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Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • 1. Polymers / Bradley S. Tice
  • 2. Compression of data / Bradley S. Tice
  • 3. Natural language compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 4. Formal language compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 5. Types of compression programs / Bradley S. Tice
  • 6. Algorithmic compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 7. Chemical formulas / Bradley S. Tice
  • 8. Fischer projection / Bradley S. Tice
  • 9. Compression of polymers / Bradley S. Tice
  • 10. Line notation systems and compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 11. Current trends in research / Bradley S. Tice
  • 12. Big data / Bradley S. Tice
  • 13. Modeling complexity in molecular systems : a revised edition / Bradley S. Tice
  • 14. Feedback systems for nontraditional medicines : a case for the signal flow diagram / Bradley S. Tice
  • 15. Chromatic aspects of the signal flow diagram / Bradley S. Tice
  • 16. Junction graphs / Bradley S. Tice
  • 17. Embedded symbol notation diagrams and embedded symbol notation matrix diagrams / Bradley S. Tice
  • 18. Feedback theory : properties of signal flow graphs / Samuel J. Mason
  • 19. An overview of signal flow graphs / Khoman Phang
  • 20. A theory on neurological systems : part I and part II / Bradley S. Tice
  • 21. A theoretical model of feedback in pharmacology using signal flow diagrams / Bradley S. Tice.
  • 1. Polymers / Bradley S. Tice
  • 2. Compression of data / Bradley S. Tice
  • 3. Natural language compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 4. Formal language compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 5. Types of compression programs / Bradley S. Tice
  • 6. Algorithmic compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 7. Chemical formulas / Bradley S. Tice
  • 8. Fischer projection / Bradley S. Tice
  • 9. Compression of polymers / Bradley S. Tice
  • 10. Line notation systems and compression / Bradley S. Tice
  • 11. Current trends in research / Bradley S. Tice
  • 12. Big data / Bradley S. Tice
  • 13. Modeling complexity in molecular systems : a revised edition / Bradley S. Tice
  • 14. Feedback systems for nontraditional medicines : a case for the signal flow diagram / Bradley S. Tice
  • 15. Chromatic aspects of the signal flow diagram / Bradley S. Tice
  • 16. Junction graphs / Bradley S. Tice
  • 17. Embedded symbol notation diagrams and embedded symbol notation matrix diagrams / Bradley S. Tice
  • 18. Feedback theory : properties of signal flow graphs / Samuel J. Mason
  • 19. An overview of signal flow graphs / Khoman Phang
  • 20. A theory on neurological systems : part I and part II / Bradley S. Tice
  • 21. A theoretical model of feedback in pharmacology using signal flow diagrams / Bradley S. Tice.
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • 1. Electrospinning process : a comprehensive review and update / S. Rafiei
  • 2. Aluminium-coated polymer films as infrared light shields for food packing / Esen Arkiş and Devrim Balköse
  • 3. Generalization of fuels swelling data by means of linear free energy principle / Roman Makitra, Halyna Midyana, Liliya Bazylyak, and Olena Palchykova
  • 4. Trends on new biodegradable blends on the basis of copolymers 3-Hydroxybutyrate with Hydroxyvalerate and segmented polyetherurethane / Svetlana G. Karpova, Sergei M. Lomakin, Anatolii A. Popov, and Aleksei A. Iordanskii
  • 5. New biologically active composite materials on the basis of dialdehyde cellulose / Azamat A. Khashirov, Azamat A. Zhansitov, Genadiy E. Zaikov, and Svetlana Yu. Khashirova
  • 6. Microheterogeneous titanium Ziegler-Natta catalysts : the influence of particle size on the isoprene polymerization / Elena M. Zakharova, Vadim Z. Mingaleev, and Vadim P. Zakharov
  • 7. The role and mechanism of bonding agents in composite solid propellants / S.A. Vaziri, S.M. Mousavi Motlagh, and M. Hasanzadeh
  • 8. A study on adsorption of methane on zeolite 13x at various pressures and temperatures / Farshid Basiri, Alireza Eslami, Maziyar Sharifzadeh, and Mahdi Hasanzadeh
  • 9. Importance of the phase behavior in biopolymer mixtures / Y.A. Antonov and Paula Moldenaers.
  • 1. Electrospinning process : a comprehensive review and update / S. Rafiei
  • 2. Aluminium-coated polymer films as infrared light shields for food packing / Esen Arkiş and Devrim Balköse
  • 3. Generalization of fuels swelling data by means of linear free energy principle / Roman Makitra, Halyna Midyana, Liliya Bazylyak, and Olena Palchykova
  • 4. Trends on new biodegradable blends on the basis of copolymers 3-Hydroxybutyrate with Hydroxyvalerate and segmented polyetherurethane / Svetlana G. Karpova, Sergei M. Lomakin, Anatolii A. Popov, and Aleksei A. Iordanskii
  • 5. New biologically active composite materials on the basis of dialdehyde cellulose / Azamat A. Khashirov, Azamat A. Zhansitov, Genadiy E. Zaikov, and Svetlana Yu. Khashirova
  • 6. Microheterogeneous titanium Ziegler-Natta catalysts : the influence of particle size on the isoprene polymerization / Elena M. Zakharova, Vadim Z. Mingaleev, and Vadim P. Zakharov
  • 7. The role and mechanism of bonding agents in composite solid propellants / S.A. Vaziri, S.M. Mousavi Motlagh, and M. Hasanzadeh
  • 8. A study on adsorption of methane on zeolite 13x at various pressures and temperatures / Farshid Basiri, Alireza Eslami, Maziyar Sharifzadeh, and Mahdi Hasanzadeh
  • 9. Importance of the phase behavior in biopolymer mixtures / Y.A. Antonov and Paula Moldenaers.
Book
1 online resource : illustrations (some color)
Book
1 online resource (xxvi, 942 pages) : illustrations (some colour)
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • 1. The intercommunication of fractal analysis and polymeric cluster medium model
  • 2. Molecular mobility
  • 3. Elastic properties
  • 4. Yielding process
  • 5. Local plasticity
  • 6. Cold flow (forced high-elesticity)
  • 7. Fracture
  • 8. Fractal cracks
  • 9. Crazing
  • 10. Impact toughness
  • 11. Creep
  • 12. Microhardness
  • 13. The polymers structure and mechanical properties prediction
  • 14. Fractal mechanics of oriented polymers
  • 15. Polymers as natural composites : structure and properties.
  • 1. The intercommunication of fractal analysis and polymeric cluster medium model
  • 2. Molecular mobility
  • 3. Elastic properties
  • 4. Yielding process
  • 5. Local plasticity
  • 6. Cold flow (forced high-elesticity)
  • 7. Fracture
  • 8. Fractal cracks
  • 9. Crazing
  • 10. Impact toughness
  • 11. Creep
  • 12. Microhardness
  • 13. The polymers structure and mechanical properties prediction
  • 14. Fractal mechanics of oriented polymers
  • 15. Polymers as natural composites : structure and properties.
Book
1 online resource : illustrations.
  • 1 Introduction to in-situ forming hydrogels for biomedical applications
  • 2 Biodegradable Thermogelling Poly(organophosphazenes) and Their Potential
  • 3 Designing Hydrogels by ATRP
  • 4 Supramolecular Soft Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications
  • 5 Peptidic Hydrogels
  • 6 Polymeric Supramolecular Hydrogels as Materials for Medicine
  • 7 Hydrogels for Stem Cell Fate Control and Delivery in Regenerative Medicine
  • 8 From bench to bedside? An example of an in-situ hydrogel in vivo applications.
This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.
  • 1 Introduction to in-situ forming hydrogels for biomedical applications
  • 2 Biodegradable Thermogelling Poly(organophosphazenes) and Their Potential
  • 3 Designing Hydrogels by ATRP
  • 4 Supramolecular Soft Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications
  • 5 Peptidic Hydrogels
  • 6 Polymeric Supramolecular Hydrogels as Materials for Medicine
  • 7 Hydrogels for Stem Cell Fate Control and Delivery in Regenerative Medicine
  • 8 From bench to bedside? An example of an in-situ hydrogel in vivo applications.
This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.
Book
1 online resource (1 volume) : illustrations.
Book
1 online resource (xvii, 353 pages) : illustrations.
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF.
  • 1. A study on absorption and reflection of infrared light by the uncoated and Al coated surfaces of polymer films techniques / Esen Arkiş and Devrim Balköse
  • 2. Specific features of novel blends on the basis of copolymers / Svetlana G. Karpova, Aleksei A. Iordanskii, Sergei M. Lomakin, and Anatolii A. Popov
  • 3. Interrelation between the particle size of a titanium catalyst and its kinetic heterogeneity in the polymerization of isoprene / Elena M. Zakharova, Vadim Z. Mingaleev, and Vadim P. Zakharov
  • 4. Trends in polyblend compounds part 1 / A.L. Iordanskii, S.V. Fomin, A.A. Burkov, Yu. N. Pankova, and G.E. Zaikov
  • 5. Trends in polyblend compounds part 2 / A.P. Bonartsev, A.P. Boskhomodgiev, A.L. Iordanskii, G.A. Bonartseva, A.V. Rebrov, T.K. Makhina, V.L. Myshkina, S.A. Yakovlev, E.A. Filatova, E.A. Ivanov, D.V. Bagrov, G.E. Zaikov, and M.I. Artsis
  • 6. Polymeric nanocomposites reinforcement / G.V. Kozlov, Yu. G. Yanovskii, and G.E. Zaikov
  • 7. Aromatic polyesters / Zinaida S. Khasbulatova, and Gennady E. Zaikov
  • 8. On thermo-elastoplastic properties : a case study
  • 9. Modeling, simulation, performance and evaluation of carbon nanotube/polymer composites / A.K. Haghi and G.E. Zaikov.
