Search results

481 results

View results as:
Number of results to display per page
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF.
  • chapter 1. Membrane separation / Alfredo Cassano, Renè Ruby Figueroa, and Enrico Drioli
  • chapter 2. Size reduction / Constantina Tzia and Virginia Giannou
  • chapter 3. Centrifugation-filtration / Theodoros Varzakas
  • chapter 4. Crystallization / Theodoros Varzakas
  • chapter 5. Mixing-emulsions / Theodoros Varzakas, V. Polychniatou, and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 6. Solid-liquid extraction / Sofia Chanioti, George Liadakis, and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 7. Supercritical fluid extraction / Epaminondas Voutsas
  • chapter 8. Chilling and freezing / M. Giannakourou and Virginia Giannou
  • chapter 9. Drying of foods / Panagiotis A. Michailidis and Magdalini K. Krokida
  • chapter 10. Fluidized bed, spouted bed, and in-store drying of grain / Robert H. Driscoll and George Srzednicki
  • chapter 11. Fermentation and enzymes / Constantinos Katsimpouras, Paul Christakopoulos, and Evangelos Topakas
  • chapter 12. Fluid and species transfer in food biopolymers / Pawan S. Takhar
  • chapter 13. Encapsulation of food ingredients : agents and techniques / Charikleia Chranioti and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 14. Multiphysics modeling of innovative and traditional food processing technologies / Kai Knoerzer and Henry Sabarez
  • chapter 15. New/innovative technologies / George I. Katsaros and Petros S. Taoukis.
"This book provides an up-to-date review of food processing and engineering phenomena. It addresses the basic principles of food engineering technologies used in food processing operations around the world, combining theory with a practical hands-on approach. The book explores the basic and applied aspects of food engineering from mass transfer and heat transfer to steam and boilers, heat exchangers, fluid flow, and novel food processes such as membrane technology. It describes the physico-chemical and microbiological methods for each preservation methodology and addresses interactions between different food constituents"-- Provided by publisher.
  • chapter 1. Membrane separation / Alfredo Cassano, Renè Ruby Figueroa, and Enrico Drioli
  • chapter 2. Size reduction / Constantina Tzia and Virginia Giannou
  • chapter 3. Centrifugation-filtration / Theodoros Varzakas
  • chapter 4. Crystallization / Theodoros Varzakas
  • chapter 5. Mixing-emulsions / Theodoros Varzakas, V. Polychniatou, and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 6. Solid-liquid extraction / Sofia Chanioti, George Liadakis, and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 7. Supercritical fluid extraction / Epaminondas Voutsas
  • chapter 8. Chilling and freezing / M. Giannakourou and Virginia Giannou
  • chapter 9. Drying of foods / Panagiotis A. Michailidis and Magdalini K. Krokida
  • chapter 10. Fluidized bed, spouted bed, and in-store drying of grain / Robert H. Driscoll and George Srzednicki
  • chapter 11. Fermentation and enzymes / Constantinos Katsimpouras, Paul Christakopoulos, and Evangelos Topakas
  • chapter 12. Fluid and species transfer in food biopolymers / Pawan S. Takhar
  • chapter 13. Encapsulation of food ingredients : agents and techniques / Charikleia Chranioti and Constantina Tzia
  • chapter 14. Multiphysics modeling of innovative and traditional food processing technologies / Kai Knoerzer and Henry Sabarez
  • chapter 15. New/innovative technologies / George I. Katsaros and Petros S. Taoukis.
"This book provides an up-to-date review of food processing and engineering phenomena. It addresses the basic principles of food engineering technologies used in food processing operations around the world, combining theory with a practical hands-on approach. The book explores the basic and applied aspects of food engineering from mass transfer and heat transfer to steam and boilers, heat exchangers, fluid flow, and novel food processes such as membrane technology. It describes the physico-chemical and microbiological methods for each preservation methodology and addresses interactions between different food constituents"-- Provided by publisher.
Book
xix, 358 pages : ill. ; 25 cm
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Status of items at Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain) Status
Stacks
TP155.7 .K37 2015 Unavailable At bindery Request
Book
xxxvi, 388 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • 1. Introduction to modelling and simulation
  • 2. An overview of modelling and simulation
  • 3. Models based on simple laws
  • 4. Models based on laws of conservation
  • 5. Multiphase systems without reaction
  • 6. Multiphase systems with reaction
  • 7. Population balance models and discrete-event models
  • 8. Artificial neural network-based models
  • 9. Model validation and sensitivity analysis
  • 10. Case studies
  • 11. Simulation of large plants.
  • 1. Introduction to modelling and simulation
  • 2. An overview of modelling and simulation
  • 3. Models based on simple laws
  • 4. Models based on laws of conservation
  • 5. Multiphase systems without reaction
  • 6. Multiphase systems with reaction
  • 7. Population balance models and discrete-event models
  • 8. Artificial neural network-based models
  • 9. Model validation and sensitivity analysis
  • 10. Case studies
  • 11. Simulation of large plants.
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Status of items at Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain) Status
Stacks
TP155.7 .V47 2015 Unknown
Book
1 online resource.
The 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering creates an international forum where scientific and industrial contributions of computer-aided techniques are presented with applications in process modeling and simulation, process synthesis and design, operation, and process optimization. The organizers have broadened the boundaries of Process Systems Engineering by inviting contributions at different scales of modeling and demonstrating vertical and horizontal integration. Contributions range from applications at the molecular level to the strategic level of the supply chain and sustainable development. They cover major classical themes, at the same time exploring a new range of applications that address the production of renewable forms of energy, environmental footprints and sustainable use of resources and water.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
The 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering creates an international forum where scientific and industrial contributions of computer-aided techniques are presented with applications in process modeling and simulation, process synthesis and design, operation, and process optimization. The organizers have broadened the boundaries of Process Systems Engineering by inviting contributions at different scales of modeling and demonstrating vertical and horizontal integration. Contributions range from applications at the molecular level to the strategic level of the supply chain and sustainable development. They cover major classical themes, at the same time exploring a new range of applications that address the production of renewable forms of energy, environmental footprints and sustainable use of resources and water.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Thermodynamics as a Basic of Inanimate and Animate Nature Nanotherapeutics: A novel approach of target based drug delivery Phosphorus-Containing Polypeptides Free Radical Initiation in Polymers under the Action of Nitrogen Oxides The Structure and Properties of Blends of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Analysis Methods of Some Nanocomposites Structure Synthesis, Properties And Applications Ozone And It Compounds Functional Models of Fe(Ni) Dioxygenases. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Catalytic Active Nickel and Iron Heteroligand Complexes Association Between Calcium Chloride and Caffeine as Seen by Transport Techniques and Theoretical Calculations Synthesis of Biologically Awake Antioxidants in Feactions of Esterification 2- (N-acetylamid)-3-(3 ', 5 '-di-tert.butyl-4 '-hydroxyphenyl)-Propionic Acid Attempting to Consider Mechanism of Originating of Damages of Chromosome in the Different Phases of Mitotic Cycle Biology of Development of Phytopathogenic Fungi of Fusarium Link and Resistance of Cereals to It in Climatic Conditions of Tyumen Region Realization of Potential Possibilities of a Genotype at Level of Phenotype Cooperation of High Schools and Scientific Institutions on the Way of Education of Scientific Shots to Modern Conditions Fluid Flow and Control of Bending Instability During Electrospinning Relaxation Parameters of Polymers The Morphological Features of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Blends Perspectives of Application Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering Method for Quality Control of Medicines Interaction and Structure Formation of Gelatin type A with Thermo Aggregates of Bovine Serum Albumin Wild Orchids of Colchis Forests and Save Them as Objects of Ecoeducation and Producers of Medicinal Substances Express Assessment of Cell Viability in Biological Preparations Activity of Liposomal Antimicrobic Preparations Concerning Staphylococcus Aureus Polyelectrolyte Microsensors as a New Tool for Metabolites' Detection Selection of Medical Preparations for Treating Lower Parts of the Urinary System Improvement of the Functional Properties of Lysozyme by Interaction with 5-methylresorcinol Introductions in Culture in vitro Rare Bulbous Plants of the Sochi Black Sea Coast (Scilla, Muscari, Galanthus) Change of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Ascorbic Acid and Paracetamol High-Diluted Solutions at Their Joint Presence The Methods of the Study of the Processes of the Issue to Optical Information Biological Object Research Update on Conjugated Polymers Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Effectiveness of Centrifugal Separator Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This new book offers research and updates on the chemical process in liquid and solid phases. The collection of topics in this book reflect the diversity of recent advances in chemical processes with a broad perspective that will be useful to scientists as well as graduate students and engineers. The book will help to fill the gap between theory and practice in industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Thermodynamics as a Basic of Inanimate and Animate Nature Nanotherapeutics: A novel approach of target based drug delivery Phosphorus-Containing Polypeptides Free Radical Initiation in Polymers under the Action of Nitrogen Oxides The Structure and Properties of Blends of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Analysis Methods of Some Nanocomposites Structure Synthesis, Properties And Applications Ozone And It Compounds Functional Models of Fe(Ni) Dioxygenases. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Catalytic Active Nickel and Iron Heteroligand Complexes Association Between Calcium Chloride and Caffeine as Seen by Transport Techniques and Theoretical Calculations Synthesis of Biologically Awake Antioxidants in Feactions of Esterification 2- (N-acetylamid)-3-(3 ', 5 '-di-tert.butyl-4 '-hydroxyphenyl)-Propionic Acid Attempting to Consider Mechanism of Originating of Damages of Chromosome in the Different Phases of Mitotic Cycle Biology of Development of Phytopathogenic Fungi of Fusarium Link and Resistance of Cereals to It in Climatic Conditions of Tyumen Region Realization of Potential Possibilities of a Genotype at Level of Phenotype Cooperation of High Schools and Scientific Institutions on the Way of Education of Scientific Shots to Modern Conditions Fluid Flow and Control of Bending Instability During Electrospinning Relaxation Parameters of Polymers The Morphological Features of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Blends Perspectives of Application Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering Method for Quality Control of Medicines Interaction and Structure Formation of Gelatin type A with Thermo Aggregates of Bovine Serum Albumin Wild Orchids of Colchis Forests and Save Them as Objects of Ecoeducation and Producers of Medicinal Substances Express Assessment of Cell Viability in Biological Preparations Activity of Liposomal Antimicrobic Preparations Concerning Staphylococcus Aureus Polyelectrolyte Microsensors as a New Tool for Metabolites' Detection Selection of Medical Preparations for Treating Lower Parts of the Urinary System Improvement of the Functional Properties of Lysozyme by Interaction with 5-methylresorcinol Introductions in Culture in vitro Rare Bulbous Plants of the Sochi Black Sea Coast (Scilla, Muscari, Galanthus) Change of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Ascorbic Acid and Paracetamol High-Diluted Solutions at Their Joint Presence The Methods of the Study of the Processes of the Issue to Optical Information Biological Object Research Update on Conjugated Polymers Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Effectiveness of Centrifugal Separator Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This new book offers research and updates on the chemical process in liquid and solid phases. The collection of topics in this book reflect the diversity of recent advances in chemical processes with a broad perspective that will be useful to scientists as well as graduate students and engineers. The book will help to fill the gap between theory and practice in industry.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface ix 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Categories of Processes 3 1.2. The Industry 5 1.3. The Ultimate Batch Process: The Kitchen in Your Home 13 1.4. Categories of Batch Processes 14 1.5. Automation Functions Required for Batch 18 1.6. Automation Equipment 26 Reference 30 2 Measurement Considerations 31 2.1. Temperature Measurement 32 2.2. Pressure Measurement 39 2.3. Weight and Level 47 2.4. Flow Measurements 61 2.5. Loss-in-Weight Application 67 References 72 3 Continuous Control Issues 73 3.1. Loops That Operate Intermittently 74 3.2. Emptying a Vessel 80 3.3. Terminating a Co-Feed 85 3.4. Adjusting Ratio Targets 89 3.5. Attaining Temperature Target for the Heel 97 3.6. Characterization Functions in Batch Applications 100 3.7. Scheduled Tuning in Batch Applications 101 3.8. Edge of the Envelope 104 3.9. No Flow Through Control Valve 107 3.10. No Pressure Drop across Control Valve 111 3.11. Attempting to Operate above a Process-Imposed Maximum 115 3.12. Attempting to Operate Below a Process-Imposed Minimum 121 3.13. Jacket Switching 124 3.14. Smooth Transitions between Heating and One Cooling Mode 129 3.15. Smooth Transitions between Two Cooling Modes 140 References 148 4 Discrete Devices 149 4.1. Discrete Inputs 149 4.2. Discrete Outputs 157 4.3. State Feedbacks 167 4.4. Associated Functions 176 4.5. Beyond Two-State Final Control Elements 182 5 Material Transfers 185 5.1. Multiple-Source, Single-Destination Material Transfer System 186 5.2. Single-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 189 5.3. Multiple-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 191 5.4. Validating a Material Transfer 194 5.5. Dribble Flow 197 5.6. Simultaneous Material Transfers 202 5.7. Drums 203 6 Structured Logic for Batch 205 6.1. Structured Programming 207 6.2. Product Recipes and Product Batches 212 6.3. Formula 215 6.4. Operations 216 6.5. Phases 220 6.6. Actions 223 References 226 7 Batch Unit or Process Unit 227 7.1. Defi ning a Batch Unit 228 7.2. Supporting Equipment 232 7.3. Step Programmer 237 7.4. Failure Considerations 241 7.5. Coordination 254 7.6. Shared Equipment: Exclusive Use 257 7.7. Shared Equipment: Limited Capacity 261 7.8. Identical Batch Units 262 8 Sequence Logic 265 8.1. Features Provided by Sequence Logic 265 8.2. Failure Monitoring and Response 267 8.3. Relay Ladder Diagrams 273 8.4. Procedural Languages 276 8.5. Special Languages 278 8.6. State Machine 280 8.7. Grafcet/Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) 283 9 Batches and Recipes 290 9.1. Organization of Recipes 291 9.2. Corporate Recipes 294 9.3. Executing Product Batches Simultaneously 299 9.4. Managing Product Batches 302 9.5. Executing Operations 305 9.6. Batch History Data 309 9.7. Performance Parameters 313 Index 319.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Gives a real world explanation of how to analyze and troubleshoot aprocess control system in a batch process plant Explains how to analyze the requirements forcontrolling a batch process, develop the control logic to meetthese requirements, and troubleshoot the process controls in batchprocesses Presents three categories of batch processes (cyclicalbatch, multigrade facilities, and flexible batch) and examines thedifferences in the control requirements in each Examines various concepts of a product recipe and whatits nature must be in a flexible batch facility Approaches the subject from the process perspective, with emphasis on the advantages of using structured logic in theautomation of all but the simplest batch processes. Discusses the flow of information starting at theplant floor and continuing through various levels of the controllogic up to the corporate IT level.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface ix 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Categories of Processes 3 1.2. The Industry 5 1.3. The Ultimate Batch Process: The Kitchen in Your Home 13 1.4. Categories of Batch Processes 14 1.5. Automation Functions Required for Batch 18 1.6. Automation Equipment 26 Reference 30 2 Measurement Considerations 31 2.1. Temperature Measurement 32 2.2. Pressure Measurement 39 2.3. Weight and Level 47 2.4. Flow Measurements 61 2.5. Loss-in-Weight Application 67 References 72 3 Continuous Control Issues 73 3.1. Loops That Operate Intermittently 74 3.2. Emptying a Vessel 80 3.3. Terminating a Co-Feed 85 3.4. Adjusting Ratio Targets 89 3.5. Attaining Temperature Target for the Heel 97 3.6. Characterization Functions in Batch Applications 100 3.7. Scheduled Tuning in Batch Applications 101 3.8. Edge of the Envelope 104 3.9. No Flow Through Control Valve 107 3.10. No Pressure Drop across Control Valve 111 3.11. Attempting to Operate above a Process-Imposed Maximum 115 3.12. Attempting to Operate Below a Process-Imposed Minimum 121 3.13. Jacket Switching 124 3.14. Smooth Transitions between Heating and One Cooling Mode 129 3.15. Smooth Transitions between Two Cooling Modes 140 References 148 4 Discrete Devices 149 4.1. Discrete Inputs 149 4.2. Discrete Outputs 157 4.3. State Feedbacks 167 4.4. Associated Functions 176 4.5. Beyond Two-State Final Control Elements 182 5 Material Transfers 185 5.1. Multiple-Source, Single-Destination Material Transfer System 186 5.2. Single-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 189 5.3. Multiple-Source, Multiple-Destination Material Transfer System 191 5.4. Validating a Material Transfer 194 5.5. Dribble Flow 197 5.6. Simultaneous Material Transfers 202 5.7. Drums 203 6 Structured Logic for Batch 205 6.1. Structured Programming 207 6.2. Product Recipes and Product Batches 212 6.3. Formula 215 6.4. Operations 216 6.5. Phases 220 6.6. Actions 223 References 226 7 Batch Unit or Process Unit 227 7.1. Defi ning a Batch Unit 228 7.2. Supporting Equipment 232 7.3. Step Programmer 237 7.4. Failure Considerations 241 7.5. Coordination 254 7.6. Shared Equipment: Exclusive Use 257 7.7. Shared Equipment: Limited Capacity 261 7.8. Identical Batch Units 262 8 Sequence Logic 265 8.1. Features Provided by Sequence Logic 265 8.2. Failure Monitoring and Response 267 8.3. Relay Ladder Diagrams 273 8.4. Procedural Languages 276 8.5. Special Languages 278 8.6. State Machine 280 8.7. Grafcet/Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) 283 9 Batches and Recipes 290 9.1. Organization of Recipes 291 9.2. Corporate Recipes 294 9.3. Executing Product Batches Simultaneously 299 9.4. Managing Product Batches 302 9.5. Executing Operations 305 9.6. Batch History Data 309 9.7. Performance Parameters 313 Index 319.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Gives a real world explanation of how to analyze and troubleshoot aprocess control system in a batch process plant Explains how to analyze the requirements forcontrolling a batch process, develop the control logic to meetthese requirements, and troubleshoot the process controls in batchprocesses Presents three categories of batch processes (cyclicalbatch, multigrade facilities, and flexible batch) and examines thedifferences in the control requirements in each Examines various concepts of a product recipe and whatits nature must be in a flexible batch facility Approaches the subject from the process perspective, with emphasis on the advantages of using structured logic in theautomation of all but the simplest batch processes. Discusses the flow of information starting at theplant floor and continuing through various levels of the controllogic up to the corporate IT level.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (373 pages) : illustrations
