chapter 8: Development of Acyl Protein Thioesterase 1 (APT1) Inhibitor Palmostatin B That Revert Unregulated H/N-Ras Signaling; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 The Biological Problem
  • The Role of APT1 in Ras Signaling; 8.3 The Chemical Approach; 8.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 8.5 Conclusions; References; Chapter 9: Functional Analysis of Host-Pathogen Posttranslational Modification Crosstalk of Rab Proteins; 9.1 Introduction; 9.2 The Biological Problem; 9.3 The Chemical Approach; 9.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 9.5 Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 10: Chemical Biology Approach to Suppression of Statin-Induced Muscle Toxicity10.1 Introduction; 10.2 The Biological Problem; 10.3 The Chemical Approach; 10.4 Chemical Biology Research/Evaluation; 10.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 11: A Target Identification System Based on MorphoBase, ChemProteoBase, and Photo-Cross-Linking Beads; 11.1 Introduction; 11.2 The Biological Problem; 11.3 Chemical Approaches; 11.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 11.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 12: Activity-Based Proteasome Profiling in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology
  • Chapter 5: Autophagy: Assays and Small-Molecule Modulators5.1 Introduction; 5.2 The Biological Problem; 5.3 The Chemical Approach; 5.4 Chemical Biological Evaluation; 5.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 6: Elucidation of Protein Function by Chemical Modification; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 The Biological Problem; 6.3 The Chemical Approach; 6.4 Biological Research/Evaluation; 6.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Inhibition of Oncogenic K-Ras Signaling by Targeting K-Ras-PDEδ Interaction; 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 The Biological Problem; 7.3 The Chemical Approach; 7.4 Chemical Biological Evaluation
Retaining the proven didactic concept of the successful ""Chemical Biology - Learning Through Case Studies"", this sequel features 27 new case studies, reflecting the rapid growth in this interdisciplinary topic over the past few years. Edited by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, this textbook introduces students and researchers to the modern approaches in chemical biology, as well as important results, and the techniques and methods applied. Each chapter presents a different biological problem taken from everyday lab work, elucidated by an international team of renowned.
  • Cover; Related Titles; Title Page; Copyright; List of Contributors; Introduction and Preface; Reference; Abbreviations; Chapter 1: Real-Time and Continuous Sensors of Protein Kinase Activity Utilizing Chelation-Enhanced Fluorescence; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 The Biological Problem; 1.3 The Chemical Approach; 1.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 1.5 Conclusions; References; Chapter 2: FLiK and FLiP: Direct Binding Assays for the Identification of Stabilizers of Inactive Kinase and Phosphatase Conformations; 2.1 Introduction
  • The Biological Problem; 2.2 The Chemical Approach
  • 2.3 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation2.4 Conclusions; References; Chapter 3: Strategies for Designing Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibitors and Their Intracellular Activation; 3.1 Introduction
  • The Biological Problem; 3.2 The Chemical Approach; 3.3 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 3.4 Conclusions; References; Chapter 4: Design and Application of Chemical Probes for Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatase Activation; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 The Biological Problem; 4.3 The Chemical Approach; 4.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 4.5 Conclusion; References
  • 7.5 ConclusionsReferences; Chapter 8: Development of Acyl Protein Thioesterase 1 (APT1) Inhibitor Palmostatin B That Revert Unregulated H/N-Ras Signaling; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 The Biological Problem
  • The Role of APT1 in Ras Signaling; 8.3 The Chemical Approach; 8.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 8.5 Conclusions; References; Chapter 9: Functional Analysis of Host-Pathogen Posttranslational Modification Crosstalk of Rab Proteins; 9.1 Introduction; 9.2 The Biological Problem; 9.3 The Chemical Approach; 9.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 9.5 Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 10: Chemical Biology Approach to Suppression of Statin-Induced Muscle Toxicity10.1 Introduction; 10.2 The Biological Problem; 10.3 The Chemical Approach; 10.4 Chemical Biology Research/Evaluation; 10.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 11: A Target Identification System Based on MorphoBase, ChemProteoBase, and Photo-Cross-Linking Beads; 11.1 Introduction; 11.2 The Biological Problem; 11.3 Chemical Approaches; 11.4 Chemical Biological Research/Evaluation; 11.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 12: Activity-Based Proteasome Profiling in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology
  • Chapter 5: Autophagy: Assays and Small-Molecule Modulators5.1 Introduction; 5.2 The Biological Problem; 5.3 The Chemical Approach; 5.4 Chemical Biological Evaluation; 5.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 6: Elucidation of Protein Function by Chemical Modification; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 The Biological Problem; 6.3 The Chemical Approach; 6.4 Biological Research/Evaluation; 6.5 Conclusion; References; Chapter 7: Inhibition of Oncogenic K-Ras Signaling by Targeting K-Ras-PDEδ Interaction; 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 The Biological Problem; 7.3 The Chemical Approach; 7.4 Chemical Biological Evaluation
Retaining the proven didactic concept of the successful ""Chemical Biology - Learning Through Case Studies"", this sequel features 27 new case studies, reflecting the rapid growth in this interdisciplinary topic over the past few years. Edited by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, this textbook introduces students and researchers to the modern approaches in chemical biology, as well as important results, and the techniques and methods applied. Each chapter presents a different biological problem taken from everyday lab work, elucidated by an international team of renowned.