  • 1. A study on absorption and reflection of infrared light by the uncoated and Al coated surfaces of polymer films techniques / Esen Arkiş and Devrim Balköse
  • 2. Specific features of novel blends on the basis of copolymers / Svetlana G. Karpova, Aleksei A. Iordanskii, Sergei M. Lomakin, and Anatolii A. Popov
  • 3. Interrelation between the particle size of a titanium catalyst and its kinetic heterogeneity in the polymerization of isoprene / Elena M. Zakharova, Vadim Z. Mingaleev, and Vadim P. Zakharov
  • 4. Trends in polyblend compounds part 1 / A.L. Iordanskii, S.V. Fomin, A.A. Burkov, Yu. N. Pankova, and G.E. Zaikov
  • 5. Trends in polyblend compounds part 2 / A.P. Bonartsev, A.P. Boskhomodgiev, A.L. Iordanskii, G.A. Bonartseva, A.V. Rebrov, T.K. Makhina, V.L. Myshkina, S.A. Yakovlev, E.A. Filatova, E.A. Ivanov, D.V. Bagrov, G.E. Zaikov, and M.I. Artsis
  • 6. Polymeric nanocomposites reinforcement / G.V. Kozlov, Yu. G. Yanovskii, and G.E. Zaikov
  • 7. Aromatic polyesters / Zinaida S. Khasbulatova, and Gennady E. Zaikov
  • 8. On thermo-elastoplastic properties : a case study
  • 9. Modeling, simulation, performance and evaluation of carbon nanotube/polymer composites / A.K. Haghi and G.E. Zaikov.
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • part 1. Conventional plastics in packaging applications
  • part 2. Bio-based and biodegradable materials for packaging
  • part 3. Bio-nanocomposites in packaging applications
  • part 4. Modified atmosphere packaging for foods and other innovations.
  • part 1. Conventional plastics in packaging applications
  • part 2. Bio-based and biodegradable materials for packaging
  • part 3. Bio-nanocomposites in packaging applications
  • part 4. Modified atmosphere packaging for foods and other innovations.
Book
1 online resource.
"With an interdisciplinary list of subjects and contributors, Polymers in Regenerative Medicine covers the broad range of medical applications for polymers, including scaffolds, self assembling materials, and different types of polymeric nanomedicines. The seasoned authors address fundamentals, theories, tools, techniques, types of polymeric systems and biomaterials and examine such hot topics as nanoconjugates, polymers for tissue repair, and electrospinning technique for tissue engineering. The book provides chemists, researchers, and scientists with an overview of the full therapeutic potential of novel polymeric systems that have only been possible through multidisciplinary research"--Provided by publisher.
"With an interdisciplinary list of subjects and contributors, Polymers in Regenerative Medicine covers the broad range of medical applications for polymers, including scaffolds, self assembling materials, and different types of polymeric nanomedicines. The seasoned authors address fundamentals, theories, tools, techniques, types of polymeric systems and biomaterials and examine such hot topics as nanoconjugates, polymers for tissue repair, and electrospinning technique for tissue engineering. The book provides chemists, researchers, and scientists with an overview of the full therapeutic potential of novel polymeric systems that have only been possible through multidisciplinary research"--Provided by publisher.
Book
1 online resource : illustrations
This book defines the current state-of-the-art for predicting the lifetime of plastics exposed to weather and outlines future research needed to advance this important field of study. Coverage includes progress in developing new science and test methods to determine how materials respond to weather exposure. This book is ideal for researchers and professionals working in the field of service life prediction. This book also: Examines numerous consensus standards that affect commercial products allowing readers to see the future of standards related to service life prediction Provides the scientific foundation for the latest commercially viable instruments Presents groundbreaking research, including the blueprint of a new test method that will significantly shorten the service life prediction process time Covers two of the latest verified predictive models, which demonstrate realized-potential to transform the field
This book defines the current state-of-the-art for predicting the lifetime of plastics exposed to weather and outlines future research needed to advance this important field of study. Coverage includes progress in developing new science and test methods to determine how materials respond to weather exposure. This book is ideal for researchers and professionals working in the field of service life prediction. This book also: Examines numerous consensus standards that affect commercial products allowing readers to see the future of standards related to service life prediction Provides the scientific foundation for the latest commercially viable instruments Presents groundbreaking research, including the blueprint of a new test method that will significantly shorten the service life prediction process time Covers two of the latest verified predictive models, which demonstrate realized-potential to transform the field
Book
1 online resource (xvi, 792 p.) illus.
Stanford University Libraries
Status of items at Stanford University Libraries
Stanford University Libraries Status
(no call number) Unavailable
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • State of the Art in Polymer Concrete Nature of Polymer Concrete Composition of Polymer Concretes Types of Polymer Concretes Physical-Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete Intended Use of Polymer Concretes Advanced Polymer Concretes Based on Novel Binders Polymer Concrete Based on Vulcanized Polybutadiene Matrix Structure of RubCon Physical-Mechanical Properties of RubCon Strength of Reinforced RubCon RubCon Creep Chemical Resistance of RubCon Manufacturing Process of RubCon Structures and Products Method of Thermal Treatment of a Protective Covering Based on Liquid Polybutadiene Binder by Electric Curing Production Technology of Fiber-Reinforced RubCon Field Application of RubCon Polymer Concrete Based on Organo-Silicate Matrix Optimal Composition of Silicate Polymer Concrete Chemical Resistance and Durability of Silicate Polymer Concrete Adhesion Strength of Joints of Precast Silicate Polymer Concrete Structural Members Fracture and Crack Resistance of Silicate Polymer Concrete Nonisocyanate Polyurethanes Based on Cyclic Carbonates Polyhydroxyurethanes and Hybrid Nonisocyanate Polyurethanes Hydroxyurethane Modifiers Silicon-Contained and Nano-sructured Hydroxyurethane Compounds List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 4 Crack-Resistant and Anticorrosive Coatings Based on Vulcanized Water Dispersion of Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Introduction Coating Composition Physical-Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of the Vulcanized CSPE Coating Application of CSPE Coating for Forming Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures Phenomenological Model of Crack-Resistant Coatings for Concrete Substrates. List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 5 Epoxy-Rubber Coatings with Nano-Heterogenic Structure Structure and Properties of Advanced Epoxy-Rubber Composition Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Epoxy-Rubber Coatings Nanostructured Binder for Acid-Resistant Building Materials Composition of the Novel Nanostructured Binder Waterborne Fire-Protective and Heat-Stability Coating Compositions Coating Compositions Physical-Mechanical Properties of the New Fire-Protective and Heat-Insulating Coating Compositions List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 8.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
One way of improving performance attributes of building structures is to use a new class of materials-polymer composites. They have unique properties that combine high strength with features of non-metallic materials. Polymer concretes (PC) appear to offer many possibilities for producing new materials with desired physical and mechanical characteristics, such as improved mechanical strength, low permeability, and greater chemical resistance. Advanced Polymer Concretes and Compounds presents the results of theoretical and experimental research on efficient building material composites based on advanced polymer binders. This book examines the composition and properties of two new polymer concretes that have potential to solve various construction issues: rubber concrete based on a polybutadiene binder and silicate polymer concrete with an organo-silicate matrix. It examines the physical, mechanical, and technological properties of these PCs as well as their behavior in harsh environments and durability and reliability issues. The authors describe a new environmentally friendly polymer for monolithic industrial floor coverings and coatings-nonisocyanate polyurethanes. They also discuss advanced crack-resistant coatings based on water dispersion of chlorosulfonated polyethylene, which can be used on concrete, metal, and plastic for various industrial uses such as aircraft, automobiles, paint, and in shipbuilding and civil engineering. The book covers a new type of epoxy composition with nano-heterogenic structure with potential for better mechanical properties and chemical resistance, acid-resistant building materials based on a nanostructured binder, and an advanced environmentally friendly and weather-resistant fire-protective coating for indoor and outdoor application to flammable substrates. With a focus on novel concretes and protective compounds for a variety of environments, this book reflects the newest developments in the rapidly growing field of building materials engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • State of the Art in Polymer Concrete Nature of Polymer Concrete Composition of Polymer Concretes Types of Polymer Concretes Physical-Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete Intended Use of Polymer Concretes Advanced Polymer Concretes Based on Novel Binders Polymer Concrete Based on Vulcanized Polybutadiene Matrix Structure of RubCon Physical-Mechanical Properties of RubCon Strength of Reinforced RubCon RubCon Creep Chemical Resistance of RubCon Manufacturing Process of RubCon Structures and Products Method of Thermal Treatment of a Protective Covering Based on Liquid Polybutadiene Binder by Electric Curing Production Technology of Fiber-Reinforced RubCon Field Application of RubCon Polymer Concrete Based on Organo-Silicate Matrix Optimal Composition of Silicate Polymer Concrete Chemical Resistance and Durability of Silicate Polymer Concrete Adhesion Strength of Joints of Precast Silicate Polymer Concrete Structural Members Fracture and Crack Resistance of Silicate Polymer Concrete Nonisocyanate Polyurethanes Based on Cyclic Carbonates Polyhydroxyurethanes and Hybrid Nonisocyanate Polyurethanes Hydroxyurethane Modifiers Silicon-Contained and Nano-sructured Hydroxyurethane Compounds List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 4 Crack-Resistant and Anticorrosive Coatings Based on Vulcanized Water Dispersion of Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Introduction Coating Composition Physical-Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of the Vulcanized CSPE Coating Application of CSPE Coating for Forming Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures Phenomenological Model of Crack-Resistant Coatings for Concrete Substrates. List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 5 Epoxy-Rubber Coatings with Nano-Heterogenic Structure Structure and Properties of Advanced Epoxy-Rubber Composition Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Epoxy-Rubber Coatings Nanostructured Binder for Acid-Resistant Building Materials Composition of the Novel Nanostructured Binder Waterborne Fire-Protective and Heat-Stability Coating Compositions Coating Compositions Physical-Mechanical Properties of the New Fire-Protective and Heat-Insulating Coating Compositions List of ASTM Standards Cited in Chapter 8.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
One way of improving performance attributes of building structures is to use a new class of materials-polymer composites. They have unique properties that combine high strength with features of non-metallic materials. Polymer concretes (PC) appear to offer many possibilities for producing new materials with desired physical and mechanical characteristics, such as improved mechanical strength, low permeability, and greater chemical resistance. Advanced Polymer Concretes and Compounds presents the results of theoretical and experimental research on efficient building material composites based on advanced polymer binders. This book examines the composition and properties of two new polymer concretes that have potential to solve various construction issues: rubber concrete based on a polybutadiene binder and silicate polymer concrete with an organo-silicate matrix. It examines the physical, mechanical, and technological properties of these PCs as well as their behavior in harsh environments and durability and reliability issues. The authors describe a new environmentally friendly polymer for monolithic industrial floor coverings and coatings-nonisocyanate polyurethanes. They also discuss advanced crack-resistant coatings based on water dispersion of chlorosulfonated polyethylene, which can be used on concrete, metal, and plastic for various industrial uses such as aircraft, automobiles, paint, and in shipbuilding and civil engineering. The book covers a new type of epoxy composition with nano-heterogenic structure with potential for better mechanical properties and chemical resistance, acid-resistant building materials based on a nanostructured binder, and an advanced environmentally friendly and weather-resistant fire-protective coating for indoor and outdoor application to flammable substrates. With a focus on novel concretes and protective compounds for a variety of environments, this book reflects the newest developments in the rapidly growing field of building materials engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (xii, 179 pages) : illustrations (some color).