Distillation: Equipment and Processes-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers-is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the theory and practice of modern distillation, suitable for advanced students and professionals working in a laboratory, industrial plants, or a managerial capacity. It addresses the most important and current research on industrial distillation, including all steps in process design (feasibility study, modeling, and experimental validation), together with operation and control aspects. This volume features an extra focus on distillation equipment and processes. * Winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers* Practical information on the newest development written by recognized experts* Coverage of a huge range of laboratory and industrial distillation approaches* Extensive references for each chapter facilitates further study.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Distillation: Equipment and Processes-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers-is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the theory and practice of modern distillation, suitable for advanced students and professionals working in a laboratory, industrial plants, or a managerial capacity. It addresses the most important and current research on industrial distillation, including all steps in process design (feasibility study, modeling, and experimental validation), together with operation and control aspects. This volume features an extra focus on distillation equipment and processes. * Winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers* Practical information on the newest development written by recognized experts* Coverage of a huge range of laboratory and industrial distillation approaches* Extensive references for each chapter facilitates further study.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Foreword Acknowledgements Introduction Author Dictionary: A-Z Bibliography Appendix: Key to Products.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Since the third edition of this reference was completed, there have been major changes in the global chemical industry. With less emphasis on new processes for making basic chemicals and more emphasis on pollution prevention and waste disposal, petrochemical processes are giving way to biochemical processes. These changes are reflected in the new processes being developed, many of which have their own names. In addition, niche improvements are still being made in petrochemistry, and some of these processes have new names as well. Gathering and defining a large portion of special named processes that may fall outside standard chemical texts or be scattered among industry manuals, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Named Processes in Chemical Technology, Fourth Edition provides a single-source reference on an extensive array of named processes. It provides concise descriptions of those processes in chemical technology that are known by special names that are not self-explanatory. While overviews of the chemical technology industry are present in other books, most of the names defined within this volume are unique to this compilation. This reference includes named processes in current commercial use around the world, processes that have been or are being piloted on a substantial scale, and even obsolete processes that have been important in the past. The length of the dictionary entries reflects their importance and topicality. The text includes references that document the origins of the processes and review the latest developments. Written by a highly experienced and respected author, this user-friendly text is presented in a practical dictionary format that is useful for a broad audience including industrial chemists and engineers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Foreword Acknowledgements Introduction Author Dictionary: A-Z Bibliography Appendix: Key to Products.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Since the third edition of this reference was completed, there have been major changes in the global chemical industry. With less emphasis on new processes for making basic chemicals and more emphasis on pollution prevention and waste disposal, petrochemical processes are giving way to biochemical processes. These changes are reflected in the new processes being developed, many of which have their own names. In addition, niche improvements are still being made in petrochemistry, and some of these processes have new names as well. Gathering and defining a large portion of special named processes that may fall outside standard chemical texts or be scattered among industry manuals, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Named Processes in Chemical Technology, Fourth Edition provides a single-source reference on an extensive array of named processes. It provides concise descriptions of those processes in chemical technology that are known by special names that are not self-explanatory. While overviews of the chemical technology industry are present in other books, most of the names defined within this volume are unique to this compilation. This reference includes named processes in current commercial use around the world, processes that have been or are being piloted on a substantial scale, and even obsolete processes that have been important in the past. The length of the dictionary entries reflects their importance and topicality. The text includes references that document the origins of the processes and review the latest developments. Written by a highly experienced and respected author, this user-friendly text is presented in a practical dictionary format that is useful for a broad audience including industrial chemists and engineers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (628 pages) : illustrations
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1. Introductory Remarks 1 1.1 Perspective / 1 1.2 Organization and Objectives / 2 1.3 Approach / 8 2. Water 11 2.1 Perspective / 11 2.2 Important Properties of Water / 12 3. Concentration Units for Gases, Liquids, and Solids16 3.1 Selected Concentration Units / 16 3.2 The Ideal Gas Law and Gas Phase Concentration Units / 20 3.3 Aqueous Concentration Units / 23 3.4 Applications of Volume Fraction Units / 28 4. The Law of Mass Action and Chemical Equilibria 36 4.1 Perspective / 36 4.2 The Law of Mass Action / 37 4.3 Gas/Water Distributions / 38 4.4 Acid/Base Systems / 39 4.5 Metal Complexation Systems / 40 4.6 Water/Solid Systems (Solubility/Dissolution) / 41 4.7 Oxidation/Reduction Half Reactions / 43 5. Air / Water Distribution: Henry s Law 44 5.1 Perspective / 44 5.2 Henry s Law Constants / 46 5.3 Applications of Henry s Law / 51 6. Acid/Base Component Distributions 64 6.1 Perspective / 64 6.2 Proton Abundance in Aqueous Solutions: pH and the IonProduct of Water / 65 6.3 Acid Dissociation Constants / 69 6.4 Mole Accounting Relations / 70 6.5 Combination of Mole Balance and Acid/Base Equilibria /74 6.6 Alkalinity, Acidity, and the Carbonate System / 82 6.7 Applications of Acid/Base Principles in SelectedEnvironmental Contexts / 91 7. Mass Balance, Ideal Reactors, and Mixing 119 7.1 Perspective / 119 7.2 The Mass Balance / 120 7.3 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analyses / 121 7.4 Exit Responses for Ideal Reactors / 125 7.5 Modeling of Mixing in Ideal CMFRs / 130 7.6 Applications of CMFR Mixing Principles in EnvironmentalSystems / 144 8. Reactions in Ideal Reactors 157 8.1 Perspective / 157 8.2 Chemical Stoichiometry and Mass/Volume Relations / 158 8.3 Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 171 8.4 Applications of Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 183 8.5 Interfacial Mass Transfer in Ideal Reactors / 216 9. Reactions in Nonideal Reactors 265 9.1 Perspective / 265 9.2 Exit Concentration Versus Time Traces / 266 9.3 Residence Time Distribution Density / 267 9.4 Cumulative Residence Time Distributions / 271 9.5 Characterization of RTD Distributions / 272 9.6 Models for Addressing Longitudinal Dispersion in Reactors /275 9.7 Modeling Reactions in CMFRs in Series (TiS) Reactors /280 9.8 Modeling Reactions with the Plug-Flow with Dispersion Model/ 282 9.9 Modeling Reactions Using the Segregated Flow (SF) Model /289 9.10 Applications of Nonideal Reactor Models / 291 9.11 Considerations for Analyses of Spatially Variant Processes/ 305 9.12 Modeling Utilization and Growth in PFR-Like Reactors UsingTiS and SF / 318 10. Acid-Base Advanced Principles 335 10.1 Perspective / 335 10.2 Activity Coefficient / 336 10.3 Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants / 344 10.4 Nonideal Conjugate Acid/Conjugate Base Distributions /350 10.5 The Proton Balance (Proton Condition) / 358 10.6 Analyses of Solutions Prepared by Addition of Acids, Bases, and Salts to Water / 365 10.7 Analysis of Mixed Aqueous Solutions / 380 10.8 Acid and Base Neutralizing Capacity / 396 10.9 Activity Versus Concentration for Nonelectrolytes / 417 11. Metal Complexation and Solubility 439 11.1 Perspective / 439 11.2 Hydration of Metal Ions / 440 11.3 Cumulative Formation Constants / 441 11.4 Formation Equilibria for Solids / 447 11.5 Speciation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions ContainingLigands / 448 11.6 Metal Hydroxide Solubility / 456 11.7 Solubility of Metal Carbonates / 467 11.8 Solubility of Other Metal Ligand Solids / 511 12. Oxidation and Reduction 519 12.1 Perspective / 519 12.2 Redox Half Reactions / 520 12.3 The Nernst Equation / 533 12.4 Electron Availability in Environmental Systems / 535 Appendices 571 References 599 Index 602.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book introduces students to the various contextual areas of environmental engineering and includes the application of basic mathematics, scientific principles, and beginning engineering concepts in environmental engineering. The systematic approach focuses upon context-independent applications of important chemical principles and then applies these principles to various environmental engineering topics. It also demonstrates a MathCAD worksheet for mathematically modeling various systems arising in environmental engineering. These concepts are applicable to water/wastewater treatment, surface mining, agricultural systems, landfills, aqueous and marine sediments, surface waters, and atmospheric moisture.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1. Introductory Remarks 1 1.1 Perspective / 1 1.2 Organization and Objectives / 2 1.3 Approach / 8 2. Water 11 2.1 Perspective / 11 2.2 Important Properties of Water / 12 3. Concentration Units for Gases, Liquids, and Solids16 3.1 Selected Concentration Units / 16 3.2 The Ideal Gas Law and Gas Phase Concentration Units / 20 3.3 Aqueous Concentration Units / 23 3.4 Applications of Volume Fraction Units / 28 4. The Law of Mass Action and Chemical Equilibria 36 4.1 Perspective / 36 4.2 The Law of Mass Action / 37 4.3 Gas/Water Distributions / 38 4.4 Acid/Base Systems / 39 4.5 Metal Complexation Systems / 40 4.6 Water/Solid Systems (Solubility/Dissolution) / 41 4.7 Oxidation/Reduction Half Reactions / 43 5. Air / Water Distribution: Henry s Law 44 5.1 Perspective / 44 5.2 Henry s Law Constants / 46 5.3 Applications of Henry s Law / 51 6. Acid/Base Component Distributions 64 6.1 Perspective / 64 6.2 Proton Abundance in Aqueous Solutions: pH and the IonProduct of Water / 65 6.3 Acid Dissociation Constants / 69 6.4 Mole Accounting Relations / 70 6.5 Combination of Mole Balance and Acid/Base Equilibria /74 6.6 Alkalinity, Acidity, and the Carbonate System / 82 6.7 Applications of Acid/Base Principles in SelectedEnvironmental Contexts / 91 7. Mass Balance, Ideal Reactors, and Mixing 119 7.1 Perspective / 119 7.2 The Mass Balance / 120 7.3 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analyses / 121 7.4 Exit Responses for Ideal Reactors / 125 7.5 Modeling of Mixing in Ideal CMFRs / 130 7.6 Applications of CMFR Mixing Principles in EnvironmentalSystems / 144 8. Reactions in Ideal Reactors 157 8.1 Perspective / 157 8.2 Chemical Stoichiometry and Mass/Volume Relations / 158 8.3 Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 171 8.4 Applications of Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 183 8.5 Interfacial Mass Transfer in Ideal Reactors / 216 9. Reactions in Nonideal Reactors 265 9.1 Perspective / 265 9.2 Exit Concentration Versus Time Traces / 266 9.3 Residence Time Distribution Density / 267 9.4 Cumulative Residence Time Distributions / 271 9.5 Characterization of RTD Distributions / 272 9.6 Models for Addressing Longitudinal Dispersion in Reactors /275 9.7 Modeling Reactions in CMFRs in Series (TiS) Reactors /280 9.8 Modeling Reactions with the Plug-Flow with Dispersion Model/ 282 9.9 Modeling Reactions Using the Segregated Flow (SF) Model /289 9.10 Applications of Nonideal Reactor Models / 291 9.11 Considerations for Analyses of Spatially Variant Processes/ 305 9.12 Modeling Utilization and Growth in PFR-Like Reactors UsingTiS and SF / 318 10. Acid-Base Advanced Principles 335 10.1 Perspective / 335 10.2 Activity Coefficient / 336 10.3 Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants / 344 10.4 Nonideal Conjugate Acid/Conjugate Base Distributions /350 10.5 The Proton Balance (Proton Condition) / 358 10.6 Analyses of Solutions Prepared by Addition of Acids, Bases, and Salts to Water / 365 10.7 Analysis of Mixed Aqueous Solutions / 380 10.8 Acid and Base Neutralizing Capacity / 396 10.9 Activity Versus Concentration for Nonelectrolytes / 417 11. Metal Complexation and Solubility 439 11.1 Perspective / 439 11.2 Hydration of Metal Ions / 440 11.3 Cumulative Formation Constants / 441 11.4 Formation Equilibria for Solids / 447 11.5 Speciation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions ContainingLigands / 448 11.6 Metal Hydroxide Solubility / 456 11.7 Solubility of Metal Carbonates / 467 11.8 Solubility of Other Metal Ligand Solids / 511 12. Oxidation and Reduction 519 12.1 Perspective / 519 12.2 Redox Half Reactions / 520 12.3 The Nernst Equation / 533 12.4 Electron Availability in Environmental Systems / 535 Appendices 571 References 599 Index 602.