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Book
50 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to a global GDP loss of 0.7% to 2.5% by 2060 for the most likely equilibrium climate sensitivity range. Underlying these annual global GDP losses are much larger sectoral and regional variations. Agricultural impacts dominate in most regions, while damages from sea level rise gradually become more important. Negative economic consequences are especially large in South and South-East Asia whereas other regions will be less affected and, in some cases, benefit thanks to adjustments from international trade. Emissions to 2060 will have important consequences in later decades and centuries. Simulations with the AD-RICE model suggest that if emissions continue to grow after 2060, annual damages of climate change could reach 1.5%-4.8% of GDP by the end of the century. Some impacts and risks from climate change have not been quantified in this study, including extreme weather events, water stress and large-scale disruptions. These will potentially have large economic consequences, and on balance the costs of inaction presented here likely underestimate the full costs of climate change impacts. More research is needed to assess them as well as the various uncertainties and risks involved. However, this should not delay policy action, but rather induce policy frameworks that are able to deal with new information and with the fact that by their nature some uncertainties and risks will never be resolved.
This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to a global GDP loss of 0.7% to 2.5% by 2060 for the most likely equilibrium climate sensitivity range. Underlying these annual global GDP losses are much larger sectoral and regional variations. Agricultural impacts dominate in most regions, while damages from sea level rise gradually become more important. Negative economic consequences are especially large in South and South-East Asia whereas other regions will be less affected and, in some cases, benefit thanks to adjustments from international trade. Emissions to 2060 will have important consequences in later decades and centuries. Simulations with the AD-RICE model suggest that if emissions continue to grow after 2060, annual damages of climate change could reach 1.5%-4.8% of GDP by the end of the century. Some impacts and risks from climate change have not been quantified in this study, including extreme weather events, water stress and large-scale disruptions. These will potentially have large economic consequences, and on balance the costs of inaction presented here likely underestimate the full costs of climate change impacts. More research is needed to assess them as well as the various uncertainties and risks involved. However, this should not delay policy action, but rather induce policy frameworks that are able to deal with new information and with the fact that by their nature some uncertainties and risks will never be resolved.
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. This is the seventh update prepared under the aegis of the Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) since the series began with the 2007 publication Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. The document covers developments from late 2012 to October 2013. It is based on publicly available information.
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. This is the seventh update prepared under the aegis of the Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) since the series began with the 2007 publication Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. The document covers developments from late 2012 to October 2013. It is based on publicly available information.
Book
1 online resource (690 p.)
  • Front Cover; Ecological Modelling and Engineering of Lakes and Wetlands; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1. Models of Lakes and Wetlands; 1.2. Ecological Engineering Applied to Lakes and Wetlands; References; Chapter 2: Structurally Dynamic Models of Lakes; 2.1. Introduction; 2.2. How to Construct Structurally Dynamic Models and Definitions of Eco-Exergy; 2.3. Biomanipulation; 2.4. Development of a SDM to Describe the Competition Between Phytoplankton and Submerged Vegetation; 2.5. SDM Developed for Lake Fure; 2.6. Summary and Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 3: Development of Level-IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model for Dynamic Multimedia Fate and Transport Processes of HCHs ...3.1. Introduction; 3.1.1. Hexachlorocyclohexanes and the isomers; 3.1.2. HCHs usage and residue level in the study site; 3.1.3. Level-IV fugacity-based QWASI model; 3.2. Development of Level IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model; 3.2.1. Model framework; 3.2.2. Model simulation and validation; 3.2.3. Parameter determination; 3.2.4. Sensitivity analysis; 3.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 3.3. Results and Discussion; 3.3.1. Simulation of seasonal variations; 3.3.2. Transfer fluxes
  • 3.3.3. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters3.3.4. Uncertainty analysis of the model simulation; 3.4. Conclusion; References; Chapter 4: Eco-Risk Assessments for Toxic Contaminants Based on Species Sensitivity Distribution Models in Lake Chaohu, China; 4.1. Introduction; 4.1.1. Ecological risk assessments; 4.1.2. Organochlorine pesticides; 4.1.3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; 4.1.4. The study site of Lake Chaohu; 4.2. Materials and Methods; 4.2.1. Measurements of OCPs and PAHs; 4.2.1.1. Measurement of OCPs in the water; 4.2.1.2. Measurement of PAHs in the water
