Search results

5,402 results

View results as:
Number of results to display per page
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.
Book
1 online resource (22 p.)
With data from the nearly 6,000 households in the Nepal Living Standards Survey of 2010-11, this paper finds that the mean reduction in household firewood collection associated with use of a biogas plant for cooking is about 1,100 kilograms per year from a mean of about 2,400 kilograms per year. This estimate is derived by comparing only households with and without biogas in the same village, thus effectively removing the influence of many potential confounders. Further controls for important determinants of firewood collection, such as household size, per capita consumption expenditure, cattle ownership, and unemployment are used to identify the effect of biogas adoption on firewood collection. Bounds on omitted variable bias are derived with the proportional selection assumption. The central estimate is much smaller than those in the previous literature, but is still large enough for the cost of adopting biogas to be significantly reduced via carbon offsets at a modest carbon price of 0 per ton of CO2e when using central estimates of emission factors and global warming potentials of pollutants taken from the scientific literature.
With data from the nearly 6,000 households in the Nepal Living Standards Survey of 2010-11, this paper finds that the mean reduction in household firewood collection associated with use of a biogas plant for cooking is about 1,100 kilograms per year from a mean of about 2,400 kilograms per year. This estimate is derived by comparing only households with and without biogas in the same village, thus effectively removing the influence of many potential confounders. Further controls for important determinants of firewood collection, such as household size, per capita consumption expenditure, cattle ownership, and unemployment are used to identify the effect of biogas adoption on firewood collection. Bounds on omitted variable bias are derived with the proportional selection assumption. The central estimate is much smaller than those in the previous literature, but is still large enough for the cost of adopting biogas to be significantly reduced via carbon offsets at a modest carbon price of 0 per ton of CO2e when using central estimates of emission factors and global warming potentials of pollutants taken from the scientific literature.
Book
1 online resource (43 p.)
A significant portion of the world's forests that are eligible for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, known as REDD+, payments are community managed forests. However, there is little knowledge about preferences of households living in community managed forests for REDD+ contracts, or the opportunity costs of accepting REDD+ contracts for these communities. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of rural communities in Nepal to understand respondents' preferences toward the institutional structure of REDD+ contracts. The sample is split across communities with community managed forests groups and those without community managed forest groups to see how prior involvement in community managed forest groups affects preferences. The results show that respondents care about how the payments are divided between households and communities, the severity of restrictions on firewood use, the restrictions on grazing, and the fairness of access to community managed forest resources as well as the level of payments. The preferences for REDD contracts are in general similar between community managed and non-community managed forest resource respondents, but there are differences, in particular with regard to how beliefs influence the likelihood of accepting the contracts. Finally, the paper finds that the opportunity cost of REDD+ payments, although cheaper than many other carbon dioxide abatement options, is higher than previously suggested in the literature.
A significant portion of the world's forests that are eligible for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, known as REDD+, payments are community managed forests. However, there is little knowledge about preferences of households living in community managed forests for REDD+ contracts, or the opportunity costs of accepting REDD+ contracts for these communities. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of rural communities in Nepal to understand respondents' preferences toward the institutional structure of REDD+ contracts. The sample is split across communities with community managed forests groups and those without community managed forest groups to see how prior involvement in community managed forest groups affects preferences. The results show that respondents care about how the payments are divided between households and communities, the severity of restrictions on firewood use, the restrictions on grazing, and the fairness of access to community managed forest resources as well as the level of payments. The preferences for REDD contracts are in general similar between community managed and non-community managed forest resource respondents, but there are differences, in particular with regard to how beliefs influence the likelihood of accepting the contracts. Finally, the paper finds that the opportunity cost of REDD+ payments, although cheaper than many other carbon dioxide abatement options, is higher than previously suggested in the literature.
Book
26 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. Furthermore, environmental goals might not be reached if pollution shifts abroad. A competing view argues that properly implemented environmentally related taxes foster innovation, thereby boosting productivity and competitiveness. Empirical research is needed to gain insight into the strength of these various effects. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999. Germany’s manufacturing sector uses significant amounts of electricity, and to counteract potential negative effects on competitiveness, relief was provided: firms using more electricity than specified thresholds benefitted from reduced electricity tax rates. The tax reduction amounted up to EUR 14.6 per megawatt hour, about 80% of the full tax rate. When measured as an effective rate on the carbon content in the average unit of electricity, the electricity tax translates into EUR 44.4 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating the magnitude of the tax. The econometric analysis – a regression discontinuity design – shows no robust effects in either direction of the reduced electricity tax rates on firms’ competitiveness. Firms subject to the full tax rates, but otherwise similar to firms facing reduced rates, did not perform worse in terms of turnover, exports, value added, investment and employment. The analysis questions the relevance of the tax reduction for competitiveness reasons and suggests that it could be gradually removed. The energy use threshold, above which a reduced tax rate applies, could be raised over time and competitiveness impacts monitored.
Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. Furthermore, environmental goals might not be reached if pollution shifts abroad. A competing view argues that properly implemented environmentally related taxes foster innovation, thereby boosting productivity and competitiveness. Empirical research is needed to gain insight into the strength of these various effects. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999. Germany’s manufacturing sector uses significant amounts of electricity, and to counteract potential negative effects on competitiveness, relief was provided: firms using more electricity than specified thresholds benefitted from reduced electricity tax rates. The tax reduction amounted up to EUR 14.6 per megawatt hour, about 80% of the full tax rate. When measured as an effective rate on the carbon content in the average unit of electricity, the electricity tax translates into EUR 44.4 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating the magnitude of the tax. The econometric analysis – a regression discontinuity design – shows no robust effects in either direction of the reduced electricity tax rates on firms’ competitiveness. Firms subject to the full tax rates, but otherwise similar to firms facing reduced rates, did not perform worse in terms of turnover, exports, value added, investment and employment. The analysis questions the relevance of the tax reduction for competitiveness reasons and suggests that it could be gradually removed. The energy use threshold, above which a reduced tax rate applies, could be raised over time and competitiveness impacts monitored.
Book
1 online resource (48 p.)
This paper examines whether cooperative behavior by respondents measured as contributions in a one-shot public goods game correlates with reported pro-forest collective action behaviors. All the outcomes analyzed are costly in terms of time, land, or money. The study finds significant evidence that more cooperative individuals (or those who believe their group members will cooperate) engage in collective action behaviors that support common forests, once the analysis is adjusted for demographic factors, wealth, and location. Those who contribute more in the public goods experiment are found to be more likely to have planted trees in community forests during the previous month and to have invested in biogas. They also have planted more trees on their own farms and spent more time monitoring community forests. As cooperation appears to be highly conditional on beliefs about others' cooperation, these results suggest that policies to support cooperation and strengthen local governance could be important for collective action and economic outcomes associated with forest resources. As forest management and quality in developing countries is particularly important for climate change policy, these results suggest that international efforts such as the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation should pay particular attention to supporting governance and cooperation at the local level.
This paper examines whether cooperative behavior by respondents measured as contributions in a one-shot public goods game correlates with reported pro-forest collective action behaviors. All the outcomes analyzed are costly in terms of time, land, or money. The study finds significant evidence that more cooperative individuals (or those who believe their group members will cooperate) engage in collective action behaviors that support common forests, once the analysis is adjusted for demographic factors, wealth, and location. Those who contribute more in the public goods experiment are found to be more likely to have planted trees in community forests during the previous month and to have invested in biogas. They also have planted more trees on their own farms and spent more time monitoring community forests. As cooperation appears to be highly conditional on beliefs about others' cooperation, these results suggest that policies to support cooperation and strengthen local governance could be important for collective action and economic outcomes associated with forest resources. As forest management and quality in developing countries is particularly important for climate change policy, these results suggest that international efforts such as the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation should pay particular attention to supporting governance and cooperation at the local level.
Book
1 PDF (xvi, 125 pages).
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Modernization of the NPP control room
  • 1.2 Human-factors challenges in the control-room design case
  • 1.2.1 Ambiguity about what makes a good control room
  • 1.2.2 Lack of insight into good operator work
  • 1.2.3 Design products as unique entities
  • 1.2.4 The marriage of usability and safety
  • 1.2.5 Considering training as design
  • 1.2.6 The role of evaluation in design
  • 1.3 Methodological consequences
  • 1.3.1 Redefining the unit of analysis
  • 1.3.2 Adopting a developmental research approach
  • 1.3.3 Summary of the methodological consequences
  • 1.4 The structure of the book
  • 2. Core-task design methodology
  • 2.1 The practice approach in core-task design
  • 2.1.1 Variety among theories of practice
  • 2.1.2 The definition of practice used in core-task design
  • 2.1.3 Practice-based theories as a toolkit for empirical research
  • 2.2 Concretizing practice as the new unit of analysis
  • 2.2.1 Conceptual distinctions to be overcome
  • 2.2.2 Core-task modeling
  • 2.2.3 Analysis of actual activity
  • 2.3 The developmental approach
  • 2.3.1 Foundations for a developmental research approach
  • 2.3.2 The core-task design model
  • 2.3.3 The design functions in core-task design
  • 3. Understanding: how to generalize from empirical enquiry about actual work
  • 3.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 3.1.1 Particularities of the plant
  • 3.1.2 Emergency operating procedures used at the plant
  • 3.1.3 A simulated accident scenario