  • Part A Introduction
  • Molecular Heterogeneity of Polyolefins
  • Analytical Methods for Polyolefins
  • Part B Crystallization-Based Fractionation Techniques
  • Temperature Rising Elution Fractionation
  • Crystallization Analysis Fractionation
  • Crystallization Elution Fractionation
  • Part C Column-Based Chromatographic Techniques
  • Multidetector Size Exclusion Chromatography
  • Solvent Gradient Interaction Chromatography
  • Temperature Gradient Interaction Chromatography
  • Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography
  • Part D Field-Flow Fractionation
  • Fundamentals
  • Application of Field-Flow Fractionation of Polyolefins
  • Analysis of Polyolefins by Asymmetric Flow FFF
  • Conclusions and Future Trends.
This Springer Laboratory volume introduces the reader to advanced techniques for the separation and fractionation of polyolefins. It includes detailed information on experimental protocols and procedures, addressing the experimental background of different polyolefin fractionation techniques in great detail. The book summarizes important applications in all major fractionation methods with emphasis on multidimensional analytical approaches. It comprises the most powerful modern techniques, such as high temperature size exclusion chromatography (HT-SEC) for molar mass analysis, temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) and crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) for the analysis of chemical composition and branching, high temperature two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HT-2D-LC), solvent and temperature gradient interaction chromatography (SGIC and TGIC) and crystallization elution fractionation (CEF).Beginners as well as experienced chromatographers will benefit from this concise introduction to a great variety in instrumentation, separation procedures and applications. With detailed descriptions of experimental approaches for the analysis of complex polyolefins, the readers are offered a toolbox to solve simple as well as sophisticated separation tasks. The book starts with an introduction into the molecular complexity of polyolefins - the most widely used synthetic polymers with rapidly growing production capacities. It systematically discusses crystallization based fractionation techniques including TREF, CRYSTAF and CEF, and column chromatographic techniques for molar mass, chemical composition and microstructure, as well as the combination of different fractionations in multidimensional experimental setups. This book also includes basic information on the application of high-temperature field-flow fractionation.
  • Part A Introduction
  • Molecular Heterogeneity of Polyolefins
  • Analytical Methods for Polyolefins
  • Part B Crystallization-Based Fractionation Techniques
  • Temperature Rising Elution Fractionation
  • Crystallization Analysis Fractionation
  • Crystallization Elution Fractionation
  • Part C Column-Based Chromatographic Techniques
  • Multidetector Size Exclusion Chromatography
  • Solvent Gradient Interaction Chromatography
  • Temperature Gradient Interaction Chromatography
  • Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography
  • Part D Field-Flow Fractionation
  • Fundamentals
  • Application of Field-Flow Fractionation of Polyolefins
  • Analysis of Polyolefins by Asymmetric Flow FFF
  • Conclusions and Future Trends.
This Springer Laboratory volume introduces the reader to advanced techniques for the separation and fractionation of polyolefins. It includes detailed information on experimental protocols and procedures, addressing the experimental background of different polyolefin fractionation techniques in great detail. The book summarizes important applications in all major fractionation methods with emphasis on multidimensional analytical approaches. It comprises the most powerful modern techniques, such as high temperature size exclusion chromatography (HT-SEC) for molar mass analysis, temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) and crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) for the analysis of chemical composition and branching, high temperature two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HT-2D-LC), solvent and temperature gradient interaction chromatography (SGIC and TGIC) and crystallization elution fractionation (CEF).Beginners as well as experienced chromatographers will benefit from this concise introduction to a great variety in instrumentation, separation procedures and applications. With detailed descriptions of experimental approaches for the analysis of complex polyolefins, the readers are offered a toolbox to solve simple as well as sophisticated separation tasks. The book starts with an introduction into the molecular complexity of polyolefins - the most widely used synthetic polymers with rapidly growing production capacities. It systematically discusses crystallization based fractionation techniques including TREF, CRYSTAF and CEF, and column chromatographic techniques for molar mass, chemical composition and microstructure, as well as the combination of different fractionations in multidimensional experimental setups. This book also includes basic information on the application of high-temperature field-flow fractionation.
Book
1 online resource (277 p.) : ill. (some color).
  • 1. Wild silk production to support farmers excluded from protected areas of Madagascar. Robert S. Weber and Catherine L. Craig. 2. Evolutionary divergence of Lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins. Kenji Yukuhiro, Hideki Sezutsu and Naoyuki Yonemura 3. The Structure, Silk I and Lamella of (Ala-Gly)15 as the model of Bombyx mori silk fibroin studied with solid state NMR. Tetsuo Asakura, Yu Suzuki, Yasumoto Nakazawa. 4. Silk fibroin biomaterials for vascular regeneration. Derya Aytemiz and Tetsuo Asakura. 5. Evolution and application of coiled coil silks from insects. Tsunenori Kameda, Andrew A. Walker and Tara D. Sutherland. 6. Characterization of underwater silk proteins from caddisfly larva, Steophysche marmorata. Kousaku Ohkawa, Takaomi Nomura, Ryoichi Arai, Koji Abe, Masuhiro Tsukada, and Kimio Hirabayashi. 7. Atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy of silk from spider draglines, capture-web spirals, and silkworms Helen Hansma 8. Modular spider silk fibers: Defining new modules and optimizing fiber properties. Michael B. Hinman, Florence Teule, David Perry, Bo An, Sherry Adrianos, Amy Albertson, and Randy Lewis. 9. How to pass the gap - Functional morphology and biomechanics of spider bridging threads Jonas O. Wolff, Jutta M. Schneider and Stanislav N. Gorb 10. The power of recombinant spider silk proteins. Stefanie Wohlrab, Christopher Thamm, and Thomas Scheibel 11. Prey capture adhesives produced by orb-weaving spiders. Vasav Sahni, Ali Dhinojwala, Brent D. Opell, and Todd A. Blackledge 12. Silk and web synergy: The merging of material and structural performance. Steven W. Cranford, Nicola M. Pugno, and Markus J. Buehler.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is a snapshot of the current state of the art of research and development on the properties and characteristics of silk and their use in medicine and industry. The field encompasses backyard silk production from ancient time to industrial methods in the modern era and includes an example of efforts to maintain silk production on Madagascar. Once revered as worth its weight in gold, silk has captured the imagination from its mythical origins onwards. The latest methods in molecular biology have opened new descriptions of the underlying properties of silk. Advances in technological innovation have created silk production by microbes as the latest breakthrough in the saga of silk research and development. The application of silk to biomaterials is now very active on the basis of excellent properties of silks including recombinant silks for biomaterials and the accumulated structural information.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • 1. Wild silk production to support farmers excluded from protected areas of Madagascar. Robert S. Weber and Catherine L. Craig. 2. Evolutionary divergence of Lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins. Kenji Yukuhiro, Hideki Sezutsu and Naoyuki Yonemura 3. The Structure, Silk I and Lamella of (Ala-Gly)15 as the model of Bombyx mori silk fibroin studied with solid state NMR. Tetsuo Asakura, Yu Suzuki, Yasumoto Nakazawa. 4. Silk fibroin biomaterials for vascular regeneration. Derya Aytemiz and Tetsuo Asakura. 5. Evolution and application of coiled coil silks from insects. Tsunenori Kameda, Andrew A. Walker and Tara D. Sutherland. 6. Characterization of underwater silk proteins from caddisfly larva, Steophysche marmorata. Kousaku Ohkawa, Takaomi Nomura, Ryoichi Arai, Koji Abe, Masuhiro Tsukada, and Kimio Hirabayashi. 7. Atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy of silk from spider draglines, capture-web spirals, and silkworms Helen Hansma 8. Modular spider silk fibers: Defining new modules and optimizing fiber properties. Michael B. Hinman, Florence Teule, David Perry, Bo An, Sherry Adrianos, Amy Albertson, and Randy Lewis. 9. How to pass the gap - Functional morphology and biomechanics of spider bridging threads Jonas O. Wolff, Jutta M. Schneider and Stanislav N. Gorb 10. The power of recombinant spider silk proteins. Stefanie Wohlrab, Christopher Thamm, and Thomas Scheibel 11. Prey capture adhesives produced by orb-weaving spiders. Vasav Sahni, Ali Dhinojwala, Brent D. Opell, and Todd A. Blackledge 12. Silk and web synergy: The merging of material and structural performance. Steven W. Cranford, Nicola M. Pugno, and Markus J. Buehler.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is a snapshot of the current state of the art of research and development on the properties and characteristics of silk and their use in medicine and industry. The field encompasses backyard silk production from ancient time to industrial methods in the modern era and includes an example of efforts to maintain silk production on Madagascar. Once revered as worth its weight in gold, silk has captured the imagination from its mythical origins onwards. The latest methods in molecular biology have opened new descriptions of the underlying properties of silk. Advances in technological innovation have created silk production by microbes as the latest breakthrough in the saga of silk research and development. The application of silk to biomaterials is now very active on the basis of excellent properties of silks including recombinant silks for biomaterials and the accumulated structural information.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
xix, 798 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
