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Book
4 p.
This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP is of the opinion that, while the Council Act allows "outsourcing" of inspection functions, this should be the exception rather than the rule and should be used only as an interim solution and primarily by new GLP compliance monitoring programmes.  
This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP is of the opinion that, while the Council Act allows "outsourcing" of inspection functions, this should be the exception rather than the rule and should be used only as an interim solution and primarily by new GLP compliance monitoring programmes.  
Book
1 online resource (44 p.)
This paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced moisture tends to reduce local urban incomes. Finally, the paper shows that climate induces employment changes within the rural sector itself. Drier conditions induce a shift out of farm activities, especially for women, into non-farm activities, and especially out of the workforce. Overall, these findings imply a strong link between climate and urbanization in Africa.
This paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced moisture tends to reduce local urban incomes. Finally, the paper shows that climate induces employment changes within the rural sector itself. Drier conditions induce a shift out of farm activities, especially for women, into non-farm activities, and especially out of the workforce. Overall, these findings imply a strong link between climate and urbanization in Africa.
Book
168 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 6 -Purpose and background�6 -How to use this document 6 -Coverage and methodology 7 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background16 -1.1 Introduction to Adhesives 16 -1.2 Industry Sector Description 17 -1.3 Market Profile and Adhesive Production 21 -1.4 Adhesive Application 23 2. Process Description�24 -2.1 Sealed Mixing/Transfer 24 -2.2 Unsealed Mixing/Transfer�27 -2.3 Heated Mixing/Transfer 29 -2.4 Adhesive Formulations 31 -2.5 Physical Properties of Adhesive Chemicals 34 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates�40 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 40 -3.2 Annual Facility Adhesive Production Rate (Qadhes_site_yr) 41 -3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Adhesive Component �(Fchem_comp) 48 -3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Adhesive Product (Fcomp_adhes) 48 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 53 -3.6 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 54 -3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)� 55 -3.8 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qchem_site_day) 56 -3.9 Annual Number of Adhesive Component Containers Emptied per Facility (Ncont_empty_site_yr)�57 -3.10 Annual Number of Adhesive Product Containers Filled per Facility �(Ncont_fill_site_yr) 58� 4. Environmental Release Assessments 60 -4.1 Control Technologies 62 -4.2 Adhesive Component Container Residue Released to Water, Incineration, �or Landfill (Release 1)�62 -4.3 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 2)�64 -4.4 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Adhesive Component �(Release 3) 65 -4.5 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or Collected �and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 4)�66 -4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 68 -4.7 Adhesive Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or �Landfill (Release 6) 70 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 70 -4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 72 -4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 73 -4.11 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Adhesive Product into �Transport Containers (Release 10) 74 -4.12 Off-Spec Product Released to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 11) 76 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 77 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 79 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 79 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 80 -5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 84 -5.5 Inhalation Exposure During Operation of Open Mixing Vessels (Exposure C) 88 -5.6 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Adhesive Product (Exposure D)�89 -5.7 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and Other �Process Equipment (Exposure E)�91 -5.8 Exposure from Packaging Adhesive Product (Exposure F)�93 6. Sample Calculations 96 -6.1 General Facility Estimates 96 -6.2 Release Assessments 99� -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 107 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work�115 8 References 118 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 123 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations / Defaults for the Standard EPS Environemntal Release and Worker Exposure Models 131 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 165  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level estimates resulting in release and exposure amounts that are likely to be higher, or at least higher than average, than amounts that might actually occur in the real world setting.  
  • Explanatory Notes 6 -Purpose and background�6 -How to use this document 6 -Coverage and methodology 7 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background16 -1.1 Introduction to Adhesives 16 -1.2 Industry Sector Description 17 -1.3 Market Profile and Adhesive Production 21 -1.4 Adhesive Application 23 2. Process Description�24 -2.1 Sealed Mixing/Transfer 24 -2.2 Unsealed Mixing/Transfer�27 -2.3 Heated Mixing/Transfer 29 -2.4 Adhesive Formulations 31 -2.5 Physical Properties of Adhesive Chemicals 34 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates�40 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 40 -3.2 Annual Facility Adhesive Production Rate (Qadhes_site_yr) 41 -3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Adhesive Component �(Fchem_comp) 48 -3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Adhesive Product (Fcomp_adhes) 48 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 53 -3.6 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 54 -3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)� 55 -3.8 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qchem_site_day) 56 -3.9 Annual Number of Adhesive Component Containers Emptied per Facility (Ncont_empty_site_yr)�57 -3.10 Annual Number of Adhesive Product Containers Filled per Facility �(Ncont_fill_site_yr) 58� 4. Environmental Release Assessments 60 -4.1 Control Technologies 62 -4.2 Adhesive Component Container Residue Released to Water, Incineration, �or Landfill (Release 1)�62 -4.3 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 2)�64 -4.4 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Adhesive Component �(Release 3) 65 -4.5 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or Collected �and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 4)�66 -4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 68 -4.7 Adhesive Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or �Landfill (Release 6) 70 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 70 -4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 72 -4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 73 -4.11 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Adhesive Product into �Transport Containers (Release 10) 74 -4.12 Off-Spec Product Released to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 11) 76 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 77 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 79 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 79 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 80 -5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 84 -5.5 Inhalation Exposure During Operation of Open Mixing Vessels (Exposure C) 88 -5.6 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Adhesive Product (Exposure D)�89 -5.7 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and Other �Process Equipment (Exposure E)�91 -5.8 Exposure from Packaging Adhesive Product (Exposure F)�93 6. Sample Calculations 96 -6.1 General Facility Estimates 96 -6.2 Release Assessments 99� -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 107 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work�115 8 References 118 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 123 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations / Defaults for the Standard EPS Environemntal Release and Worker Exposure Models 131 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 165  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level estimates resulting in release and exposure amounts that are likely to be higher, or at least higher than average, than amounts that might actually occur in the real world setting.  
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Multifactor productivity (MFP) is increasingly used in economic policy, not least to compute potential output. Most measures are based on a standard production function combining labour and capital, but do not incorporate the negative by-products of the production process such as air pollution that could have deleterious effect on health and productivity in the medium to long term (see for instance OECD (2014)). The failure to account for the costs of environmental damages and the benefits associated with emission reduction impart a bias to standard measures of MFP. Ignoring these dimensions can give a misleading idea of growth prospects over the medium to long term...
Multifactor productivity (MFP) is increasingly used in economic policy, not least to compute potential output. Most measures are based on a standard production function combining labour and capital, but do not incorporate the negative by-products of the production process such as air pollution that could have deleterious effect on health and productivity in the medium to long term (see for instance OECD (2014)). The failure to account for the costs of environmental damages and the benefits associated with emission reduction impart a bias to standard measures of MFP. Ignoring these dimensions can give a misleading idea of growth prospects over the medium to long term...
Book
xx. 681 p., [32] p. of col. plates : ill.
  • 1. Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration for the needs of biomedical optics and biophonics / Igor Meglinski and Alexander Doronin
  • 2. Quantitative polarimetry for tissue characterization and diagnosis / David Layden, Nirmalya Ghosh and Alex Vitkin
  • 3. Spatial and temporal frequency domain tissue optical imaging / Amaan Mazhar ... [et al.]
  • 4. Multiphon microscopy and SHG / Riccardo Cicchi, Leonardo Sacconi and Francesco S. Pavone
  • 5. Optical coherence tomography : technical aspects / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 6. Speckle in optical coherence tomography / Andrea Curatolo ... [et al.]
  • 7. Optical coherence tomography and light-induced fluorescence : optical slicing plus biochemical probing / Jennifer Kehlet Barton
  • 8. Multi-modal tomography combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) / Chao-Wei Chen and Yu Chen
  • 9. Advances in blood flow imaging / Susan M. Daly and Martin J. Leahy
  • 10. Optical microangiography / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 11. High-speed photoacoustic tomography / Liang Song and Zijian Guo and Lihong V. Wang
  • 12. Optoacoustic molecular imaging : methods and applications / Adrian Taruttis and Vasilis Ntziachristos
  • 13. Multimodal microscopy for comprehensive tissue characterizations / Shuliang Jiao and Hao F. Zhang
  • 14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) / Yuhua Zhang ... [et al.]
  • 15. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal function at cellular resolution / Xin-Cheng Yao
  • 16. Isometric 3D imaging of cellular samples using optical projection tomographic microscopy / Ryan L. Coe ... [et al.]
  • 17. Tissue optical clearing / Dan Zhu, Qingming Luo and Valery V. Tuchin.