  • 3.2 Core-task design methods in the understand-to-generalize function
  • 3.2.1 Identification of core-task functions
  • 3.2.2 Design and analysis of the simulated scenario (Functional situation modeling)
  • 3.2.3 Semiotic analysis of habits
  • 3.3 Findings in the study: different ways of using procedures
  • 3.3.1 Conclusions on the understand-generalize core-task design function
  • 4. Foreseeing: how to uncover the promise of solutions for future work
  • 4.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 4.1.1 Particularities of the case study
  • 4.2 Core-task design methods in the foresee-the-promise function
  • 4.2.1 The systems-usability evaluation frame
  • 4.2.2 Maturation of the systems-usability concept in the development of tools
  • 4.2.3 Tools-in-use modeling of the fitness concept
  • 4.2.4 Foreseeing the potential of fitness through the usability-case method
  • 4.3 Findings in the study: evaluation of the fitness concept's potential
  • 4.4 Conclusions in the foresee-the-promise core-task design function
  • 5. Intervening: how to develop the work system
  • 5.1 The practical problem in the example case
  • 5.2 Formative features in three types of intervention with core-task design
  • 5.2.1 Evaluation of the human-technology system
  • 5.2.2 Development of human competencies
  • 5.2.3 Managing the human factors in design
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 6. Core-task design in broader perspective
  • 6.1 The motive for the core-task design approach
  • 6.2 The human-factors contribution of core-task design
  • 6.2.1 New vocabulary for empirical analysis of practice
  • 6.2.2 The human-factors design model developed
  • 6.2.3 Methods for developmental and participatory design
  • 6.3 Striving for a new design culture
  • 6.3.1 Designing for resilience
  • 6.3.2 Creating an integrated design process
  • 6.4 Conclusions: core-task design in the new design culture
  • Bibliography
  • Author biographies.
This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors' objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology.
Book
1 online resource ()
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Population Assessments 2012-2050: Growth, Stability, Contraction.- Options To Increase Freshwater Supplies And Accessibility.- Strategies To Increase Food Supplies For Rapidly Growing Populations: Crops, Livestock, Fisheries.- Shelter: Proactive Planning To Protect Citizens From Natural Hazards.- Development Planning: A Process To Protect People, Ecosystems, And Project Productivity And Longevity.- Exertion Of Political Influence By Commodity-Base Economic Pressure: Control Of Energy Sources And Mineral Resources.- Global Perils That Reduce Earth's Capability To Sustain And Safeguard Growing Populations: Tactics To Mitigate Or Suppress Them.- Stressors On People And Ecosystems: Alleviation Tactics.- Progressive Adaptation: The Key To Sustaining A Growing Global Population.- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book brings together in a single volume a grand overview of solutions - political, economic, and scientific - to social and environmental problems that are related to the growth of human populations in areas that can least cope with them now. Through progressive adaptation to social and environmental changes projected for the future, including population growth, global warming/climate change, water deficits, and increasing competition for other natural resources, the world may be able to achieve a fair degree of sustainability for some time into the future.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (42 p.)
South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electricity cooperation and trade, and undertaking needed domestic sector reforms. Although bilateral electricity sector cooperation in the region is increasing, broader regional cooperation and trade initiatives have lagged in the face of regional barriers and domestic sector inefficiencies. Deeper electricity market reforms are not a necessity for further development of cross-border electricity trade, but limited progress in overcoming regional and domestic barriers will limit the scope of the regional market and the benefits it can provide.
South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electricity cooperation and trade, and undertaking needed domestic sector reforms. Although bilateral electricity sector cooperation in the region is increasing, broader regional cooperation and trade initiatives have lagged in the face of regional barriers and domestic sector inefficiencies. Deeper electricity market reforms are not a necessity for further development of cross-border electricity trade, but limited progress in overcoming regional and domestic barriers will limit the scope of the regional market and the benefits it can provide.
Book
1 online resource (41 p.)
This paper uses a randomized experimental design with real-time electronic stove temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests to estimate the fuelwood and carbon dioxide savings from an improved cookstove program in the process of being implemented in rural Ethiopia. Knowing more about how households interact with improved cookstoves is important, because cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is an important determinant of greenhouse gas emissions and indoor air pollution. Creating local networks among stove users generally appears to increase fuelwood savings, and among monetary treatments the most robust positive effects come from free distribution. The paper estimates that on average one improved stove saves approximately 634 kilograms of fuelwood per year or about 0.94 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, which is about half of previous estimates. Using the May 2015 California auction price of 3.39/ton, the carbon sequestration from each stove deployed is worth about 2.59. Such carbon market offset revenues would be sufficient to cover the cost of the stove within one year.