  • Introduction to Polymers History of Polymers Why Polymers? Today's Marketplace Environmental Assessment Polymer Structure (Morphology) Stereochemistry of Polymers Molecular Interactions Polymer Crystals Amorphous Bulk State Polymer Structure-Property Relationships Cross-Linking Crystalline and Amorphous Combinations Molecular Weight of Polymers Introduction Solubility Average Molecular Weight Values Fractionation of Polydisperse Systems Chromatography Colligative Molecular Weights Light-Scattering Photometry Other Techniques Viscometry Polycondensation Polymers (Step-Reaction Polymerization) Comparison between Polymer Type and Kinetics of Polymerization Introduction Stepwise Kinetics Polycondensation Mechanisms Polyesters Polycarbonates Synthetic Polyamides Polyimides Polyamide-Imide Polybenzimidazoles and Related Polymers Polyurethanes and Polyureas Polysulfides Polyethers and Epoxies Polysulfones Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) and Polyketones Phenolic and Amino Plastics Furan Resins Synthetic Routes Liquid Crystals Microfibers General Stepwise Polymerization Ionic Chain-Reaction and Complex Coordination Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) Cationic Polymerization Anionic Polymerization Stereoregularity Polymerization with Complex Coordination Catalysts Soluble Stereoregulating Catalysis Polyethylenes Polypropylene Polymers from 1,4-Dienes Polyisobutylene Metathesis Reactions Zwitterionic Polymerization Isomerization Polymerization Precipitation Polymerization Free-Radical Chain Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) Initiators for Free-Radical Chain Polymerization Mechanism for Free-Radical Chain Polymerization Chain Transfer Polymerization Techniques Fluorine-Containing Polymers Polystyrene Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Vinyl Acetals) Polyacrylonitrile Solid-State Irradiation Polymerization Plasma Polymerizations Copolymerization Kinetics of Copolymerization Q-e Scheme Commercial Copolymers Block Copolymers Graft Copolymers Elastomers Thermoplastic Elastomers Blends Fluoroelastomers Nitrile Rubber Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Terpolymers EPDM Rubber Networks: General Polymer Mixtures Dendrites Ionomers Viscosity Modifiers Composites and Fillers Fillers Types of Composites Long-Fiber Composites: Theory Fibers and Resins Long-Fiber Composites: Applications Nanocomposites Fabrication Metal-Matrix Composites Naturally Occurring Polymers: Plants Polysaccharides Cellulose Paper Cellulose-Regenerating Processes Esters and Ethers of Cellulose Starch Homopolysaccharides Heteropolysaccharides Synthetic Rubbers Naturally Occurring Polyisoprenes Resins Balloons Lignin Melanins Asphalt Naturally Occurring Polymers: Animals Proteins Levels of Protein Structure Nucleic Acids Flow of Biological Information RNA Interference Polymer Structure Protein Folding Genetic Engineering DNA Profiling Human Genome: General Chromosomes Spliceosomes Proteomics Protein Site Activity Identification Organometallic and Inorganic-Organic Polymers Introduction Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Condensation Organometallic Polymers Coordination Polymers Addition Polymers Ion-Exchange Resins Inorganic Polymers Introduction Portland Cement Other Cements Silicates Silicon Dioxide (Amorphous) Kinds of Amorphous Glass Safety Glass Lenses Solgel Aerogels Silicon Dioxide (Crystalline Forms): Quartz Forms Silicon Dioxide in Electronic Chips Silicon Dioxide in Optical Fibers Asbestos Fly Ash and Aluminosilicates Polymeric Carbon: Diamond Polymeric Carbon: Graphite Internal Cyclization: Carbon Fibers and Related Materials Carbon Nanotubes Bitumens Carbon Black Polysulfur Ceramics High-Temperature Superconductors Zeolites Testing and Spectrometric Characterization of Polymers Spectronic Characterization of Polymers Surface Characterization Amorphous Region Determinations Mass Spectrometry Thermal Analysis Thermal Property Tests Flammability Electric Properties: Theory Electric Measurements Optical Property Tests Weatherability Chemical Resistance Measurement of Particle Size Measurement of Adhesion Permeability and Diffusion Rheology and Physical Tests Rheology Typical Stress-Strain Behavior Stress-Strain Relationships Specific Physical Tests Additives Plasticizers Antioxidants Heat Stabilizers Ultraviolet Stabilizers Flame Retardants Colorants Curing Agents Antistatic Agents: Antistats Chemical Blowing Agents Compatibilizers Impact Modifiers Processing Aids Lubricants Microorganism Inhibitors Reactions on Polymers Reactions with Polyolefins and Polyenes Reactions of Aromatic and Aliphatic Pendant Groups Degradation Cross-Linking Reactivities of End Groups Supramolecules and Self-Assembly Transfer and Retention of Oxygen Nature's Macromolecular Catalysts Photosynthesis Mechanisms of Physical Energy Absorption Breakage of Polymeric Materials Synthesis of Reactants and Intermediates for Polymers Monomer Synthesis from Basic Feedstocks Reactants for Step-Reaction Polymerization Synthesis of Vinyl Monomers Synthesis of Free-Radical Initiators Polymer Technology Fibers Elastomers Films and Sheets Polymeric Foams Reinforced Plastics (Composites) and Laminates Molding Casting Extrusion Coatings Adhesives Selected Topics Conductive Polymeric Materials Nonlinear Optical Behavior Photophysics and Photochemistry: Basics Drug Design and Activity Synthetic Biomedical Polymers Sutures Geotextiles Smart Materials High-Performance Thermoplastics Construction and Building Flame-Resistant Textiles Water-Soluble Polymers Anaerobic Adhesives Hydrogels Emerging Polymers Green Materials New Materials: Additional Aspects Solutions Appendix A: Symbols Appendix B: Trade Names Appendix C: Syllabus Appendix D: Polymer Core Course Committees Appendix E: Structures of Common Polymers Appendix F: Mathematical Values and Units Appendix G: Comments on Health Appendix H: ISO 9000 and 14000 Appendix I: Electronic Education Websites Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Most of the advancements in communication, computers, medicine, and air and water purity are linked to macromolecules and a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern their behavior. These fundamentals are explored in Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition. Continuing the tradition of previous volumes, the latest edition provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Using simple fundamentals, this book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition includes updated techniques, new sections on a number of copolymers, expanded emphasis on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, and increased coverage of topics including carbon nanotubes, tapes and glues, photochemistry, and more. With topics presented so students can understand polymer science even if certain parts of the text are skipped, this book is suitable as an undergraduate as well as an introductory graduate-level text. The author begins most chapters with theory followed by application, and generally addresses the most critical topics first. He provides all of the elements of an introductory text, covering synthesis, properties, applications, and characterization. This user-friendly book also contains definitions, learning objectives, questions, and additional reading in each chapter.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Introduction to Polymers History of Polymers Why Polymers? Today's Marketplace Environmental Assessment Polymer Structure (Morphology) Stereochemistry of Polymers Molecular Interactions Polymer Crystals Amorphous Bulk State Polymer Structure-Property Relationships Cross-Linking Crystalline and Amorphous Combinations Molecular Weight of Polymers Introduction Solubility Average Molecular Weight Values Fractionation of Polydisperse Systems Chromatography Colligative Molecular Weights Light-Scattering Photometry Other Techniques Viscometry Polycondensation Polymers (Step-Reaction Polymerization) Comparison between Polymer Type and Kinetics of Polymerization Introduction Stepwise Kinetics Polycondensation Mechanisms Polyesters Polycarbonates Synthetic Polyamides Polyimides Polyamide-Imide Polybenzimidazoles and Related Polymers Polyurethanes and Polyureas Polysulfides Polyethers and Epoxies Polysulfones Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) and Polyketones Phenolic and Amino Plastics Furan Resins Synthetic Routes Liquid Crystals Microfibers General Stepwise Polymerization Ionic Chain-Reaction and Complex Coordination Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) Cationic Polymerization Anionic Polymerization Stereoregularity Polymerization with Complex Coordination Catalysts Soluble Stereoregulating Catalysis Polyethylenes Polypropylene Polymers from 1,4-Dienes Polyisobutylene Metathesis Reactions Zwitterionic Polymerization Isomerization Polymerization Precipitation Polymerization Free-Radical Chain Polymerization (Addition Polymerization) Initiators for Free-Radical Chain Polymerization Mechanism for Free-Radical Chain Polymerization Chain Transfer Polymerization Techniques Fluorine-Containing Polymers Polystyrene Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Vinyl Acetals) Polyacrylonitrile Solid-State Irradiation Polymerization Plasma Polymerizations Copolymerization Kinetics of Copolymerization Q-e Scheme Commercial Copolymers Block Copolymers Graft Copolymers Elastomers Thermoplastic Elastomers Blends Fluoroelastomers Nitrile Rubber Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Terpolymers EPDM Rubber Networks: General Polymer Mixtures Dendrites Ionomers Viscosity Modifiers Composites and Fillers Fillers Types of Composites Long-Fiber Composites: Theory Fibers and Resins Long-Fiber Composites: Applications Nanocomposites Fabrication Metal-Matrix Composites Naturally Occurring Polymers: Plants Polysaccharides Cellulose Paper Cellulose-Regenerating Processes Esters and Ethers of Cellulose Starch Homopolysaccharides Heteropolysaccharides Synthetic Rubbers Naturally Occurring Polyisoprenes Resins Balloons Lignin Melanins Asphalt Naturally Occurring Polymers: Animals Proteins Levels of Protein Structure Nucleic Acids Flow of Biological Information RNA Interference Polymer Structure Protein Folding Genetic Engineering DNA Profiling Human Genome: General Chromosomes Spliceosomes Proteomics Protein Site Activity Identification Organometallic and Inorganic-Organic Polymers Introduction Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Condensation Organometallic Polymers Coordination Polymers Addition Polymers Ion-Exchange Resins Inorganic Polymers Introduction Portland Cement Other Cements Silicates Silicon Dioxide (Amorphous) Kinds of Amorphous Glass Safety Glass Lenses Solgel Aerogels Silicon Dioxide (Crystalline Forms): Quartz Forms Silicon Dioxide in Electronic Chips Silicon Dioxide in Optical Fibers Asbestos Fly Ash and Aluminosilicates Polymeric Carbon: Diamond Polymeric Carbon: Graphite Internal Cyclization: Carbon Fibers and Related Materials Carbon Nanotubes Bitumens Carbon Black Polysulfur Ceramics High-Temperature Superconductors Zeolites Testing and Spectrometric Characterization of Polymers Spectronic Characterization of Polymers Surface Characterization Amorphous Region Determinations