"This reference provides an overview of optical imaging and manipulation technologies in biophotonics, covering both basic and advanced optical imaging techniques. It reviews the principles and fundamentals of bioimaging and molecular imaging/manipulation techniques. It also presents an overview of instrumentation, basic algorithms, and data processing methods. Accessible to students and researchers, the book discusses a range of application areas, including established and newer methodologies in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biophysics, medicine, and pharmacology"-- Provided by publisher.
  • 1. Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration for the needs of biomedical optics and biophonics / Igor Meglinski and Alexander Doronin
  • 2. Quantitative polarimetry for tissue characterization and diagnosis / David Layden, Nirmalya Ghosh and Alex Vitkin
  • 3. Spatial and temporal frequency domain tissue optical imaging / Amaan Mazhar ... [et al.]
  • 4. Multiphon microscopy and SHG / Riccardo Cicchi, Leonardo Sacconi and Francesco S. Pavone
  • 5. Optical coherence tomography : technical aspects / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 6. Speckle in optical coherence tomography / Andrea Curatolo ... [et al.]
  • 7. Optical coherence tomography and light-induced fluorescence : optical slicing plus biochemical probing / Jennifer Kehlet Barton
  • 8. Multi-modal tomography combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) / Chao-Wei Chen and Yu Chen
  • 9. Advances in blood flow imaging / Susan M. Daly and Martin J. Leahy
  • 10. Optical microangiography / Hrebesh M. Subhash and Ruikang K. Wang
  • 11. High-speed photoacoustic tomography / Liang Song and Zijian Guo and Lihong V. Wang
  • 12. Optoacoustic molecular imaging : methods and applications / Adrian Taruttis and Vasilis Ntziachristos
  • 13. Multimodal microscopy for comprehensive tissue characterizations / Shuliang Jiao and Hao F. Zhang
  • 14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) / Yuhua Zhang ... [et al.]
  • 15. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal function at cellular resolution / Xin-Cheng Yao
  • 16. Isometric 3D imaging of cellular samples using optical projection tomographic microscopy / Ryan L. Coe ... [et al.]
  • 17. Tissue optical clearing / Dan Zhu, Qingming Luo and Valery V. Tuchin.
"This reference provides an overview of optical imaging and manipulation technologies in biophotonics, covering both basic and advanced optical imaging techniques. It reviews the principles and fundamentals of bioimaging and molecular imaging/manipulation techniques. It also presents an overview of instrumentation, basic algorithms, and data processing methods. Accessible to students and researchers, the book discusses a range of application areas, including established and newer methodologies in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biophysics, medicine, and pharmacology"-- Provided by publisher.
Book
1 online resource (PDF, x, 155 pages).
An Extensible Framework for Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis.- On the Multichromosomal Hultman Number.- Towards an Ensemble Learning Strategy for Metagenomic Gene Prediction.- FUNN-MG: A Metagenomic Systems Biology Computational Framework.- FluxMED: An Adaptable and Extensible Electronic Health Record System.- Influence of Sequence Length in Promoter Prediction Performance.- Evolution of Genes Neighborhood within Reconciled Phylogenies: An Ensemble Approach.- Dynamic Programming for Set Data Types.- Using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) for Memory Optimization in Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST).- A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignments.- BION2SEL: An Ontology-Based Approach for the Selection of Molecular Biology Databases.- Structural Comparative Analysis of Secreted NTPDase Models of Schistosoma mansoni and Homo sapiens.- Length and Symmetry on the Sorting by Weighted Inversions Problem.- Storage Policy for Genomic Data in Hybrid Federated Clouds.- Genome-Wide Identification of Non-coding RNAs in Komagataella pastoris str. GS115.- Multi-scale Simulation of T Helper Lymphocyte Differentiation.- Scaffolding of Ancient Contigs and Ancestral Reconstruction in a Phylogenetic Framework.- Quality Metrics for Benchmarking Sequences Comparison Tools.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2014, held in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in October 2014. The 18 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 32 submissions. The papers cover all aspects of bioinformatics and computational biology.
An Extensible Framework for Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis.- On the Multichromosomal Hultman Number.- Towards an Ensemble Learning Strategy for Metagenomic Gene Prediction.- FUNN-MG: A Metagenomic Systems Biology Computational Framework.- FluxMED: An Adaptable and Extensible Electronic Health Record System.- Influence of Sequence Length in Promoter Prediction Performance.- Evolution of Genes Neighborhood within Reconciled Phylogenies: An Ensemble Approach.- Dynamic Programming for Set Data Types.- Using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) for Memory Optimization in Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST).- A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignments.- BION2SEL: An Ontology-Based Approach for the Selection of Molecular Biology Databases.- Structural Comparative Analysis of Secreted NTPDase Models of Schistosoma mansoni and Homo sapiens.- Length and Symmetry on the Sorting by Weighted Inversions Problem.- Storage Policy for Genomic Data in Hybrid Federated Clouds.- Genome-Wide Identification of Non-coding RNAs in Komagataella pastoris str. GS115.- Multi-scale Simulation of T Helper Lymphocyte Differentiation.- Scaffolding of Ancient Contigs and Ancestral Reconstruction in a Phylogenetic Framework.- Quality Metrics for Benchmarking Sequences Comparison Tools.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2014, held in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in October 2014. The 18 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 32 submissions. The papers cover all aspects of bioinformatics and computational biology.
Book
1 online resource (37 p.)
Investment decision making is already difficult for any diverse group of actors with different priorities and views. But the presence of deep uncertainties linked to climate change and other future conditions further challenges decision making by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. While decision makers can continue to use the decision metrics they have used in the past (such as net present value), alternative methodologies can improve decision processes, especially those that lead with analysis and end in agreement on decisions. Such "Agree-on-Decision" methods start by stress-testing options under a wide range of plausible conditions, without requiring us to agree ex ante on which conditions are more or less likely, and against a set of objectives or success metrics, without requiring us to agree ex ante on how to aggregate or weight them. As a result, these methods are easier to apply to contexts of large uncertainty or disagreement on values and objectives. This inverted process promotes consensus around better decisions and can help in managing uncertainty. Analyses performed in this way let decision makers make the decision and inform them on (1) the conditions under which an option or project is vulnerable; (2) the tradeoffs between robustness and cost, or between various objectives; and (3) the flexibility of various options to respond to changes in the future. In doing so, they put decision makers back in the driver's seat. A growing set of case studies shows that these methods can be applied in real-world contexts and do not need to be more costly or complicated than traditional approaches. Finally, while this paper focuses on climate change, a better treatment of uncertainties and disagreement would in general improve decision making and development outcomes.
Investment decision making is already difficult for any diverse group of actors with different priorities and views. But the presence of deep uncertainties linked to climate change and other future conditions further challenges decision making by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. While decision makers can continue to use the decision metrics they have used in the past (such as net present value), alternative methodologies can improve decision processes, especially those that lead with analysis and end in agreement on decisions. Such "Agree-on-Decision" methods start by stress-testing options under a wide range of plausible conditions, without requiring us to agree ex ante on which conditions are more or less likely, and against a set of objectives or success metrics, without requiring us to agree ex ante on how to aggregate or weight them. As a result, these methods are easier to apply to contexts of large uncertainty or disagreement on values and objectives. This inverted process promotes consensus around better decisions and can help in managing uncertainty. Analyses performed in this way let decision makers make the decision and inform them on (1) the conditions under which an option or project is vulnerable; (2) the tradeoffs between robustness and cost, or between various objectives; and (3) the flexibility of various options to respond to changes in the future. In doing so, they put decision makers back in the driver's seat. A growing set of case studies shows that these methods can be applied in real-world contexts and do not need to be more costly or complicated than traditional approaches. Finally, while this paper focuses on climate change, a better treatment of uncertainties and disagreement would in general improve decision making and development outcomes.
Book
59 p.
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 9 2. Process Description 10 -2.1 Surface Preparation 12 -2.2 Solvent Wipe Down 12 -2.3 Paint Mixing 12 -2.4 Coating Application via Spray Painting�13 -2.5 Curing [This section is included for background information only] 15 3. Screening Level Estimation Techniques/Methods 16 -3.1 General Facility Estimates 16 -3.2 Release Assessments 19 -3.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 24 4. Summary of Equations and Sample Calculations 28 -4.1 Summary of Release and Exposure Equations 28 -4.2 Individual Chemical Release and Exposure Examples 32 5. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 36 6. References 37� Appendix A. German Data for� Automotive Coating�� Appendix B. Inhalation Exposure to Polysocyanate in Paint Appendix C. Paint Mist Concentration Data�� Appendix D. Dermal Exposure Assessment Factors
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.  