This paper uses a randomized experimental design with real-time electronic stove temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests to estimate the fuelwood and carbon dioxide savings from an improved cookstove program in the process of being implemented in rural Ethiopia. Knowing more about how households interact with improved cookstoves is important, because cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is an important determinant of greenhouse gas emissions and indoor air pollution. Creating local networks among stove users generally appears to increase fuelwood savings, and among monetary treatments the most robust positive effects come from free distribution. The paper estimates that on average one improved stove saves approximately 634 kilograms of fuelwood per year or about 0.94 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, which is about half of previous estimates. Using the May 2015 California auction price of 3.39/ton, the carbon sequestration from each stove deployed is worth about 2.59. Such carbon market offset revenues would be sufficient to cover the cost of the stove within one year.
Book
1 online resource (50 p.)
This paper estimate the effects of collective action in Nepal's community forests on four ecological measures of forest quality. Forest user group collective action is identified through membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme, pending membership in the program, and existence of a forest user group whose leaders can identify the year the group was formed. This last, broad category is important, because many community forest user groups outside the program show significant evidence of important collective action. The study finds that presumed open access forests have only 21 to 57 percent of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. In several models, program forests sequester more carbon than communities outside the program. This implies that paying new program groups for carbon sequestration credits under the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing may be especially appropriate. However, marginal carbon sequestration effects of program participation are smaller and less consistent than those from two broader measures of collective action. The main finding is that within the existing institutional environment, collective action broadly defined has very important, positive, and large effects on carbon stocks and, in some models, on other aspects of forest quality.
This paper estimate the effects of collective action in Nepal's community forests on four ecological measures of forest quality. Forest user group collective action is identified through membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme, pending membership in the program, and existence of a forest user group whose leaders can identify the year the group was formed. This last, broad category is important, because many community forest user groups outside the program show significant evidence of important collective action. The study finds that presumed open access forests have only 21 to 57 percent of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. In several models, program forests sequester more carbon than communities outside the program. This implies that paying new program groups for carbon sequestration credits under the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing may be especially appropriate. However, marginal carbon sequestration effects of program participation are smaller and less consistent than those from two broader measures of collective action. The main finding is that within the existing institutional environment, collective action broadly defined has very important, positive, and large effects on carbon stocks and, in some models, on other aspects of forest quality.
Book
1 online resource (pages cm.)
  • Environmental and ecological concerns in Europe and North America contrasted / Laura Westra
  • Access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge and the fair sharing of benefits : the way forward in the EU / Sandra Jen
  • A regional alternative to the ineffective global response to biological invasions : the case of the European Union / Donato Gualtieri
  • Redefining the relationship between CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) and the TRIPS agreement : the first step towards confronting Biopiracy? / Anastasia Fotinakopoulou
  • The emerging right to land in new soft law instruments / Margherita Brunori
  • Right to water : intersection between international and constitutional law / Antonio D'Aloia
  • Law and the provision of water for megacities / Joseph W. Dellapenna
  • A critique of subsidies for industrial livestock production in the EU and the US / Constanz Frank Oster
  • Promoting the ecological sustainability of climate change related investments through the Holistic Impact Assessment (HIA) / Massimiliano Montini
  • Evaluation and development of small island communities with special reference to uninhabited insular areas / Grigoris Tsaltas, Alexopoulos Aristotelis, Gerasimos Rodotheatos, and Tilemachos Bourtzis
  • Access to justice in environmental matters in the EU legal order : is there a need for a more coherent and harmonized approach? / Vasiliki (Vicky) Karageorgou
  • Unconventional gas mining : what a fracking story! policy, regulation, and law / Janice Gray
  • Hidden and indirect effects of war and political violence / Yuliya Lyamzina
  • Commonly Unrecognized Benefits of a human rights approach to climate change / Donald A. Brown and Benjamin A. Brown
  • Reconciliation and the Indian residential school settlement : Canada's coming of age? / Kathleen Mahoney
  • Public health and environmental health risk assessment : which paradigm and in whose best interests? / Colin L. Soskolne
  • The environment, women, and human rights / Peter Venton
  • Corporate media, ecological challenges, and social upheaval / Rose A. Dyson
  • A complex adaptive legal system for the challenges of the anthropocene / Geoffrey Garver
  • Seeking justice in a land without justice : the application of anti-corruption principles to environmental law / Kathryn Gwiazdon
  • Environmental defenders : the green peaceful resistance / Susana Borràs and Antoni Pigrau
  • Mind the gap : state governance and ecological integrity / Klaus Bosselmann.