Book
xvii, 514 p. : ill. (some col.)
  • 1. Teaching guide
  • 2. Cancer and somatic evolution
  • 3. Mathematical modeling of tumorigenesis
  • 4. Single species growth
  • 5. Two-species competition dynamics
  • 6. Competition between genetically stable and unstable cells
  • 7. Chromosomal instability and tumor growth
  • 8. Angiogenesis, inhibitors, promoters, and spatial growth
  • 9. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation through oncogenes: the gain-of-function model
  • 10. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation through tumor-suppressor genes: the loss-of-function model and stochastic tunneling
  • 11. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability in sporadic and familial colorectal cancers
  • 12. Evolutionary dynamics in hierarchical populations
  • 13. Spatial evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation
  • 14. Complex tumor dynamics in space
  • 15. Stochastic modeling of cancer growth, treatment, and resistance generation
  • 16. Evolutionary dynamics of drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia
  • 17. Evolutionary dynamics of stem-cell driven tumor growth
  • 18. Tumor growth kinetics and disease progression
  • 19. Epigenetic changes and the rate of DNA methylation
  • 20. Telomeres and cancer protection
  • 21. Gene therapy and oncolytic virus therapy
  • 22. Immune responses, tumor growth, and therapy
  • 23. Towards higher complexities: social interactions.
The book aims to provide an introduction to mathematical models that describe the dynamics of tumor growth and the evolution of tumor cells. It can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, and also serves as a reference book for researchers. The book has a strong evolutionary component and reflects the viewpoint that cancer can be understood rationally through a combination of mathematical and biological tools. It can be used both by mathematicians and biologists. Mathematically, the book starts with relatively simple ordinary differential equation models, and subsequently explores more complex stochastic and spatial models. Biologically, the book starts with explorations of the basic dynamics of tumor growth, including competitive interactions among cells, and subsequently moves on to the evolutionary dynamics of cancer cells, including scenarios of cancer initiation, progression, and treatment. The book finishes with a discussion of advanced topics, which describe how some of the mathematical concepts can be used to gain insights into a variety of questions, such as epigenetics, telomeres, gene therapy, and social interactions of cancer cells.
  • 1. Teaching guide
  • 2. Cancer and somatic evolution
  • 3. Mathematical modeling of tumorigenesis
  • 4. Single species growth
  • 5. Two-species competition dynamics
  • 6. Competition between genetically stable and unstable cells
  • 7. Chromosomal instability and tumor growth
  • 8. Angiogenesis, inhibitors, promoters, and spatial growth
  • 9. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation through oncogenes: the gain-of-function model
  • 10. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation through tumor-suppressor genes: the loss-of-function model and stochastic tunneling
  • 11. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability in sporadic and familial colorectal cancers
  • 12. Evolutionary dynamics in hierarchical populations
  • 13. Spatial evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation
  • 14. Complex tumor dynamics in space
  • 15. Stochastic modeling of cancer growth, treatment, and resistance generation
  • 16. Evolutionary dynamics of drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia
  • 17. Evolutionary dynamics of stem-cell driven tumor growth
  • 18. Tumor growth kinetics and disease progression
  • 19. Epigenetic changes and the rate of DNA methylation
  • 20. Telomeres and cancer protection
  • 21. Gene therapy and oncolytic virus therapy
  • 22. Immune responses, tumor growth, and therapy
  • 23. Towards higher complexities: social interactions.