  • 4.2.2. Ecological risk assessments by SSD and PRA4.2.2.1. General procedures of the SSD and PRA methods; 4.2.2.2. Collecting toxicity data; 4.2.2.3. Fitting the distribution of toxicity and exposure data; 4.2.2.4. Ecological risk assessment based on multiple risk indices; 4.2.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 4.3. Eco-Risk Assessments for OCPs in Lake Chaohu; 4.3.1. The residues of OCPs in the water (Liu et al., 2012); 4.3.2. The spatial and temporal distribution of OCPs in the water; 4.3.3. Eco-risk assessments for OCPs; 4.4. Eco-Risk Assessments for PAHs in Lake Chaohu
  • 4.4.1. The residues of PAHs in the water (Qin et al., 2013)4.4.2. Site-specific ecological risk of PAHs based on the SSD method; 4.4.3. Probability of ecological risk of PAHs based on the PRA method; 4.4.4. Uncertainty analysis; 4.4.5. Discussion; References; Chapter 5: Addressing the Uncertainty in Modeling Watershed Nonpoint Source Pollution; 5.1. Introduction to the Issue; 5.1.1. Current status of nonpoint source pollution; 5.1.2. Management efforts; 5.1.3. Existing models; 5.1.4. Modeling for decision support; 5.2. Uncertainty in Modeling NPS Pollution: State of the Art
Ecological modelling has developed rapidly in recent decades, with the focus primarily on the restoration of lakes and wetlands. Ecological Modelling and Engineering in Lakes and Wetlands presents the progress being made in modelling for a wealth of applications. It covers the older biogeochemical models still in use today, structurally dynamic models, 3D models, biophysical models, entire watershed models, and ecotoxicological models, as well as the expansion of modeling to the Arctic and Antarctic climate-zones. The book also addresses modelling the effect of climate change,
  • Front Cover; Ecological Modelling and Engineering of Lakes and Wetlands; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1. Models of Lakes and Wetlands; 1.2. Ecological Engineering Applied to Lakes and Wetlands; References; Chapter 2: Structurally Dynamic Models of Lakes; 2.1. Introduction; 2.2. How to Construct Structurally Dynamic Models and Definitions of Eco-Exergy; 2.3. Biomanipulation; 2.4. Development of a SDM to Describe the Competition Between Phytoplankton and Submerged Vegetation; 2.5. SDM Developed for Lake Fure; 2.6. Summary and Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 3: Development of Level-IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model for Dynamic Multimedia Fate and Transport Processes of HCHs ...3.1. Introduction; 3.1.1. Hexachlorocyclohexanes and the isomers; 3.1.2. HCHs usage and residue level in the study site; 3.1.3. Level-IV fugacity-based QWASI model; 3.2. Development of Level IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model; 3.2.1. Model framework; 3.2.2. Model simulation and validation; 3.2.3. Parameter determination; 3.2.4. Sensitivity analysis; 3.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 3.3. Results and Discussion; 3.3.1. Simulation of seasonal variations; 3.3.2. Transfer fluxes
  • 3.3.3. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters3.3.4. Uncertainty analysis of the model simulation; 3.4. Conclusion; References; Chapter 4: Eco-Risk Assessments for Toxic Contaminants Based on Species Sensitivity Distribution Models in Lake Chaohu, China; 4.1. Introduction; 4.1.1. Ecological risk assessments; 4.1.2. Organochlorine pesticides; 4.1.3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; 4.1.4. The study site of Lake Chaohu; 4.2. Materials and Methods; 4.2.1. Measurements of OCPs and PAHs; 4.2.1.1. Measurement of OCPs in the water; 4.2.1.2. Measurement of PAHs in the water
  • 4.2.2. Ecological risk assessments by SSD and PRA4.2.2.1. General procedures of the SSD and PRA methods; 4.2.2.2. Collecting toxicity data; 4.2.2.3. Fitting the distribution of toxicity and exposure data; 4.2.2.4. Ecological risk assessment based on multiple risk indices; 4.2.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 4.3. Eco-Risk Assessments for OCPs in Lake Chaohu; 4.3.1. The residues of OCPs in the water (Liu et al., 2012); 4.3.2. The spatial and temporal distribution of OCPs in the water; 4.3.3. Eco-risk assessments for OCPs; 4.4. Eco-Risk Assessments for PAHs in Lake Chaohu
  • 4.4.1. The residues of PAHs in the water (Qin et al., 2013)4.4.2. Site-specific ecological risk of PAHs based on the SSD method; 4.4.3. Probability of ecological risk of PAHs based on the PRA method; 4.4.4. Uncertainty analysis; 4.4.5. Discussion; References; Chapter 5: Addressing the Uncertainty in Modeling Watershed Nonpoint Source Pollution; 5.1. Introduction to the Issue; 5.1.1. Current status of nonpoint source pollution; 5.1.2. Management efforts; 5.1.3. Existing models; 5.1.4. Modeling for decision support; 5.2. Uncertainty in Modeling NPS Pollution: State of the Art
Ecological modelling has developed rapidly in recent decades, with the focus primarily on the restoration of lakes and wetlands. Ecological Modelling and Engineering in Lakes and Wetlands presents the progress being made in modelling for a wealth of applications. It covers the older biogeochemical models still in use today, structurally dynamic models, 3D models, biophysical models, entire watershed models, and ecotoxicological models, as well as the expansion of modeling to the Arctic and Antarctic climate-zones. The book also addresses modelling the effect of climate change,
Book
66 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
Book
20x27 cm.