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 9 2. Process Description 10 -2.1 Surface Preparation 12 -2.2 Solvent Wipe Down 12 -2.3 Paint Mixing 12 -2.4 Coating Application via Spray Painting�13 -2.5 Curing [This section is included for background information only] 15 3. Screening Level Estimation Techniques/Methods 16 -3.1 General Facility Estimates 16 -3.2 Release Assessments 19 -3.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 24 4. Summary of Equations and Sample Calculations 28 -4.1 Summary of Release and Exposure Equations 28 -4.2 Individual Chemical Release and Exposure Examples 32 5. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 36 6. References 37� Appendix A. German Data for� Automotive Coating�� Appendix B. Inhalation Exposure to Polysocyanate in Paint Appendix C. Paint Mist Concentration Data�� Appendix D. Dermal Exposure Assessment Factors
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.  
Book
1 online resource (51 p.)
China's national leaders have recently made a priority of changing lanes from a pollution-intensive, growth-at-any-cost model to a resource-efficient and sustainable one. The immense challenges of rapid urbanization are one aspect of the problem. Central-local government relations are another source of challenges, since the central government's green agenda does not always find willing followers at lower levels. This paper identifies barriers to a more comprehensive implementation of environmental policies at the local level in China's urban areas and suggests ways to reduce or remove them. The research focuses particularly on the reasons for the gap between national plans and policy outcomes. Although environmental goals and policies at the national level are quite ambitious and comprehensive, insufficient and inconsistent local level implementation can hold back significant improvements in urban environmental quality. By analyzing local institutional and behavioral obstacles and by highlighting best-practice examples from China and elsewhere, the paper outlines options that can be used at the national and local levels to close the local "environmental implementation gap." The findings emphasize the need to create additional incentives and increase local implementation capacities.
China's national leaders have recently made a priority of changing lanes from a pollution-intensive, growth-at-any-cost model to a resource-efficient and sustainable one. The immense challenges of rapid urbanization are one aspect of the problem. Central-local government relations are another source of challenges, since the central government's green agenda does not always find willing followers at lower levels. This paper identifies barriers to a more comprehensive implementation of environmental policies at the local level in China's urban areas and suggests ways to reduce or remove them. The research focuses particularly on the reasons for the gap between national plans and policy outcomes. Although environmental goals and policies at the national level are quite ambitious and comprehensive, insufficient and inconsistent local level implementation can hold back significant improvements in urban environmental quality. By analyzing local institutional and behavioral obstacles and by highlighting best-practice examples from China and elsewhere, the paper outlines options that can be used at the national and local levels to close the local "environmental implementation gap." The findings emphasize the need to create additional incentives and increase local implementation capacities.
Book
96 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
As OECD countries emerge from the global financial crisis, several countries have published their plans for the development of a future bioeconomy, an economy in which bio-based materials and production techniques will contribute significantly to economic and environmental sustainability. Such plans typically involve building a bio-based production industry in which fuels, energy and materials such as chemicals and plastics, almost always generated from fossil resources such as oil and natural gas, are incrementally replaced by equivalent or novel products generated from renewable resources. The realisation of this vision will require sustainably harnessing the vast biomass resource. The highest policy priorities at present are on several levels: allowing bio-based materials to compete for biomass on price with bioelectricity and biofuels; rectifying the highly distorting fossil fuel subsidies, heading off future competition for crude oil demand; and correcting for any excessive regulatory impacts. If governments wish to realise a successful bioeconomy in the future, the case for support for bio-based chemicals and plastics warrants serious attention.
As OECD countries emerge from the global financial crisis, several countries have published their plans for the development of a future bioeconomy, an economy in which bio-based materials and production techniques will contribute significantly to economic and environmental sustainability. Such plans typically involve building a bio-based production industry in which fuels, energy and materials such as chemicals and plastics, almost always generated from fossil resources such as oil and natural gas, are incrementally replaced by equivalent or novel products generated from renewable resources. The realisation of this vision will require sustainably harnessing the vast biomass resource. The highest policy priorities at present are on several levels: allowing bio-based materials to compete for biomass on price with bioelectricity and biofuels; rectifying the highly distorting fossil fuel subsidies, heading off future competition for crude oil demand; and correcting for any excessive regulatory impacts. If governments wish to realise a successful bioeconomy in the future, the case for support for bio-based chemicals and plastics warrants serious attention.
Book
1 online resource.
Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions.
Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions.
Book
1 online resource (223 p.)
  • Front Cover; The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; Preface and Acknowledgments; 1 Introduction; Turtles Are Food, Pets, Lab Animals, and Majestic Creatures; Coccidia in Turtles: Perpetrators, Symptoms, and Disease; 2 Suborder Cryptodira, Hidden-Necked Turtles; Family Chelydridae, Snapping Turtles, 2 Genera, 4 Species; Genus Chelydra Schweigger, 1812 (3 Species); Eimeria chelydrae Ernst, Stewart, Sampson, & Fincher, 1969; Eimeria filamentifera Wacha & Christiansen, 1979a
  • Eimeria serpentina McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990bIsospora chelydrae McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990b; Genus Macrochelys Gray, 1856 (Monospecific); Eimeria harlani Upton, McAllister, & Trauth, 1992; Superfamily Testudinoidea; Family Emydidae, Pond, Box, Water Turtles, 11 Genera, 50 Species; Genus Chrysemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Eimeria chrysemydis Deeds & Jahn, 1939; Eimeria marginata (Deeds & Jahn, 1939) Pellérdy, 1974; Eimeria tetradacrutata Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828 (Monospecific); Genus Deirochelys Latreille, 1801 (Monospecific)
  • Genus Emydoidea Holbrook, 1838 (Monospecific)Genus Emys Duméril, 1805 (3 Species); Eimeria delagei (Labbé, 1893) Reichenow, 1921; Eimeria emydis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Eimeria gallaeciaensis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Genus Glyptemys Agassiz, 1857 (2 Species); Eimeria lecontei Upton, McAllister, & Garrett, 1995; Eimeria megalostiedae Wacha & Christiansen, 1974; Genus Graptemys Agassiz, 1857 (13 Species); Eimeria graptemydos Wacha & Christiansen, 1976
  • Eimeria juniataensis Pluto & Rothenbacher, 1976Eimeria pseudogeographica Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Malaclemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Genus Pseudemys Gray, 1856 (8 Species); Eimeria cooteri McAllister & Upton, 1989; Eimeria somervellensis McAllister & Upton, 1992; Eimeria texana McAllister & Upton, 1989b; Genus Terrapene Merrem, 1820 (4 Species); Eimeria carri Ernst & Forrester, 1973; Eimeria ornata McAllister & Upton, 1989a; Genus Trachemys Agassiz, 1857 (15 Species); Eimeria pseudemydis Lainson, 1968; Eimeria scriptae Sampson & Ernst, 1969
  • Eimeria stylosa McAllister & Upton, 1989bEimeria trachemydis McAllister & Upton, 1988; Family Testudinidae, Tortoises, 15 Genera, 57 Species; Genus Aldabrachelys Loveridge and Williams, 1957 (3 Species); Genus Astrochelys Gray, 1873 (2 Species); Genus Chelonoidis Fitzgerald, 1835 (13 Species); Eimeria amazonensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carajasensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carbonaria Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria geochelona Couch, Stone, Duszynski, Snell, & Snell, 1996
The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World is an invaluable resource for researchers in protozoology, coccidia, and parasitology, veterinary sciences, animal sciences, zoology, and biology. This first-of-its-kind work offers a taxonomic guide to apicomplexan parasites of turtles that enables easy parasite identification, with a summary of virtually everything known about the biology of each known parasite species. It is an important documentation of this specific area, useful to a broad base of readers, including researchers in biology, paras.