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book introduces students to the various contextual areas of environmental engineering and includes the application of basic mathematics, scientific principles, and beginning engineering concepts in environmental engineering. The systematic approach focuses upon context-independent applications of important chemical principles and then applies these principles to various environmental engineering topics. It also demonstrates a MathCAD worksheet for mathematically modeling various systems arising in environmental engineering. These concepts are applicable to water/wastewater treatment, surface mining, agricultural systems, landfills, aqueous and marine sediments, surface waters, and atmospheric moisture.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (xxv, 233 pages)
  • FORWARD XI 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 Motivation for this Book 1 1.2.1 A Brief History of Fire Protection 2 1.2.2 The Development of Risk-Based Approaches to FlammablesManagement 3 1.2.3 Difficulties in Developing Ignition Probability PredictionMethods 4 1.2.4 Missing Variables 5 1.2.5 Summary of Industry Needs and Path Forward 5 1.2.6 Applications for This Book 6 1.2.7 Limitations in Applying the Approaches in This Book 7 1.3 Ignition Probability Overview 8 1.3.1 Theoretical Basis for Ignition 8 1.3.2 Key Ignition Factors Related to the Properties of theFuel, and Available Surrogates that can be Used for DevelopingProbability of Ignition Predictions 13 1.3.3 Key Ignition Factors Related to the Release Source 19 1.3.4 Key Ignition Factors Related to the External EnvironmentAfter the Release 27 1.4 Control of Ignition Sources 30 1.4.1 Ignition Source Management 30 1.4.2 Minimization of Release 33 1.5 Vapor Cloud Explosion Probability Overview 33 1.6 Detonation Overview 35 1.6.1 Detonation Using a Strong Ignition Source 35 1.6.2 Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition 35 1.6.3 Buncefield 35 1.7 Other Ignition Topics - Hydrogen 36 1.7.1 Ignition Mechanisms 36 1.7.2 Other Hydrogen Ignition Topics 37 2 ESTIMATION METHODS 39 2.1 Introduction 39 2.1.1 Event Tree 39 2.1.2 Failure Frequency Data for Use in Event Trees 41 2.1.3 Quantification of the Event Tree 41 2.2 Factors Influencing the Probability of Immediate Ignition41 2.2.1 Temperature of Release Relative to the AutoignitionTemperature 42 2.2.2 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of Material Being Released42 2.2.3 Pyrophoricity of Released Material 44 2.2.4 Pressure/Velocity of Discharge 44 2.2.5 Droplet Size 45 2.2.6 Presence of Particulates 46 2.2.7 Configuration/Orientation of Equipment Near/At the Pointof Release 46 2.2.8 Temperature of Release (as it relates to its effect onMIE) 46 2.2.9 Phase of Release (API RBI) 47 2.2.10 Flash Point and Release Rate (TNO) 47 2.3 Factors Influencing the Probability of Delayed Ignition47 2.3.1 Strength and Numbers of Ignition Sources 47 2.3.2 Duration of Exposure 51 2.3.3 Release Rate/Amount 51 2.3.4 Material Being Released 53 2.3.5 Release Phase/Flash Point/Boiling Point 53 2.3.6 Distance from Point of Release to Ignition Source 54 2.3.7 Meteorology 54 2.3.8 Events Originating Indoors 54 2.4 Factors Influencing the Probability of Explosion, GivenDelayed Ignition 57 2.5 Potential Interdependence of Variables 57 2.6 Summary of Variables Used in Each Analysis Level 58 2.7 Basic (Level 1) Probability of Ignition Algorithms 59 2.7.1 Level 1 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition59 2.7.2 Level 1 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition60 2.8 Level 2 Probability of Ignition Algorithms 61 2.8.1 Level 2 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition61 2.8.2 Level 2 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition62 2.9 Advanced (Level 3) Probability of Ignition Algorithms 67 2.9.1 Level 3 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition67 2.9.2 Level 3 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition67 2.10 Developing Inputs When Chemical Properties Are NotAvailable 69 2.10.1 Estimating Input Properties of Chemicals Not in the PickList 69 2.10.2 Estimating the Properties of Flammable Mixtures 71 2.11 Worked Example 73 2.11.1 Problem Statement 73 2.11.2 Level 1 Analysis 74 2.11.3 Level 2 Analysis 75 2.11.4 Level 3 Analysis 76 2.12 Application of the Models to a Study with Multiple IgnitionSources 77 3 TECHNICAL BACKGROUND AND DATA SOURCES 78 3.1 Introduction and Summary 78 3.2 Government-driven studies 82 3.2.1 Rew et al. 82 3.2.2 Bevi Risk Assessment Manual (TNO Purple Book) 91 3.2.3 HSE / Crossthwaite, et al. 95 3.2.4 HSE/Thyer 95 3.2.5 HSE/Gummer and Hawksworth - Hydrogen 97 3.2.6 Cawley/U.S. Bureau of Mines 98 3.2.7 Canvey 99 3.2.8 Witcofski (NASA) Liquid Hydrogen 100 3.3 Information Developed by Industry Groups 100 3.3.1 Cox/Lees/Ang 100 3.3.2 E&P Forum 103 3.3.3 API RBI 103 3.3.4 API RP 2216 108 3.3.5 IEEE 109 3.3.6 UK Energy Institute 110 3.4 Information Developed in Academia 113 3.4.1 Ronza, et al. 113 3.4.2 Offshore Explosions (Loughborough) 116 3.4.3 Srekl and Golob 116 3.4.4 Duarte et al. 117 3.4.5 Swain - Ignition of Hydrogen 118 3.4.6 Dryer et al. Hydrogen and Light Hydrocarbons118 3.4.7 Britton Silanes and Chlorosilanes 119 3.4.8 Pesce et al. 120 3.5 Information Developed by Individual Companies 121 3.5.1 Spouge 121 3.5.2 Moosemiller 122 3.5.3 Johnson Humans as Electrostatic Ignition Sources123 3.5.4 Jallais Hydrogen 125 3.5.5 Zalosh Hydrogen 125 3.5.6 Smith - Pipelines 127 3.6 Studies Specific to Ignition of Sprays 128 3.6.1 Lee et al. 128 3.6.2 Babrauskas 130 3.7 Case Histories 131 3.7.1 Britton - External Ignition Events 131 3.7.2 Pratt - Gas Well and Pipeline Blowouts 132 3.7.3 Gummer and Hawksworth Hydrogen Events 133 4 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 136 4.1 Introduction to Examples, and Potential LessonsLearned 136 4.1.1 Reality vs. Predictions 136 4.1.2 Conservatism Does it Exist? 137 4.1.3 Cases where the Model may not be Appropriate or theResults Misinterpreted 138 4.1.4 Summary of Worked Examples 139 4.2 Worked Examples (based on other CCPS books) 140 4.2.1 Vapor Cloud Explosion Hazard Assessment of aStorage Site 140 4.2.2 Open Field Release of Propane 145 4.2.3 Release from Pipeline 149 4.3 Worked Examples (chemical and petrochemical plants) 152 4.3.1 Ethylene Tubing Failure 152 4.3.2 Benzene Pipe Rupture 154 4.3.3 Spill from Methyl Ethyl Ketone Tank 155 4.3.4 Indoor Puncture of MEK Tote 158 4.3.5 Elevated Release 161 4.4 Worked Examples (oil refineries) 164 4.4.1 Gasoline Release from a Sight Glass 164 4.4.2 Overfilling a Gasoline Storage Tank 168 4.4.3 Overfilling a Propane Bullet 170 4.4.4 Hydrogen Release from a Sight Glass 172 4.5 Worked Examples (Unusual Cases) 174 4.5.1 Indoor Acid Spill - Ventilation Model 174 4.5.2 Release of Ammonia 179 4.6 Worked Examples ( Out of Scope Cases) 180 4.6.1 Release of Gas from an Offshore PlatformSeparator 180 4.6.2 Dust Ignition 183 4.7 Worked Examples of the Benefits of Plant Modifications andDesign Changes 186 4.7.1 Ignition by Hot Surfaces 186 4.7.2 Release Prevention 189 4.7.3 Duration of Exposure 189 4.7.4 Benefit of Improved Ventilation of Indoor Releases Continuation of Indoor Acid Spill Example 192 5 SOFTWARE ILLUSTRATION 194 5.1 Explanation and Instructions for Software Tool 194 5.2 Opening the Software Tool 194 5.3 General Inputs and Outputs 195 5.4 Level 1 Inputs 196 5.5 Level 2 Analyses 198 5.6 Level 3 Analyses 200 5.7 Explosion Probability 200 5.8 Illustrations of Software Use 201 5.8.1 Vapor Cloud Explosion Hazard Assessment of aStorage Site (example from Section 4.2.1) 201 5.8.2 Open Field Release of Propane (example fromSection 4.2.2) 204 APPENDIX A. CHEMICAL PROPERTY DATA 207 APPENDIX B. OTHER MODELS FOR CONSIDERATION 213.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Complemented by an estimating tool spreadsheet based on a fixed set of chemicals to assist in risk estimations, Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass converts a "best guess" to a calculated value based on available information and current technology. The text documents and explains the science and background of the technology-based approach. The tool, when populated with appropriate data, yields an estimate of the probability that a defined release of a flammable material will ignite if exposed to an ignition source. This information can be used to make risk assessments with a higher degree of confidence than estimates made before and it provides valuable information for use in the development of a facility's Emergency Response Plan.