  • Avant-propos 2 Introduction 5 1. Panorama actuel de l’énergie nucléaire 9 2. Principes fondamentaux de l’énergie nucléaire 13 -Fission nucléaire 13 -Composants essentiels d’un réacteur nucléaire 16 -Filières de réacteurs 17 -Fusion nucléaire 20 3. Le cycle du combustible nucléaire 23 -Début du cycle 24 -Fin du cycle 27 -Déclassement 29 4. Gestion des déchets radioactifs 31 -Catégories de déchets radioactifs 31 -Principes de gestion des déchets radioactifs 33 -Pratiques de gestion des déchets radioactifs 34 -Stockage final des déchets à vie longue dans des formations géologiques 35 -Transport 38 -Considérations sociales et politiques 39 5. Sûreté nucléaire 41 -Éléments fondamentaux de la sûreté nucléaire 41 -Expérience d’exploitation 47 -Impact de la déréglementation des marchés sur la sûreté nucléaire 48 -Sûreté des réacteurs du futur 49 6. Radioprotection 51 -Fondements scientifiques et médicaux 51 -Le système de radioprotection et ses fondements réglementaires 57 -Intervention en cas d’accident 59 -Retour à la normale après un accident 60 7. L’économie de l’énergie nucléaire 63 -Coûts, risques et responsabilités 63 -Aspects concurrentiels 65 8. Le droit nucléaire international et la non-prolifération 69 -Droit nucléaire international 69 -Non-prolifération 74 9. Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 77 -Demande d’énergie 77 -Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 78 10. Avenir de l’énergie nucléaire 85 -Autres applications de l’énergie nucléaire 86 -Recherche et développement 89 Conclusions 93 Glossaire 95 Pour compléter votre information 109 Listes des figures, tableaux et crédits photographiques 116
Le présent ouvrage aborde les grandes questions d’actualité sur l’énergie nucléaire à travers une présentation factuelle bien étayée. Il s’adresse d’abord aux responsables politiques, mais il intéressera aussi les dirigeants d’entreprise, les universitaires, les journalistes et le grand public. Après un bref historique au premier chapitre, l’ouvrage passe en revue les questions essentielles qui jouent un rôle important dans le débat actuel sur l’énergie nucléaire. Les chapitres 2 et 3 exposent les principes fondamentaux et les technologies de base de la filière nucléaire. Les chapitres 4 à 8 présentent les faits et les interrogations concernant la gestion des déchets radioactifs, la sûreté nucléaire, la radioprotection, l’économie, le droit international et la non-prolifération. Le chapitre 9 examine l’énergie nucléaire dans le contexte du développement durable. Le dernier chapitre, tourné vers l’avenir, s’intéresse au potentiel des nouvelles technologies nucléaires.