  • Environmental and ecological concerns in Europe and North America contrasted / Laura Westra
  • Access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge and the fair sharing of benefits : the way forward in the EU / Sandra Jen
  • A regional alternative to the ineffective global response to biological invasions : the case of the European Union / Donato Gualtieri
  • Redefining the relationship between CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) and the TRIPS agreement : the first step towards confronting Biopiracy? / Anastasia Fotinakopoulou
  • The emerging right to land in new soft law instruments / Margherita Brunori
  • Right to water : intersection between international and constitutional law / Antonio D'Aloia
  • Law and the provision of water for megacities / Joseph W. Dellapenna
  • A critique of subsidies for industrial livestock production in the EU and the US / Constanz Frank Oster
  • Promoting the ecological sustainability of climate change related investments through the Holistic Impact Assessment (HIA) / Massimiliano Montini
  • Evaluation and development of small island communities with special reference to uninhabited insular areas / Grigoris Tsaltas, Alexopoulos Aristotelis, Gerasimos Rodotheatos, and Tilemachos Bourtzis
  • Access to justice in environmental matters in the EU legal order : is there a need for a more coherent and harmonized approach? / Vasiliki (Vicky) Karageorgou
  • Unconventional gas mining : what a fracking story! policy, regulation, and law / Janice Gray
  • Hidden and indirect effects of war and political violence / Yuliya Lyamzina
  • Commonly Unrecognized Benefits of a human rights approach to climate change / Donald A. Brown and Benjamin A. Brown
  • Reconciliation and the Indian residential school settlement : Canada's coming of age? / Kathleen Mahoney
  • Public health and environmental health risk assessment : which paradigm and in whose best interests? / Colin L. Soskolne
  • The environment, women, and human rights / Peter Venton
  • Corporate media, ecological challenges, and social upheaval / Rose A. Dyson
  • A complex adaptive legal system for the challenges of the anthropocene / Geoffrey Garver
  • Seeking justice in a land without justice : the application of anti-corruption principles to environmental law / Kathryn Gwiazdon
  • Environmental defenders : the green peaceful resistance / Susana Borràs and Antoni Pigrau
  • Mind the gap : state governance and ecological integrity / Klaus Bosselmann.
site.ebrary.com For assistance ask at the Stanford Law Library reference desk.
Law Library (Crown)
Status of items at Law Library (Crown)
Law Library (Crown) Status
Online resource
(no call number) Unknown
Book
1 online resource (1149 pages).
  • Introduction
  • General ecology and human impacts
  • Protozoa to tardigrada
  • Phylum mollusca
  • Phylum annelida
  • Phylum arthropoda.
Readers familiar with the first three editions of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich) will welcome the comprehensive revision and expansion of that trusted professional reference manual and educational textbook from a single North American tome into a developing multi-volume series covering inland water invertebrates of the world. The series entitled Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp) begins with the current Volume I: Ecology and General Biology (edited by J.H. Thorp and D.C. Rogers), whic.
  • Introduction
  • General ecology and human impacts
  • Protozoa to tardigrada
  • Phylum mollusca
  • Phylum annelida
  • Phylum arthropoda.
Readers familiar with the first three editions of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich) will welcome the comprehensive revision and expansion of that trusted professional reference manual and educational textbook from a single North American tome into a developing multi-volume series covering inland water invertebrates of the world. The series entitled Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp) begins with the current Volume I: Ecology and General Biology (edited by J.H. Thorp and D.C. Rogers), whic.
Book
1 online resource (34 p.)
Nepal depends entirely on imports for meeting its demand for petroleum products, which account for the largest share in total import volume. Diesel is the main petroleum product consumed in the country and accounts for 38 percent of the total national CO2 emissions from fuel consumption. There is a general perception that the country would economically benefit if part of imported diesel is substituted with domestically produced jatropha-based biodiesel. This study finds that the economics of jatropha-based biodiesel depend on several factors, such as diesel price, yield of jatropha seeds per hectare, and availability of markets for production byproducts, such as glycerol and jatropha cake. Under the scenarios considered, jatropha biodiesel is unlikely to be economically competitive in Nepal unless seed yields per hectare are implausibly large and high returns can be obtained from byproduct markets that do not yet exist. In the absence of byproduct markets, even earnings from a carbon credit do not help jatropha biodiesel to compete with diesel unless the credit value exceeds US
Nepal depends entirely on imports for meeting its demand for petroleum products, which account for the largest share in total import volume. Diesel is the main petroleum product consumed in the country and accounts for 38 percent of the total national CO2 emissions from fuel consumption. There is a general perception that the country would economically benefit if part of imported diesel is substituted with domestically produced jatropha-based biodiesel. This study finds that the economics of jatropha-based biodiesel depend on several factors, such as diesel price, yield of jatropha seeds per hectare, and availability of markets for production byproducts, such as glycerol and jatropha cake. Under the scenarios considered, jatropha biodiesel is unlikely to be economically competitive in Nepal unless seed yields per hectare are implausibly large and high returns can be obtained from byproduct markets that do not yet exist. In the absence of byproduct markets, even earnings from a carbon credit do not help jatropha biodiesel to compete with diesel unless the credit value exceeds US
Book
1 online resource (19 p.)