Mass Spectrometry Thermal Analysis Thermal Property Tests Flammability Electric Properties: Theory Electric Measurements Optical Property Tests Weatherability Chemical Resistance Measurement of Particle Size Measurement of Adhesion Permeability and Diffusion Rheology and Physical Tests Rheology Typical Stress-Strain Behavior Stress-Strain Relationships Specific Physical Tests Additives Plasticizers Antioxidants Heat Stabilizers Ultraviolet Stabilizers Flame Retardants Colorants Curing Agents Antistatic Agents: Antistats Chemical Blowing Agents Compatibilizers Impact Modifiers Processing Aids Lubricants Microorganism Inhibitors Reactions on Polymers Reactions with Polyolefins and Polyenes Reactions of Aromatic and Aliphatic Pendant Groups Degradation Cross-Linking Reactivities of End Groups Supramolecules and Self-Assembly Transfer and Retention of Oxygen Nature's Macromolecular Catalysts Photosynthesis Mechanisms of Physical Energy Absorption Breakage of Polymeric Materials Synthesis of Reactants and Intermediates for Polymers Monomer Synthesis from Basic Feedstocks Reactants for Step-Reaction Polymerization Synthesis of Vinyl Monomers Synthesis of Free-Radical Initiators Polymer Technology Fibers Elastomers Films and Sheets Polymeric Foams Reinforced Plastics (Composites) and Laminates Molding Casting Extrusion Coatings Adhesives Selected Topics Conductive Polymeric Materials Nonlinear Optical Behavior Photophysics and Photochemistry: Basics Drug Design and Activity Synthetic Biomedical Polymers Sutures Geotextiles Smart Materials High-Performance Thermoplastics Construction and Building Flame-Resistant Textiles Water-Soluble Polymers Anaerobic Adhesives Hydrogels Emerging Polymers Green Materials New Materials: Additional Aspects Solutions Appendix A: Symbols Appendix B: Trade Names Appendix C: Syllabus Appendix D: Polymer Core Course Committees Appendix E: Structures of Common Polymers Appendix F: Mathematical Values and Units Appendix G: Comments on Health Appendix H: ISO 9000 and 14000 Appendix I: Electronic Education Websites Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Most of the advancements in communication, computers, medicine, and air and water purity are linked to macromolecules and a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern their behavior. These fundamentals are explored in Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition. Continuing the tradition of previous volumes, the latest edition provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Using simple fundamentals, this book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition includes updated techniques, new sections on a number of copolymers, expanded emphasis on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, and increased coverage of topics including carbon nanotubes, tapes and glues, photochemistry, and more. With topics presented so students can understand polymer science even if certain parts of the text are skipped, this book is suitable as an undergraduate as well as an introductory graduate-level text. The author begins most chapters with theory followed by application, and generally addresses the most critical topics first. He provides all of the elements of an introductory text, covering synthesis, properties, applications, and characterization. This user-friendly book also contains definitions, learning objectives, questions, and additional reading in each chapter.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Status of items at Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain)
Chemistry & ChemEng Library (Swain) Status
Stacks
QD381 .S483 2014 Unknown
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 461 pages)
  • Preface xi 1 Configuration and Conformation of Macromolecules in PolymerCrystals 1 1.1 Crystals of Polymers, 1 1.2 Constitution and Configuration of Crystalline Polymers, 3 1.2.1 Constitution, 3 1.2.2 Configuration, 5 1.2.3 Relative Configurations, 14 1.3 Conformation, 18 1.4 Relationships among Internal Parameters of Macromolecules, 19 1.5 Conformation of Polymer Chains in the Crystalline State, 21 1.5.1 Basic Principles, 21 1.5.2 The Equivalence Principle, 21 1.5.2.1 Symmetry Relations for Cylindrical Coordinates, 29 1.5.2.2 Application of the Equivalence Principle: StereoregularVinyl Polymers, 31 1.5.3 Principle of Minimum Conformational Internal Energy, 33 1.5.4 Relationships between Internal Coordinates andConformational Parameters, 36 1.6 Helical Conformations in Isotactic and SyndiotacticPolymers, 46 1.7 Conformational Energy Calculations, 51 1.7.1 Setting Up Molecular Models: Coordinate Transformations, 52 1.7.2 Calculation of the Conformational Energy for Isotactic andSyndiotactic Polymers, 54 1.8 Helical Conformation and Optical Activity, 66 1.9 Alternating Copolymers, 68 1.10 Polydienes, 73 1.11 Nonhelical Chain Conformations of Isotactic Polymers, 78 References, 81 2 Packing of Macromolecules in Polymer Crystals 88 2.1 General Principles, 88 2.2 The Principle of Density (Entropy)-Driven Phase Formation inPolymers, 92 2.3 Symmetry Breaking, 96 2.4 Impact of Chain Folding on Crystal Structure Symmetry, 103 2.5 Frustrated Polymer Crystal Structures, 107 2.6 Chiral Crystallization of Polymers with Helical ChainConformations, 110 2.7 Packing Effects on the Conformation of Polymer Chains inCrystals: The Case of Aliphatic Polyamides, 113 References, 118 3 Methods in Crystal Structure Determination from X-RayDiffraction 123 3.1 X-Ray Diffraction of Semicrystalline Polymers, 123 3.1.1 Basic Principles, 123 3.1.2 Experimental Techniques for Polymer Crystals, 128 3.2 Fourier Synthesis and the Phase Problem in Crystallography, 134 3.3 X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Analysis, 140 3.3.1 Determination of the Fiber Period and the Bragg Distancesof Diffraction Peaks, 140 3.3.2 Analysis of Nonhelical and Helical Structures, 142 3.3.3 The Structure Factor of a Single Molecule: The ContinuousHelix, 144 3.3.4 CCV Formula for Helical Structures, 147 3.3.5 The Case of Incommensurable Helices, 153 3.3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors of a Single HelicalChain, 162 3.3.7 Calculation of Structure Factors of Crystals of HelicalMolecules Including More Than One Chain per Unit Cell, 163 3.4 Determination of Parameters of the Unit Cell and Indexing ofthe Diffraction Pattern, 165 3.4.1 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Oriented Fibers, 165 3.4.2 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Powder Samples, 170 3.5 Measure of the Integrated Intensities of the Reflections andCorrections for Geometric (Lorentz), Polarization, and AbsorptionFactors, 171 3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors, 174 3.7 Structural Refinement, 180 3.8 Form of Diffraction Pattern and Broadening due to the LaueFunction, 181 References, 183 4 Defects and Disorder in Polymer Crystals 185 4.1 Classification of Different Types of Structural Disorder, 185 4.2 Crystals with Partial Three-Dimensional Order (Class A):Disorder with Three-Dimensional Periodicity Maintained for OnlySome Characterizing Points of the Structure, 191 4.2.1 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Chains, 192 4.2.1.1 Disorder in the Positioning of Right- and Left-HandedHelical Chains, 192 4.2.1.2 Disorder in the Positioning of Up and Down Chains, 195 4.2.1.3 Disorder in the Orientation of Chains around the ChainAxis, 197 4.2.2 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Monomeric Units, 200 4.2.3 Conformational Isomorphism, 202 4.2.4 Disorder in the Stacking of Ordered Layers of Chains(Stacking Fault Disorder), 204 4.2.4.1 Stacking Faults in Form I and Form II of sPP, 204 4.2.4.2 Stacking Faults in - and -Forms of iPP, 206 4.2.4.3 Stacking Faults in the -Form of sPS, 209 4.2.5 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder, 211 4.2.5.1 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PVDF, 212 4.2.5.2 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PE, 215 4.2.5.3 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in sPP, 216 4.2.5.4 The Role of Kink-Band Disorder in the CooperativeCrystal Crystal Polymorphic Transitions, 218 4.3 Solid Mesophases, 219 4.3.1 LCs in Small Molecules and Polymers, 222 4.3.2 Solid Mesophases in Polymers, 227 4.3.3 Solid Mesophases of Class B: Crystals withThree-Dimensional Long-Range Order of Not-Point-Centered Features, 229 4.3.3.1 Solid Mesophase in 1,4-trans-Poly(1,3-butadiene)(trans-PBD), 230 4.3.3.2 Poly( -caprolactame) (Nylon 6), 232 4.3.3.3 Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), 235 4.3.3.4 Ethylene Propylene Random Copolymers, 239 4.3.3.5 Pseudohexagonal Form of PE at High Pressure andTemperature, 243 4.3.3.6 Poly(tetrafl uoroethylene) (PTFE), 245 4.3.3.7 Random Copolymers of Tetrafl uoroethylene withFluorinated Comonomers, 251 4.3.3.8 Alternating Ethylene Tetrafl uoroethylene (ETFE)Copolymers, 255 4.3.3.9 Alternating Ethylene-Norbornene Copolymers (ENCs), 264 4.3.3.10 Comblike Polymers, 271 4.3.4 Solid Mesophases of Class C: Crystals with Long-RangePositional Order in Only One or Two Dimensions, 271 4.3.4.1 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 272 4.3.4.2 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 275 4.3.4.3 Copolymers of iPP with Branched Comonomers, 276 4.3.4.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 279 4.3.4.5 Copolymers of sPP, 284 4.3.4.6 Syndiotactic Polystyrene (sPS) and Methyl-SubstitutedPolystyrenes, 286 References, 287 5 Methods of Analysis of Diffuse Scattering from DisorderedStructures of Polymers 296 5.1 Structural Disorder and Diffuse Scattering, 296 5.2 Methods of Diffraction Analysis from Disordered Crystals, 298 5.3 Long-Range Order in Disordered Lattices of Class A, 300 5.4 SRO in Disordered Crystals of Class A, 302 5.5 Short-Range Order in Disordered Crystals withSubstitution-Type Disorder, 305 5.6 Short-Range versus Long-Range Order in Disordered Crystalsof Classes B and C (Solid Mesophases), 309 5.7 Disordered Models with Perturbations Occurring overContinuous Ranges, 311 5.8 Basic Formulas for the Calculation of X-Ray DiffractionIntensity from Disordered Model Structures of Polymers, 316 5.8.1 Brief Overview of Basic Formalism in X-Ray Modeling, 316 5.8.2 Effect of Longitudinal Translational Disorder andRotational Displacements of Chains about Their Axes: ExplicitFormulas, 319 5.8.3 Substitutional and Translational Disorder in OneDimension, 321 5.9 Examples of Calculation of Average Diffracted Intensity ofStructures Disordered in One Dimension, 328 5.9.1 Substitution-Type Disorder, 328 5.9.2 Translation-Type Disorder, 331 5.9.3 Stacking Fault Disorder in the -Form of sPS, 333 5.10 Line and Surface Integration Method of DiffractionIntensity for Fibers and Powders of Polycrystalline Samples, 337 References, 338 6 Crystal Habits 341 6.1 Basic Remarks, 341 6.2 Rounded Lateral Habits, 347 6.3 Chain Folding, Molecular Orientation, and Sectorization, 349 6.3.1 Chain Tilting, 349 6.3.2 Sectorization, 350 6.3.3 Nonplanar Lamellae, 352 6.4 Twinning and Secondary Nucleation Theory, 355 6.5 Homoepitaxy, Morphology, Stem Orientation, and Polymorphism, 359 References, 367 7 Influence of Crystal Defects and Structural Disorder on thePhysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials369 7.1 Introduction, 369 7.2 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 371 7.3 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 373 7.3.1 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on theCrystallization Behavior of iPP, 374 7.3.2 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on the MechanicalProperties of iPP, 378 7.3.3 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations of iPP during TensileDeformation, 382 7.3.4 Elastic Properties and Phase Transformations inStereodefective iPP, 388 7.3.5 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of iPP, 390 7.3.6 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the PhysicalProperties of iPP, 397 7.3.7 Influence of Conditions of Crystallization on the PhysicalProperties of iPP: The Mesomorphic Form, 406 7.3.7.1 Morphology of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 407 7.3.7.