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Book
28 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
Book
1 PDF (xvi, 125 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
Book
1 online resource ()
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (pages cm.)
  • Environmental and ecological concerns in Europe and North America contrasted / Laura Westra
  • Access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge and the fair sharing of benefits : the way forward in the EU / Sandra Jen
  • A regional alternative to the ineffective global response to biological invasions : the case of the European Union / Donato Gualtieri
  • Redefining the relationship between CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) and the TRIPS agreement : the first step towards confronting Biopiracy? / Anastasia Fotinakopoulou
  • The emerging right to land in new soft law instruments / Margherita Brunori
  • Right to water : intersection between international and constitutional law / Antonio D'Aloia
  • Law and the provision of water for megacities / Joseph W. Dellapenna
  • A critique of subsidies for industrial livestock production in the EU and the US / Constanz Frank Oster
  • Promoting the ecological sustainability of climate change related investments through the Holistic Impact Assessment (HIA) / Massimiliano Montini
  • Evaluation and development of small island communities with special reference to uninhabited insular areas / Grigoris Tsaltas, Alexopoulos Aristotelis, Gerasimos Rodotheatos, and Tilemachos Bourtzis
  • Access to justice in environmental matters in the EU legal order : is there a need for a more coherent and harmonized approach? / Vasiliki (Vicky) Karageorgou
  • Unconventional gas mining : what a fracking story! policy, regulation, and law / Janice Gray
  • Hidden and indirect effects of war and political violence / Yuliya Lyamzina
  • Commonly Unrecognized Benefits of a human rights approach to climate change / Donald A. Brown and Benjamin A. Brown
  • Reconciliation and the Indian residential school settlement : Canada's coming of age? / Kathleen Mahoney
  • Public health and environmental health risk assessment : which paradigm and in whose best interests? / Colin L. Soskolne
  • The environment, women, and human rights / Peter Venton
  • Corporate media, ecological challenges, and social upheaval / Rose A. Dyson
  • A complex adaptive legal system for the challenges of the anthropocene / Geoffrey Garver
  • Seeking justice in a land without justice : the application of anti-corruption principles to environmental law / Kathryn Gwiazdon
  • Environmental defenders : the green peaceful resistance / Susana Borràs and Antoni Pigrau
  • Mind the gap : state governance and ecological integrity / Klaus Bosselmann.
  • Environmental and ecological concerns in Europe and North America contrasted / Laura Westra
  • Access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge and the fair sharing of benefits : the way forward in the EU / Sandra Jen
  • A regional alternative to the ineffective global response to biological invasions : the case of the European Union / Donato Gualtieri
  • Redefining the relationship between CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) and the TRIPS agreement : the first step towards confronting Biopiracy? / Anastasia Fotinakopoulou
  • The emerging right to land in new soft law instruments / Margherita Brunori
  • Right to water : intersection between international and constitutional law / Antonio D'Aloia
  • Law and the provision of water for megacities / Joseph W. Dellapenna
  • A critique of subsidies for industrial livestock production in the EU and the US / Constanz Frank Oster
  • Promoting the ecological sustainability of climate change related investments through the Holistic Impact Assessment (HIA) / Massimiliano Montini
  • Evaluation and development of small island communities with special reference to uninhabited insular areas / Grigoris Tsaltas, Alexopoulos Aristotelis, Gerasimos Rodotheatos, and Tilemachos Bourtzis
  • Access to justice in environmental matters in the EU legal order : is there a need for a more coherent and harmonized approach? / Vasiliki (Vicky) Karageorgou
  • Unconventional gas mining : what a fracking story! policy, regulation, and law / Janice Gray
  • Hidden and indirect effects of war and political violence / Yuliya Lyamzina
  • Commonly Unrecognized Benefits of a human rights approach to climate change / Donald A. Brown and Benjamin A. Brown
  • Reconciliation and the Indian residential school settlement : Canada's coming of age? / Kathleen Mahoney
  • Public health and environmental health risk assessment : which paradigm and in whose best interests? / Colin L. Soskolne
  • The environment, women, and human rights / Peter Venton
  • Corporate media, ecological challenges, and social upheaval / Rose A. Dyson
  • A complex adaptive legal system for the challenges of the anthropocene / Geoffrey Garver
  • Seeking justice in a land without justice : the application of anti-corruption principles to environmental law / Kathryn Gwiazdon
  • Environmental defenders : the green peaceful resistance / Susana Borràs and Antoni Pigrau
  • Mind the gap : state governance and ecological integrity / Klaus Bosselmann.
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Book
1 online resource (1149 pages).
  • Introduction
  • General ecology and human impacts
  • Protozoa to tardigrada
  • Phylum mollusca
  • Phylum annelida
  • Phylum arthropoda.
Readers familiar with the first three editions of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich) will welcome the comprehensive revision and expansion of that trusted professional reference manual and educational textbook from a single North American tome into a developing multi-volume series covering inland water invertebrates of the world. The series entitled Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp) begins with the current Volume I: Ecology and General Biology (edited by J.H. Thorp and D.C. Rogers), whic.
  • Introduction
  • General ecology and human impacts
  • Protozoa to tardigrada
  • Phylum mollusca
  • Phylum annelida
  • Phylum arthropoda.
Readers familiar with the first three editions of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich) will welcome the comprehensive revision and expansion of that trusted professional reference manual and educational textbook from a single North American tome into a developing multi-volume series covering inland water invertebrates of the world. The series entitled Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp) begins with the current Volume I: Ecology and General Biology (edited by J.H. Thorp and D.C. Rogers), whic.