Large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as wind power and solar energy, has been taking place in industrialized and developing economics mainly because of various fiscal and regulatory policies. An understanding of the economy-wide impacts of those policies is an important part of an overall analysis of them. Using a perfect foresight computable general equilibrium model, this study analyzes the economy-wide costs of achieving a 10 percent share of wind power in Brazil's electricity supply mix by 2030. Brazil is in the midst of an active program of wind capacity expansion. The welfare loss would be small, 0.1 percent of total baseline welfare in the absence of the 10 percent wind power expansion. The study also finds that, in the case of Brazil, production subsidies financed through increased value-added tax would have superior impacts on welfare and greenhouse gas mitigation, compared with a consumption mandate where electricity utilities are allowed to pass the increased electricity supply costs directly to consumers. These two policies would impact various production sectors differently to achieve the wind power expansion targets: the burden of the mandate falls mostly on electricity-intensive production and consumption, whereas the burden of the subsidy is distributed toward goods and services with higher value added.
Large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as wind power and solar energy, has been taking place in industrialized and developing economics mainly because of various fiscal and regulatory policies. An understanding of the economy-wide impacts of those policies is an important part of an overall analysis of them. Using a perfect foresight computable general equilibrium model, this study analyzes the economy-wide costs of achieving a 10 percent share of wind power in Brazil's electricity supply mix by 2030. Brazil is in the midst of an active program of wind capacity expansion. The welfare loss would be small, 0.1 percent of total baseline welfare in the absence of the 10 percent wind power expansion. The study also finds that, in the case of Brazil, production subsidies financed through increased value-added tax would have superior impacts on welfare and greenhouse gas mitigation, compared with a consumption mandate where electricity utilities are allowed to pass the increased electricity supply costs directly to consumers. These two policies would impact various production sectors differently to achieve the wind power expansion targets: the burden of the mandate falls mostly on electricity-intensive production and consumption, whereas the burden of the subsidy is distributed toward goods and services with higher value added.
Book
xii, 337 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
The modern world has created complex systems that have interrelated concerns. Ecosystems, Society, and Health presents new perspectives on how the challenges relating to these concerns must be examined, not as disparate political narratives, but as dynamic transformational stories that demand integrative systems of research, analysis, practice, and action. Struggles over healthy watersheds, diseases associated with environmental change, and public health impacts of unsafe food exemplify the demand for integrated understanding and action. Contributors argue that traditional science, power politics, and linear ideals of public policy are inadequate to address sustainability, justice, safety, and responsibility. Drawing from a series of case studies that range from nursing, to watershed management, to environmental health and risk communication, this collection strikes an informed balance between practical lessons and a sophisticated theoretical context with which to interpret them. Demonstrating the diverse contextual understanding demanded by today s complex issues, Ecosystems, Society, and Health is a timely resource with guidance for practitioners, researchers, and educators.".
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
The modern world has created complex systems that have interrelated concerns. Ecosystems, Society, and Health presents new perspectives on how the challenges relating to these concerns must be examined, not as disparate political narratives, but as dynamic transformational stories that demand integrative systems of research, analysis, practice, and action. Struggles over healthy watersheds, diseases associated with environmental change, and public health impacts of unsafe food exemplify the demand for integrated understanding and action. Contributors argue that traditional science, power politics, and linear ideals of public policy are inadequate to address sustainability, justice, safety, and responsibility. Drawing from a series of case studies that range from nursing, to watershed management, to environmental health and risk communication, this collection strikes an informed balance between practical lessons and a sophisticated theoretical context with which to interpret them. Demonstrating the diverse contextual understanding demanded by today s complex issues, Ecosystems, Society, and Health is a timely resource with guidance for practitioners, researchers, and educators.".
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Green Library
Status of items at Green Library
Green Library Status
Stacks Find it
GF41 .E35 2015 Unavailable In process Request
Book
22 p.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in chemico décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice, à savoir l’essai de réactivité peptidique directe (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay, DPRA), doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés. Le DPRA est proposé pour l'étude de l'événement moléculaire initiateur menant aux effets néfastes de sensibilisation cutanée, nommément la réactivité protéique, par quantification de la réactivité des produits chimiques testés vis-à-vis de modèles peptidiques de synthèse contenant soit de la lysine, soit de la cystéine. Les taux de déplétion de la cystéine et de la lysine sont ensuite calculés et utilisés dans un modèle de prédiction pour classer les substances dans l'une des quatre classes de réactivité, afin d’aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in chemico décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice, à savoir l’essai de réactivité peptidique directe (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay, DPRA), doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés. Le DPRA est proposé pour l'étude de l'événement moléculaire initiateur menant aux effets néfastes de sensibilisation cutanée, nommément la réactivité protéique, par quantification de la réactivité des produits chimiques testés vis-à-vis de modèles peptidiques de synthèse contenant soit de la lysine, soit de la cystéine. Les taux de déplétion de la cystéine et de la lysine sont ensuite calculés et utilisés dans un modèle de prédiction pour classer les substances dans l'une des quatre classes de réactivité, afin d’aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés.