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 412 7.3.7.3 Mechanical Properties of the -Form and SolidMesophase in Metallocene iPPs, 417 7.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 422 7.4.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization Behaviorof sPP, 424 7.4.2 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization of theMesomorphic Form of sPP, 427 7.4.3 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization oftrans-Planar and Helical Forms of sPP in Oriented Fibers:Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 428 7.4.4 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of sPP, 431 7.4.5 Physical and Mechanical Properties of sPP, 434 7.4.5.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Mechanical Propertiesof sPP, 434 7.4.5.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of sPP, 440 References, 442 Index 449.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Polymeric crystals are more complex in nature than other materials' crystal structures due to significant structural disorder present. In fact, they actually exist in a semicrystalline state where the crystals are embedded in an amorphous phase to create a highly interconnected network. Presenting an in-depth and current overview of polymer crystals, Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers provides researchers, engineers, and graduate students with guidelines to help select the proper crystallization method, evaluate polymer crystallization data, determine which methods to utilize for particular cases, and understand the different analytical techniques utilized.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface xi 1 Configuration and Conformation of Macromolecules in PolymerCrystals 1 1.1 Crystals of Polymers, 1 1.2 Constitution and Configuration of Crystalline Polymers, 3 1.2.1 Constitution, 3 1.2.2 Configuration, 5 1.2.3 Relative Configurations, 14 1.3 Conformation, 18 1.4 Relationships among Internal Parameters of Macromolecules, 19 1.5 Conformation of Polymer Chains in the Crystalline State, 21 1.5.1 Basic Principles, 21 1.5.2 The Equivalence Principle, 21 1.5.2.1 Symmetry Relations for Cylindrical Coordinates, 29 1.5.2.2 Application of the Equivalence Principle: StereoregularVinyl Polymers, 31 1.5.3 Principle of Minimum Conformational Internal Energy, 33 1.5.4 Relationships between Internal Coordinates andConformational Parameters, 36 1.6 Helical Conformations in Isotactic and SyndiotacticPolymers, 46 1.7 Conformational Energy Calculations, 51 1.7.1 Setting Up Molecular Models: Coordinate Transformations, 52 1.7.2 Calculation of the Conformational Energy for Isotactic andSyndiotactic Polymers, 54 1.8 Helical Conformation and Optical Activity, 66 1.9 Alternating Copolymers, 68 1.10 Polydienes, 73 1.11 Nonhelical Chain Conformations of Isotactic Polymers, 78 References, 81 2 Packing of Macromolecules in Polymer Crystals 88 2.1 General Principles, 88 2.2 The Principle of Density (Entropy)-Driven Phase Formation inPolymers, 92 2.3 Symmetry Breaking, 96 2.4 Impact of Chain Folding on Crystal Structure Symmetry, 103 2.5 Frustrated Polymer Crystal Structures, 107 2.6 Chiral Crystallization of Polymers with Helical ChainConformations, 110 2.7 Packing Effects on the Conformation of Polymer Chains inCrystals: The Case of Aliphatic Polyamides, 113 References, 118 3 Methods in Crystal Structure Determination from X-RayDiffraction 123 3.1 X-Ray Diffraction of Semicrystalline Polymers, 123 3.1.1 Basic Principles, 123 3.1.2 Experimental Techniques for Polymer Crystals, 128 3.2 Fourier Synthesis and the Phase Problem in Crystallography, 134 3.3 X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Analysis, 140 3.3.1 Determination of the Fiber Period and the Bragg Distancesof Diffraction Peaks, 140 3.3.2 Analysis of Nonhelical and Helical Structures, 142 3.3.3 The Structure Factor of a Single Molecule: The ContinuousHelix, 144 3.3.4 CCV Formula for Helical Structures, 147 3.3.5 The Case of Incommensurable Helices, 153 3.3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors of a Single HelicalChain, 162 3.3.7 Calculation of Structure Factors of Crystals of HelicalMolecules Including More Than One Chain per Unit Cell, 163 3.4 Determination of Parameters of the Unit Cell and Indexing ofthe Diffraction Pattern, 165 3.4.1 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Oriented Fibers, 165 3.4.2 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Powder Samples, 170 3.5 Measure of the Integrated Intensities of the Reflections andCorrections for Geometric (Lorentz), Polarization, and AbsorptionFactors, 171 3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors, 174 3.7 Structural Refinement, 180 3.8 Form of Diffraction Pattern and Broadening due to the LaueFunction, 181 References, 183 4 Defects and Disorder in Polymer Crystals 185 4.1 Classification of Different Types of Structural Disorder, 185 4.2 Crystals with Partial Three-Dimensional Order (Class A):Disorder with Three-Dimensional Periodicity Maintained for OnlySome Characterizing Points of the Structure, 191 4.2.1 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Chains, 192 4.2.1.1 Disorder in the Positioning of Right- and Left-HandedHelical Chains, 192 4.2.1.2 Disorder in the Positioning of Up and Down Chains, 195 4.2.1.3 Disorder in the Orientation of Chains around the ChainAxis, 197 4.2.2 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Monomeric Units, 200 4.2.3 Conformational Isomorphism, 202 4.2.4 Disorder in the Stacking of Ordered Layers of Chains(Stacking Fault Disorder), 204 4.2.4.1 Stacking Faults in Form I and Form II of sPP, 204 4.2.4.2 Stacking Faults in - and -Forms of iPP, 206 4.2.4.3 Stacking Faults in the -Form of sPS, 209 4.2.5 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder, 211 4.2.5.1 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PVDF, 212 4.2.5.2 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PE, 215 4.2.5.3 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in sPP, 216 4.2.5.4 The Role of Kink-Band Disorder in the CooperativeCrystal Crystal Polymorphic Transitions, 218 4.3 Solid Mesophases, 219 4.3.1 LCs in Small Molecules and Polymers, 222 4.3.2 Solid Mesophases in Polymers, 227 4.3.3 Solid Mesophases of Class B: Crystals withThree-Dimensional Long-Range Order of Not-Point-Centered Features, 229 4.3.3.1 Solid Mesophase in 1,4-trans-Poly(1,3-butadiene)(trans-PBD), 230 4.3.3.2 Poly( -caprolactame) (Nylon 6), 232 4.3.3.3 Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), 235 4.3.3.4 Ethylene Propylene Random Copolymers, 239 4.3.3.5 Pseudohexagonal Form of PE at High Pressure andTemperature, 243 4.3.3.6 Poly(tetrafl uoroethylene) (PTFE), 245 4.3.3.7 Random Copolymers of Tetrafl uoroethylene withFluorinated Comonomers, 251 4.3.3.8 Alternating Ethylene Tetrafl uoroethylene (ETFE)Copolymers, 255 4.3.3.9 Alternating Ethylene-Norbornene Copolymers (ENCs), 264 4.3.3.10 Comblike Polymers, 271 4.3.4 Solid Mesophases of Class C: Crystals with Long-RangePositional Order in Only One or Two Dimensions, 271 4.3.4.1 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 272 4.3.4.2 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 275 4.3.4.3 Copolymers of iPP with Branched Comonomers, 276 4.3.4.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 279 4.3.4.5 Copolymers of sPP, 284 4.3.4.6 Syndiotactic Polystyrene (sPS) and Methyl-SubstitutedPolystyrenes, 286 References, 287 5 Methods of Analysis of Diffuse Scattering from DisorderedStructures of Polymers 296 5.1 Structural Disorder and Diffuse Scattering, 296 5.2 Methods of Diffraction Analysis from Disordered Crystals, 298 5.3 Long-Range Order in Disordered Lattices of Class A, 300 5.4 SRO in Disordered Crystals of Class A, 302 5.5 Short-Range Order in Disordered Crystals withSubstitution-Type Disorder, 305 5.6 Short-Range versus Long-Range Order in Disordered Crystalsof Classes B and C (Solid Mesophases), 309 5.7 Disordered Models with Perturbations Occurring overContinuous Ranges, 311 5.8 Basic Formulas for the Calculation of X-Ray DiffractionIntensity from Disordered Model Structures of Polymers, 316 5.8.1 Brief Overview of Basic Formalism in X-Ray Modeling, 316 5.8.2 Effect of Longitudinal Translational Disorder andRotational Displacements of Chains about Their Axes: ExplicitFormulas, 319 5.8.3 Substitutional and Translational Disorder in OneDimension, 321 5.9 Examples of Calculation of Average Diffracted Intensity ofStructures Disordered in One Dimension, 328 5.9.1 Substitution-Type Disorder, 328 5.9.2 Translation-Type Disorder, 331 5.9.3 Stacking Fault Disorder in the -Form of sPS, 333 5.10 Line and Surface Integration Method of DiffractionIntensity for Fibers and Powders of Polycrystalline Samples, 337 References, 338 6 Crystal Habits 341 6.1 Basic Remarks, 341 6.2 Rounded Lateral Habits, 347 6.3 Chain Folding, Molecular Orientation, and Sectorization, 349 6.3.1 Chain Tilting, 349 6.3.2 Sectorization, 350 6.3.3 Nonplanar Lamellae, 352 6.4 Twinning and Secondary Nucleation Theory, 355 6.5 Homoepitaxy, Morphology, Stem Orientation, and Polymorphism, 359 References, 367 7 Influence of Crystal Defects and Structural Disorder on thePhysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials369 7.1 Introduction, 369 7.2 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 371 7.3 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 373 7.3.1 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on theCrystallization Behavior of iPP, 374 7.3.2 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on the MechanicalProperties of iPP, 378 7.3.3 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations of iPP during TensileDeformation, 382 7.3.4 Elastic Properties and Phase Transformations inStereodefective iPP, 388 7.3.5 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of iPP, 390 7.3.6 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the PhysicalProperties of iPP, 397 7.3.7 Influence of Conditions of Crystallization on the PhysicalProperties of iPP: The Mesomorphic Form, 406 7.3.7.1 Morphology of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 407 7.3.7.