Book
22 p.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in chemico décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice, à savoir l’essai de réactivité peptidique directe (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay, DPRA), doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés. Le DPRA est proposé pour l'étude de l'événement moléculaire initiateur menant aux effets néfastes de sensibilisation cutanée, nommément la réactivité protéique, par quantification de la réactivité des produits chimiques testés vis-à-vis de modèles peptidiques de synthèse contenant soit de la lysine, soit de la cystéine. Les taux de déplétion de la cystéine et de la lysine sont ensuite calculés et utilisés dans un modèle de prédiction pour classer les substances dans l'une des quatre classes de réactivité, afin d’aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in chemico décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice, à savoir l’essai de réactivité peptidique directe (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay, DPRA), doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés. Le DPRA est proposé pour l'étude de l'événement moléculaire initiateur menant aux effets néfastes de sensibilisation cutanée, nommément la réactivité protéique, par quantification de la réactivité des produits chimiques testés vis-à-vis de modèles peptidiques de synthèse contenant soit de la lysine, soit de la cystéine. Les taux de déplétion de la cystéine et de la lysine sont ensuite calculés et utilisés dans un modèle de prédiction pour classer les substances dans l'une des quatre classes de réactivité, afin d’aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés.
Book
23 p.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in vitro décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (LD) pour les essais de produits chimiques (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés, selon le SGH. Le deuxième événement clé sur la voie toxicologique menant à des effets indésirable de sensibilisation cutanée se déroule dans les kératinocytes. Cet événement comprend des réponses inflammatoires et des phénomènes d'expression génique, liés à des voies de signalisation cellulaire spécifiques telles que les voies dépendant de l'élément de réponse antioxydant/électrophile (ARE, Antioxidant Response Element). La méthode d'essai décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) est proposée pour l'étude de cette deuxième étape. La lignée cellulaire employée contient le gène de la luciférase sous le contrôle transcriptionnel d'un promoteur constitutif fusionné à un élément ARE d'un gène connu pour l’intensification de son expression sous l’effet de sensibilisants cutanés. Le signal de la luciférase reflète l'activation par les sensibilisants de gènes endogènes dépendants du facteur Nrf2. Cela permet la mesure quantitative (par détection de luminescence) de l'induction du gène de la luciférase, grâce à l'utilisation de substrats de luciférase produisant une luminescence satisfaisante, comme indicateur de l'activité du facteur de transcription Nrf2 dans les cellules après exposition à des substances chimiques d’essai électrophiles. A l'heure actuelle, la seule méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase in vitro couverte par la présente ligne directrice est la méthode KeratinoSensTM.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in vitro décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (LD) pour les essais de produits chimiques (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés, selon le SGH. Le deuxième événement clé sur la voie toxicologique menant à des effets indésirable de sensibilisation cutanée se déroule dans les kératinocytes. Cet événement comprend des réponses inflammatoires et des phénomènes d'expression génique, liés à des voies de signalisation cellulaire spécifiques telles que les voies dépendant de l'élément de réponse antioxydant/électrophile (ARE, Antioxidant Response Element). La méthode d'essai décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) est proposée pour l'étude de cette deuxième étape. La lignée cellulaire employée contient le gène de la luciférase sous le contrôle transcriptionnel d'un promoteur constitutif fusionné à un élément ARE d'un gène connu pour l’intensification de son expression sous l’effet de sensibilisants cutanés. Le signal de la luciférase reflète l'activation par les sensibilisants de gènes endogènes dépendants du facteur Nrf2. Cela permet la mesure quantitative (par détection de luminescence) de l'induction du gène de la luciférase, grâce à l'utilisation de substrats de luciférase produisant une luminescence satisfaisante, comme indicateur de l'activité du facteur de transcription Nrf2 dans les cellules après exposition à des substances chimiques d’essai électrophiles. A l'heure actuelle, la seule méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase in vitro couverte par la présente ligne directrice est la méthode KeratinoSensTM.
Book
66 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Quantifying the effect of public interventions aimed at mobilising private finance for climate activities is technically complex and challenging. As a step towards addressing this complexity, the report presents a framework of key decision points for estimating publicly mobilised private finance. This framework outlines different methodological options and choices needed to make these estimates. It assesses trade-offs and implications of these choices in terms of their accuracy, the incentives they provide, their potential to be standardised across entities, and their practicality (data availability, expertise and resource demands). The report further identifies and suggests practical options available in the short-term for estimating mobilised private finance, while underlining the need to provide transparency about underlying definitions, assumptions and limitations. It also recommends longer-term actions to improve these methods, including the need to converge on definitions, to build data systems and to improve and standardise estimation methods. The primary objective of this report is to inform the development of methods to measure in a transparent manner progress towards the fulfilment of the financial commitments made by developed countries in the context of international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also aims to encourage careful examination of the links between public interventions and private climate finance. This is to ensure that methods to estimate mobilisation help encourage the efficiency and effectiveness of public interventions aimed at mobilising such finance.
Quantifying the effect of public interventions aimed at mobilising private finance for climate activities is technically complex and challenging. As a step towards addressing this complexity, the report presents a framework of key decision points for estimating publicly mobilised private finance. This framework outlines different methodological options and choices needed to make these estimates. It assesses trade-offs and implications of these choices in terms of their accuracy, the incentives they provide, their potential to be standardised across entities, and their practicality (data availability, expertise and resource demands). The report further identifies and suggests practical options available in the short-term for estimating mobilised private finance, while underlining the need to provide transparency about underlying definitions, assumptions and limitations. It also recommends longer-term actions to improve these methods, including the need to converge on definitions, to build data systems and to improve and standardise estimation methods. The primary objective of this report is to inform the development of methods to measure in a transparent manner progress towards the fulfilment of the financial commitments made by developed countries in the context of international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also aims to encourage careful examination of the links between public interventions and private climate finance. This is to ensure that methods to estimate mobilisation help encourage the efficiency and effectiveness of public interventions aimed at mobilising such finance.