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • FORWARD XI 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 Motivation for this Book 1 1.2.1 A Brief History of Fire Protection 2 1.2.2 The Development of Risk-Based Approaches to FlammablesManagement 3 1.2.3 Difficulties in Developing Ignition Probability PredictionMethods 4 1.2.4 Missing Variables 5 1.2.5 Summary of Industry Needs and Path Forward 5 1.2.6 Applications for This Book 6 1.2.7 Limitations in Applying the Approaches in This Book 7 1.3 Ignition Probability Overview 8 1.3.1 Theoretical Basis for Ignition 8 1.3.2 Key Ignition Factors Related to the Properties of theFuel, and Available Surrogates that can be Used for DevelopingProbability of Ignition Predictions 13 1.3.3 Key Ignition Factors Related to the Release Source 19 1.3.4 Key Ignition Factors Related to the External EnvironmentAfter the Release 27 1.4 Control of Ignition Sources 30 1.4.1 Ignition Source Management 30 1.4.2 Minimization of Release 33 1.5 Vapor Cloud Explosion Probability Overview 33 1.6 Detonation Overview 35 1.6.1 Detonation Using a Strong Ignition Source 35 1.6.2 Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition 35 1.6.3 Buncefield 35 1.7 Other Ignition Topics - Hydrogen 36 1.7.1 Ignition Mechanisms 36 1.7.2 Other Hydrogen Ignition Topics 37 2 ESTIMATION METHODS 39 2.1 Introduction 39 2.1.1 Event Tree 39 2.1.2 Failure Frequency Data for Use in Event Trees 41 2.1.3 Quantification of the Event Tree 41 2.2 Factors Influencing the Probability of Immediate Ignition41 2.2.1 Temperature of Release Relative to the AutoignitionTemperature 42 2.2.2 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of Material Being Released42 2.2.3 Pyrophoricity of Released Material 44 2.2.4 Pressure/Velocity of Discharge 44 2.2.5 Droplet Size 45 2.2.6 Presence of Particulates 46 2.2.7 Configuration/Orientation of Equipment Near/At the Pointof Release 46 2.2.8 Temperature of Release (as it relates to its effect onMIE) 46 2.2.9 Phase of Release (API RBI) 47 2.2.10 Flash Point and Release Rate (TNO) 47 2.3 Factors Influencing the Probability of Delayed Ignition47 2.3.1 Strength and Numbers of Ignition Sources 47 2.3.2 Duration of Exposure 51 2.3.3 Release Rate/Amount 51 2.3.4 Material Being Released 53 2.3.5 Release Phase/Flash Point/Boiling Point 53 2.3.6 Distance from Point of Release to Ignition Source 54 2.3.7 Meteorology 54 2.3.8 Events Originating Indoors 54 2.4 Factors Influencing the Probability of Explosion, GivenDelayed Ignition 57 2.5 Potential Interdependence of Variables 57 2.6 Summary of Variables Used in Each Analysis Level 58 2.7 Basic (Level 1) Probability of Ignition Algorithms 59 2.7.1 Level 1 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition59 2.7.2 Level 1 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition60 2.8 Level 2 Probability of Ignition Algorithms 61 2.8.1 Level 2 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition61 2.8.2 Level 2 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition62 2.9 Advanced (Level 3) Probability of Ignition Algorithms 67 2.9.1 Level 3 Algorithm for Probability of Immediate Ignition67 2.9.2 Level 3 Algorithm for Probability of Delayed Ignition67 2.10 Developing Inputs When Chemical Properties Are NotAvailable 69 2.10.1 Estimating Input Properties of Chemicals Not in the PickList 69 2.10.2 Estimating the Properties of Flammable Mixtures 71 2.11 Worked Example 73 2.11.1 Problem Statement 73 2.11.2 Level 1 Analysis 74 2.11.3 Level 2 Analysis 75 2.11.4 Level 3 Analysis 76 2.12 Application of the Models to a Study with Multiple IgnitionSources 77 3 TECHNICAL BACKGROUND AND DATA SOURCES 78 3.1 Introduction and Summary 78 3.2 Government-driven studies 82 3.2.1 Rew et al. 82 3.2.2 Bevi Risk Assessment Manual (TNO Purple Book) 91 3.2.3 HSE / Crossthwaite, et al. 95 3.2.4 HSE/Thyer 95 3.2.5 HSE/Gummer and Hawksworth - Hydrogen 97 3.2.6 Cawley/U.S. Bureau of Mines 98 3.2.7 Canvey 99 3.2.8 Witcofski (NASA) Liquid Hydrogen 100 3.3 Information Developed by Industry Groups 100 3.3.1 Cox/Lees/Ang 100 3.3.2 E&P Forum 103 3.3.3 API RBI 103 3.3.4 API RP 2216 108 3.3.5 IEEE 109 3.3.6 UK Energy Institute 110 3.4 Information Developed in Academia 113 3.4.1 Ronza, et al. 113 3.4.2 Offshore Explosions (Loughborough) 116 3.4.3 Srekl and Golob 116 3.4.4 Duarte et al. 117 3.4.5 Swain - Ignition of Hydrogen 118 3.4.6 Dryer et al. Hydrogen and Light Hydrocarbons118 3.4.7 Britton Silanes and Chlorosilanes 119 3.4.8 Pesce et al. 120 3.5 Information Developed by Individual Companies 121 3.5.1 Spouge 121 3.5.2 Moosemiller 122 3.5.3 Johnson Humans as Electrostatic Ignition Sources123 3.5.4 Jallais Hydrogen 125 3.5.5 Zalosh Hydrogen 125 3.5.6 Smith - Pipelines 127 3.6 Studies Specific to Ignition of Sprays 128 3.6.1 Lee et al. 128 3.6.2 Babrauskas 130 3.7 Case Histories 131 3.7.1 Britton - External Ignition Events 131 3.7.2 Pratt - Gas Well and Pipeline Blowouts 132 3.7.3 Gummer and Hawksworth Hydrogen Events 133 4 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 136 4.1 Introduction to Examples, and Potential LessonsLearned 136 4.1.1 Reality vs. Predictions 136 4.1.2 Conservatism Does it Exist? 137 4.1.3 Cases where the Model may not be Appropriate or theResults Misinterpreted 138 4.1.4 Summary of Worked Examples 139 4.2 Worked Examples (based on other CCPS books) 140 4.2.1 Vapor Cloud Explosion Hazard Assessment of aStorage Site 140 4.2.2 Open Field Release of Propane 145 4.2.3 Release from Pipeline 149 4.3 Worked Examples (chemical and petrochemical plants) 152 4.3.1 Ethylene Tubing Failure 152 4.3.2 Benzene Pipe Rupture 154 4.3.3 Spill from Methyl Ethyl Ketone Tank 155 4.3.4 Indoor Puncture of MEK Tote 158 4.3.5 Elevated Release 161 4.4 Worked Examples (oil refineries) 164 4.4.1 Gasoline Release from a Sight Glass 164 4.4.2 Overfilling a Gasoline Storage Tank 168 4.4.3 Overfilling a Propane Bullet 170 4.4.4 Hydrogen Release from a Sight Glass 172 4.5 Worked Examples (Unusual Cases) 174 4.5.1 Indoor Acid Spill - Ventilation Model 174 4.5.2 Release of Ammonia 179 4.6 Worked Examples ( Out of Scope Cases) 180 4.6.1 Release of Gas from an Offshore PlatformSeparator 180 4.6.2 Dust Ignition 183 4.7 Worked Examples of the Benefits of Plant Modifications andDesign Changes 186 4.7.1 Ignition by Hot Surfaces 186 4.7.2 Release Prevention 189 4.7.3 Duration of Exposure 189 4.7.4 Benefit of Improved Ventilation of Indoor Releases Continuation of Indoor Acid Spill Example 192 5 SOFTWARE ILLUSTRATION 194 5.1 Explanation and Instructions for Software Tool 194 5.2 Opening the Software Tool 194 5.3 General Inputs and Outputs 195 5.4 Level 1 Inputs 196 5.5 Level 2 Analyses 198 5.6 Level 3 Analyses 200 5.7 Explosion Probability 200 5.8 Illustrations of Software Use 201 5.8.1 Vapor Cloud Explosion Hazard Assessment of aStorage Site (example from Section 4.2.1) 201 5.8.2 Open Field Release of Propane (example fromSection 4.2.2) 204 APPENDIX A. CHEMICAL PROPERTY DATA 207 APPENDIX B. OTHER MODELS FOR CONSIDERATION 213.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Complemented by an estimating tool spreadsheet based on a fixed set of chemicals to assist in risk estimations, Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass converts a "best guess" to a calculated value based on available information and current technology. The text documents and explains the science and background of the technology-based approach. The tool, when populated with appropriate data, yields an estimate of the probability that a defined release of a flammable material will ignite if exposed to an ignition source. This information can be used to make risk assessments with a higher degree of confidence than estimates made before and it provides valuable information for use in the development of a facility's Emergency Response Plan.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (xxvii, 105 pages) : illustrated.
  • List of Tables ix List of Figures xi Abbreviations and Acronyms xiii Glossary xv Acknowledgements xxiii Preface xxv 1 Context 1 1.1 LOPA Overview 1 1.2 Pertinent LOPA Variations 10 1.3 When to Use Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers13 1.4 Risk Criteria Endpoints 16 2 LOPA Enabling Conditions 23 2.1 Definition and Defining Characteristics 23 2.2 Interrelationship with Initiating Event 23 2.3 Time-At-Risk Enabling Conditions 23 2.4 Campaign Enabling Conditions 30 2.5 Other Possible Enabling Conditions 34 2.6 Documenting and Validating Enabling Conditions 34 3 LOPA Conditional Modifiers 37 3.1 Definition and Defining Characteristics 37 3.2 Probability of a Hazardous Atmosphere 42 3.3 Probability of Ignition or Initiation 44 3.4 Probability of Explosion 49 3.5 Probability of Personnel Presence 55 3.6 Probability of Injury or Fatality 60 3.7 Probability of Equipment Damage or Other Financial Impact65 3.8 Documenting, Managing and Validating Conditional Modifiers69 4 Application to Other Methods 71 4.1 Quantitative Risk Analysis 71 4.2 Use of Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers withScenario Identification Methods 75 4.3 Barrier Analysis and Diagrams 79 Appendices 81 A Simultaneous Failures and Double Jeopardy 83 B Peak Risk Concepts 91 C Example Rule Set for LOPA Enabling Conditions 95 Example Rule Set for LOPA Enabling Conditions 95 References 99 Index 103.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediatemethod between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis andmore quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides anorder-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducibleresults. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safetyintegrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces thelimitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of theguideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provideconcrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to usethese concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer ofProtection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizesterminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of atypical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the mostcommon types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to riskcriteria as well as their application to other methods.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • List of Tables ix List of Figures xi Abbreviations and Acronyms xiii Glossary xv Acknowledgements xxiii Preface xxv 1 Context 1 1.1 LOPA Overview 1 1.2 Pertinent LOPA Variations 10 1.3 When to Use Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers13 1.4 Risk Criteria Endpoints 16 2 LOPA Enabling Conditions 23 2.1 Definition and Defining Characteristics 23 2.2 Interrelationship with Initiating Event 23 2.3 Time-At-Risk Enabling Conditions 23 2.4 Campaign Enabling Conditions 30 2.5 Other Possible Enabling Conditions 34 2.6 Documenting and Validating Enabling Conditions 34 3 LOPA Conditional Modifiers 37 3.1 Definition and Defining Characteristics 37 3.2 Probability of a Hazardous Atmosphere 42 3.3 Probability of Ignition or Initiation 44 3.4 Probability of Explosion 49 3.5 Probability of Personnel Presence 55 3.6 Probability of Injury or Fatality 60 3.7 Probability of Equipment Damage or Other Financial Impact65 3.8 Documenting, Managing and Validating Conditional Modifiers69 4 Application to Other Methods 71 4.1 Quantitative Risk Analysis 71 4.2 Use of Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers withScenario Identification Methods 75 4.3 Barrier Analysis and Diagrams 79 Appendices 81 A Simultaneous Failures and Double Jeopardy 83 B Peak Risk Concepts 91 C Example Rule Set for LOPA Enabling Conditions 95 Example Rule Set for LOPA Enabling Conditions 95 References 99 Index 103.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediatemethod between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis andmore quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides anorder-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducibleresults. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safetyintegrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces thelimitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of theguideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provideconcrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to usethese concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer ofProtection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizesterminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of atypical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the mostcommon types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to riskcriteria as well as their application to other methods.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (xi, 628 p.) : ill.