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 412 7.3.7.3 Mechanical Properties of the -Form and SolidMesophase in Metallocene iPPs, 417 7.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 422 7.4.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization Behaviorof sPP, 424 7.4.2 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization of theMesomorphic Form of sPP, 427 7.4.3 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization oftrans-Planar and Helical Forms of sPP in Oriented Fibers:Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 428 7.4.4 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of sPP, 431 7.4.5 Physical and Mechanical Properties of sPP, 434 7.4.5.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Mechanical Propertiesof sPP, 434 7.4.5.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of sPP, 440 References, 442 Index 449.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Polymeric crystals are more complex in nature than other materials' crystal structures due to significant structural disorder present. In fact, they actually exist in a semicrystalline state where the crystals are embedded in an amorphous phase to create a highly interconnected network. Presenting an in-depth and current overview of polymer crystals, Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers provides researchers, engineers, and graduate students with guidelines to help select the proper crystallization method, evaluate polymer crystallization data, determine which methods to utilize for particular cases, and understand the different analytical techniques utilized.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (477 pages) : illustrations
  • Preface xi 1 Configuration and Conformation of Macromolecules in PolymerCrystals 1 1.1 Crystals of Polymers, 1 1.2 Constitution and Configuration of Crystalline Polymers, 3 1.2.1 Constitution, 3 1.2.2 Configuration, 5 1.2.3 Relative Configurations, 14 1.3 Conformation, 18 1.4 Relationships among Internal Parameters of Macromolecules, 19 1.5 Conformation of Polymer Chains in the Crystalline State, 21 1.5.1 Basic Principles, 21 1.5.2 The Equivalence Principle, 21 1.5.2.1 Symmetry Relations for Cylindrical Coordinates, 29 1.5.2.2 Application of the Equivalence Principle: StereoregularVinyl Polymers, 31 1.5.3 Principle of Minimum Conformational Internal Energy, 33 1.5.4 Relationships between Internal Coordinates andConformational Parameters, 36 1.6 Helical Conformations in Isotactic and SyndiotacticPolymers, 46 1.7 Conformational Energy Calculations, 51 1.7.1 Setting Up Molecular Models: Coordinate Transformations, 52 1.7.2 Calculation of the Conformational Energy for Isotactic andSyndiotactic Polymers, 54 1.8 Helical Conformation and Optical Activity, 66 1.9 Alternating Copolymers, 68 1.10 Polydienes, 73 1.11 Nonhelical Chain Conformations of Isotactic Polymers, 78 References, 81 2 Packing of Macromolecules in Polymer Crystals 88 2.1 General Principles, 88 2.2 The Principle of Density (Entropy)-Driven Phase Formation inPolymers, 92 2.3 Symmetry Breaking, 96 2.4 Impact of Chain Folding on Crystal Structure Symmetry, 103 2.5 Frustrated Polymer Crystal Structures, 107 2.6 Chiral Crystallization of Polymers with Helical ChainConformations, 110 2.7 Packing Effects on the Conformation of Polymer Chains inCrystals: The Case of Aliphatic Polyamides, 113 References, 118 3 Methods in Crystal Structure Determination from X-RayDiffraction 123 3.1 X-Ray Diffraction of Semicrystalline Polymers, 123 3.1.1 Basic Principles, 123 3.1.2 Experimental Techniques for Polymer Crystals, 128 3.2 Fourier Synthesis and the Phase Problem in Crystallography, 134 3.3 X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Analysis, 140 3.3.1 Determination of the Fiber Period and the Bragg Distancesof Diffraction Peaks, 140 3.3.2 Analysis of Nonhelical and Helical Structures, 142 3.3.3 The Structure Factor of a Single Molecule: The ContinuousHelix, 144 3.3.4 CCV Formula for Helical Structures, 147 3.3.5 The Case of Incommensurable Helices, 153 3.3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors of a Single HelicalChain, 162 3.3.7 Calculation of Structure Factors of Crystals of HelicalMolecules Including More Than One Chain per Unit Cell, 163 3.4 Determination of Parameters of the Unit Cell and Indexing ofthe Diffraction Pattern, 165 3.4.1 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Oriented Fibers, 165 3.4.2 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Powder Samples, 170 3.5 Measure of the Integrated Intensities of the Reflections andCorrections for Geometric (Lorentz), Polarization, and AbsorptionFactors, 171 3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors, 174 3.7 Structural Refinement, 180 3.8 Form of Diffraction Pattern and Broadening due to the LaueFunction, 181 References, 183 4 Defects and Disorder in Polymer Crystals 185 4.1 Classification of Different Types of Structural Disorder, 185 4.2 Crystals with Partial Three-Dimensional Order (Class A):Disorder with Three-Dimensional Periodicity Maintained for OnlySome Characterizing Points of the Structure, 191 4.2.1 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Chains, 192 4.2.1.1 Disorder in the Positioning of Right- and Left-HandedHelical Chains, 192 4.2.1.2 Disorder in the Positioning of Up and Down Chains, 195 4.2.1.3 Disorder in the Orientation of Chains around the ChainAxis, 197 4.2.2 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Monomeric Units, 200 4.2.3 Conformational Isomorphism, 202 4.2.4 Disorder in the Stacking of Ordered Layers of Chains(Stacking Fault Disorder), 204 4.2.4.1 Stacking Faults in Form I and Form II of sPP, 204 4.2.4.2 Stacking Faults in - and -Forms of iPP, 206 4.2.4.3 Stacking Faults in the -Form of sPS, 209 4.2.5 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder, 211 4.2.5.1 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PVDF, 212 4.2.5.2 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PE, 215 4.2.5.3 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in sPP, 216 4.2.5.4 The Role of Kink-Band Disorder in the CooperativeCrystal Crystal Polymorphic Transitions, 218 4.3 Solid Mesophases, 219 4.3.1 LCs in Small Molecules and Polymers, 222 4.3.2 Solid Mesophases in Polymers, 227 4.3.3 Solid Mesophases of Class B: Crystals withThree-Dimensional Long-Range Order of Not-Point-Centered Features, 229 4.3.3.1 Solid Mesophase in 1,4-trans-Poly(1,3-butadiene)(trans-PBD), 230 4.3.3.2 Poly( -caprolactame) (Nylon 6), 232 4.3.3.3 Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), 235 4.3.3.4 Ethylene Propylene Random Copolymers, 239 4.3.3.5 Pseudohexagonal Form of PE at High Pressure andTemperature, 243 4.3.3.6 Poly(tetrafl uoroethylene) (PTFE), 245 4.3.3.7 Random Copolymers of Tetrafl uoroethylene withFluorinated Comonomers, 251 4.3.3.8 Alternating Ethylene Tetrafl uoroethylene (ETFE)Copolymers, 255 4.3.3.9 Alternating Ethylene-Norbornene Copolymers (ENCs), 264 4.3.3.10 Comblike Polymers, 271 4.3.4 Solid Mesophases of Class C: Crystals with Long-RangePositional Order in Only One or Two Dimensions, 271 4.3.4.1 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 272 4.3.4.2 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 275 4.3.4.3 Copolymers of iPP with Branched Comonomers, 276 4.3.4.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 279 4.3.4.5 Copolymers of sPP, 284 4.3.4.6 Syndiotactic Polystyrene (sPS) and Methyl-SubstitutedPolystyrenes, 286 References, 287 5 Methods of Analysis of Diffuse Scattering from DisorderedStructures of Polymers 296 5.1 Structural Disorder and Diffuse Scattering, 296 5.2 Methods of Diffraction Analysis from Disordered Crystals, 298 5.3 Long-Range Order in Disordered Lattices of Class A, 300 5.4 SRO in Disordered Crystals of Class A, 302 5.5 Short-Range Order in Disordered Crystals withSubstitution-Type Disorder, 305 5.6 Short-Range versus Long-Range Order in Disordered Crystalsof Classes B and C (Solid Mesophases), 309 5.7 Disordered Models with Perturbations Occurring overContinuous Ranges, 311 5.8 Basic Formulas for the Calculation of X-Ray DiffractionIntensity from Disordered Model Structures of Polymers, 316 5.8.1 Brief Overview of Basic Formalism in X-Ray Modeling, 316 5.8.2 Effect of Longitudinal Translational Disorder andRotational Displacements of Chains about Their Axes: ExplicitFormulas, 319 5.8.3 Substitutional and Translational Disorder in OneDimension, 321 5.9 Examples of Calculation of Average Diffracted Intensity ofStructures Disordered in One Dimension, 328 5.9.1 Substitution-Type Disorder, 328 5.9.2 Translation-Type Disorder, 331 5.9.3 Stacking Fault Disorder in the -Form of sPS, 333 5.10 Line and Surface Integration Method of DiffractionIntensity for Fibers and Powders of Polycrystalline Samples, 337 References, 338 6 Crystal Habits 341 6.1 Basic Remarks, 341 6.2 Rounded Lateral Habits, 347 6.3 Chain Folding, Molecular Orientation, and Sectorization, 349 6.3.1 Chain Tilting, 349 6.3.2 Sectorization, 350 6.3.3 Nonplanar Lamellae, 352 6.4 Twinning and Secondary Nucleation Theory, 355 6.5 Homoepitaxy, Morphology, Stem Orientation, and Polymorphism, 359 References, 367 7 Influence of Crystal Defects and Structural Disorder on thePhysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials369 7.1 Introduction, 369 7.2 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 371 7.3 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 373 7.3.1 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on theCrystallization Behavior of iPP, 374 7.3.2 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on the MechanicalProperties of iPP, 378 7.3.3 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations of iPP during TensileDeformation, 382 7.3.4 Elastic Properties and Phase Transformations inStereodefective iPP, 388 7.3.5 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of iPP, 390 7.3.6 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the PhysicalProperties of iPP, 397 7.3.7 Influence of Conditions of Crystallization on the PhysicalProperties of iPP: The Mesomorphic Form, 406 7.3.7.1 Morphology of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 407 7.3.7.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 412 7.3.7.3 Mechanical Properties of the -Form and SolidMesophase in Metallocene iPPs, 417 7.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 422 7.4.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization Behaviorof sPP, 424 7.4.2 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization of theMesomorphic Form of sPP, 427 7.4.3 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization oftrans-Planar and Helical Forms of sPP in Oriented Fibers:Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 428 7.4.4 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of sPP, 431 7.4.5 Physical and Mechanical Properties of sPP, 434 7.4.5.