  • Avant-propos 2 Introduction 5 1. Panorama actuel de l’énergie nucléaire 9 2. Principes fondamentaux de l’énergie nucléaire 13 -Fission nucléaire 13 -Composants essentiels d’un réacteur nucléaire 16 -Filières de réacteurs 17 -Fusion nucléaire 20 3. Le cycle du combustible nucléaire 23 -Début du cycle 24 -Fin du cycle 27 -Déclassement 29 4. Gestion des déchets radioactifs 31 -Catégories de déchets radioactifs 31 -Principes de gestion des déchets radioactifs 33 -Pratiques de gestion des déchets radioactifs 34 -Stockage final des déchets à vie longue dans des formations géologiques 35 -Transport 38 -Considérations sociales et politiques 39 5. Sûreté nucléaire 41 -Éléments fondamentaux de la sûreté nucléaire 41 -Expérience d’exploitation 47 -Impact de la déréglementation des marchés sur la sûreté nucléaire 48 -Sûreté des réacteurs du futur 49 6. Radioprotection 51 -Fondements scientifiques et médicaux 51 -Le système de radioprotection et ses fondements réglementaires 57 -Intervention en cas d’accident 59 -Retour à la normale après un accident 60 7. L’économie de l’énergie nucléaire 63 -Coûts, risques et responsabilités 63 -Aspects concurrentiels 65 8. Le droit nucléaire international et la non-prolifération 69 -Droit nucléaire international 69 -Non-prolifération 74 9. Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 77 -Demande d’énergie 77 -Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 78 10. Avenir de l’énergie nucléaire 85 -Autres applications de l’énergie nucléaire 86 -Recherche et développement 89 Conclusions 93 Glossaire 95 Pour compléter votre information 109 Listes des figures, tableaux et crédits photographiques 116
Le présent ouvrage aborde les grandes questions d’actualité sur l’énergie nucléaire à travers une présentation factuelle bien étayée. Il s’adresse d’abord aux responsables politiques, mais il intéressera aussi les dirigeants d’entreprise, les universitaires, les journalistes et le grand public. Après un bref historique au premier chapitre, l’ouvrage passe en revue les questions essentielles qui jouent un rôle important dans le débat actuel sur l’énergie nucléaire. Les chapitres 2 et 3 exposent les principes fondamentaux et les technologies de base de la filière nucléaire. Les chapitres 4 à 8 présentent les faits et les interrogations concernant la gestion des déchets radioactifs, la sûreté nucléaire, la radioprotection, l’économie, le droit international et la non-prolifération. Le chapitre 9 examine l’énergie nucléaire dans le contexte du développement durable. Le dernier chapitre, tourné vers l’avenir, s’intéresse au potentiel des nouvelles technologies nucléaires.
Book
30 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report examines trends in the use of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements and identifies factors which may explain the presence or absence of these provisions. The report builds on work of the OECD Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) and includes results of an informal survey of delegates. Analysis of the environmental provisions in RTAs reveals an encouraging upward trend. While basic provisions remain the most common types found in RTAs, the incidence of more substantive provisions has increased significantly in recent years. Among these, environmental co-operation has been the most common type. Several factors may have contributed to this evolution. These include countries extending their political mandates for RTAs, for example to include provisions for compliance with multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), as well as a general accumulation of experience with the use of environmental provisions.
This report examines trends in the use of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements and identifies factors which may explain the presence or absence of these provisions. The report builds on work of the OECD Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) and includes results of an informal survey of delegates. Analysis of the environmental provisions in RTAs reveals an encouraging upward trend. While basic provisions remain the most common types found in RTAs, the incidence of more substantive provisions has increased significantly in recent years. Among these, environmental co-operation has been the most common type. Several factors may have contributed to this evolution. These include countries extending their political mandates for RTAs, for example to include provisions for compliance with multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), as well as a general accumulation of experience with the use of environmental provisions.
Book
43 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Book
140 p. ; 21x28 cm
  • Avant-propos et remerciements
  • Liste des acronymes
  • Résumé exécutif
  • Évaluation et recommandations
  • Les enjeux d'une crue majeure de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Les enjeux de gouvernance pour la prévention des risques d'inondations de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Accroître la résilience de l'Île-de-France par la prévention du risque d'inondation
  • Financer l'accroissement de la résilience de l'Île-de-France face aux inondations de la Seine
  • Liste des acteurs interviewés
  • Questionnaires envoyés aux parties prenantes
  • Un modèle d'équilibre général pour analyser les effets d'une inondation de la Seine
  • Annexe technique.
Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.
  • Avant-propos et remerciements
  • Liste des acronymes
  • Résumé exécutif
  • Évaluation et recommandations
  • Les enjeux d'une crue majeure de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Les enjeux de gouvernance pour la prévention des risques d'inondations de la Seine en Île-de-France
  • Accroître la résilience de l'Île-de-France par la prévention du risque d'inondation
  • Financer l'accroissement de la résilience de l'Île-de-France face aux inondations de la Seine
  • Liste des acteurs interviewés
  • Questionnaires envoyés aux parties prenantes
  • Un modèle d'équilibre général pour analyser les effets d'une inondation de la Seine
  • Annexe technique.
Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.
Book
256 p. : ill. ; 21x28 cm.