  • Front Cover; The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; Preface and Acknowledgments; 1 Introduction; Turtles Are Food, Pets, Lab Animals, and Majestic Creatures; Coccidia in Turtles: Perpetrators, Symptoms, and Disease; 2 Suborder Cryptodira, Hidden-Necked Turtles; Family Chelydridae, Snapping Turtles, 2 Genera, 4 Species; Genus Chelydra Schweigger, 1812 (3 Species); Eimeria chelydrae Ernst, Stewart, Sampson, & Fincher, 1969; Eimeria filamentifera Wacha & Christiansen, 1979a
  • Eimeria serpentina McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990bIsospora chelydrae McAllister, Upton, & Trauth, 1990b; Genus Macrochelys Gray, 1856 (Monospecific); Eimeria harlani Upton, McAllister, & Trauth, 1992; Superfamily Testudinoidea; Family Emydidae, Pond, Box, Water Turtles, 11 Genera, 50 Species; Genus Chrysemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Eimeria chrysemydis Deeds & Jahn, 1939; Eimeria marginata (Deeds & Jahn, 1939) Pellérdy, 1974; Eimeria tetradacrutata Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828 (Monospecific); Genus Deirochelys Latreille, 1801 (Monospecific)
  • Genus Emydoidea Holbrook, 1838 (Monospecific)Genus Emys Duméril, 1805 (3 Species); Eimeria delagei (Labbé, 1893) Reichenow, 1921; Eimeria emydis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Eimeria gallaeciaensis Segade, Crespo, Ayres, Cordero, Arias, García-Estévez, Iglesias, & Blanco, 2006; Genus Glyptemys Agassiz, 1857 (2 Species); Eimeria lecontei Upton, McAllister, & Garrett, 1995; Eimeria megalostiedae Wacha & Christiansen, 1974; Genus Graptemys Agassiz, 1857 (13 Species); Eimeria graptemydos Wacha & Christiansen, 1976
  • Eimeria juniataensis Pluto & Rothenbacher, 1976Eimeria pseudogeographica Wacha & Christiansen, 1976; Genus Malaclemys Gray, 1844 (Monospecific); Genus Pseudemys Gray, 1856 (8 Species); Eimeria cooteri McAllister & Upton, 1989; Eimeria somervellensis McAllister & Upton, 1992; Eimeria texana McAllister & Upton, 1989b; Genus Terrapene Merrem, 1820 (4 Species); Eimeria carri Ernst & Forrester, 1973; Eimeria ornata McAllister & Upton, 1989a; Genus Trachemys Agassiz, 1857 (15 Species); Eimeria pseudemydis Lainson, 1968; Eimeria scriptae Sampson & Ernst, 1969
  • Eimeria stylosa McAllister & Upton, 1989bEimeria trachemydis McAllister & Upton, 1988; Family Testudinidae, Tortoises, 15 Genera, 57 Species; Genus Aldabrachelys Loveridge and Williams, 1957 (3 Species); Genus Astrochelys Gray, 1873 (2 Species); Genus Chelonoidis Fitzgerald, 1835 (13 Species); Eimeria amazonensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carajasensis Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria carbonaria Lainson, Da Silva, Franco, & De Souza, 2008; Eimeria geochelona Couch, Stone, Duszynski, Snell, & Snell, 1996
The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World is an invaluable resource for researchers in protozoology, coccidia, and parasitology, veterinary sciences, animal sciences, zoology, and biology. This first-of-its-kind work offers a taxonomic guide to apicomplexan parasites of turtles that enables easy parasite identification, with a summary of virtually everything known about the biology of each known parasite species. It is an important documentation of this specific area, useful to a broad base of readers, including researchers in biology, paras.
Book
online resource (xxvi, 965 pages)
  • Biomedical Informatics: The Science and the Pragmatics
  • Biomedical Data: Their Acquisition, Storage, and Use
  • Biomedical Decision Making: Probabilistic Clinical Reasoning
  • Cognitive Science and Biomedical Informatics
  • Computer Architectures for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Software Engineering for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Standards in Biomedical Informatics
  • Natural Language Processing in Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Biomedical Imaging Informatics
  • Ethics and Biomedical and Health Informatics: Users, Standards, and Outcomes
  • Evaluation of Biomedical and Health Information Resources
  • Electronic Health Record Systems
  • The Health Information Infrastructure
  • Management of Information in Health Care Organizations
  • Patient-Centered Care Systems
  • Public Health Informatics
  • Consumer Health Informatics and Personal Health Records
  • Telehealth
  • Patient Monitoring Systems
  • Imaging Systems in Radiology
  • Information Retrieval and Digital Libraries
  • Clinical Decision-Support Systems
  • Computers in Health Care Education
  • Bioinformatics
  • Translational Bioinformatics
  • Clinical Research Informatics
  • Health Information Technology Policy
  • The Future of Informatics in Biomedicine.
Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine meets the growing demand of practitioners, researchers, educators, and students for a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the field and the underlying scientific issues that sit at the intersection of biomedical science, patient care, public health, and information technology (IT). This 4th edition reflects the remarkable changes in both computing and health care that continue to occur and the exploding interest in the role that IT must play in care coordination and the melding of genomics with innovations in clinical practice and treatment. New chapters have been introduced on the health information infrastructure, consumer health informatics, telemedicine, translational bioinformatics, clinical research informatics, and health IT policy, while the others have all undergone extensive revisions, in many cases with new authors. The organization and philosophy are unchanged, focusing on the science of information and knowledge management and the role of computers and communications in modern biomedical research, health, and health care. Emphasizing the conceptual basis of the field rather than technical details, it provides an introduction and extensive bibliography so that readers can comprehend, assess, and utilize biomedical informatics and health IT. The volume focuses on easy-to-understand examples, a guide to additional literature, chapter summaries, and a comprehensive glossary with concise definitions of recurring terms for self-study or classroom use.
  • Biomedical Informatics: The Science and the Pragmatics
  • Biomedical Data: Their Acquisition, Storage, and Use
  • Biomedical Decision Making: Probabilistic Clinical Reasoning
  • Cognitive Science and Biomedical Informatics
  • Computer Architectures for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Software Engineering for Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Standards in Biomedical Informatics
  • Natural Language Processing in Health Care and Biomedicine
  • Biomedical Imaging Informatics
  • Ethics and Biomedical and Health Informatics: Users, Standards, and Outcomes
  • Evaluation of Biomedical and Health Information Resources
  • Electronic Health Record Systems
  • The Health Information Infrastructure
  • Management of Information in Health Care Organizations
  • Patient-Centered Care Systems
  • Public Health Informatics
  • Consumer Health Informatics and Personal Health Records
  • Telehealth
  • Patient Monitoring Systems
  • Imaging Systems in Radiology
  • Information Retrieval and Digital Libraries
  • Clinical Decision-Support Systems
  • Computers in Health Care Education
  • Bioinformatics
  • Translational Bioinformatics
  • Clinical Research Informatics
  • Health Information Technology Policy
  • The Future of Informatics in Biomedicine.
Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine meets the growing demand of practitioners, researchers, educators, and students for a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the field and the underlying scientific issues that sit at the intersection of biomedical science, patient care, public health, and information technology (IT). This 4th edition reflects the remarkable changes in both computing and health care that continue to occur and the exploding interest in the role that IT must play in care coordination and the melding of genomics with innovations in clinical practice and treatment. New chapters have been introduced on the health information infrastructure, consumer health informatics, telemedicine, translational bioinformatics, clinical research informatics, and health IT policy, while the others have all undergone extensive revisions, in many cases with new authors. The organization and philosophy are unchanged, focusing on the science of information and knowledge management and the role of computers and communications in modern biomedical research, health, and health care. Emphasizing the conceptual basis of the field rather than technical details, it provides an introduction and extensive bibliography so that readers can comprehend, assess, and utilize biomedical informatics and health IT. The volume focuses on easy-to-understand examples, a guide to additional literature, chapter summaries, and a comprehensive glossary with concise definitions of recurring terms for self-study or classroom use.
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Book
1 PDF (xxi, 211 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 What is a system?
  • 1.1.1 Cause and effect
  • 1.1.2 The systems of engineering
  • 1.2 What is a signal?