  • Introduction: an overview of the chemical process industry and primary raw materials / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Safety considerations in process industries / Bassam El Ali
  • Industrial pollution prevention / Bassam El Ali
  • Edible oils, fats, and waxes / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Soaps and detergents / Bassam El Ali
  • Sugar / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Paints, pigments, and industrial coatings / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Dyes: chemistry and applications / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Industrial fermentation / Manfred J. Mirbach
  • The pharmaceutical industry / Bassam El Ali
  • Agrochemicals / Manfred J. Mirbach
  • Chemical explosives and propellants / Bassam El Ali
  • Petroleum and petrochemicals / Dr. James G. Speight
  • Synthetic polymers / Hasan A. Al-Muallem.
This is the definitive guide for the general chemical analyses of non-petroleum based organic products such as paints, dyes, oils, fats, and waxes. It is packed with chemical tables, formulae, and equations. It covers all of the chemical process industries which utilise organic chemicals. It includes reference information which ranges from basic to complex. It features physical properties for the most common organic chemicals.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Introduction: an overview of the chemical process industry and primary raw materials / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Safety considerations in process industries / Bassam El Ali
  • Industrial pollution prevention / Bassam El Ali
  • Edible oils, fats, and waxes / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Soaps and detergents / Bassam El Ali
  • Sugar / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Paints, pigments, and industrial coatings / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Dyes: chemistry and applications / Mohammad Farhat Ali
  • Industrial fermentation / Manfred J. Mirbach
  • The pharmaceutical industry / Bassam El Ali
  • Agrochemicals / Manfred J. Mirbach
  • Chemical explosives and propellants / Bassam El Ali
  • Petroleum and petrochemicals / Dr. James G. Speight
  • Synthetic polymers / Hasan A. Al-Muallem.
This is the definitive guide for the general chemical analyses of non-petroleum based organic products such as paints, dyes, oils, fats, and waxes. It is packed with chemical tables, formulae, and equations. It covers all of the chemical process industries which utilise organic chemicals. It includes reference information which ranges from basic to complex. It features physical properties for the most common organic chemicals.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Classification of Fires and Fire Hazard Properties Introduction Classification of Fires Fire Hazard Properties Classification of Hazards Classification of Occupancy Hazards Classification of Construction Fire Protection in Buildings Hazard of Contents Ramps Fire Resistance Basic Methods of Firefighting Principles of Fire Protection Extinguishing Methods Suggested Hazard Identification Hazard and Operability Studies References Further Readings Hazardous Area Classification Introduction The Basic Physical Principles and Definitions Area Classification Ventilation Equipment Protection Level Gas Explosion Protection Concepts for Electrical Equipment Repair Combustible Dusts Class-Division Schemes References Further Readings Layout and Spacing Introduction Layout in Oil, Gas, and Chemical Facilities Basic Considerations Plant Layout Layout of Control Room and Electrical Substation Firefighting Requirements Building Requirements Layout in Process Units Distances/Clearances Requirements for Storage Tanks Layout of LPG Facilities Equipment Layout and Spacing Layout of Piping Utility Layout and Spacing Off-Site Facilities Waste Treatment Facilities Emergency Shutdown System Blowdown Drums Fire Training Areas Tetraethyl Lead Blending Plants References Further Readings Fire Alarm Systems and Automatic Detectors Introduction Basic Principles Alarms and Status Indication for Plant Units Buildings, Warehouses' Fire Detection, and Control Panel Fire Detection System Gas Detection System Gas Detectors: Materials Gas Detector Tubes Marking Instruction Manual Principle of Operation, Combustible Gas Detectors Use of Portable and Transportable Combustible Gas- Detection Apparatuses Maintenance Routine Procedures and General Administrative Control Combination Explosive, Toxic, and Oxygen Deficiency or Excess Detectors (Portable and Transportable) Chemical Sensing Detectors and Tubes References Firefighting Sprinkler Systems Introduction Outline Design Interaction with Other Fire Protection Measures Buildings to Be Sprinkler-Protected Classification of Occupancies Types Wet Pipe Installations Alternate (Wet and Dry Pipe) Installations Dry Pipe Installations Preaction Installations Recycling Installations Tail-End Alternate Pipe and Tail-End Dry Pipe Extensions Deluge Installations Water Supplies Design Density and Assumed Maximum Area of Operation for Fully Hydraulically Calculated Installations Water Supply Pressure-Flow Characteristics and Velocity Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Coding Hazard to Personnel Outside Sprinklers for Protection against Exposure Fires Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems Further Readings Carbon Dioxide Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction Characteristics and Uses of Carbon Dioxide Use and Limitations System Components Types of Systems Package Systems (Kits) Total Flooding Systems Carbon Dioxide for Surface Fires Carbon Dioxide for Deep-Seated Fires Rates of Application Local Application Systems Manual Hose Reel Systems Standpipe Systems and Mobile Supply Storage Containers Discharge Nozzles Additional Requirements for All Systems Safety Requirements Further Readings Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction General Information and Requirements Powder Dry Chemical and Expellant Gas Supply General Design Principles Types of Systems Total Flooding Systems Local Application Systems Monitor and Hose Reel Systems Alarms and Indicators Safety Precautions Further Readings Foam Generating and Proportioning Systems Introduction Foams System Design Subsurface Foam Systems Semisubsurface Systems Pressure Storage of C and Lighter Hydrocarbons LNG and NGL Atmospheric Refrigerated Storage Tanks Foam Monitors and Handlines Foam Concentrate and Solution Foam Quality Dike Area Protection Water Supplies and Pumps Storage Foam Concentrate Pumps Hydrants Foam Concentrate Facilities Automatically Operated Systems Detection and Alarm Equipment Foam Spray Systems Discharge Rate Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems Local Application Systems Safety Hazards Wetting Agents Reduction of Soil Pollution by Reducing Foam Exploitation The Dynamic Extinguishing Strategy Sample Calculation of Foam Compound Requirement for a Depot/Terminal Brief Summary of Fire-Fighting Foam References Fire-Fighting and Fire Protection Facilities Introduction Fire Prevention Practices in Offshore Facilities Fire-Fighting Equipment Water Monitors (Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations) Water Deluge Pumps and Water Deluge Main Water Deluge Systems Automatic Sprinkler, Fire Detection, and Fire Alarm Systems for Fixed Offshore Installations Pressure Water-Spraying Systems Fire-Extinguishing Systems Storage of Gas Cylinders Fire Protection for Onshore Installations Water Supplies Bases for a Fire-Fighting Water System Water Tanks for Fire Protection Sample Calculation of Fire Water Flow Rate for Storage Tanks Fire Protection System, Inspection, and Testing References Glossary Appendices.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Due to an increase in the wide-range of chemicals in petrochemical processing industries, as well as frequency of use, there has been a steady rise in flammability problems and other hazards. Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants: A Guide to Mitigating Risk outlines the necessities of explosion protection in oil, gas and chemical industries, and discusses fire and occupancy hazards, extinguishing methods, hazard identification, and classification of materials. This book addresses these issues and concerns and presents a simple hazard identification system to help offset future problems. It offers information on the hazards of various materials and their level of severity as it relates to fire prevention, exposure, and control. The system provides an alerting signal and on-the-spot information to help protect lives in an industrial plant or storage location during fire emergencies. Understanding the hazard helps to ensure that the process equipment is properly selected, installed, and operated to provide a safe operating system. This text also includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements for fighting a fire, introduces various hazard identification systems. * Includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements needed to extinguish a fire * Introduces various hazard identification systems * Includes concepts for layout and spacing of equipment in process plants The book serves as resource for plant design engineers as well as plant protection and safety personnel in planning for effective firefighting operations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Classification of Fires and Fire Hazard Properties Introduction Classification of Fires Fire Hazard Properties Classification of Hazards Classification of Occupancy Hazards Classification of Construction Fire Protection in Buildings Hazard of Contents Ramps Fire Resistance Basic Methods of Firefighting Principles of Fire Protection Extinguishing Methods Suggested Hazard Identification Hazard and Operability Studies References Further Readings Hazardous Area Classification Introduction The Basic Physical Principles and Definitions Area Classification Ventilation Equipment Protection Level Gas Explosion Protection Concepts for Electrical Equipment Repair Combustible Dusts Class-Division Schemes References Further Readings Layout and Spacing Introduction Layout in Oil, Gas, and Chemical Facilities Basic Considerations Plant Layout Layout of Control Room and Electrical Substation Firefighting Requirements Building Requirements Layout in Process Units Distances/Clearances Requirements for Storage Tanks Layout of LPG Facilities Equipment Layout and Spacing Layout of Piping Utility Layout and Spacing Off-Site Facilities Waste Treatment Facilities Emergency Shutdown System Blowdown Drums Fire Training Areas Tetraethyl Lead Blending Plants References Further Readings Fire Alarm Systems and Automatic Detectors Introduction Basic Principles Alarms and Status Indication for Plant Units Buildings, Warehouses' Fire Detection, and Control Panel Fire Detection System Gas Detection System Gas Detectors: Materials Gas Detector Tubes Marking Instruction Manual Principle of Operation, Combustible Gas Detectors Use of Portable and Transportable Combustible Gas- Detection Apparatuses Maintenance Routine Procedures and General Administrative Control Combination Explosive, Toxic, and Oxygen Deficiency or Excess Detectors (Portable and Transportable) Chemical Sensing Detectors and Tubes References Firefighting Sprinkler Systems Introduction Outline Design Interaction with Other Fire Protection Measures Buildings to Be Sprinkler-Protected Classification of Occupancies Types Wet Pipe Installations Alternate (Wet and Dry Pipe) Installations Dry Pipe Installations Preaction Installations Recycling Installations Tail-End Alternate Pipe and Tail-End Dry Pipe Extensions Deluge Installations Water Supplies Design Density and Assumed Maximum Area of Operation for Fully Hydraulically Calculated Installations Water Supply Pressure-Flow Characteristics and Velocity Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Coding