Book
11 p. ; 21x28 cm.
The peer review process can lead to changes in the interpretation of the slides and the reported results, and potentially the outcome and conclusions of the study. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented and reported in order to meet GLP expectations and requirements. This document is a complement to the guidance provided in section 3.6.3.7 of OECD Guidance Document 116 (series on testing and assessment), whose focus is on how histopathology peer review should be conducted.
The peer review process can lead to changes in the interpretation of the slides and the reported results, and potentially the outcome and conclusions of the study. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented and reported in order to meet GLP expectations and requirements. This document is a complement to the guidance provided in section 3.6.3.7 of OECD Guidance Document 116 (series on testing and assessment), whose focus is on how histopathology peer review should be conducted.
Book
1 online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Introduction.- Introduction and prospects of Marine natural compounds.- Development of Anticancer Drugs from Marine Sources.- Seaweeds.- Bacteria and Cyanobacteria Fungal metabolites.- Sponge derived bioactive compounds Mollusk.- Soft corals.- Algae.- Tunicate.- Other marine organisms derived compounds.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This timely desk reference focuses on marine-derived bioactive substances which have biological, medical and industrial applications. The medicinal value of these marine natural products are assessed and discussed. Their function as a new and important resource in novel, anticancer drug discovery research is also presented in international contributions from several research groups. For example, the potential role of Spongistatin, Apratoxin A, Eribulin mesylate, phlorotannins, fucoidan, as anticancer agents is explained. The mechanism of action of bioactive compounds present in marine algae, bacteria, fungus, sponges, seaweeds and other marine animals and plants are illustrated via several mechanisms. In addition, this handbook lists various compounds that are active candidates in chemoprevention and their target actions. The handbook also places into context the demand for anticancer nutraceuticals and their use as potential anti-cancer pharmaceuticals and medicines. This study of advanced and future types of natural compounds from marine sources is written to facilitate the understanding of Biotechnology and its application to marine natural product drug discovery research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Introduction.- Introduction and prospects of Marine natural compounds.- Development of Anticancer Drugs from Marine Sources.- Seaweeds.- Bacteria and Cyanobacteria Fungal metabolites.- Sponge derived bioactive compounds Mollusk.- Soft corals.- Algae.- Tunicate.- Other marine organisms derived compounds.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This timely desk reference focuses on marine-derived bioactive substances which have biological, medical and industrial applications. The medicinal value of these marine natural products are assessed and discussed. Their function as a new and important resource in novel, anticancer drug discovery research is also presented in international contributions from several research groups. For example, the potential role of Spongistatin, Apratoxin A, Eribulin mesylate, phlorotannins, fucoidan, as anticancer agents is explained. The mechanism of action of bioactive compounds present in marine algae, bacteria, fungus, sponges, seaweeds and other marine animals and plants are illustrated via several mechanisms. In addition, this handbook lists various compounds that are active candidates in chemoprevention and their target actions. The handbook also places into context the demand for anticancer nutraceuticals and their use as potential anti-cancer pharmaceuticals and medicines. This study of advanced and future types of natural compounds from marine sources is written to facilitate the understanding of Biotechnology and its application to marine natural product drug discovery research.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
37 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Concerns around potential losses of competitiveness as a result of unilateral action on carbon pricing are often central for policy makers contemplating the introduction of such instruments. This paper is a review of literature on ex post empirical evaluations of the impacts of carbon prices on indicators of competitiveness as employed in the literature, including employment, output or exports, at different levels of aggregation.
Concerns around potential losses of competitiveness as a result of unilateral action on carbon pricing are often central for policy makers contemplating the introduction of such instruments. This paper is a review of literature on ex post empirical evaluations of the impacts of carbon prices on indicators of competitiveness as employed in the literature, including employment, output or exports, at different levels of aggregation.
Book
56 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper identifies over 50 000 patents filed worldwide in various water-related adaptation technologies between 1990 and 2010, distinguishing between those related to water availability (supply) and water conservation (demand) technologies. The paper then analyses the innovation activity – including inventive activity by country and technology, international collaboration in technology development, and international diffusion of such water-related technologies. The results suggest that although innovation activity in water-related technologies has been increasing over the last two decades, this growth has been disproportionately concentrated on supply-side technologies. Moreover, most innovation worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate vulnerability towards water scarcity. While this is a reflection of the fact that most developed economies do not face severe water stress, this result highlights the importance of international technology transfer and policies that facilitate broad diffusion of these technologies in water-stressed countries.
This paper identifies over 50 000 patents filed worldwide in various water-related adaptation technologies between 1990 and 2010, distinguishing between those related to water availability (supply) and water conservation (demand) technologies. The paper then analyses the innovation activity – including inventive activity by country and technology, international collaboration in technology development, and international diffusion of such water-related technologies. The results suggest that although innovation activity in water-related technologies has been increasing over the last two decades, this growth has been disproportionately concentrated on supply-side technologies. Moreover, most innovation worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate vulnerability towards water scarcity. While this is a reflection of the fact that most developed economies do not face severe water stress, this result highlights the importance of international technology transfer and policies that facilitate broad diffusion of these technologies in water-stressed countries.