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Mechanical Propertiesof sPP, 434 7.4.5.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of sPP, 440 References, 442 Index 449.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Polymeric crystals are more complex in nature than other materials' crystal structures due to significant structural disorder present. In fact, they actually exist in a semicrystalline state where the crystals are embedded in an amorphous phase to create a highly interconnected network. Presenting an in-depth and current overview of polymer crystals, Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers provides researchers, engineers, and graduate students with guidelines to help select the proper crystallization method, evaluate polymer crystallization data, determine which methods to utilize for particular cases, and understand the different analytical techniques utilized.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface xi 1 Configuration and Conformation of Macromolecules in PolymerCrystals 1 1.1 Crystals of Polymers, 1 1.2 Constitution and Configuration of Crystalline Polymers, 3 1.2.1 Constitution, 3 1.2.2 Configuration, 5 1.2.3 Relative Configurations, 14 1.3 Conformation, 18 1.4 Relationships among Internal Parameters of Macromolecules, 19 1.5 Conformation of Polymer Chains in the Crystalline State, 21 1.5.1 Basic Principles, 21 1.5.2 The Equivalence Principle, 21 1.5.2.1 Symmetry Relations for Cylindrical Coordinates, 29 1.5.2.2 Application of the Equivalence Principle: StereoregularVinyl Polymers, 31 1.5.3 Principle of Minimum Conformational Internal Energy, 33 1.5.4 Relationships between Internal Coordinates andConformational Parameters, 36 1.6 Helical Conformations in Isotactic and SyndiotacticPolymers, 46 1.7 Conformational Energy Calculations, 51 1.7.1 Setting Up Molecular Models: Coordinate Transformations, 52 1.7.2 Calculation of the Conformational Energy for Isotactic andSyndiotactic Polymers, 54 1.8 Helical Conformation and Optical Activity, 66 1.9 Alternating Copolymers, 68 1.10 Polydienes, 73 1.11 Nonhelical Chain Conformations of Isotactic Polymers, 78 References, 81 2 Packing of Macromolecules in Polymer Crystals 88 2.1 General Principles, 88 2.2 The Principle of Density (Entropy)-Driven Phase Formation inPolymers, 92 2.3 Symmetry Breaking, 96 2.4 Impact of Chain Folding on Crystal Structure Symmetry, 103 2.5 Frustrated Polymer Crystal Structures, 107 2.6 Chiral Crystallization of Polymers with Helical ChainConformations, 110 2.7 Packing Effects on the Conformation of Polymer Chains inCrystals: The Case of Aliphatic Polyamides, 113 References, 118 3 Methods in Crystal Structure Determination from X-RayDiffraction 123 3.1 X-Ray Diffraction of Semicrystalline Polymers, 123 3.1.1 Basic Principles, 123 3.1.2 Experimental Techniques for Polymer Crystals, 128 3.2 Fourier Synthesis and the Phase Problem in Crystallography, 134 3.3 X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Analysis, 140 3.3.1 Determination of the Fiber Period and the Bragg Distancesof Diffraction Peaks, 140 3.3.2 Analysis of Nonhelical and Helical Structures, 142 3.3.3 The Structure Factor of a Single Molecule: The ContinuousHelix, 144 3.3.4 CCV Formula for Helical Structures, 147 3.3.5 The Case of Incommensurable Helices, 153 3.3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors of a Single HelicalChain, 162 3.3.7 Calculation of Structure Factors of Crystals of HelicalMolecules Including More Than One Chain per Unit Cell, 163 3.4 Determination of Parameters of the Unit Cell and Indexing ofthe Diffraction Pattern, 165 3.4.1 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Oriented Fibers, 165 3.4.2 X-Ray Diffraction Data from Powder Samples, 170 3.5 Measure of the Integrated Intensities of the Reflections andCorrections for Geometric (Lorentz), Polarization, and AbsorptionFactors, 171 3.6 Calculation of Structure Factors, 174 3.7 Structural Refinement, 180 3.8 Form of Diffraction Pattern and Broadening due to the LaueFunction, 181 References, 183 4 Defects and Disorder in Polymer Crystals 185 4.1 Classification of Different Types of Structural Disorder, 185 4.2 Crystals with Partial Three-Dimensional Order (Class A):Disorder with Three-Dimensional Periodicity Maintained for OnlySome Characterizing Points of the Structure, 191 4.2.1 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Chains, 192 4.2.1.1 Disorder in the Positioning of Right- and Left-HandedHelical Chains, 192 4.2.1.2 Disorder in the Positioning of Up and Down Chains, 195 4.2.1.3 Disorder in the Orientation of Chains around the ChainAxis, 197 4.2.2 Substitutional Isomorphism of Different Monomeric Units, 200 4.2.3 Conformational Isomorphism, 202 4.2.4 Disorder in the Stacking of Ordered Layers of Chains(Stacking Fault Disorder), 204 4.2.4.1 Stacking Faults in Form I and Form II of sPP, 204 4.2.4.2 Stacking Faults in - and -Forms of iPP, 206 4.2.4.3 Stacking Faults in the -Form of sPS, 209 4.2.5 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder, 211 4.2.5.1 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PVDF, 212 4.2.5.2 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in PE, 215 4.2.5.3 Conformational Kink-Band Disorder in sPP, 216 4.2.5.4 The Role of Kink-Band Disorder in the CooperativeCrystal Crystal Polymorphic Transitions, 218 4.3 Solid Mesophases, 219 4.3.1 LCs in Small Molecules and Polymers, 222 4.3.2 Solid Mesophases in Polymers, 227 4.3.3 Solid Mesophases of Class B: Crystals withThree-Dimensional Long-Range Order of Not-Point-Centered Features, 229 4.3.3.1 Solid Mesophase in 1,4-trans-Poly(1,3-butadiene)(trans-PBD), 230 4.3.3.2 Poly( -caprolactame) (Nylon 6), 232 4.3.3.3 Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), 235 4.3.3.4 Ethylene Propylene Random Copolymers, 239 4.3.3.5 Pseudohexagonal Form of PE at High Pressure andTemperature, 243 4.3.3.6 Poly(tetrafl uoroethylene) (PTFE), 245 4.3.3.7 Random Copolymers of Tetrafl uoroethylene withFluorinated Comonomers, 251 4.3.3.8 Alternating Ethylene Tetrafl uoroethylene (ETFE)Copolymers, 255 4.3.3.9 Alternating Ethylene-Norbornene Copolymers (ENCs), 264 4.3.3.10 Comblike Polymers, 271 4.3.4 Solid Mesophases of Class C: Crystals with Long-RangePositional Order in Only One or Two Dimensions, 271 4.3.4.1 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 272 4.3.4.2 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 275 4.3.4.3 Copolymers of iPP with Branched Comonomers, 276 4.3.4.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 279 4.3.4.5 Copolymers of sPP, 284 4.3.4.6 Syndiotactic Polystyrene (sPS) and Methyl-SubstitutedPolystyrenes, 286 References, 287 5 Methods of Analysis of Diffuse Scattering from DisorderedStructures of Polymers 296 5.1 Structural Disorder and Diffuse Scattering, 296 5.2 Methods of Diffraction Analysis from Disordered Crystals, 298 5.3 Long-Range Order in Disordered Lattices of Class A, 300 5.4 SRO in Disordered Crystals of Class A, 302 5.5 Short-Range Order in Disordered Crystals withSubstitution-Type Disorder, 305 5.6 Short-Range versus Long-Range Order in Disordered Crystalsof Classes B and C (Solid Mesophases), 309 5.7 Disordered Models with Perturbations Occurring overContinuous Ranges, 311 5.8 Basic Formulas for the Calculation of X-Ray DiffractionIntensity from Disordered Model Structures of Polymers, 316 5.8.1 Brief Overview of Basic Formalism in X-Ray Modeling, 316 5.8.2 Effect of Longitudinal Translational Disorder andRotational Displacements of Chains about Their Axes: ExplicitFormulas, 319 5.8.3 Substitutional and Translational Disorder in OneDimension, 321 5.9 Examples of Calculation of Average Diffracted Intensity ofStructures Disordered in One Dimension, 328 5.9.1 Substitution-Type Disorder, 328 5.9.2 Translation-Type Disorder, 331 5.9.3 Stacking Fault Disorder in the -Form of sPS, 333 5.10 Line and Surface Integration Method of DiffractionIntensity for Fibers and Powders of Polycrystalline Samples, 337 References, 338 6 Crystal Habits 341 6.1 Basic Remarks, 341 6.2 Rounded Lateral Habits, 347 6.3 Chain Folding, Molecular Orientation, and Sectorization, 349 6.3.1 Chain Tilting, 349 6.3.2 Sectorization, 350 6.3.3 Nonplanar Lamellae, 352 6.4 Twinning and Secondary Nucleation Theory, 355 6.5 Homoepitaxy, Morphology, Stem Orientation, and Polymorphism, 359 References, 367 7 Influence of Crystal Defects and Structural Disorder on thePhysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials369 7.1 Introduction, 369 7.2 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 371 7.3 Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP), 373 7.3.1 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on theCrystallization Behavior of iPP, 374 7.3.2 Influence of Stereo- and Regiodefects on the MechanicalProperties of iPP, 378 7.3.3 Stress-Induced Phase Transformations of iPP during TensileDeformation, 382 7.3.4 Elastic Properties and Phase Transformations inStereodefective iPP, 388 7.3.5 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of iPP, 390 7.3.6 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the PhysicalProperties of iPP, 397 7.3.7 Influence of Conditions of Crystallization on the PhysicalProperties of iPP: The Mesomorphic Form, 406 7.3.7.1 Morphology of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 407 7.3.7.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of iPP, 412 7.3.7.3 Mechanical Properties of the -Form and SolidMesophase in Metallocene iPPs, 417 7.4 Syndiotactic Polypropylene (sPP), 422 7.4.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization Behaviorof sPP, 424 7.4.2 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization of theMesomorphic Form of sPP, 427 7.4.3 Influence of Stereodefects on the Crystallization oftrans-Planar and Helical Forms of sPP in Oriented Fibers:Stress-Induced Phase Transformations during Deformation, 428 7.4.4 Influence of Constitutional Defects on the CrystallizationBehavior of sPP, 431 7.4.5 Physical and Mechanical Properties of sPP, 434 7.4.5.1 Influence of Stereodefects on the Mechanical Propertiesof sPP, 434 7.4.5.2 Mechanical Properties of the Solid Mesophase of sPP, 440 References, 442 Index 449.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Polymeric crystals are more complex in nature than other materials' crystal structures due to significant structural disorder present. In fact, they actually exist in a semicrystalline state where the crystals are embedded in an amorphous phase to create a highly interconnected network. Presenting an in-depth and current overview of polymer crystals, Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers provides researchers, engineers, and graduate students with guidelines to help select the proper crystallization method, evaluate polymer crystallization data, determine which methods to utilize for particular cases, and understand the different analytical techniques utilized.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)

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