  • 1.2.1 Signals in engineering
  • 1.2.2 Sensors
  • 1.3 System boundaries
  • 1.4 Design using signals and systems
  • 2. System types
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 conservative and non-conservative systems
  • 2.3 Open and closed systems
  • 2.4 Static and dynamic systems
  • 2.5 Continuous and discrete signals and systems
  • 2.6 Stable and unstable systems
  • 2.7 Time varying and time invariant systems
  • 2.8 Deterministic and non-deterministic systems
  • 2.9 Finite and infinite systems
  • 2.10 Linear and non-linear systems
  • 2.11 Stationary and non-stationary
  • 2.12 Memory and memoriless systems
  • 2.13 Time constants
  • 2.14 Conclusion
  • 2.15 Exercises
  • 3. System models
  • 3.1 What is a model
  • 3.2 Models using conservation
  • 3.2.1 Conservation of momentum
  • 3.2.2 Conservation of charge
  • 3.2.3 Conservation of mass
  • 3.2.4 Fluid mass and volume
  • 3.2.5 Conservation of energy
  • 3.2.6 Other models
  • 3.3 State and compartment models
  • 3.3.1 Volume balance
  • 3.3.2 Models of ion channels
  • 3.4 Reduction of a higher order equation
  • 3.5 Exercises
  • 4. Laplace transform
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Formal definitions
  • 4.2.1 Laplace transform
  • 4.2.2 Inverse Laplace transform
  • 4.3 Transform tables
  • 4.4 Four useful Laplace transforms
  • 4.4.1 The impulse
  • 4.4.The unit step
  • 4.4.3 The sinusoid
  • 4.4.4 The derivative
  • 4.5 From differential to algebraic equations
  • 4.6 From algebraic equations to a solution
  • 4.7 Other interesting applications
  • 4.7.1 The Fourier transform
  • 4.7.2 Non-time mapping
  • 4.8 The z-transform
  • 4.9 Exercises
  • 5. Block diagrams
  • 5.1 Block diagram of a pacemaker-defibrilator
  • 5.2 Parallel, series and junctions
  • 5.3 Transfer functions
  • 5.3.1 Reducing block diagrams
  • 5.3.2 Series connection reduction
  • 5.3.3 Parallel connection reduction
  • 5.3.4 Combining series and parallel
  • 5.4 Matlab, signals and systems
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6. Stability
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Stability and transfer function poles
  • 6.2.1 Finding poles and zeros
  • 6.2.2 Visualizing poles and zeros
  • 6.2.3 Relationship to stability in time
  • 6.3 The role of zeros
  • 6.4 Designing systems
  • 6.5 Matlab and stability
  • 6.6 Exercises
  • 7. Feedback
  • 7.1 Open and closed loop systems
  • 7.2 Feedback transfer functions
  • 7.3 Block diagram reductions
  • 7.4 Stability and feedback
  • 7.5 Feedforward
  • 7.6 Opening the loop
  • 7.7 Matlab and feedback
  • 7.8 Exercises
  • 8. System response
  • 8.1 Zero input and zero state response
  • 8.2 The impulse response
  • 8.2.1 A first order example
  • 8.2.2 A different first order example
  • 8.2.3 A second order example
  • 8.3 The step response
  • 8.3.1 The importance of the step response
  • 8.3.2 Comparing the step and impulse responses
  • 8.4 Quantifying a response
  • 8.4.1 Estimating a transfer function
  • 8.4.2 A generic second order system
  • 8.5 The sine response
  • 8.5.1 decibels
  • 8.5.2 The Bode plot
  • 8.5.3 The 3dB point
  • 8.6 Response to an arbitrary input
  • 8.6.1 Convolution
  • 8.6.2 Deconvolution
  • 8.7 Other applications
  • 8.7.1 Other useful test signals
  • 8.8 Matlab and system responses
  • 8.9 Exercises
  • 9. Control
  • 9.1 The generic control model
  • 9.2 Evaluating a controlled response
  • 9.2.1 Time domain evaluation
  • 9.2.2 Frequency domain evaluation
  • 9.3 On-off controllers
  • 9.4 PID controllers
  • 9.4.1 Proportional (P) control
  • 9.4.2 Proportional derivative (PD) controller
  • 9.4.3 Proportional integral (PI) controller
  • 9.4.4 Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
  • 9.4.5 Choosing constants
  • 9.4.6 Alternative formulation
  • 9.5 Example of a PID controlled system
  • 9.6 The problem of system delays
  • 9.7 Other controllers
  • 9.7.1 Lag-lead controllers
  • 9.8 Reverse engineering biological systems
  • 9.9 Matlab
  • 9.10 Exercises
  • 10. Time domain analysis
  • 10.1 Basic signal processing
  • 10.1.1 Average
  • 10.1.2 Signal power
  • 10.1.3 Variance and standard deviation
  • 10.1.4 Signal to noise ratio
  • 10.2 Correlations
  • 10.2.1 Cross-correlation
  • 10.2.2 Cross covariance
  • 10.2.3 Auto correlation
  • 10.3 Matlab
  • 10.4 Exercises
  • 11. Frequency domain analysis
  • 11.1 Comparing a signal to sinusoids
  • 11.1.1 Properties of sinusoids
  • 11.1.2 A problem with the cross-correlation
  • 11.2 The Fourier series
  • 11.3 The Fourier transform
  • 11.3.1 Power at a frequency
  • 11.3.2 Fourier transform properties
  • 11.3.3 The rectangle function
  • 11.3.4 Inverse Fourier transform
  • 11.4 The discrete Fourier transform
  • 11.4.1 Aliasing and the Nyquist rate
  • 11.4.2 The Nyquist rate and aliasing
  • 11.5 Matlab
  • 11.6 Exercises
  • 12. Filters
  • 12.1 Ideal filters
  • 12.1.1 Ideal filter phase shift
  • 12.1.2 The chirp signal
  • 12.2 Filters in reality
  • 12.2.1 Roll-off
  • 12.2.2 Ripples
  • 12.2.3 Phase shifts
  • 12.3 First and second order filters
  • 12.3.1 A first order filter
  • 12.3.2 A second order filter
  • 12.4 Higher order filters
  • 12.4.1 Butterworth
  • 12.4.2 Chebyshev
  • 12.4.3 Elliptical
  • 12.4.4 Bessel
  • 12.4.5 Filter evaluation
  • 12.4.6 High, bandpass and notch filter
  • 12.4.7 Electrical implementation
  • 12.5 Windowing in the time domain
  • 12.6 Matlab
  • 12.7 Exercises
  • A. Complex numbers
  • A.1 Introduction
  • A.2 The complex plane
  • A.3 Euler's identity
  • A.4 Mathematical operations
  • A.4.1 Addition and subtraction
  • A.4.2 Multiplication
  • A.4.3 Conjugation
  • B. Partial fraction expansion
  • C. Laplace transform table
  • D. Fourier transform table
  • Author's biography.
Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply them. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 What is a system?
  • 1.1.1 Cause and effect
  • 1.1.2 The systems of engineering
  • 1.2 What is a signal?
  • 1.2.1 Signals in engineering
  • 1.2.2 Sensors
  • 1.3 System boundaries
  • 1.4 Design using signals and systems
  • 2. System types
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 conservative and non-conservative systems
  • 2.3 Open and closed systems
  • 2.4 Static and dynamic systems
  • 2.5 Continuous and discrete signals and systems
  • 2.6 Stable and unstable systems
  • 2.7 Time varying and time invariant systems
  • 2.8 Deterministic and non-deterministic systems
  • 2.9 Finite and infinite systems
  • 2.10 Linear and non-linear systems
  • 2.11 Stationary and non-stationary
  • 2.12 Memory and memoriless systems
  • 2.13 Time constants
  • 2.14 Conclusion
  • 2.15 Exercises
  • 3. System models
  • 3.1 What is a model
  • 3.2 Models using conservation
  • 3.2.1 Conservation of momentum
  • 3.2.2 Conservation of charge
  • 3.2.3 Conservation of mass
  • 3.2.4 Fluid mass and volume
  • 3.2.5 Conservation of energy
  • 3.2.6 Other models
  • 3.3 State and compartment models
  • 3.3.1 Volume balance
  • 3.3.2 Models of ion channels
  • 3.4 Reduction of a higher order equation
  • 3.5 Exercises
  • 4. Laplace transform
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Formal definitions
  • 4.2.1 Laplace transform
  • 4.2.2 Inverse Laplace transform
  • 4.3 Transform tables
  • 4.4 Four useful Laplace transforms
  • 4.4.1 The impulse
  • 4.4.The unit step
  • 4.4.3 The sinusoid
  • 4.4.4 The derivative
  • 4.5 From differential to algebraic equations
  • 4.6 From algebraic equations to a solution
  • 4.7 Other interesting applications
  • 4.7.1 The Fourier transform
  • 4.7.2 Non-time mapping
  • 4.8 The z-transform
  • 4.9 Exercises
  • 5. Block diagrams
  • 5.1 Block diagram of a pacemaker-defibrilator
  • 5.2 Parallel, series and junctions
  • 5.3 Transfer functions
  • 5.3.1 Reducing block diagrams
  • 5.3.2 Series connection reduction
  • 5.3.3 Parallel connection reduction
  • 5.3.4 Combining series and parallel
  • 5.4 Matlab, signals and systems
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6. Stability
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Stability and transfer function poles
  • 6.2.1 Finding poles and zeros
  • 6.2.2 Visualizing poles and zeros
  • 6.2.3 Relationship to stability in time
  • 6.3 The role of zeros
  • 6.4 Designing systems
  • 6.5 Matlab and stability
  • 6.6 Exercises
  • 7. Feedback
  • 7.1 Open and closed loop systems
  • 7.2 Feedback transfer functions
  • 7.3 Block diagram reductions
  • 7.4 Stability and feedback
  • 7.5 Feedforward
  • 7.6 Opening the loop
  • 7.7 Matlab and feedback
  • 7.8 Exercises
  • 8. System response
  • 8.1 Zero input and zero state response
  • 8.2 The impulse response
  • 8.2.1 A first order example
  • 8.2.2 A different first order example
  • 8.2.3 A second order example
  • 8.3 The step response
  • 8.3.1 The importance of the step response