Book
35 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
"Green growth" and transport combines several different concepts that are central to sustainable mobility, including sustainable economic activity, reduced environmental impact and sustained growth in high quality jobs. It attempts to balance the importance of economic growth, with environmental damage and social priorities through assessing positive actions that can be taken by a wide variety of public and private stakeholders. It has arisen out of the concern over the use of non-renewable resources in transport, increasing emissions of carbon and other pollutants, and the expected levels of growth in mobility over the next 40 years. But it also acknowledges the importance of transport to the economy, and its role in helping to create jobs, improving levels of productivity and output, and in promoting agglomeration benefits. This means that transport should be efficient, but at the same time make less demand on the environment through less use of resources, through recycling and reuse of materials, and through embracing a life cycle perspective...
"Green growth" and transport combines several different concepts that are central to sustainable mobility, including sustainable economic activity, reduced environmental impact and sustained growth in high quality jobs. It attempts to balance the importance of economic growth, with environmental damage and social priorities through assessing positive actions that can be taken by a wide variety of public and private stakeholders. It has arisen out of the concern over the use of non-renewable resources in transport, increasing emissions of carbon and other pollutants, and the expected levels of growth in mobility over the next 40 years. But it also acknowledges the importance of transport to the economy, and its role in helping to create jobs, improving levels of productivity and output, and in promoting agglomeration benefits. This means that transport should be efficient, but at the same time make less demand on the environment through less use of resources, through recycling and reuse of materials, and through embracing a life cycle perspective...
Book
1 online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodology (Materials and Methods).- 3. Results and Discussion.- 4. Impact of stress on Tintinnid Community.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is an integrated approach to present a detailed case study in order to address the taxonomic and ecological features of this planktonic choreotrich protists in an iconic tropical mangrove wetland - Sundarban. To identify each tintinnid species, emphasis is given with regards to taxonomic features accompanied by high resolution images. This work explores the interaction between man-induced stress and the impact of climate change which is threatening the tintinnid biodiversity, and suggests, for example, remedial measures by adopting sound management strategies. Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata: Tintinnida) are a coherent group ecologically recognized as micro-zooplankton. They deserve special attention because of their unique biodiversity and their crucial, functional role in the marine food chain. This is a valuable reference source for students, researchers, policy planners and coastal managers engaged in the field of marine biology, microbial ecology and marine bio-resources.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodology (Materials and Methods).- 3. Results and Discussion.- 4. Impact of stress on Tintinnid Community.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is an integrated approach to present a detailed case study in order to address the taxonomic and ecological features of this planktonic choreotrich protists in an iconic tropical mangrove wetland - Sundarban. To identify each tintinnid species, emphasis is given with regards to taxonomic features accompanied by high resolution images. This work explores the interaction between man-induced stress and the impact of climate change which is threatening the tintinnid biodiversity, and suggests, for example, remedial measures by adopting sound management strategies. Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata: Tintinnida) are a coherent group ecologically recognized as micro-zooplankton. They deserve special attention because of their unique biodiversity and their crucial, functional role in the marine food chain. This is a valuable reference source for students, researchers, policy planners and coastal managers engaged in the field of marine biology, microbial ecology and marine bio-resources.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 PDF (xii, 202 pages).
  • Preface
  • A planet to discover
  • Planet Earth
  • Ocean and atmosphere
  • Weather and climate
  • Beyond planet Earth
  • A planet supporting life
  • Biosphere
  • Ecology and evolution
  • A planet organized by humans
  • Communication and representation
  • Energy
  • Economics and finance
  • Human behavior
  • A planet at risk
  • Climate change
  • Biological threats
  • Predicting catastrophes and managing risk.
Our planet faces many challenges. In 2013, an international partnership of more than 140 scientific societies, research institutes, and organizations focused its attention on these challenges. This project was called Mathematics of Planet Earth and featured English- and French-language blogs, accessible to nonmathematicians, as part of its outreach activities. This book is based on more than 100 of the 270 English-language blog posts and focuses on four major themes: A Planet to Discover; A Planet Supporting Life; A Planet Organized by Humans; A Planet at Risk.
  • Preface
  • A planet to discover
  • Planet Earth
  • Ocean and atmosphere
  • Weather and climate
  • Beyond planet Earth
  • A planet supporting life
  • Biosphere
  • Ecology and evolution
  • A planet organized by humans
  • Communication and representation
  • Energy
  • Economics and finance
  • Human behavior
  • A planet at risk
  • Climate change
  • Biological threats
  • Predicting catastrophes and managing risk.
Our planet faces many challenges. In 2013, an international partnership of more than 140 scientific societies, research institutes, and organizations focused its attention on these challenges. This project was called Mathematics of Planet Earth and featured English- and French-language blogs, accessible to nonmathematicians, as part of its outreach activities. This book is based on more than 100 of the 270 English-language blog posts and focuses on four major themes: A Planet to Discover; A Planet Supporting Life; A Planet Organized by Humans; A Planet at Risk.