Book
23 p.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in vitro décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (LD) pour les essais de produits chimiques (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés, selon le SGH. Le deuxième événement clé sur la voie toxicologique menant à des effets indésirable de sensibilisation cutanée se déroule dans les kératinocytes. Cet événement comprend des réponses inflammatoires et des phénomènes d'expression génique, liés à des voies de signalisation cellulaire spécifiques telles que les voies dépendant de l'élément de réponse antioxydant/électrophile (ARE, Antioxidant Response Element). La méthode d'essai décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) est proposée pour l'étude de cette deuxième étape. La lignée cellulaire employée contient le gène de la luciférase sous le contrôle transcriptionnel d'un promoteur constitutif fusionné à un élément ARE d'un gène connu pour l’intensification de son expression sous l’effet de sensibilisants cutanés. Le signal de la luciférase reflète l'activation par les sensibilisants de gènes endogènes dépendants du facteur Nrf2. Cela permet la mesure quantitative (par détection de luminescence) de l'induction du gène de la luciférase, grâce à l'utilisation de substrats de luciférase produisant une luminescence satisfaisante, comme indicateur de l'activité du facteur de transcription Nrf2 dans les cellules après exposition à des substances chimiques d’essai électrophiles. A l'heure actuelle, la seule méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase in vitro couverte par la présente ligne directrice est la méthode KeratinoSensTM.
La présente Ligne directrice porte sur le danger de sensibilisation cutanée pour la santé humaine faisant suite à une exposition avec un produit chimique. La sensibilisation cutanée se réfère à une réponse allergique faisant suite à un contact avec la peau, selon la définition du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) des Nations Unies. La méthode in vitro décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (LD) pour les essais de produits chimiques (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) doit aider à distinguer les sensibilisants des non-sensibilisants cutanés, selon le SGH. Le deuxième événement clé sur la voie toxicologique menant à des effets indésirable de sensibilisation cutanée se déroule dans les kératinocytes. Cet événement comprend des réponses inflammatoires et des phénomènes d'expression génique, liés à des voies de signalisation cellulaire spécifiques telles que les voies dépendant de l'élément de réponse antioxydant/électrophile (ARE, Antioxidant Response Element). La méthode d'essai décrite dans la présente Ligne directrice (méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase) est proposée pour l'étude de cette deuxième étape. La lignée cellulaire employée contient le gène de la luciférase sous le contrôle transcriptionnel d'un promoteur constitutif fusionné à un élément ARE d'un gène connu pour l’intensification de son expression sous l’effet de sensibilisants cutanés. Le signal de la luciférase reflète l'activation par les sensibilisants de gènes endogènes dépendants du facteur Nrf2. Cela permet la mesure quantitative (par détection de luminescence) de l'induction du gène de la luciférase, grâce à l'utilisation de substrats de luciférase produisant une luminescence satisfaisante, comme indicateur de l'activité du facteur de transcription Nrf2 dans les cellules après exposition à des substances chimiques d’essai électrophiles. A l'heure actuelle, la seule méthode d'essai ARE-Nrf2 luciférase in vitro couverte par la présente ligne directrice est la méthode KeratinoSensTM.
Book
66 p. ; 21 x 30 cm.
Quantifying the effect of public interventions aimed at mobilising private finance for climate activities is technically complex and challenging. As a step towards addressing this complexity, the report presents a framework of key decision points for estimating publicly mobilised private finance. This framework outlines different methodological options and choices needed to make these estimates. It assesses trade-offs and implications of these choices in terms of their accuracy, the incentives they provide, their potential to be standardised across entities, and their practicality (data availability, expertise and resource demands). The report further identifies and suggests practical options available in the short-term for estimating mobilised private finance, while underlining the need to provide transparency about underlying definitions, assumptions and limitations. It also recommends longer-term actions to improve these methods, including the need to converge on definitions, to build data systems and to improve and standardise estimation methods. The primary objective of this report is to inform the development of methods to measure in a transparent manner progress towards the fulfilment of the financial commitments made by developed countries in the context of international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also aims to encourage careful examination of the links between public interventions and private climate finance. This is to ensure that methods to estimate mobilisation help encourage the efficiency and effectiveness of public interventions aimed at mobilising such finance.