Book
71 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
The paper reviews a number of commercial and public data sources to examine their potential for increasing coverage and understanding of the volume and characteristics of private climate finance beyond renewable energy projects. Such information is needed to assess progress towards the global transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economies, as well towards the fulfilment of international commitments by developed countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The data sources investigated in this analysis are evaluated across four areas relating to their: (i) use of sectoral classification systems; (ii) coverage of private finance transactions and instruments; (iii) definitions and methods for categorising finance as private and identifying its geographic origin; and (iv) data access restrictions and methodological transparency. To provide a frame of reference, the paper distils corresponding definitions and methodologies used by key known data sources for tracking climatespecific finance as well as investments and finance more broadly...
The paper reviews a number of commercial and public data sources to examine their potential for increasing coverage and understanding of the volume and characteristics of private climate finance beyond renewable energy projects. Such information is needed to assess progress towards the global transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economies, as well towards the fulfilment of international commitments by developed countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The data sources investigated in this analysis are evaluated across four areas relating to their: (i) use of sectoral classification systems; (ii) coverage of private finance transactions and instruments; (iii) definitions and methods for categorising finance as private and identifying its geographic origin; and (iv) data access restrictions and methodological transparency. To provide a frame of reference, the paper distils corresponding definitions and methodologies used by key known data sources for tracking climatespecific finance as well as investments and finance more broadly...
Book
228 p. ; 21x28 cm.
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Executive summary
  • Green skills for a low-carbon future
  • The case for a global green skills training action plan
  • The New Skills for Green Jobs Project: European context
  • The interaction of environmental and labour market policy: An overview of the quantity and quality of green jobs in Europe
  • The Austrian Masterplan for Human Resources for Renewable Energies
  • Skills for green jobs: Gearing up education and training for green growth
  • Education and training for sustainability: An ecological vision
  • Licensing and certification to increase skills provision and utilisation amongst low-carbon small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom
  • Anticipating and managing the effects of greening of industries in the European Union: Skills development in the overall context of job quality
  • Greening technical vocational education and training in the European steel industry
  • Managerial skills in the green corporation
  • Local development strategy, green jobs and skills in the Indian context
  • Climate change adaptation and local development: The new imperatives for green skills development
  • Lessons from the project "Employment Centres and Sustainable Development" in France
  • Notes on the contributors.
Green skills, that is, skills needed in a low-carbon economy, will be required in all sectors and at all levels in the workforce as emerging economic activities create new (or renewed) occupations. Structural changes will realign sectors that are likely to decline as a result of the greening of the economy and workers will need to be retrained accordingly. The successful transition to a low-carbon economy will only be possible if workers can flexibly adapt and transfer from areas of decreasing employment to new industries. This report suggests that the role of skills and education and training policies should be an important component of the ecological transformation process.
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Executive summary
  • Green skills for a low-carbon future
  • The case for a global green skills training action plan
  • The New Skills for Green Jobs Project: European context
  • The interaction of environmental and labour market policy: An overview of the quantity and quality of green jobs in Europe
  • The Austrian Masterplan for Human Resources for Renewable Energies
  • Skills for green jobs: Gearing up education and training for green growth
  • Education and training for sustainability: An ecological vision
  • Licensing and certification to increase skills provision and utilisation amongst low-carbon small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom
  • Anticipating and managing the effects of greening of industries in the European Union: Skills development in the overall context of job quality
  • Greening technical vocational education and training in the European steel industry
  • Managerial skills in the green corporation
  • Local development strategy, green jobs and skills in the Indian context
  • Climate change adaptation and local development: The new imperatives for green skills development
  • Lessons from the project "Employment Centres and Sustainable Development" in France
  • Notes on the contributors.
Green skills, that is, skills needed in a low-carbon economy, will be required in all sectors and at all levels in the workforce as emerging economic activities create new (or renewed) occupations. Structural changes will realign sectors that are likely to decline as a result of the greening of the economy and workers will need to be retrained accordingly. The successful transition to a low-carbon economy will only be possible if workers can flexibly adapt and transfer from areas of decreasing employment to new industries. This report suggests that the role of skills and education and training policies should be an important component of the ecological transformation process.