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Biomineralisation and Microbially Induced Beneficiation-- K.A. Natarajan Biomining of Base Metals from Sulphide Minerals-- Bhargav C. Patel, Devayani R. Tipre and Shailesh R. Dave Microbial Extraction of Uranium from Ores-- Abhilash and B.D. Pandey Biohydrometallurgy: From the Zijinshan Experience to Future Prospects-- Liu Xingyu, Ruan Renman, Wen Jiankang and Wang Dianzuo Spectroscopic Study on the Bioleaching of Enargite Using Thermophile-- Keiko Sasaki Microbial Biodesulphurisation of Coal-- Anirban Ghosh, Sujata, Abhilash and B.D. Pandey Application of Industrial Waste in Biohydrometallurgy: A Review on Its Use as Neutralising Agent and Potential Source for Metal Recovery-- Ata Akcil and Chandra Sekhar Gahan Application of Microbes for Metal Extraction from Mining Wastes-- Sandeep Panda, Srabani Mishra, Nilotpala Pradhan, Umaballav Mohaptra, Lala Behari Sukla and Barada Kanta Mishra Bioleaching of Metals from Major Hazardous Solid Wastes-- Gayathri Natarajan, Thulasya Ramanathan, Abhilasha Bharadwaj and Yen-Peng Ting Biogeochemistry in Recycling of Trace Elements and Heavy Metals-- Jian Chen, Fengxiang X. Han and Paul B. Tchounwou Role of Natural and Engineered Biofilms Composition in Toxic Inorganic Contaminants Immobilisation-- Eric D. van Hullebusch and Yoan Pechaud Bio-Processing of Electronic Scraps-- Sadia Ilyas and Jae-Chun Lee Urban Biomining: New Challenges for a Successful Exploitation of WEEE by Means of a Biotechnological Approach-- Viviana Fonti, Alessia Amato and Francesca Beolchini Hybrid Leaching: An Emerging Trend in Bio-Processing of Secondary Resources-- Sadia Ilyas and Jae-Chun Lee Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion and Its Impact on Metals and Other Materials-- Tingyue Gu, Dake Xu, Peiyu Zhang, Yingchao Li and Amy L. Lindenberger Biosorption of Heavy Metals-- Gjergj Dodbiba, Josiane Ponou and Toyohisa Fujita Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials-- Dhanasekar Naresh Niranjan, Jayakumar Pathma, Raman Gurusamy and Natarajan Sakthivel Microbial Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage-- Laura G. Leff, Suchismita Ghosh, G. Patricia Johnston and Alescia Roberto Microbiology of Arsenic-Contaminated Groundwater-- Pinaki Sar, Dhiraj Paul, Angana Sarkar, Rahul Bharadwaj and Sufia K. Kazy Microbial Degradation of Toxic Organic Compounds of Waste and Allied Contaminants-- Yu L. Gurevich, V. P. Ladygina and M. I. Teremova Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Better Understand the Connection between Microbiology and the Inorganic World Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment links chemical, metallurgical, and other metal inherent systems with microbes, and analyzes the interdependence between them. Specifically intended to underscore the importance of microbes in environmental remediation in the mining industries, this text offers a basic and conceptual understanding of the role of microbes, and provides an extensive exploration of microbiology and metals. Each chapter is written by experts from research, industry and academia. The authors expand on the whole scale of microbiology applications relevant to minerals, metal, material, and environment. They elicit the applications of microbes for metal extraction (including mechanisms and methods) from primary ores/minerals and mining wastes, biomining and related concepts of microbial diversity and various operations, and molecular biology of microbes involved in such systems (extremophiles). They also address in detail biohydrometallurgy, biomineralisation, bioleaching, biobeneficiation, biosynthesis, and bioremediation and other related areas. This book: * Includes bacterial leaching, hybrid leaching, and biosynthesis related to different metals * Covers recent developments in alternative procedures with the use of extremophiles and leaching bacteria * Explains the imperative importance of bacteria in minerals and metals sector * Addresses microbial interventions for waste cleanup and upgradation of minerals * Compares existing processes with the new ones to elicit their importance * Provides case studies on all respective topics by eminent researchers A resource for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals involved in chemical/mining/metallurgical engineering/environmental science/microbiology, Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment skillfully explains the symbiotic relationship between microbiology and minerals-metals-materials, and utilizes experts from across the globe.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Biomineralisation and Microbially Induced Beneficiation-- K.A. Natarajan Biomining of Base Metals from Sulphide Minerals-- Bhargav C. Patel, Devayani R. Tipre and Shailesh R. Dave Microbial Extraction of Uranium from Ores-- Abhilash and B.D. Pandey Biohydrometallurgy: From the Zijinshan Experience to Future Prospects-- Liu Xingyu, Ruan Renman, Wen Jiankang and Wang Dianzuo Spectroscopic Study on the Bioleaching of Enargite Using Thermophile-- Keiko Sasaki Microbial Biodesulphurisation of Coal-- Anirban Ghosh, Sujata, Abhilash and B.D. Pandey Application of Industrial Waste in Biohydrometallurgy: A Review on Its Use as Neutralising Agent and Potential Source for Metal Recovery-- Ata Akcil and Chandra Sekhar Gahan Application of Microbes for Metal Extraction from Mining Wastes-- Sandeep Panda, Srabani Mishra, Nilotpala Pradhan, Umaballav Mohaptra, Lala Behari Sukla and Barada Kanta Mishra Bioleaching of Metals from Major Hazardous Solid Wastes-- Gayathri Natarajan, Thulasya Ramanathan, Abhilasha Bharadwaj and Yen-Peng Ting Biogeochemistry in Recycling of Trace Elements and Heavy Metals-- Jian Chen, Fengxiang X. Han and Paul B. Tchounwou Role of Natural and Engineered Biofilms Composition in Toxic Inorganic Contaminants Immobilisation-- Eric D. van Hullebusch and Yoan Pechaud Bio-Processing of Electronic Scraps-- Sadia Ilyas and Jae-Chun Lee Urban Biomining: New Challenges for a Successful Exploitation of WEEE by Means of a Biotechnological Approach-- Viviana Fonti, Alessia Amato and Francesca Beolchini Hybrid Leaching: An Emerging Trend in Bio-Processing of Secondary Resources-- Sadia Ilyas and Jae-Chun Lee Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion and Its Impact on Metals and Other Materials-- Tingyue Gu, Dake Xu, Peiyu Zhang, Yingchao Li and Amy L. Lindenberger Biosorption of Heavy Metals-- Gjergj Dodbiba, Josiane Ponou and Toyohisa Fujita Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials-- Dhanasekar Naresh Niranjan, Jayakumar Pathma, Raman Gurusamy and Natarajan Sakthivel Microbial Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage-- Laura G. Leff, Suchismita Ghosh, G. Patricia Johnston and Alescia Roberto Microbiology of Arsenic-Contaminated Groundwater-- Pinaki