  • 8.3.2 Comparing the step and impulse responses
  • 8.4 Quantifying a response
  • 8.4.1 Estimating a transfer function
  • 8.4.2 A generic second order system
  • 8.5 The sine response
  • 8.5.1 decibels
  • 8.5.2 The Bode plot
  • 8.5.3 The 3dB point
  • 8.6 Response to an arbitrary input
  • 8.6.1 Convolution
  • 8.6.2 Deconvolution
  • 8.7 Other applications
  • 8.7.1 Other useful test signals
  • 8.8 Matlab and system responses
  • 8.9 Exercises
  • 9. Control
  • 9.1 The generic control model
  • 9.2 Evaluating a controlled response
  • 9.2.1 Time domain evaluation
  • 9.2.2 Frequency domain evaluation
  • 9.3 On-off controllers
  • 9.4 PID controllers
  • 9.4.1 Proportional (P) control
  • 9.4.2 Proportional derivative (PD) controller
  • 9.4.3 Proportional integral (PI) controller
  • 9.4.4 Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
  • 9.4.5 Choosing constants
  • 9.4.6 Alternative formulation
  • 9.5 Example of a PID controlled system
  • 9.6 The problem of system delays
  • 9.7 Other controllers
  • 9.7.1 Lag-lead controllers
  • 9.8 Reverse engineering biological systems
  • 9.9 Matlab
  • 9.10 Exercises
  • 10. Time domain analysis
  • 10.1 Basic signal processing
  • 10.1.1 Average
  • 10.1.2 Signal power
  • 10.1.3 Variance and standard deviation
  • 10.1.4 Signal to noise ratio
  • 10.2 Correlations
  • 10.2.1 Cross-correlation
  • 10.2.2 Cross covariance
  • 10.2.3 Auto correlation
  • 10.3 Matlab
  • 10.4 Exercises
  • 11. Frequency domain analysis
  • 11.1 Comparing a signal to sinusoids
  • 11.1.1 Properties of sinusoids
  • 11.1.2 A problem with the cross-correlation
  • 11.2 The Fourier series
  • 11.3 The Fourier transform
  • 11.3.1 Power at a frequency
  • 11.3.2 Fourier transform properties
  • 11.3.3 The rectangle function
  • 11.3.4 Inverse Fourier transform
  • 11.4 The discrete Fourier transform
  • 11.4.1 Aliasing and the Nyquist rate
  • 11.4.2 The Nyquist rate and aliasing
  • 11.5 Matlab
  • 11.6 Exercises
  • 12. Filters
  • 12.1 Ideal filters
  • 12.1.1 Ideal filter phase shift
  • 12.1.2 The chirp signal
  • 12.2 Filters in reality
  • 12.2.1 Roll-off
  • 12.2.2 Ripples
  • 12.2.3 Phase shifts
  • 12.3 First and second order filters
  • 12.3.1 A first order filter
  • 12.3.2 A second order filter
  • 12.4 Higher order filters
  • 12.4.1 Butterworth
  • 12.4.2 Chebyshev
  • 12.4.3 Elliptical
  • 12.4.4 Bessel
  • 12.4.5 Filter evaluation
  • 12.4.6 High, bandpass and notch filter
  • 12.4.7 Electrical implementation
  • 12.5 Windowing in the time domain
  • 12.6 Matlab
  • 12.7 Exercises
  • A. Complex numbers
  • A.1 Introduction
  • A.2 The complex plane
  • A.3 Euler's identity
  • A.4 Mathematical operations
  • A.4.1 Addition and subtraction
  • A.4.2 Multiplication
  • A.4.3 Conjugation
  • B. Partial fraction expansion
  • C. Laplace transform table
  • D. Fourier transform table
  • Author's biography.
Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply them. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them.
Book
online resource (xi, 462 pages) : illustrations
  • Part I. Light Energy Capture and Energy Transfer
  • 1. Structure-Based Calculation of Pigment-Protein and Excitonic Pigment-Pigment Coupling in Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complexes / Frank Müh and Thomas Renger
  • 2. Electron-Phonon and Exciton-Phonon Coupling in Light Harvesting, Insights from Line-Narrowing Spectroscopies / Jörg Pieper and Arvi Freiberg
  • 3. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer and Charge Separation in Higher Plants / Tjaart P.J. Krüger, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin, Elisabet Romero, and Rienk van Grondelle
  • Part II. Underlying Principles of Electron Transport
  • 4. Tunneling in Electron Transport / Christopher C. Moser
  • 5. Spin in Photosynthetic Electron Transport / Isaac F. Céspedes-Camacho and Jörg Matysik
  • 6. Energy Changes in Photosynthetic Electron Transport: Probing Photosynthesis by Pulsed Photoacoustics / David Mauzerall and Steven P. Mielke
  • Part III. Separation and Stabilization of Charge
  • 7. Mechanism of Primary Charge Separation in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers / Sergei Savikhin and Ryszard Jankowiak
  • 8. Effects of Quasi-Equilibrium States on the Kinetics of Electron Transfer and Radical Pair Stabilisation in Photosystem I / Stefano Santabarbara, Robert Jennings, and Giuseppe Zucchelli
  • 9. Energetics of Cofactors in Photosynthetic Complexes: Relationship Between Protein-Cofactor Interactions and Midpoint Potentials / James P. Allen and JoAnn C. Williams
  • Part IV. Donor Side Intermediates and Water Splitting
  • 10. The Radical Intermediates of Photosystem II / K.V. Lakshmi, Christopher S. Coates, Stuart Smith, and Ruchira Chatterjee
  • 11. Structure-Function Relationships in the Mn₄CaO₅ Water-Splitting Cluster / Jian-Ren Shen
  • 12. Water and Oxygen Diffusion Pathways Within Photosystem II. Computational Studies of Controlled Substrate Access and Product Release / Serguei Vassiliev and Doug Bruce
  • Part V. Evolution of the Photosynthetic Apparatus
  • 13. From Ionizing Radiation to Photosynthesis / Alexander N. Melkozernov
  • 14. Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis from Anoxygenic Type I and Type II Reaction Centers / John F. Allen.
"The volume is intended as an introduction to the physical principles governing the main processes that occur in photosynthesis, with emphasis on the light reactions and electron transport chain. A unique feature of the photosynthetic apparatus is the fact that the molecular structures are known in detail for essentially all of its major components. The availability of this data has allowed their functions to be probed at a very fundamental level to discover the design principles that have guided evolution. Other volumes on photosynthesis have tended to focus on single components or on a specific set of biophysical techniques, and the authors' goal is to provide new researchers with an introduction to the overall field of photosynthesis. The book is divided into sections, each dealing with one of the main physical processes in photosynthetic energy conversion. Each section has several chapters each describing the role that a basic physical property, such as charge or spin, plays in governing the process being discussed. The chapters proceed in an orderly fashion from a quantum mechanical description of early processes on an ultrafast timescale to a classical treatment of electron transfer and catalysis on a biochemical timescale culminating in evolutionary principles on a geological timescale."--Publisher's website.
  • Part I. Light Energy Capture and Energy Transfer
  • 1. Structure-Based Calculation of Pigment-Protein and Excitonic Pigment-Pigment Coupling in Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complexes / Frank Müh and Thomas Renger
  • 2. Electron-Phonon and Exciton-Phonon Coupling in Light Harvesting, Insights from Line-Narrowing Spectroscopies / Jörg Pieper and Arvi Freiberg
  • 3. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer and Charge Separation in Higher Plants / Tjaart P.J. Krüger, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin, Elisabet Romero, and Rienk van Grondelle
  • Part II. Underlying Principles of Electron Transport
  • 4. Tunneling in Electron Transport / Christopher C. Moser
  • 5. Spin in Photosynthetic Electron Transport / Isaac F. Céspedes-Camacho and Jörg Matysik
  • 6. Energy Changes in Photosynthetic Electron Transport: Probing Photosynthesis by Pulsed Photoacoustics / David Mauzerall and Steven P. Mielke
  • Part III. Separation and Stabilization of Charge
  • 7. Mechanism of Primary Charge Separation in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers / Sergei Savikhin and Ryszard Jankowiak
  • 8. Effects of Quasi-Equilibrium States on the Kinetics of Electron Transfer and Radical Pair Stabilisation in Photosystem I / Stefano Santabarbara, Robert Jennings, and Giuseppe Zucchelli
  • 9. Energetics of Cofactors in Photosynthetic Complexes: Relationship Between Protein-Cofactor Interactions and Midpoint Potentials / James P. Allen and JoAnn C. Williams
  • Part IV. Donor Side Intermediates and Water Splitting
  • 10. The Radical Intermediates of Photosystem II / K.V. Lakshmi, Christopher S. Coates, Stuart Smith, and Ruchira Chatterjee
  • 11. Structure-Function Relationships in the Mn₄CaO₅ Water-Splitting Cluster / Jian-Ren Shen
  • 12. Water and Oxygen Diffusion Pathways Within Photosystem II. Computational Studies of Controlled Substrate Access and Product Release / Serguei Vassiliev and Doug Bruce
  • Part V. Evolution of the Photosynthetic Apparatus
  • 13. From Ionizing Radiation to Photosynthesis / Alexander N. Melkozernov
  • 14. Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis from Anoxygenic Type I and Type II Reaction Centers / John F. Allen.