Book
56 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This paper presents a framework to include feedbacks from climate impacts on the economy in integrated assessment models. The proposed framework uses a production function approach, which links climate impacts to key variables and parameters used in the specification of economic activity. The key endpoints within climate impact categories are linked to the relevant connections for a range of sectors in the economy. The paper pays particular attention to the challenges of distinguishing between damages and the costs of adapting to climate change. The paper also reviews existing studies and available data that can be used to establish linkages between climate impacts and key variables within economic models. There is considerable heterogeneity across the timing and geographic distribution of changes in climatic variables, the consequent changes in key physical and biogeochemical "endpoints" that might occur over time and space, and the magnitude of the resulting damages that these effects are likely to impose on the range of sectors in the economy. The review underlines the uncertainty involved in each of these dimensions and the research needs for the future.
This paper presents a framework to include feedbacks from climate impacts on the economy in integrated assessment models. The proposed framework uses a production function approach, which links climate impacts to key variables and parameters used in the specification of economic activity. The key endpoints within climate impact categories are linked to the relevant connections for a range of sectors in the economy. The paper pays particular attention to the challenges of distinguishing between damages and the costs of adapting to climate change. The paper also reviews existing studies and available data that can be used to establish linkages between climate impacts and key variables within economic models. There is considerable heterogeneity across the timing and geographic distribution of changes in climatic variables, the consequent changes in key physical and biogeochemical "endpoints" that might occur over time and space, and the magnitude of the resulting damages that these effects are likely to impose on the range of sectors in the economy. The review underlines the uncertainty involved in each of these dimensions and the research needs for the future.
Book
1 online resource (xii, 137 p.) : col. ill.
  • Indigenous traditional knowledge and Global Environmental Change
  • An introduction to Goa and Khazan ecosystems
  • Traditional ecological knowledge and environmental sustainability in Khazan
  • Management of khazan ecosystems: contested environments, competing interests and changing institutions
  • Erosion of indigenous resource base: causes and challenges
  • A framework for ecosystem performance, ecological vulnerability, ecosystem valuation and local livelihoods using Khazan example
  • Building on indigenous resource management systems: key to finding solutions.
This book elaborates on the Khazan ecosystems of Goa, India. Khazans are human-managed ecosystems, which are reclaimed from coastal wetlands, salt marshes and mangrove areas, where tidal influence is regulated through a highly structured system of dykes, canals, furrows, and sluice gates using resources that are amply available locally. Khazan ecosystems are marvels of tribal engineering. They are a simple architectural design, which operate at a very low running cost using tidal, hydro, and solar energy. The design contributes to a highly complex but eco-friendly ecosystem integrating agriculture, aquaculture and salt panning.
  • Indigenous traditional knowledge and Global Environmental Change
  • An introduction to Goa and Khazan ecosystems
  • Traditional ecological knowledge and environmental sustainability in Khazan
  • Management of khazan ecosystems: contested environments, competing interests and changing institutions
  • Erosion of indigenous resource base: causes and challenges
  • A framework for ecosystem performance, ecological vulnerability, ecosystem valuation and local livelihoods using Khazan example
  • Building on indigenous resource management systems: key to finding solutions.
This book elaborates on the Khazan ecosystems of Goa, India. Khazans are human-managed ecosystems, which are reclaimed from coastal wetlands, salt marshes and mangrove areas, where tidal influence is regulated through a highly structured system of dykes, canals, furrows, and sluice gates using resources that are amply available locally. Khazan ecosystems are marvels of tribal engineering. They are a simple architectural design, which operate at a very low running cost using tidal, hydro, and solar energy. The design contributes to a highly complex but eco-friendly ecosystem integrating agriculture, aquaculture and salt panning.
Book
44 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This document provides a detailed technical description of the ENV-Linkages model. The OECD ENV-Linkages Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is an economic model that describes how economic activities are inter-linked across several macroeconomic sectors and regions. It links economic activity to environmental pressure, specifically to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The links between economic activities and emissions are projected for several decades into the future, and thus shed light on the impacts of environmental policies for the medium- and long-term future. In this paper specific attention is given to the equations that form the core of the model. The version of the model presented here is used for analysis carried out for the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 (OECD, 2012). An updated version of the model is expected to play a key role in the new CIRCLE project (OECD, 2013).
This document provides a detailed technical description of the ENV-Linkages model. The OECD ENV-Linkages Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is an economic model that describes how economic activities are inter-linked across several macroeconomic sectors and regions. It links economic activity to environmental pressure, specifically to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The links between economic activities and emissions are projected for several decades into the future, and thus shed light on the impacts of environmental policies for the medium- and long-term future. In this paper specific attention is given to the equations that form the core of the model. The version of the model presented here is used for analysis carried out for the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 (OECD, 2012). An updated version of the model is expected to play a key role in the new CIRCLE project (OECD, 2013).