Sar, Dhiraj Paul, Angana Sarkar, Rahul Bharadwaj and Sufia K. Kazy Microbial Degradation of Toxic Organic Compounds of Waste and Allied Contaminants-- Yu L. Gurevich, V. P. Ladygina and M. I. Teremova Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Better Understand the Connection between Microbiology and the Inorganic World Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment links chemical, metallurgical, and other metal inherent systems with microbes, and analyzes the interdependence between them. Specifically intended to underscore the importance of microbes in environmental remediation in the mining industries, this text offers a basic and conceptual understanding of the role of microbes, and provides an extensive exploration of microbiology and metals. Each chapter is written by experts from research, industry and academia. The authors expand on the whole scale of microbiology applications relevant to minerals, metal, material, and environment. They elicit the applications of microbes for metal extraction (including mechanisms and methods) from primary ores/minerals and mining wastes, biomining and related concepts of microbial diversity and various operations, and molecular biology of microbes involved in such systems (extremophiles). They also address in detail biohydrometallurgy, biomineralisation, bioleaching, biobeneficiation, biosynthesis, and bioremediation and other related areas. This book: * Includes bacterial leaching, hybrid leaching, and biosynthesis related to different metals * Covers recent developments in alternative procedures with the use of extremophiles and leaching bacteria * Explains the imperative importance of bacteria in minerals and metals sector * Addresses microbial interventions for waste cleanup and upgradation of minerals * Compares existing processes with the new ones to elicit their importance * Provides case studies on all respective topics by eminent researchers A resource for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals involved in chemical/mining/metallurgical engineering/environmental science/microbiology, Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment skillfully explains the symbiotic relationship between microbiology and minerals-metals-materials, and utilizes experts from across the globe.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
56 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020. The energy subsidy estimates used as inputs to this modelling analysis are those calculated by the International Energy Agency, using a synthetic indicator known as "price gaps". The analysis relies on simulations made with an extended version of the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. The phase out of energy consumption subsidies was simulated under three stylised redistribution schemes: direct payment on a per household basis, support to labour incomes, and subsidies on food products. The modelling results in this report indicate that if Indonesia were to remove its fossil fuel and electricity consumption subsidies, it would record real GDP gains of 0.4% to 0.7% in 2020, according to the redistribution scheme envisaged. The redistribution through direct payment on a per household basis performs best in terms of GDP gains. The aggregate gains for consumers in terms of welfare are higher, ranging from 0.8% to 1.6% in 2020. Both GDP and welfare gains arise from a more efficient allocation of resources across sectors resulting from phasing out energy subsidies. Meanwhile, a redistribution scheme through food subsidies tends to create other inefficiencies. The simulations show that the redistribution scheme ultimately matters in determining the overall distributional performance of the reform. Cash transfers, and to a lesser extent food subsidies, can make the reform more attractive for poorer households and reduce poverty. Mechanisms that compensate households via payments proportional to labour income are, on the contrary, more beneficial to higher income households and increase poverty. This is because households with informal labour earnings, which are not eligible for these payments, are more represented among the poor. The analysis also shows that phasing out energy subsidies is projected to reduce Indonesian CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by 10.8% to 12.6% and GHG emissions by 7.9% to 8.3%, in 2020 in the various scenarios, with respect to the baseline. These emission reductions exclude emissions from deforestation, which are large but highly uncertain and for which the model cannot make reliable projections.
This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020. The energy subsidy estimates used as inputs to this modelling analysis are those calculated by the International Energy Agency, using a synthetic indicator known as "price gaps". The analysis relies on simulations made with an extended version of the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. The phase out of energy consumption subsidies was simulated under three stylised redistribution schemes: direct payment on a per household basis, support to labour incomes, and subsidies on food products. The modelling results in this report indicate that if Indonesia were to remove its fossil fuel and electricity consumption subsidies, it would record real GDP gains of 0.4% to 0.7% in 2020, according to the redistribution scheme envisaged. The redistribution through direct payment on a per household basis performs best in terms of GDP gains. The aggregate gains for consumers in terms of welfare are higher, ranging from 0.8% to 1.6% in 2020. Both GDP and welfare gains arise from a more efficient allocation of resources across sectors resulting from phasing out energy subsidies. Meanwhile, a redistribution scheme through food subsidies tends to create other inefficiencies. The simulations show that the redistribution scheme ultimately matters in determining the overall distributional performance of the reform. Cash transfers, and to a lesser extent food subsidies, can make the reform more attractive for poorer households and reduce poverty. Mechanisms that compensate households via payments proportional to labour income are, on the contrary, more beneficial to higher income households and increase poverty. This is because households with informal labour earnings, which are not eligible for these payments, are more represented among the poor. The analysis also shows that phasing out energy subsidies is projected to reduce Indonesian CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by 10.8% to 12.6% and GHG emissions by 7.9% to 8.3%, in 2020 in the various scenarios, with respect to the baseline. These emission reductions exclude emissions from deforestation, which are large but highly uncertain and for which the model cannot make reliable projections.