"The volume is intended as an introduction to the physical principles governing the main processes that occur in photosynthesis, with emphasis on the light reactions and electron transport chain. A unique feature of the photosynthetic apparatus is the fact that the molecular structures are known in detail for essentially all of its major components. The availability of this data has allowed their functions to be probed at a very fundamental level to discover the design principles that have guided evolution. Other volumes on photosynthesis have tended to focus on single components or on a specific set of biophysical techniques, and the authors' goal is to provide new researchers with an introduction to the overall field of photosynthesis. The book is divided into sections, each dealing with one of the main physical processes in photosynthetic energy conversion. Each section has several chapters each describing the role that a basic physical property, such as charge or spin, plays in governing the process being discussed. The chapters proceed in an orderly fashion from a quantum mechanical description of early processes on an ultrafast timescale to a classical treatment of electron transfer and catalysis on a biochemical timescale culminating in evolutionary principles on a geological timescale."--Publisher's website.
Medical Library (Lane)
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Check Medical Library (Lane) catalog for status
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Book
127 p.
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 11 -1.1 Aroma Chemical Manufacturing 11 -1.2 Fragrance Oil Formulation 12 -1.3 Formulation of Commercial and Consumer Products 13 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Production of Commercial and Consumer Products Using Functional Fragrance Oils 16 -2.2 Production of Consumer Products Using Fine Fragrance Oils� 18 -2.3 Physical Properties of Aroma Chemicals 19 3. Generl Facility Estimates 21 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)�22 -3.3 Concentration of the Aroma Chemical (Fchem_final)� 22 -3.4 Daily Use Rate of Aroma Chemical (Qchem_site_day) 23 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 25 -3.6 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 26 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Filled per Site (Ncontainer_load_site_yr)� 27 4. Environmental Release Assessments 29 -4.1 Control Technologies 30 -4.2 Adjusted Vapor Pressure 30 -4.3 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1)�31 -4.4 Fugitive Air Releases During Transport Container Cleaning (Release 2) 33 -4.5 Fugitive Air Releases from Unloading Transport Containers (Release 3) 34 -4.6 Fugitive Air Releases During Mixing Operations (Release 4)�35 -4.7 Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 5) 36 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 6)�36 -4.9 Release to Water, Incineration, or Landfill from Equipment Cleaning (Release 7) 37 -4.10 Fugitive Air Releases During Equipment Cleaning (Release 8)�38 -4.11 Fugitive Air Releases During Product Packaging (Release 9)�39 -4.12 Release to Water, Incineration, Land, or Air from Dust Waste Generated from Conveying, Mixing, and Packaging Powdered Commercial and Consumer Products (Release 10)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 42 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 43 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site�43 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A)� 44 -5.4 Exposure During Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 46 -5.5 Exposure from Sampling Product Formulation (Exposure C) 48 -5.6 Exposure During Equipment Cleaning (Exposure D)� 49� -5.7 Exposure from Packaging of Commercial and Consumer Products (Exposure E) 51 6. Sample Calculations 56 -6.1 General Facility Estimates (TIMEworking_days) 56 -6.2 Release Assessments 59 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments� 67 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future� Work 76 8. References 78 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Value Documentation 82 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations� / Defaults for the Standard EPA Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models� 90 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 123 Appendix D. Data Received from Research Institute for Fragrance Materials� 125  
The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the applicability of this scenario.  
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 11 -1.1 Aroma Chemical Manufacturing 11 -1.2 Fragrance Oil Formulation 12 -1.3 Formulation of Commercial and Consumer Products 13 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Production of Commercial and Consumer Products Using Functional Fragrance Oils 16 -2.2 Production of Consumer Products Using Fine Fragrance Oils� 18 -2.3 Physical Properties of Aroma Chemicals 19 3. Generl Facility Estimates 21 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)�22 -3.3 Concentration of the Aroma Chemical (Fchem_final)� 22 -3.4 Daily Use Rate of Aroma Chemical (Qchem_site_day) 23 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 25 -3.6 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 26 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Filled per Site (Ncontainer_load_site_yr)� 27 4. Environmental Release Assessments 29 -4.1 Control Technologies 30 -4.2 Adjusted Vapor Pressure 30 -4.3 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1)�31 -4.4 Fugitive Air Releases During Transport Container Cleaning (Release 2) 33 -4.5 Fugitive Air Releases from Unloading Transport Containers (Release 3) 34 -4.6 Fugitive Air Releases During Mixing Operations (Release 4)�35 -4.7 Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 5) 36 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 6)�36 -4.9 Release to Water, Incineration, or Landfill from Equipment Cleaning (Release 7) 37 -4.10 Fugitive Air Releases During Equipment Cleaning (Release 8)�38 -4.11 Fugitive Air Releases During Product Packaging (Release 9)�39 -4.12 Release to Water, Incineration, Land, or Air from Dust Waste Generated from Conveying, Mixing, and Packaging Powdered Commercial and Consumer Products (Release 10)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 42 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 43 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site�43 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A)� 44 -5.4 Exposure During Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 46 -5.5 Exposure from Sampling Product Formulation (Exposure C) 48 -5.6 Exposure During Equipment Cleaning (Exposure D)� 49� -5.7 Exposure from Packaging of Commercial and Consumer Products (Exposure E) 51 6. Sample Calculations 56 -6.1 General Facility Estimates (TIMEworking_days) 56 -6.2 Release Assessments 59 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments� 67 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future� Work 76 8. References 78 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Value Documentation 82 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations� / Defaults for the Standard EPA Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models� 90 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 123 Appendix D. Data Received from Research Institute for Fragrance Materials� 125  
The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the applicability of this scenario.  
Book
1 online resource (26 p.)
This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run, elasticities are higher and similar in the scenarios with and without public transport, because of larger urban reconfiguration in the latter scenario. These results are policy relevant, especially for fast-growing cities in developing countries. Even for cities where emission reductions are not a priority today, there is an option value attached to a dense public transport network, since it makes it possible to reduce emissions at a lower cost in the future.
This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run, elasticities are higher and similar in the scenarios with and without public transport, because of larger urban reconfiguration in the latter scenario. These results are policy relevant, especially for fast-growing cities in developing countries. Even for cities where emission reductions are not a priority today, there is an option value attached to a dense public transport network, since it makes it possible to reduce emissions at a lower cost in the future.
Book
1 online resource (x, 494 p.) : ill. (some col.)
  • Medical Informatics as a scientific discipline
  • Medical vocabulary, terminological resources, health information coding
  • The management and dissemination of knowledge in Healthcare
  • The representation of the patient data in the health information systems and the electronic medical record
  • Medical Image processing: principles, main applications and prospects
  • Augmented Medical Interventions : Surgetics and Robotics
  • Clinical diagnostic decision making support
  • Therapeutic decision making support
  • Medico-economic decision making support
  • Public health decision making
  • Security, legal and ethical aspects of computerized health data
  • Clinical Information Systems in hospitals
  • Shared medical records
  • Computerizing the medical office
  • Computerizing the dental office
  • Computerizing the pharmacy
  • The development of E-Health
  • Translational Medical Informatics
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics for Medical Informatics.
Over the years, medical informatics has matured into a true scientific discipline. Fundamental and applied aspects are now taught in various fields of health, including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and public health. Medical informatics is also often included in the curricula of many other disciplines, including the life sciences, engineering and economics. Medical informatics is a complex and rapidly changing discipline. Relatively few books have been published on the subject, and they rapidly become obsolete. This book is the fruit of a collaborative effort between authors teaching medical informatics in France and others who are conducting research in this field. In addition, an international perspective was pursued, as reflected in the inclusion of various developments and actions in both the USA and Europe. This book is divided into 18 chapters, all of which include learning objectives, recommendations for further reading, exercises and bibliographic references.