The book aims to provide an introduction to mathematical models that describe the dynamics of tumor growth and the evolution of tumor cells. It can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, and also serves as a reference book for researchers. The book has a strong evolutionary component and reflects the viewpoint that cancer can be understood rationally through a combination of mathematical and biological tools. It can be used both by mathematicians and biologists. Mathematically, the book starts with relatively simple ordinary differential equation models, and subsequently explores more complex stochastic and spatial models. Biologically, the book starts with explorations of the basic dynamics of tumor growth, including competitive interactions among cells, and subsequently moves on to the evolutionary dynamics of cancer cells, including scenarios of cancer initiation, progression, and treatment. The book finishes with a discussion of advanced topics, which describe how some of the mathematical concepts can be used to gain insights into a variety of questions, such as epigenetics, telomeres, gene therapy, and social interactions of cancer cells.
Book
66 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
Book
43 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Book
1 online resource (ix, 170 pages) : ill.
  • A Short History of Birth Defect Epidemiology
  • Genetic and Non-genetic Factors in the Origin of Congenital Malformations
  • Ascertainment of Children with Congenital Malformations
  • Statistical Considerations
  • Epidemiological Methods
  • Neural Tube Defects
  • Microcephaly
  • Hydrocephaly
  • Agenesis of Corpus Callosum and Holoprosencephaly
  • Severe Eye Malformations
  • Severe Ear Malformations
  • Cardiovascular Defects
  • Orofacial Clefts
  • Atresia or Stenosis of the Alimentary Tract
  • Pyloric Stenosis
  • Malrotation of the Gut
  • Megacolon
  • Hypospadias
  • Epispadias, Cloacal and Bladder Exstrophy
  • Severe Renal Malformations
  • Posterior Urethral Valve
  • Pes Equinovarus
  • Other Foot Deformities than Pes Equinovarus
  • Polydactyly and Syndactyly
  • Limb Reduction Defects
  • Craniostenosis
  • Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Abdominal Wall Defects
  • Children with multiple malformations
  • Syndromes
  • Down Syndrome
  • Explanation and Prevention of Birth Defects
  • Eight Commandments: Rules for the Interpretation of Birth Defect Epidemiological Studies.
Authored by Bengt Kallen, professor emeritus in embryology at Lund University in Sweden. The subject of this book is to describe the occurrence of congenital malformations among children born and what risk factors exist. Population data are presented for a number of malformations, ascertained with the use of data from the Swedish national health registers for the period 1998-2010 corresponding to some 1.3 million births, together with prospectively collected information on a group of exposures of possible interest.
  • A Short History of Birth Defect Epidemiology
  • Genetic and Non-genetic Factors in the Origin of Congenital Malformations
  • Ascertainment of Children with Congenital Malformations
  • Statistical Considerations
  • Epidemiological Methods
  • Neural Tube Defects
  • Microcephaly
  • Hydrocephaly
  • Agenesis of Corpus Callosum and Holoprosencephaly
  • Severe Eye Malformations
  • Severe Ear Malformations
  • Cardiovascular Defects
  • Orofacial Clefts
  • Atresia or Stenosis of the Alimentary Tract
  • Pyloric Stenosis
  • Malrotation of the Gut
  • Megacolon
  • Hypospadias
  • Epispadias, Cloacal and Bladder Exstrophy
  • Severe Renal Malformations
  • Posterior Urethral Valve
  • Pes Equinovarus
  • Other Foot Deformities than Pes Equinovarus
  • Polydactyly and Syndactyly
  • Limb Reduction Defects
  • Craniostenosis
  • Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Abdominal Wall Defects
  • Children with multiple malformations
  • Syndromes
  • Down Syndrome
  • Explanation and Prevention of Birth Defects
  • Eight Commandments: Rules for the Interpretation of Birth Defect Epidemiological Studies.
Authored by Bengt Kallen, professor emeritus in embryology at Lund University in Sweden. The subject of this book is to describe the occurrence of congenital malformations among children born and what risk factors exist. Population data are presented for a number of malformations, ascertained with the use of data from the Swedish national health registers for the period 1998-2010 corresponding to some 1.3 million births, together with prospectively collected information on a group of exposures of possible interest.