Hazard to Personnel Outside Sprinklers for Protection against Exposure Fires Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems Further Readings Carbon Dioxide Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction Characteristics and Uses of Carbon Dioxide Use and Limitations System Components Types of Systems Package Systems (Kits) Total Flooding Systems Carbon Dioxide for Surface Fires Carbon Dioxide for Deep-Seated Fires Rates of Application Local Application Systems Manual Hose Reel Systems Standpipe Systems and Mobile Supply Storage Containers Discharge Nozzles Additional Requirements for All Systems Safety Requirements Further Readings Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems Introduction General Information and Requirements Powder Dry Chemical and Expellant Gas Supply General Design Principles Types of Systems Total Flooding Systems Local Application Systems Monitor and Hose Reel Systems Alarms and Indicators Safety Precautions Further Readings Foam Generating and Proportioning Systems Introduction Foams System Design Subsurface Foam Systems Semisubsurface Systems Pressure Storage of C and Lighter Hydrocarbons LNG and NGL Atmospheric Refrigerated Storage Tanks Foam Monitors and Handlines Foam Concentrate and Solution Foam Quality Dike Area Protection Water Supplies and Pumps Storage Foam Concentrate Pumps Hydrants Foam Concentrate Facilities Automatically Operated Systems Detection and Alarm Equipment Foam Spray Systems Discharge Rate Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems Local Application Systems Safety Hazards Wetting Agents Reduction of Soil Pollution by Reducing Foam Exploitation The Dynamic Extinguishing Strategy Sample Calculation of Foam Compound Requirement for a Depot/Terminal Brief Summary of Fire-Fighting Foam References Fire-Fighting and Fire Protection Facilities Introduction Fire Prevention Practices in Offshore Facilities Fire-Fighting Equipment Water Monitors (Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations) Water Deluge Pumps and Water Deluge Main Water Deluge Systems Automatic Sprinkler, Fire Detection, and Fire Alarm Systems for Fixed Offshore Installations Pressure Water-Spraying Systems Fire-Extinguishing Systems Storage of Gas Cylinders Fire Protection for Onshore Installations Water Supplies Bases for a Fire-Fighting Water System Water Tanks for Fire Protection Sample Calculation of Fire Water Flow Rate for Storage Tanks Fire Protection System, Inspection, and Testing References Glossary Appendices.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Due to an increase in the wide-range of chemicals in petrochemical processing industries, as well as frequency of use, there has been a steady rise in flammability problems and other hazards. Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants: A Guide to Mitigating Risk outlines the necessities of explosion protection in oil, gas and chemical industries, and discusses fire and occupancy hazards, extinguishing methods, hazard identification, and classification of materials. This book addresses these issues and concerns and presents a simple hazard identification system to help offset future problems. It offers information on the hazards of various materials and their level of severity as it relates to fire prevention, exposure, and control. The system provides an alerting signal and on-the-spot information to help protect lives in an industrial plant or storage location during fire emergencies. Understanding the hazard helps to ensure that the process equipment is properly selected, installed, and operated to provide a safe operating system. This text also includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements for fighting a fire, introduces various hazard identification systems. * Includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements needed to extinguish a fire * Introduces various hazard identification systems * Includes concepts for layout and spacing of equipment in process plants The book serves as resource for plant design engineers as well as plant protection and safety personnel in planning for effective firefighting operations.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (xvi, 414 p.) : ill.
  • The database
  • Fractionation and applications of the database
  • Fractionation tray design and rating
  • Oil and gas production surface facility design and rating
  • Shell/tube, plate/frame, and air finfan heat exchangers
  • Fluid flow piping design and rating
  • The nitrogen oxide air pollution problem and solution
  • Liquid-liquid extraction
  • Process equipment cost determination.
The most complete, up-to-date, problem-solving toolkit for chemical engineers and process designers. Industrial Chemical Process Design, Second Edition provides a step-by-step methodology and 25 downloadable, customizable, needs-specific software applications that offer quick, accurate solutions to complex process design problems. These applications uniquely fill the gaps left by large, very expensive commercial process simulation software packages used to select, size, and design industrial chemical process equipment. Written by a hands-on industry consultant and featuring more than 200 illustrations, this book thoroughly details: Sizing and cost estimating of process unit operation equipment Design and rating of fractionation equipment and three-phase separation equipment Chemical optimization Commercial distillation Packaged plant cost analysis Estimating cost for modular packages Performing operations such as liquid-liquid extraction and gas liquid separation vessel sizing and rating Green engineering New to the Second Edition: Added focus on sustainability with new green engineering coverage: crude oil database; vegetable oils and plant greenhouse production for use in automobile fuels; gasoline and diesel fuel database; greenhouse fuels; water removal treatment in three-phase vessel design New focus on engineering economics Simplified shell/tube design method and improved shell/tube exchanger software improvements Fluid flow coverage includes both single- and two-phase flow and the very desirable addition of complete process engineering of NOx removal and catalytic SCR reactor processes necessary in all electric generator power plants and refinery furnace systems (per mandatory EPA regulations) Coverage of the Fischer-Tropsch process converting natural methane gas to crude oil products, liquids, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel - all sulfur-free! Includes a plan to decrease reliance on crude oil imports Contains a packaged cost analysis natural gas-to-liquids plant turn-key software program.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • The database
  • Fractionation and applications of the database
  • Fractionation tray design and rating
  • Oil and gas production surface facility design and rating
  • Shell/tube, plate/frame, and air finfan heat exchangers
  • Fluid flow piping design and rating
  • The nitrogen oxide air pollution problem and solution
  • Liquid-liquid extraction
  • Process equipment cost determination.
The most complete, up-to-date, problem-solving toolkit for chemical engineers and process designers. Industrial Chemical Process Design, Second Edition provides a step-by-step methodology and 25 downloadable, customizable, needs-specific software applications that offer quick, accurate solutions to complex process design problems. These applications uniquely fill the gaps left by large, very expensive commercial process simulation software packages used to select, size, and design industrial chemical process equipment. Written by a hands-on industry consultant and featuring more than 200 illustrations, this book thoroughly details: Sizing and cost estimating of process unit operation equipment Design and rating of fractionation equipment and three-phase separation equipment Chemical optimization Commercial distillation Packaged plant cost analysis Estimating cost for modular packages Performing operations such as liquid-liquid extraction and gas liquid separation vessel sizing and rating Green engineering New to the Second Edition: Added focus on sustainability with new green engineering coverage: crude oil database; vegetable oils and plant greenhouse production for use in automobile fuels; gasoline and diesel fuel database; greenhouse fuels; water removal treatment in three-phase vessel design New focus on engineering economics Simplified shell/tube design method and improved shell/tube exchanger software improvements Fluid flow coverage includes both single- and two-phase flow and the very desirable addition of complete process engineering of NOx removal and catalytic SCR reactor processes necessary in all electric generator power plants and refinery furnace systems (per mandatory EPA regulations) Coverage of the Fischer-Tropsch process converting natural methane gas to crude oil products, liquids, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel - all sulfur-free! Includes a plan to decrease reliance on crude oil imports Contains a packaged cost analysis natural gas-to-liquids plant turn-key software program.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
Lees' Process Safety Essentials is a single-volume digest presenting the critical, practical content from Lees' Loss Prevention for day-to-day use and reference. It is portable, authoritative, affordable, and accessible - ideal for those on the move, students, and individuals without access to the full three volumes of Lees'. This book provides a convenient summary of the main content of Lees', primarily drawn from the hazard identification, assessment, and control content of volumes one and two. Users can access Essentials for day-to-day reference on topics including plant location and layout; human factors and human error; fire, explosion and toxic release; engineering for sustainable development; and much more. This handy volume is a valuable reference, both for students or early-career professionals who may not need the full scope of Lees', and for more experienced professionals needing quick, convenient access to information. It boils down the essence of Lees' - the process safety encyclopedia trusted worldwide for over 30 years. It provides safety professionals with the core information they need to understand the most common safety and loss prevention challenges. It covers the latest standards and presents information, including recent incidents such as Texas City and Buncefield.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Lees' Process Safety Essentials is a single-volume digest presenting the critical, practical content from Lees' Loss Prevention for day-to-day use and reference. It is portable, authoritative, affordable, and accessible - ideal for those on the move, students, and individuals without access to the full three volumes of Lees'. This book provides a convenient summary of the main content of Lees', primarily drawn from the hazard identification, assessment, and control content of volumes one and two. Users can access Essentials for day-to-day reference on topics including plant location and layout; human factors and human error; fire, explosion and toxic release; engineering for sustainable development; and much more. This handy volume is a valuable reference, both for students or early-career professionals who may not need the full scope of Lees', and for more experienced professionals needing quick, convenient access to information. It boils down the essence of Lees' - the process safety encyclopedia trusted worldwide for over 30 years. It provides safety professionals with the core information they need to understand the most common safety and loss prevention challenges. It covers the latest standards and presents information, including recent incidents such as Texas City and Buncefield.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (893 p.)