Book
71 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Company cars form a large proportion of the car fleet in many OECD countries and are also influential in determining the composition of the wider vehicle fleet. When employees provided with a company car use that car for personal purposes, personal income tax rules value the benefit in a number of different ways. How accurate these rules are in valuing the benefit has important implications for tax revenue, the environment and other social impacts such as congestion. This paper outlines the tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses in 27 OECD countries and one partner country. It compares these tax settings with a stylised "benchmark" tax treatment that estimates the full value of the benefit received by employees with company vehicles. The paper demonstrates that the estimated tax expenditures associated with company car taxation in these countries in 2012 can be quite considerable. Significantly, from an environmental perspective, in most countries employees faced no additional increase in tax payable in response to an increase in the assumption of distance driven.
Company cars form a large proportion of the car fleet in many OECD countries and are also influential in determining the composition of the wider vehicle fleet. When employees provided with a company car use that car for personal purposes, personal income tax rules value the benefit in a number of different ways. How accurate these rules are in valuing the benefit has important implications for tax revenue, the environment and other social impacts such as congestion. This paper outlines the tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses in 27 OECD countries and one partner country. It compares these tax settings with a stylised "benchmark" tax treatment that estimates the full value of the benefit received by employees with company vehicles. The paper demonstrates that the estimated tax expenditures associated with company car taxation in these countries in 2012 can be quite considerable. Significantly, from an environmental perspective, in most countries employees faced no additional increase in tax payable in response to an increase in the assumption of distance driven.
Book
37 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This paper presents a productivity growth measure that explicitly accounts for natural capital as an input factor and for undesirable goods, or "bads", as an output of the production process. The discussion focuses on the extension of productivity measurement for bad outputs and estimates of their shadow prices, while the inclusion of natural capital is discussed in more depth in a companion paper. As bad outputs are the target of environmental policies, a productivity measure that does not take bad outputs into account will underestimate productivity growth, whenever countries devote some inputs to reducing bad outputs, thus improving the environmental impact of their production processes, rather than to increasing the production of goods and services. An adjusted productivity measures is needed in an analysis of the effect of bad outputs on productivity growth as otherwise the effectiveness of environmental policies in promoting production processes that make more efficient use of the environment will be wrongly assessed. Results suggest that the adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure for bad outputs is small. While this partly hinges on the fact, that due to a lack of more comprehensive data, only a limited set of bad outputs are considered in this paper, namely CO2, SOX and NOX emissions, the relatively small adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure is good news for two reasons. First, it implies that ignoring the bad outputs considered in this paper results in a relatively small bias of productivity measurement, and thus analysis based on traditional measures should be relatively reliable in this regard. Second, it also implies that the acceleration in productivity growth that would help to substantially reduce the bad outputs considered in this paper, without reducing output growth, should be possible to achieve.
This paper presents a productivity growth measure that explicitly accounts for natural capital as an input factor and for undesirable goods, or "bads", as an output of the production process. The discussion focuses on the extension of productivity measurement for bad outputs and estimates of their shadow prices, while the inclusion of natural capital is discussed in more depth in a companion paper. As bad outputs are the target of environmental policies, a productivity measure that does not take bad outputs into account will underestimate productivity growth, whenever countries devote some inputs to reducing bad outputs, thus improving the environmental impact of their production processes, rather than to increasing the production of goods and services. An adjusted productivity measures is needed in an analysis of the effect of bad outputs on productivity growth as otherwise the effectiveness of environmental policies in promoting production processes that make more efficient use of the environment will be wrongly assessed. Results suggest that the adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure for bad outputs is small. While this partly hinges on the fact, that due to a lack of more comprehensive data, only a limited set of bad outputs are considered in this paper, namely CO2, SOX and NOX emissions, the relatively small adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure is good news for two reasons. First, it implies that ignoring the bad outputs considered in this paper results in a relatively small bias of productivity measurement, and thus analysis based on traditional measures should be relatively reliable in this regard. Second, it also implies that the acceleration in productivity growth that would help to substantially reduce the bad outputs considered in this paper, without reducing output growth, should be possible to achieve.
Book
xxxiv, 257 p.