Book
140 p. ; 21x28 cm
  • Avant-propos et remerciements
  • Liste des acronymes
  • Résumé exécutif
  • Évaluation et recommandations
  • Les enjeux d'une crue majeure de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Les enjeux de gouvernance pour la prévention des risques d'inondations de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Accroître la résilience de l'Île-de-France par la prévention du risque d'inondation
  • Financer l'accroissement de la résilience de l'Île-de-France face aux inondations de la Seine
  • Liste des acteurs interviewés
  • Questionnaires envoyés aux parties prenantes
  • Un modèle d'équilibre général pour analyser les effets d'une inondation de la Seine
  • Annexe technique.
Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.
  • Avant-propos et remerciements
  • Liste des acronymes
  • Résumé exécutif
  • Évaluation et recommandations
  • Les enjeux d'une crue majeure de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Les enjeux de gouvernance pour la prévention des risques d'inondations de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Accroître la résilience de l'Île-de-France par la prévention du risque d'inondation
  • Financer l'accroissement de la résilience de l'Île-de-France face aux inondations de la Seine
  • Liste des acteurs interviewés
  • Questionnaires envoyés aux parties prenantes
  • Un modèle d'équilibre général pour analyser les effets d'une inondation de la Seine
  • Annexe technique.
Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.
Book
256 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
Book
1 online resource (248 pages)
  • Front Cover; Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization; Copyright Page; Contents; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. The Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology and the Health Sciences; 2. Evolution and Pathology; 2.1 Pathogens and Pathologies May Have Adaptive and/or Evolutionary Importance; 2.2 Evolution vs. Pathology Paradox of Mutations; 3. The Widespread Occurrence of Tumors in Multicellular Organisms; 3.1 Comparative Oncological Data on the Prevalence of Tumors in Different Groups of Multicellular Organisms.
  • 3.2 Ancient Origin and Conservatism of Cellular Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes3.3 The Widespread Occurrence of Tumors Suggests that They May Be Evolutionarily Meaningful; 4. Features of Tumors that Could Be Used in Evolution; 4.1 Unusual Genes and Gene Sets are Activated in Tumors and may Participate in the Origin of New Cell Types; 4.2 Tumor Cells Can Differentiate with the Loss of Malignancy that may Lead to the Origin of New Cell Types; 4.3 Tumors Provide Excessive Cell Masses Functionally Unnecessary to the Organism that Could be used for the Origin of New ...
  • 4.4 Tumors as Atypical Organs/Tissues that may Eventually Evolve into Normal Structures4.4.1 Morphogenetic Potential of Tumors May Be Used in the Origin of Morphological Novelties and Diversity; 5. Tumors Might Participate in the Evolution of Ontogenesis; 5.1 Tumors and Normal Embryogenesis; 5.2 Tumors as Disease of Differentiation; 5.3 The Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Occurs in Normal and Neoplastic Development; 5.4 Tumors, Evo-Devo and Addition of Final Stages in the Evolution of Ontogenesis.
  • 5.5 The Human Brain, as the Most Recently Evolved Organ, Recapitulates Many Features Resembling those of Tumors5.5.1 The Expansion of Brain Size During Mammalian and Primate Evolution Involved Many Protooncogenes and Tumor Suppressor ... ; 5.5.2 Human Cerebral Cortex as a Result of Selection for Tumor Growth; 5.5.3 Brain Enlargement, Microcephaly Genes and Tumors; 5.5.3.1 MCPH1 is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Interrelated with the other Tumor Suppressor, BRCA1; 5.5.3.2 ASPM is a Major Determinant of Human Cerebral Cortical Size, and is Overexpressed in Tumors and Testis.
  • 5.5.4 Long-Term Neural Stem Cell Expansion Leads to Brain Tumors5.6 The Eutherian Placenta is Evolutionary Innovation and Recapitulates Many Tumor Features; 6. Tumors that Might Play a Role in Evolution; 6.1 Hereditary Tumors; 6.2 Fetal, Neonatal and Infantile Tumors; 6.3 Benign Tumors, Carcinomas in situ and Pseudodiseases; 6.4 Tumors at the Early and Intermediate Stages of Progression; 6.5 Tumors that Spontaneously Regress; 6.6 Sustainable Tumor Masses; 7. Tumors that have Played a Role in Evolution; 7.1 The Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules of Legumes.
Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization explores the possibility of the positive role of tumors in evolution of multicellular organisms. This unique perspective goes beyond recent publications on how evolution may influence tumors, to consider the possible role of tumors in evolution. Widespread in nature tumors represent a much broader category than malignant tumors only. The majority of tumors in humans and other animals may never undergo malignant transformation. Tumors may differentiate with the loss of malignancy, and malignant tumors may spontaneously regress. Cellular o.
  • Front Cover; Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization; Copyright Page; Contents; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. The Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology and the Health Sciences; 2. Evolution and Pathology; 2.1 Pathogens and Pathologies May Have Adaptive and/or Evolutionary Importance; 2.2 Evolution vs. Pathology Paradox of Mutations; 3. The Widespread Occurrence of Tumors in Multicellular Organisms; 3.1 Comparative Oncological Data on the Prevalence of Tumors in Different Groups of Multicellular Organisms.
  • 3.2 Ancient Origin and Conservatism of Cellular Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes3.3 The Widespread Occurrence of Tumors Suggests that They May Be Evolutionarily Meaningful; 4. Features of Tumors that Could Be Used in Evolution; 4.1 Unusual Genes and Gene Sets are Activated in Tumors and may Participate in the Origin of New Cell Types; 4.2 Tumor Cells Can Differentiate with the Loss of Malignancy that may Lead to the Origin of New Cell Types; 4.3 Tumors Provide Excessive Cell Masses Functionally Unnecessary to the Organism that Could be used for the Origin of New ...
  • 4.4 Tumors as Atypical Organs/Tissues that may Eventually Evolve into Normal Structures4.4.1 Morphogenetic Potential of Tumors May Be Used in the Origin of Morphological Novelties and Diversity; 5. Tumors Might Participate in the Evolution of Ontogenesis; 5.1 Tumors and Normal Embryogenesis; 5.2 Tumors as Disease of Differentiation; 5.3 The Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Occurs in Normal and Neoplastic Development; 5.4 Tumors, Evo-Devo and Addition of Final Stages in the Evolution of Ontogenesis.
  • 5.5 The Human Brain, as the Most Recently Evolved Organ, Recapitulates Many Features Resembling those of Tumors5.5.1 The Expansion of Brain Size During Mammalian and Primate Evolution Involved Many Protooncogenes and Tumor Suppressor ... ; 5.5.2 Human Cerebral Cortex as a Result of Selection for Tumor Growth; 5.5.3 Brain Enlargement, Microcephaly Genes and Tumors; 5.5.3.1 MCPH1 is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Interrelated with the other Tumor Suppressor, BRCA1; 5.5.3.2 ASPM is a Major Determinant of Human Cerebral Cortical Size, and is Overexpressed in Tumors and Testis.
  • 5.5.4 Long-Term Neural Stem Cell Expansion Leads to Brain Tumors5.6 The Eutherian Placenta is Evolutionary Innovation and Recapitulates Many Tumor Features; 6. Tumors that Might Play a Role in Evolution; 6.1 Hereditary Tumors; 6.2 Fetal, Neonatal and Infantile Tumors; 6.3 Benign Tumors, Carcinomas in situ and Pseudodiseases; 6.4 Tumors at the Early and Intermediate Stages of Progression; 6.5 Tumors that Spontaneously Regress; 6.6 Sustainable Tumor Masses; 7. Tumors that have Played a Role in Evolution; 7.1 The Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules of Legumes.
Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization explores the possibility of the positive role of tumors in evolution of multicellular organisms. This unique perspective goes beyond recent publications on how evolution may influence tumors, to consider the possible role of tumors in evolution. Widespread in nature tumors represent a much broader category than malignant tumors only. The majority of tumors in humans and other animals may never undergo malignant transformation. Tumors may differentiate with the loss of malignancy, and malignant tumors may spontaneously regress. Cellular o.
Book
1 online resource (211 p.)
  • Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Adaptation
  • Competition
  • Genetics Basics & Mutations
  • Transposable Elements, Viruses, and Genomes
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer
  • Neutral Evolution
  • Genetic Drift
  • Environment
  • Development
  • Symbiosis
  • Speciation
  • Micro- and Macroevolution
  • Homology
  • Imperfection
  • The Fossil Record and the History of Life
  • Contingency and Evolution
  • Opportunity
  • Phylogeny:The Tree of Life
  • Progress-Purpose?
Evolution: Components and Mechanisms introduces the many recent discoveries and insights that have added to the discipline of organic evolution, and combines them with the key topics needed to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of evolution. Each chapter covers an important topic or factor pertinent to a modern understanding of evolutionary theory, allowing easy access to particular topics for either study or review. Many chapters are cross-referenced. Modern evolutionary theory has expanded significantly within only the past two to three decades.
  • Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Adaptation
  • Competition
  • Genetics Basics & Mutations
  • Transposable Elements, Viruses, and Genomes
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer
  • Neutral Evolution
  • Genetic Drift
  • Environment
  • Development
  • Symbiosis
  • Speciation
  • Micro- and Macroevolution
  • Homology
  • Imperfection
  • The Fossil Record and the History of Life
  • Contingency and Evolution
  • Opportunity
  • Phylogeny:The Tree of Life
  • Progress-Purpose?
Evolution: Components and Mechanisms introduces the many recent discoveries and insights that have added to the discipline of organic evolution, and combines them with the key topics needed to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of evolution. Each chapter covers an important topic or factor pertinent to a modern understanding of evolutionary theory, allowing easy access to particular topics for either study or review. Many chapters are cross-referenced. Modern evolutionary theory has expanded significantly within only the past two to three decades.
Book
1 online resource (125 p.)
  • Front Cover; Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeasts; Copyright Page; Contents; Acknowledgments; Introduction; 1 Structure and Occurrence of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 1.1 The Structures of Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeast; 1.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids; 1.1.2 Mannosylerythritol Lipids; 1.1.3 Sophorolipids; 1.2 Glycolipid Occurrence in Eumycetes; 2 Methods for Studying Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 2.1 Culture Media and Methods for Increasing the Yield of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 2.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids; 2.1.2 Mannosylerythritol Lipid; 2.1.3 Sophorolipids
  • 2.1.4 Yeast Glycolipid Production in Low-Cost Media2.2 Purification Methods; 2.3 Thin-Layer Chromatography Systems for Glycolipid Detection; 2.4 Chemical Methods; 2.5 NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; 2.6 Methods for Studying Physicochemical Properties and Antifungal and Membrane-Damaging Activities; 2.7 Molecular Biology Methods; 3 Physicochemical Properties of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 3.1 Solubility; 3.2 Stability During Storage and thermal Stability; 3.3 Molecular Masses; 3.4 Surface-Active Properties; 3.5 Lactonization and Self-Assembly
  • 3.6 Interaction Between Cellobiose Lipids and Artificial Membranes4 Biological Activities of Extracellular Yeast Glycolipids; 4.1 Antifungal Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.1.1 Discovery of Antifungal Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.1.2 The Spectrum of Cellobiose Lipid Antimicrobial Activity; 4.1.3 Antifungal Activities of Natural Cellobiose Lipids and Their Synthetic Derivatives; 4.2 Membrane-Damaging Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.3 Biological Activities of MELs and Sophorolipids; 4.4 The Biological Activities of Rare Fungal Glycolipids
  • 4.5 The Role of Extracellular Glycolipid for Yeast Producers5 Metabolism of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 5.1 Biosynthesis of Extracellular Glycolipids; 5.1.1 Biosynthesis of MEL; 5.1.2 Biosynthesis of Cellobiose Lipids; 5.1.3 Biosynthesis of Sophorolipids; 5.2 Catabolism of Extracellular Glycolipids; 6 Prospects of Practical Application of Sophorolipids, Cellobiose Lipids, and MELs; 6.1 Application as Membranotropic Agents; 6.2 Prospects of Application of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids in Industry, Agriculture, and Medicine
  • 6.3 Commercial Products Based on Yeast Extracellular GlycolipidsAppendix: Selected Techniques of Purification and Assay of Extracellular Yeast Glycolipids; A.1 Methods for Cultivating Producers and Obtaining Glycolipids; A.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids of Various Yeast Strains (Kulakovskaya et al., 2004, 2005, 2009); A.1.2 Cellobiose Lipids of Cr. humicola (Morita et al., 2011a); A.1.3 Cellobiose Lipid Flocculosin (Mimee et al., 2009a, b); A.1.4 Sophorolipids of Rh. bogoriensis (Cutler and Light, 1979); A.1.5 Sophorolipids of St. bombicola (Konishi et al., 2008)
Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeasts: Biodiversity, Biochemistry, and Prospects provides a comprehensive view of the biochemistry, biological activity, and practical application of extracellular glycolipids of yeast. This book brings much-needed clarity to the complex topic of glycolipids and streamlines the rather confusing terminology used for glycolipids. It also provides a wealth of modern data on their composition, structure and properties, biosynthetic pathways, methods of isolation and identification, antifungal activity, and mechanisms of action.