Book
xxi, 343 pages, 16 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some colour), colour maps ; 24 cm
In 1972, The Limits to Growth introduced the idea that world resources are limited. Soon after, people became aware of the threats to the world's rainforests, the biggest terrestrial repositories of biodiversity and essential regulators of global air and water cycles. Since that time, new research and technological advances have greatly increased our knowledge of how rainforests are being affected by changing patterns of resource use. Increasing concern about climate change has made it more important than ever to understand the state of the world's tropical forests. This book provides an up-to-date picture of the health of the world's tropical forests. Claude Martin, an eminent scientist and conservationist, integrates information from remote imaging, ecology, and economics to explain deforestation and forest health throughout the world. He explains how urbanization, an increasingly global economy, and a worldwide demand for biofuels put new pressure on rainforest land. He examines the policies and market forces that have successfully preserved forests in some areas and discusses the economic benefits of protected areas. Using evidence from ice core records and past forest cover patterns, he predicts the most likely effects of climate change.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
In 1972, The Limits to Growth introduced the idea that world resources are limited. Soon after, people became aware of the threats to the world's rainforests, the biggest terrestrial repositories of biodiversity and essential regulators of global air and water cycles. Since that time, new research and technological advances have greatly increased our knowledge of how rainforests are being affected by changing patterns of resource use. Increasing concern about climate change has made it more important than ever to understand the state of the world's tropical forests. This book provides an up-to-date picture of the health of the world's tropical forests. Claude Martin, an eminent scientist and conservationist, integrates information from remote imaging, ecology, and economics to explain deforestation and forest health throughout the world. He explains how urbanization, an increasingly global economy, and a worldwide demand for biofuels put new pressure on rainforest land. He examines the policies and market forces that have successfully preserved forests in some areas and discusses the economic benefits of protected areas. Using evidence from ice core records and past forest cover patterns, he predicts the most likely effects of climate change.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Biology Library (Falconer)
Status of items at Biology Library (Falconer)
Biology Library (Falconer) Status
Stacks
QH541.5 .R27 M35 2015 Unknown
Book
88 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This study uses a unique dataset of investment flows to analyse the role of two categories of public interventions (finance and policies) in mobilising flows of private climate finance worldwide and in the more specific context of flows to and in developing countries. The objectives are threefold. First, the paper presents ‘observed’ ratios of total private to public finance in selected climate-related sectors. Second, it seeks to understand the determinants of private climate finance flows by analysing the role of key public finance (bilateral, domestic and multilateral) and public policy instruments (feed-in tariffs, renewable energy quotas, the Clean Development Mechanism), while taking into account a number of market and country conditions. For reasons of data availability, the focus of this econometric analysis is on a subset of six renewable energy sectors (wind, solar, biomass, small hydro, marine and geothermal). Finally, the paper assesses the likely mobilisation impact of past public interventions in these six sectors, and draws a comparison with approaches that ignore the role of policy as well as country and market conditions. Results suggest that both public finance and public policies have played an important role in private finance mobilisation globally. In the context of finance to and in developing countries, the results highlight the currently untapped potential of domestic public policies to increase mobilisation. The methodology proposed in this report is an initial attempt to estimate private climate finance mobilisation empirically. It should be seen as a first step towards developing more comprehensive methodologies for analysing and estimating private finance mobilisation in the global climate policy context.
This study uses a unique dataset of investment flows to analyse the role of two categories of public interventions (finance and policies) in mobilising flows of private climate finance worldwide and in the more specific context of flows to and in developing countries. The objectives are threefold. First, the paper presents ‘observed’ ratios of total private to public finance in selected climate-related sectors. Second, it seeks to understand the determinants of private climate finance flows by analysing the role of key public finance (bilateral, domestic and multilateral) and public policy instruments (feed-in tariffs, renewable energy quotas, the Clean Development Mechanism), while taking into account a number of market and country conditions. For reasons of data availability, the focus of this econometric analysis is on a subset of six renewable energy sectors (wind, solar, biomass, small hydro, marine and geothermal). Finally, the paper assesses the likely mobilisation impact of past public interventions in these six sectors, and draws a comparison with approaches that ignore the role of policy as well as country and market conditions. Results suggest that both public finance and public policies have played an important role in private finance mobilisation globally. In the context of finance to and in developing countries, the results highlight the currently untapped potential of domestic public policies to increase mobilisation. The methodology proposed in this report is an initial attempt to estimate private climate finance mobilisation empirically. It should be seen as a first step towards developing more comprehensive methodologies for analysing and estimating private finance mobilisation in the global climate policy context.
Book
1 online resource. Digital: text file; PDF.