  • The long term. 1. Crisis
  • 2. Decline
  • 3. Proper Baselines: the example of English butterflies
  • England and the Netherlands. 4. Commodity landscapes: southern England
  • 5. Agricultural change: southern England
  • 6. Landscapes of destruction: the curse of the pheasant
  • 7. Landscapes of destruction: the sacrifice to trout
  • 8. The Netherlands: reclamation and exploitation
  • 9. England: reclamation and exploitation
  • European expansion. 10. Europe's expansion overseas
  • 11. Europe's distant reach
  • 12. Pristine America
  • The modern world. 13. East Asia
  • 14. The modern expansion of agriculture
  • Conclusion. 15. What should we conserve?
Revealed Biodiversity: An Economic History of the Human Impact aims to show that for several centuries environmental conditions have been substantially the product of economic fluctuations. It contests the notion of perpetual decline in species composition. The arguments are supported by far more precise historical detail than is usual in books about ecology. The need to take the gains to human society into account when assessing environmental change is strongly emphasized. The book features case studies including England, the Netherlands, USA, East Asia, Brazil, and the areas of modern agricultural 'land grab'. This book is important for its close attention to the documented historical record of environmental change in several countries over several centuries; for its demonstration of how much wildlife populations have been influenced by fluctuations in market activity; for revealing the need to be sensitive to historical baselines; and for emphasizing the imperative of taking the gains to human society into account when assessing environmental change. It, therefore, has considerable significance for environmental and conservation policies as well as for future studies in ecological history.
  • The long term. 1. Crisis
  • 2. Decline
  • 3. Proper Baselines: the example of English butterflies
  • England and the Netherlands. 4. Commodity landscapes: southern England
  • 5. Agricultural change: southern England
  • 6. Landscapes of destruction: the curse of the pheasant
  • 7. Landscapes of destruction: the sacrifice to trout
  • 8. The Netherlands: reclamation and exploitation
  • 9. England: reclamation and exploitation
  • European expansion. 10. Europe's expansion overseas
  • 11. Europe's distant reach
  • 12. Pristine America
  • The modern world. 13. East Asia
  • 14. The modern expansion of agriculture
  • Conclusion. 15. What should we conserve?
Revealed Biodiversity: An Economic History of the Human Impact aims to show that for several centuries environmental conditions have been substantially the product of economic fluctuations. It contests the notion of perpetual decline in species composition. The arguments are supported by far more precise historical detail than is usual in books about ecology. The need to take the gains to human society into account when assessing environmental change is strongly emphasized. The book features case studies including England, the Netherlands, USA, East Asia, Brazil, and the areas of modern agricultural 'land grab'. This book is important for its close attention to the documented historical record of environmental change in several countries over several centuries; for its demonstration of how much wildlife populations have been influenced by fluctuations in market activity; for revealing the need to be sensitive to historical baselines; and for emphasizing the imperative of taking the gains to human society into account when assessing environmental change. It, therefore, has considerable significance for environmental and conservation policies as well as for future studies in ecological history.
Book
31 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Climate change has already resulted in climate-related extreme events of greater frequency and/or intensity. This, along with long-term changes in average conditions (whether in temperature or rainfall), is likely to continue to have a major impact on livelihoods. Developing countries will be especially affected by such events – and more specifically, the poor people in developing countries – because of their geographical exposure and their greater reliance on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Social protection offers a wide range of instruments (e.g. cash transfers, insurance products, pension schemes and employment guarantee schemes) that can be used to support households that are particularly vulnerable to both the ongoing and acute impacts of climate changes. Although the evidence base showing how these measures can help those affected prevent and cope with climate challenges is still limited, this paper aims to provide a condensed review of the current knowledge and evidence about the role of social protection in reducing the impact of climate change on the poorest populations and provides a series of recommendations for both social protection and climate change practitioners and for strengthening the evidence base.
Climate change has already resulted in climate-related extreme events of greater frequency and/or intensity. This, along with long-term changes in average conditions (whether in temperature or rainfall), is likely to continue to have a major impact on livelihoods. Developing countries will be especially affected by such events – and more specifically, the poor people in developing countries – because of their geographical exposure and their greater reliance on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Social protection offers a wide range of instruments (e.g. cash transfers, insurance products, pension schemes and employment guarantee schemes) that can be used to support households that are particularly vulnerable to both the ongoing and acute impacts of climate changes. Although the evidence base showing how these measures can help those affected prevent and cope with climate challenges is still limited, this paper aims to provide a condensed review of the current knowledge and evidence about the role of social protection in reducing the impact of climate change on the poorest populations and provides a series of recommendations for both social protection and climate change practitioners and for strengthening the evidence base.