  • Front Cover; Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeasts; Copyright Page; Contents; Acknowledgments; Introduction; 1 Structure and Occurrence of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 1.1 The Structures of Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeast; 1.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids; 1.1.2 Mannosylerythritol Lipids; 1.1.3 Sophorolipids; 1.2 Glycolipid Occurrence in Eumycetes; 2 Methods for Studying Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 2.1 Culture Media and Methods for Increasing the Yield of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 2.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids; 2.1.2 Mannosylerythritol Lipid; 2.1.3 Sophorolipids
  • 2.1.4 Yeast Glycolipid Production in Low-Cost Media2.2 Purification Methods; 2.3 Thin-Layer Chromatography Systems for Glycolipid Detection; 2.4 Chemical Methods; 2.5 NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; 2.6 Methods for Studying Physicochemical Properties and Antifungal and Membrane-Damaging Activities; 2.7 Molecular Biology Methods; 3 Physicochemical Properties of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 3.1 Solubility; 3.2 Stability During Storage and thermal Stability; 3.3 Molecular Masses; 3.4 Surface-Active Properties; 3.5 Lactonization and Self-Assembly
  • 3.6 Interaction Between Cellobiose Lipids and Artificial Membranes4 Biological Activities of Extracellular Yeast Glycolipids; 4.1 Antifungal Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.1.1 Discovery of Antifungal Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.1.2 The Spectrum of Cellobiose Lipid Antimicrobial Activity; 4.1.3 Antifungal Activities of Natural Cellobiose Lipids and Their Synthetic Derivatives; 4.2 Membrane-Damaging Activity of Cellobiose Lipids; 4.3 Biological Activities of MELs and Sophorolipids; 4.4 The Biological Activities of Rare Fungal Glycolipids
  • 4.5 The Role of Extracellular Glycolipid for Yeast Producers5 Metabolism of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids; 5.1 Biosynthesis of Extracellular Glycolipids; 5.1.1 Biosynthesis of MEL; 5.1.2 Biosynthesis of Cellobiose Lipids; 5.1.3 Biosynthesis of Sophorolipids; 5.2 Catabolism of Extracellular Glycolipids; 6 Prospects of Practical Application of Sophorolipids, Cellobiose Lipids, and MELs; 6.1 Application as Membranotropic Agents; 6.2 Prospects of Application of Yeast Extracellular Glycolipids in Industry, Agriculture, and Medicine
  • 6.3 Commercial Products Based on Yeast Extracellular GlycolipidsAppendix: Selected Techniques of Purification and Assay of Extracellular Yeast Glycolipids; A.1 Methods for Cultivating Producers and Obtaining Glycolipids; A.1.1 Cellobiose Lipids of Various Yeast Strains (Kulakovskaya et al., 2004, 2005, 2009); A.1.2 Cellobiose Lipids of Cr. humicola (Morita et al., 2011a); A.1.3 Cellobiose Lipid Flocculosin (Mimee et al., 2009a, b); A.1.4 Sophorolipids of Rh. bogoriensis (Cutler and Light, 1979); A.1.5 Sophorolipids of St. bombicola (Konishi et al., 2008)
Extracellular Glycolipids of Yeasts: Biodiversity, Biochemistry, and Prospects provides a comprehensive view of the biochemistry, biological activity, and practical application of extracellular glycolipids of yeast. This book brings much-needed clarity to the complex topic of glycolipids and streamlines the rather confusing terminology used for glycolipids. It also provides a wealth of modern data on their composition, structure and properties, biosynthetic pathways, methods of isolation and identification, antifungal activity, and mechanisms of action.