  • Front Cover; Natural Gas Processing; Copyright; Dedication; Natural Gas Processing; Contents; About the Author; Preface; Chapter 1
  • Overview of Natural Gas Resources; 1.1 The formation of natural gas; 1.2 Conventional natural gas resources; 1.3 Gas reservoir fluids; 1.4 Unconventional natural gas resources; 1.5 Hydraulic fracturing; Further reading; Chapter 2
  • Natural Gas Properties; 2.1 Fluid distribution in reservoir; 2.2 Phase behavior of hydrocarbon systems; 2.3 Pressure-volume-temperature properties of hydrocarbon fluids; 2.4 Gas compressibility factor; 2.5 Equation of state
  • 2.6 Gas specific gravity2.7 Gas density; 2.8 Specific volume; 2.9 Isothermal compressibility of gases; 2.10 Gas formation volume factor; 2.11 Standard volume; 2.12 Acentric factor; 2.13 Viscosity; 2.14 Thermal conductivity; 2.15 Gross heating value of natural gases; References; Further reading; Chapter 3
  • Single-phase and Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Production Systems; 3.1 Basic fluid flow theory; 3.2 Process pipe sizing for plants located onshore single phase; 3.3 Process pipe sizing for plants located offshore; 3.4 Transmission pipelines; 3.5 Two-phase mixture properties
  • 3.6 Two-phase flow pressure drop3.7 General aspects in design of piping systems in oil, gas, and petrochemical plants; 3.8 Isometric drawings; 3.9 Line identification list; 3.10 Pipe supports; 3.11 Pressure testing diagram; 3.12 Tie-in diagram; 3.13 Above-ground piping systems; 3.14 Valves; 3.15 Flanges; 3.16 Instrument piping; 3.17 Sample systems; 3.18 Vents and drains; 3.19 Blow-down; 3.20 Utility piping; 3.21 Piping adjacent to equipment; 3.22 Piping flexibility; 3.23 Piping supports; 3.24 Insulation; 3.25 Piping connections to existing plant; 3.26 Underground piping systems; References
  • Further readingChapter 4
  • Gas-Liquid Separators; 4.1 Gravity settling; 4.2 Gas-liquid separators in oil and gas processing; 4.3 Conventional gas-liquid separators; 4.4 Design criteria of separators; 4.5 Gas-liquid separator sizing; 4.6 Specification sheet; 4.7 Mist eliminator type and installation point; 4.8 Centrifugal gas-liquid separators; 4.9 Flare knock-out drums; 4.10 Gas-liquid filter separators; 4.11 Process requirements of vessels, reactors, and separators; 4.12 Nature of the feed; 4.13 Solid-liquid separators
  • 4.14 Typical equations, which can be used for terminal velocity calculation4.15 Vessels; Reference; Further reading; Chapter 5
  • Gas Compressors; 5.1 Type selection criteria; 5.2 Centrifugal compressors; 5.3 Design criteria; 5.4 Reciprocating compressors; 5.5 Axial compressors; 5.6 Screw compressors; 5.7 Rotary compressors; 5.8 Compressor cooling water jacket; 5.9 Atmospheric pressure; 5.10 Specification sheets; 5.11 Material for axial and centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors; 5.12 Centrifugal and axial compressors; 5.13 Integrally geared compressors; 5.14 Expander-compressors
Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is in a surplus and quickly becoming a major international commodity. Stay current with conventional and now unconventional gas standards and procedures with Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design. Covering the entire natural gas process, Bahadori's must-have handbook provides everything you need to know about natural gas, including: * Fundamental background on natural gas properties and single/multiphase flow factors* How to pinpoint equipment selection criteria, such as US and international standards, codes, and critical design considerations* A step-by-step simplification of the major gas processing procedures, like sweetening, dehydration, and sulfur recovery* Detailed explanation on plant engineering and design steps for natural gas projects, helping managers and contractors understand how to schedule, plan, and manage a safe and efficient processing plant * Covers both conventional and unconventional gas resources such as coal bed methane and shale gas* Bridges natural gas processing with basic and advanced engineering design of natural gas projects including real world case studies* Digs deeper with practical equipment sizing calculations for flare systems, safety relief valves, and control valves.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Front Cover; Natural Gas Processing; Copyright; Dedication; Natural Gas Processing; Contents; About the Author; Preface; Chapter 1
  • Overview of Natural Gas Resources; 1.1 The formation of natural gas; 1.2 Conventional natural gas resources; 1.3 Gas reservoir fluids; 1.4 Unconventional natural gas resources; 1.5 Hydraulic fracturing; Further reading; Chapter 2
  • Natural Gas Properties; 2.1 Fluid distribution in reservoir; 2.2 Phase behavior of hydrocarbon systems; 2.3 Pressure-volume-temperature properties of hydrocarbon fluids; 2.4 Gas compressibility factor; 2.5 Equation of state
  • 2.6 Gas specific gravity2.7 Gas density; 2.8 Specific volume; 2.9 Isothermal compressibility of gases; 2.10 Gas formation volume factor; 2.11 Standard volume; 2.12 Acentric factor; 2.13 Viscosity; 2.14 Thermal conductivity; 2.15 Gross heating value of natural gases; References; Further reading; Chapter 3
  • Single-phase and Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Production Systems; 3.1 Basic fluid flow theory; 3.2 Process pipe sizing for plants located onshore single phase; 3.3 Process pipe sizing for plants located offshore; 3.4 Transmission pipelines; 3.5 Two-phase mixture properties
  • 3.6 Two-phase flow pressure drop3.7 General aspects in design of piping systems in oil, gas, and petrochemical plants; 3.8 Isometric drawings; 3.9 Line identification list; 3.10 Pipe supports; 3.11 Pressure testing diagram; 3.12 Tie-in diagram; 3.13 Above-ground piping systems; 3.14 Valves; 3.15 Flanges; 3.16 Instrument piping; 3.17 Sample systems; 3.18 Vents and drains; 3.19 Blow-down; 3.20 Utility piping; 3.21 Piping adjacent to equipment; 3.22 Piping flexibility; 3.23 Piping supports; 3.24 Insulation; 3.25 Piping connections to existing plant; 3.26 Underground piping systems; References
  • Further readingChapter 4
  • Gas-Liquid Separators; 4.1 Gravity settling; 4.2 Gas-liquid separators in oil and gas processing; 4.3 Conventional gas-liquid separators; 4.4 Design criteria of separators; 4.5 Gas-liquid separator sizing; 4.6 Specification sheet; 4.7 Mist eliminator type and installation point; 4.8 Centrifugal gas-liquid separators; 4.9 Flare knock-out drums; 4.10 Gas-liquid filter separators; 4.11 Process requirements of vessels, reactors, and separators; 4.12 Nature of the feed; 4.13 Solid-liquid separators
  • 4.14 Typical equations, which can be used for terminal velocity calculation4.15 Vessels; Reference; Further reading; Chapter 5
  • Gas Compressors; 5.1 Type selection criteria; 5.2 Centrifugal compressors; 5.3 Design criteria; 5.4 Reciprocating compressors; 5.5 Axial compressors; 5.6 Screw compressors; 5.7 Rotary compressors; 5.8 Compressor cooling water jacket; 5.9 Atmospheric pressure; 5.10 Specification sheets; 5.11 Material for axial and centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors; 5.12 Centrifugal and axial compressors; 5.13 Integrally geared compressors; 5.14 Expander-compressors
Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is in a surplus and quickly becoming a major international commodity. Stay current with conventional and now unconventional gas standards and procedures with Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design. Covering the entire natural gas process, Bahadori's must-have handbook provides everything you need to know about natural gas, including: * Fundamental background on natural gas properties and single/multiphase flow factors* How to pinpoint equipment selection criteria, such as US and international standards, codes, and critical design considerations* A step-by-step simplification of the major gas processing procedures, like sweetening, dehydration, and sulfur recovery* Detailed explanation on plant engineering and design steps for natural gas projects, helping managers and contractors understand how to schedule, plan, and manage a safe and efficient processing plant * Covers both conventional and unconventional gas resources such as coal bed methane and shale gas* Bridges natural gas processing with basic and advanced engineering design of natural gas projects including real world case studies* Digs deeper with practical equipment sizing calculations for flare systems, safety relief valves, and control valves.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (632 pages)
  • Novel Process Windows
  • Chemical Intensification: Fundamentals
  • Making Use of the "Forbidden" : Ex-Regime/High Safety Processing
  • Exploring new paths : New Chemical Transformations
  • Activate-High-T processing
  • Press-High-p Processing
  • Doing more by comining-process integration
  • Doing the same with less-process simplification
  • Implications of NPW to Green and Cost Efficient Processing
  • From Milligrams to Kilograms-Scale-Up in Modular Flow Reactors
  • Evolution of Novel Process Windows
  • Scientific Dissemination of Novel Process Windows
  • Outlook.
This book introduces the concept of novel process windows, focusing on cost improvements, safety, energy and eco-efficiency throughout each step of the process. The first part presents the new reactor and process-related technologies, introducing the potential and benefit analysis. The core of the book details scenarios for unusual parameter sets and the new holistic and systemic approach to processing, while the final part analyses the implications for green and cost-efficient processing.
  • Novel Process Windows
  • Chemical Intensification: Fundamentals
  • Making Use of the "Forbidden" : Ex-Regime/High Safety Processing
  • Exploring new paths : New Chemical Transformations
  • Activate-High-T processing
  • Press-High-p Processing
  • Doing more by comining-process integration
  • Doing the same with less-process simplification
  • Implications of NPW to Green and Cost Efficient Processing
  • From Milligrams to Kilograms-Scale-Up in Modular Flow Reactors
  • Evolution of Novel Process Windows
  • Scientific Dissemination of Novel Process Windows
  • Outlook.
This book introduces the concept of novel process windows, focusing on cost improvements, safety, energy and eco-efficiency throughout each step of the process. The first part presents the new reactor and process-related technologies, introducing the potential and benefit analysis. The core of the book details scenarios for unusual parameter sets and the new holistic and systemic approach to processing, while the final part analyses the implications for green and cost-efficient processing.
Book
xvii, 382 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Leading historians of chemistry present fascinating case studies illuminating a broad array of objects of inquiry in modern chemistry, from the eighteenth century until today. These include every day items such as glass as well as invisible networks of experimentation and theory.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Leading historians of chemistry present fascinating case studies illuminating a broad array of objects of inquiry in modern chemistry, from the eighteenth century until today. These include every day items such as glass as well as invisible networks of experimentation and theory.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
Status of items at SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving) Status
Stacks Request
TP155.7 .O235 2014 Unknown
Book
1 online resource (viii, 301 pages) : illustrations (some color).

Looking for different results?

Modify your search: Search all fields

Search elsewhere: Search WorldCat Search library website