  • Module 1: Rethinking Infrastructure Design For Multi-Use Water Services 1. Introduction 2. The Most Apparent Impacts of Climate Changes And Variability 3. What Is Wrong with Existing Systems? 4. What Is the Blue Green Solution Concept? 4.1 Reduced Pluvial Flood Risk 4.2 Water Pollution 4.3 Alternative Water (Re)Sources 4.4 Urban Heat Island 4.5 Air Pollution 4.6 Droughts 4.7 Urban Agriculture 4.8 Urban Amenity and Blue Green Corridors 5. Conclusions References Module 2: What Are the Main Options For Applying the Blue-Green Dream 1. Introduction 2. Wastewater Reuse And Recycling 3. Urban Green Spaces 4. Rainwater Harvesting 5. Green Roofs 6. Urban Agriculture 7. Living Wall Systems 8. Decentralized Systems To Manage and Reuse Stormwater Runoff On-Site 9. Integrating Blue and Green Measures 10. How Can We Calculate the Value of Blue Green Systems? 11. Tools For Supporting Urban Blue-Green Design 12. References Module 3: Case Studies Illustrating The Blue-Green Options 1. "Four Alls For All": Policy Act On Decentralized Water Supply Through Rainwater Harvesting and Management Systems in Seoul 2. Water Sensitive Urban Design in Lynbrook Estate, Melbourne, Australia 3. Green City, Clean Waters: The Vision Of Philadelphia 4. Integrated Water Recycling in Brisbane, Australia 5. Bedzed - Zero Energy Development References.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
As we approach a historic tipping point in the global trend toward urbanisation - within two decades urban dwellers will increase from 49% to 60% of the planet's population - this book identifies and addresses a critical problem: water. The editors show how cities can shift from being water consumers to resource managers, applying urban water management principles to ensure access to water and sanitation infrastructure and services; manage rainwater, wastewater, storm water drainage, and runoff pollution; control waterborne diseases and epidemics; and reduce the risk of such water-related hazards as floods, droughts and landslides. The book explores the Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) paradigm, offering a section on the MUS approach and a means of calculating the value of MUS systems, as well as tools and resources to support decision-making. Case studies illustrate MUS in selected urban and rural contexts. Each case study breaks out the challenges, policy framework, benefits, benchmarks, lessons learned (success and failures) and potential next steps. The contributors consider the main options for applying the Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) paradigm, breaking down its components and offering cost-benefit analyses along with challenges and considerations for both the short and long term. Also discussed are methods by which mutual interactions of water infrastructure and vegetated areas are taken into account in the synergy of spatial planning and optimised modelling of ecosystems' performance indicators. This method of planning should make future developments cheaper to build; their users will pay lower utility bills for water, energy and heating. These developments will be more pleasant to live in and property value would likely be higher. The brief includes a section on the MUS approach and a means to calculate the value of MUS systems, as well as provides tools and resources to support decision-making. Case studies are included to illustrate MUS in selected urban and rural contexts. Each case study breaks out the challenges, policy framework, benefits, benchmarks, lessons learned (success and failures) and potential next steps.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Module 1: Rethinking Infrastructure Design For Multi-Use Water Services 1. Introduction 2. The Most Apparent Impacts of Climate Changes And Variability 3. What Is Wrong with Existing Systems? 4. What Is the Blue Green Solution Concept? 4.1 Reduced Pluvial Flood Risk 4.2 Water Pollution 4.3 Alternative Water (Re)Sources 4.4 Urban Heat Island 4.5 Air Pollution 4.6 Droughts 4.7 Urban Agriculture 4.8 Urban Amenity and Blue Green Corridors 5. Conclusions References Module 2: What Are the Main Options For Applying the Blue-Green Dream 1. Introduction 2. Wastewater Reuse And Recycling 3. Urban Green Spaces 4. Rainwater Harvesting 5. Green Roofs 6. Urban Agriculture 7. Living Wall Systems 8. Decentralized Systems To Manage and Reuse Stormwater Runoff On-Site 9. Integrating Blue and Green Measures 10. How Can We Calculate the Value of Blue Green Systems? 11. Tools For Supporting Urban Blue-Green Design 12. References Module 3: Case Studies Illustrating The Blue-Green Options 1. "Four Alls For All": Policy Act On Decentralized Water Supply Through Rainwater Harvesting and Management Systems in Seoul 2. Water Sensitive Urban Design in Lynbrook Estate, Melbourne, Australia 3. Green City, Clean Waters: The Vision Of Philadelphia 4. Integrated Water Recycling in Brisbane, Australia 5. Bedzed - Zero Energy Development References.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
As we approach a historic tipping point in the global trend toward urbanisation - within two decades urban dwellers will increase from 49% to 60% of the planet's population - this book identifies and addresses a critical problem: water. The editors show how cities can shift from being water consumers to resource managers, applying urban water management principles to ensure access to water and sanitation infrastructure and services; manage rainwater, wastewater, storm water drainage, and runoff pollution; control waterborne diseases and epidemics; and reduce the risk of such water-related hazards as floods, droughts and landslides. The book explores the Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) paradigm, offering a section on the MUS approach and a means of calculating the value of MUS systems, as well as tools and resources to support decision-making. Case studies illustrate MUS in selected urban and rural contexts. Each case study breaks out the challenges, policy framework, benefits, benchmarks, lessons learned (success and failures) and potential next steps. The contributors consider the main options for applying the Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) paradigm, breaking down its components and offering cost-benefit analyses along with challenges and considerations for both the short and long term. Also discussed are methods by which mutual interactions of water infrastructure and vegetated areas are taken into account in the synergy of spatial planning and optimised modelling of ecosystems' performance indicators. This method of planning should make future developments cheaper to build; their users will pay lower utility bills for water, energy and heating. These developments will be more pleasant to live in and property value would likely be higher. The brief includes a section on the MUS approach and a means to calculate the value of MUS systems, as well as provides tools and resources to support decision-making. Case studies are included to illustrate MUS in selected urban and rural contexts. Each case study breaks out the challenges, policy framework, benefits, benchmarks, lessons learned (success and failures) and potential next steps.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)