Quantifying the effect of public interventions aimed at mobilising private finance for climate activities is technically complex and challenging. As a step towards addressing this complexity, the report presents a framework of key decision points for estimating publicly mobilised private finance. This framework outlines different methodological options and choices needed to make these estimates. It assesses trade-offs and implications of these choices in terms of their accuracy, the incentives they provide, their potential to be standardised across entities, and their practicality (data availability, expertise and resource demands). The report further identifies and suggests practical options available in the short-term for estimating mobilised private finance, while underlining the need to provide transparency about underlying definitions, assumptions and limitations. It also recommends longer-term actions to improve these methods, including the need to converge on definitions, to build data systems and to improve and standardise estimation methods. The primary objective of this report is to inform the development of methods to measure in a transparent manner progress towards the fulfilment of the financial commitments made by developed countries in the context of international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also aims to encourage careful examination of the links between public interventions and private climate finance. This is to ensure that methods to estimate mobilisation help encourage the efficiency and effectiveness of public interventions aimed at mobilising such finance.
Book
1 online resource (41 p.)
Ethiopia has experienced a growth acceleration over the past decade on the back of an economic strategy emphasizing public infrastructure investment and supported by heterodox macro-financial policies. To analyze the country's growth performance during 2000-13, the paper employs a neoclassical cross-country System Generalized Method of Moments regression model. The analysis finds that accelerated growth was driven by public infrastructure investment and restrained government consumption, and supported by a conducive external environment. Macroeconomic challenges arising from declining private credit, real currency overvaluation, and relatively high inflation held back some growth. The model accurately predicts Ethiopia's growth over the period of analysis and is robust to country-specific parameter heterogeneity and alternative infrastructure variables. Looking ahead, model simulations under alternative policy scenarios are indicative that growth may decelerate in the coming decade, making it challenging for Ethiopia to attain its middle-income country target by 2025. Although simulated growth rates do not vary much by policy scenario, the paper discusses some of the emerging risks associated with a continued reliance on the current infrastructure financing model and potential future adjustments.
Ethiopia has experienced a growth acceleration over the past decade on the back of an economic strategy emphasizing public infrastructure investment and supported by heterodox macro-financial policies. To analyze the country's growth performance during 2000-13, the paper employs a neoclassical cross-country System Generalized Method of Moments regression model. The analysis finds that accelerated growth was driven by public infrastructure investment and restrained government consumption, and supported by a conducive external environment. Macroeconomic challenges arising from declining private credit, real currency overvaluation, and relatively high inflation held back some growth. The model accurately predicts Ethiopia's growth over the period of analysis and is robust to country-specific parameter heterogeneity and alternative infrastructure variables. Looking ahead, model simulations under alternative policy scenarios are indicative that growth may decelerate in the coming decade, making it challenging for Ethiopia to attain its middle-income country target by 2025. Although simulated growth rates do not vary much by policy scenario, the paper discusses some of the emerging risks associated with a continued reliance on the current infrastructure financing model and potential future adjustments.
Book
1 online resource (65 p.)
Central place theory predicts that agglomeration can arise from external shocks. This paper investigates whether gold mining is a catalyst for proto-urbanization in rural Ghana. Using cross-sectional data, the analysis finds that locations within 10 kilometers from gold mines have more night light and proportionally higher employment in industry and services and in the wage sector. Non-farm employment decreases at 20-30 kilometers distance to gold mines. These findings are consistent with agglomeration effects that induce non-farm activities to coalesce in one particular location. This paper finds that, over time, an increase in gold production is associated with more wage employment and apprenticeship, and fewer people employed in private informal enterprises. It also finds that the changes arising from increasing gold production are not reversed when large gold mines shrink. However this pattern cannot be ascribed unambiguously to agglomeration effects, given an increase in informal mining after formal mines decrease output is also observed.
Central place theory predicts that agglomeration can arise from external shocks. This paper investigates whether gold mining is a catalyst for proto-urbanization in rural Ghana. Using cross-sectional data, the analysis finds that locations within 10 kilometers from gold mines have more night light and proportionally higher employment in industry and services and in the wage sector. Non-farm employment decreases at 20-30 kilometers distance to gold mines. These findings are consistent with agglomeration effects that induce non-farm activities to coalesce in one particular location. This paper finds that, over time, an increase in gold production is associated with more wage employment and apprenticeship, and fewer people employed in private informal enterprises. It also finds that the changes arising from increasing gold production are not reversed when large gold mines shrink. However this pattern cannot be ascribed unambiguously to agglomeration effects, given an increase in informal mining after formal mines decrease output is also observed.