  • Medical Informatics as a scientific discipline
  • Medical vocabulary, terminological resources, health information coding
  • The management and dissemination of knowledge in Healthcare
  • The representation of the patient data in the health information systems and the electronic medical record
  • Medical Image processing: principles, main applications and prospects
  • Augmented Medical Interventions : Surgetics and Robotics
  • Clinical diagnostic decision making support
  • Therapeutic decision making support
  • Medico-economic decision making support
  • Public health decision making
  • Security, legal and ethical aspects of computerized health data
  • Clinical Information Systems in hospitals
  • Shared medical records
  • Computerizing the medical office
  • Computerizing the dental office
  • Computerizing the pharmacy
  • The development of E-Health
  • Translational Medical Informatics
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics for Medical Informatics.
Over the years, medical informatics has matured into a true scientific discipline. Fundamental and applied aspects are now taught in various fields of health, including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and public health. Medical informatics is also often included in the curricula of many other disciplines, including the life sciences, engineering and economics. Medical informatics is a complex and rapidly changing discipline. Relatively few books have been published on the subject, and they rapidly become obsolete. This book is the fruit of a collaborative effort between authors teaching medical informatics in France and others who are conducting research in this field. In addition, an international perspective was pursued, as reflected in the inclusion of various developments and actions in both the USA and Europe. This book is divided into 18 chapters, all of which include learning objectives, recommendations for further reading, exercises and bibliographic references.
Book
75 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 8 -Purpose and background 8 -How to use this document�8 -Coverage and methodology 8 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background 13 -1.1 Exploration 14 -1.2 Well Development 14 -1.3 Petroleum Production 15 -1.4 Site Abandonment15 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Petroleum Production from Oil Wells 16 -2.2 Stages of Petroleum Production 16 -2.3 Petroleum Production Chemicals�18 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates 20 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEoperating_days and TIMEworking_days) 21 -3.3 Concentration of the Oil Well Chemical in Received Formulation (Fchem) 22 -3.4 Injection Concentration of Oil Well Chemicals (Fchem_used_oil and Fchem_used_water) -3.5 Daily Use Rate of Oil Well Chemical (Qchem_oil_site_day and Qchem_water_site_day) 24 -3.6 Number of Sites (Nsites)�28 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 29 4. Environmental Release Assessments 31 -4.1 Control Technologies� 32 -4.2 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1) 32 -4.3 Release to Water or Land from Equipment and Storage Tank Cleaning (Release 2)�34 -4.4 Release to Refinery (Incineration) from Separation Process (Release 3) 35 -4.5 Release to Water or Deep Well Injection from Separation Process (Release 4)�38 -4.6 Release to Land from Separation Process (Release 5)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 40 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 41 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 41 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A) 42 -5.4 Exposure from Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 43 -5.5 Exposure from Equipment/Storage Tank Cleaning (Exposure C) 44 6 Sample Calculations 45 -6.1 General Facility Estimates�45 -6.2 Release Assessments 47 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 50 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 52 References 54� Appendix A: Estimating Equation Summary and Default parameter Values Appendix B: Background Information and Equations/Defaults for the Standard CEB Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.
  • Explanatory Notes 8 -Purpose and background 8 -How to use this document�8 -Coverage and methodology 8 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background 13 -1.1 Exploration 14 -1.2 Well Development 14 -1.3 Petroleum Production 15 -1.4 Site Abandonment15 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Petroleum Production from Oil Wells 16 -2.2 Stages of Petroleum Production 16 -2.3 Petroleum Production Chemicals�18 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates 20 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEoperating_days and TIMEworking_days) 21 -3.3 Concentration of the Oil Well Chemical in Received Formulation (Fchem) 22 -3.4 Injection Concentration of Oil Well Chemicals (Fchem_used_oil and Fchem_used_water) -3.5 Daily Use Rate of Oil Well Chemical (Qchem_oil_site_day and Qchem_water_site_day) 24 -3.6 Number of Sites (Nsites)�28 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 29 4. Environmental Release Assessments 31 -4.1 Control Technologies� 32 -4.2 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1) 32 -4.3 Release to Water or Land from Equipment and Storage Tank Cleaning (Release 2)�34 -4.4 Release to Refinery (Incineration) from Separation Process (Release 3) 35 -4.5 Release to Water or Deep Well Injection from Separation Process (Release 4)�38 -4.6 Release to Land from Separation Process (Release 5)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 40 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 41 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 41 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A) 42 -5.4 Exposure from Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 43 -5.5 Exposure from Equipment/Storage Tank Cleaning (Exposure C) 44 6 Sample Calculations 45 -6.1 General Facility Estimates�45 -6.2 Release Assessments 47 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 50 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 52 References 54� Appendix A: Estimating Equation Summary and Default parameter Values Appendix B: Background Information and Equations/Defaults for the Standard CEB Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.
Book
224 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 7 Executive Summary 8 Acknowledgements10 1. Introduction  18 -1.1 Purpose and scope19 -1.2 How to use this document 20 2. Industry Overview 22 -2.1 Specific regulatory background  22 -2.2 General information on the UK industry 27 -2.3 Scales of operation 27 -2.4 Industry associations 29 -2.5 End products 29 -2.6 Chemical categories in the electronics industry 30 -2.7 Electronic components 31 -2.8 Processes in the electronics industry 39 3. Industry Processes and Emissions Estimation 42 -3.1 Estimation overview 42 -3.2 Assembly of components 49 -3.3 Chemical vapour deposition (doping) 61 -3.4 Electroless plating 72 -3.5 Electroplating 84 -3.6 Etching 97 -3.7 High vacuum evaporation / sputtering 109 -3.8 Laminate production and processing 120 -3.9 Photolithography126 -3.10 Soldering  142 -3.11 Other industrial processes 155 -3.12 Service life  156 -3.13 Recovery from waste 157 -3.14 Waste 160 4. Examples  163 -4.1 Notes on risk assessment for electronics chemicals 163 -4.2 Worked example: Solvent used in spin coating  164 -4.3 Worked example: Inorganic salt used as an etchant 168 -4.4 Worked example: Diazo photoresist used in PCB manufacture 171 -4.5 Worked example: Electroplating chemical  177 ANNEXES 182 -Annex I: substances, preparations and components to be removed from separately collected WEEE 182 -Annex II: List of relevant industry associations 183 -Annex III: Substances relevant to the electronics industry 184 -Annex IV: Relevant A- and B-tables 204 -Notes on this Document: Data Gaps, Limitations and Improvements 207 -References 208 -Glossary 220
This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment, for example as required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals.
  • Explanatory Notes 7 Executive Summary 8 Acknowledgements10 1. Introduction  18 -1.1 Purpose and scope19 -1.2 How to use this document 20 2. Industry Overview 22 -2.1 Specific regulatory background  22 -2.2 General information on the UK industry 27 -2.3 Scales of operation 27 -2.4 Industry associations 29 -2.5 End products 29 -2.6 Chemical categories in the electronics industry 30 -2.7 Electronic components 31 -2.8 Processes in the electronics industry 39 3. Industry Processes and Emissions Estimation 42 -3.1 Estimation overview 42 -3.2 Assembly of components 49 -3.3 Chemical vapour deposition (doping) 61 -3.4 Electroless plating 72 -3.5 Electroplating 84 -3.6 Etching 97 -3.7 High vacuum evaporation / sputtering 109 -3.8 Laminate production and processing 120 -3.9 Photolithography126 -3.10 Soldering  142 -3.11 Other industrial processes 155 -3.12 Service life  156 -3.13 Recovery from waste 157 -3.14 Waste 160 4. Examples  163 -4.1 Notes on risk assessment for electronics chemicals 163 -4.2 Worked example: Solvent used in spin coating  164 -4.3 Worked example: Inorganic salt used as an etchant 168 -4.4 Worked example: Diazo photoresist used in PCB manufacture 171 -4.5 Worked example: Electroplating chemical  177 ANNEXES 182 -Annex I: substances, preparations and components to be removed from separately collected WEEE 182 -Annex II: List of relevant industry associations 183 -Annex III: Substances relevant to the electronics industry 184 -Annex IV: Relevant A- and B-tables 204 -Notes on this Document: Data Gaps, Limitations and Improvements 207 -References 208 -Glossary 220
This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment, for example as required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals.