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Book
4 p.
This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP is of the opinion that, while the Council Act allows "outsourcing" of inspection functions, this should be the exception rather than the rule and should be used only as an interim solution and primarily by new GLP compliance monitoring programmes.  
This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP is of the opinion that, while the Council Act allows "outsourcing" of inspection functions, this should be the exception rather than the rule and should be used only as an interim solution and primarily by new GLP compliance monitoring programmes.  
Book
168 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 6 -Purpose and background�6 -How to use this document 6 -Coverage and methodology 7 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background16 -1.1 Introduction to Adhesives 16 -1.2 Industry Sector Description 17 -1.3 Market Profile and Adhesive Production 21 -1.4 Adhesive Application 23 2. Process Description�24 -2.1 Sealed Mixing/Transfer 24 -2.2 Unsealed Mixing/Transfer�27 -2.3 Heated Mixing/Transfer 29 -2.4 Adhesive Formulations 31 -2.5 Physical Properties of Adhesive Chemicals 34 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates�40 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 40 -3.2 Annual Facility Adhesive Production Rate (Qadhes_site_yr) 41 -3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Adhesive Component �(Fchem_comp) 48 -3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Adhesive Product (Fcomp_adhes) 48 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 53 -3.6 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 54 -3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)� 55 -3.8 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qchem_site_day) 56 -3.9 Annual Number of Adhesive Component Containers Emptied per Facility (Ncont_empty_site_yr)�57 -3.10 Annual Number of Adhesive Product Containers Filled per Facility �(Ncont_fill_site_yr) 58� 4. Environmental Release Assessments 60 -4.1 Control Technologies 62 -4.2 Adhesive Component Container Residue Released to Water, Incineration, �or Landfill (Release 1)�62 -4.3 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 2)�64 -4.4 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Adhesive Component �(Release 3) 65 -4.5 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or Collected �and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 4)�66 -4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 68 -4.7 Adhesive Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or �Landfill (Release 6) 70 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 70 -4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 72 -4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 73 -4.11 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Adhesive Product into �Transport Containers (Release 10) 74 -4.12 Off-Spec Product Released to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 11) 76 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 77 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 79 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 79 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 80 -5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 84 -5.5 Inhalation Exposure During Operation of Open Mixing Vessels (Exposure C) 88 -5.6 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Adhesive Product (Exposure D)�89 -5.7 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and Other �Process Equipment (Exposure E)�91 -5.8 Exposure from Packaging Adhesive Product (Exposure F)�93 6. Sample Calculations 96 -6.1 General Facility Estimates 96 -6.2 Release Assessments 99� -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 107 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work�115 8 References 118 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 123 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations / Defaults for the Standard EPS Environemntal Release and Worker Exposure Models 131 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 165  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level estimates resulting in release and exposure amounts that are likely to be higher, or at least higher than average, than amounts that might actually occur in the real world setting.  
  • Explanatory Notes 6 -Purpose and background�6 -How to use this document 6 -Coverage and methodology 7 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background16 -1.1 Introduction to Adhesives 16 -1.2 Industry Sector Description 17 -1.3 Market Profile and Adhesive Production 21 -1.4 Adhesive Application 23 2. Process Description�24 -2.1 Sealed Mixing/Transfer 24 -2.2 Unsealed Mixing/Transfer�27 -2.3 Heated Mixing/Transfer 29 -2.4 Adhesive Formulations 31 -2.5 Physical Properties of Adhesive Chemicals 34 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates�40 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 40 -3.2 Annual Facility Adhesive Production Rate (Qadhes_site_yr) 41 -3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Adhesive Component �(Fchem_comp) 48 -3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Adhesive Product (Fcomp_adhes) 48 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 53 -3.6 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 54 -3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)� 55 -3.8 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qchem_site_day) 56 -3.9 Annual Number of Adhesive Component Containers Emptied per Facility (Ncont_empty_site_yr)�57 -3.10 Annual Number of Adhesive Product Containers Filled per Facility �(Ncont_fill_site_yr) 58� 4. Environmental Release Assessments 60 -4.1 Control Technologies 62 -4.2 Adhesive Component Container Residue Released to Water, Incineration, �or Landfill (Release 1)�62 -4.3 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 2)�64 -4.4 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Adhesive Component �(Release 3) 65 -4.5 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or Collected �and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 4)�66 -4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 68 -4.7 Adhesive Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or �Landfill (Release 6) 70 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 70 -4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 72 -4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 73 -4.11 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Adhesive Product into �Transport Containers (Release 10) 74 -4.12 Off-Spec Product Released to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 11) 76 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 77 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 79 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 79 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 80 -5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 84 -5.5 Inhalation Exposure During Operation of Open Mixing Vessels (Exposure C) 88 -5.6 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Adhesive Product (Exposure D)�89 -5.7 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and Other �Process Equipment (Exposure E)�91 -5.8 Exposure from Packaging Adhesive Product (Exposure F)�93 6. Sample Calculations 96 -6.1 General Facility Estimates 96 -6.2 Release Assessments 99� -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 107 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work�115 8 References 118 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 123 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations / Defaults for the Standard EPS Environemntal Release and Worker Exposure Models 131 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 165  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level estimates resulting in release and exposure amounts that are likely to be higher, or at least higher than average, than amounts that might actually occur in the real world setting.  
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Multifactor productivity (MFP) is increasingly used in economic policy, not least to compute potential output. Most measures are based on a standard production function combining labour and capital, but do not incorporate the negative by-products of the production process such as air pollution that could have deleterious effect on health and productivity in the medium to long term (see for instance OECD (2014)). The failure to account for the costs of environmental damages and the benefits associated with emission reduction impart a bias to standard measures of MFP. Ignoring these dimensions can give a misleading idea of growth prospects over the medium to long term...
Multifactor productivity (MFP) is increasingly used in economic policy, not least to compute potential output. Most measures are based on a standard production function combining labour and capital, but do not incorporate the negative by-products of the production process such as air pollution that could have deleterious effect on health and productivity in the medium to long term (see for instance OECD (2014)). The failure to account for the costs of environmental damages and the benefits associated with emission reduction impart a bias to standard measures of MFP. Ignoring these dimensions can give a misleading idea of growth prospects over the medium to long term...
Book
59 p.
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 9 2. Process Description 10 -2.1 Surface Preparation 12 -2.2 Solvent Wipe Down 12 -2.3 Paint Mixing 12 -2.4 Coating Application via Spray Painting�13 -2.5 Curing [This section is included for background information only] 15 3. Screening Level Estimation Techniques/Methods 16 -3.1 General Facility Estimates 16 -3.2 Release Assessments 19 -3.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 24 4. Summary of Equations and Sample Calculations 28 -4.1 Summary of Release and Exposure Equations 28 -4.2 Individual Chemical Release and Exposure Examples 32 5. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 36 6. References 37� Appendix A. German Data for� Automotive Coating�� Appendix B. Inhalation Exposure to Polysocyanate in Paint Appendix C. Paint Mist Concentration Data�� Appendix D. Dermal Exposure Assessment Factors
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.  
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 9 2. Process Description 10 -2.1 Surface Preparation 12 -2.2 Solvent Wipe Down 12 -2.3 Paint Mixing 12 -2.4 Coating Application via Spray Painting�13 -2.5 Curing [This section is included for background information only] 15 3. Screening Level Estimation Techniques/Methods 16 -3.1 General Facility Estimates 16 -3.2 Release Assessments 19 -3.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 24 4. Summary of Equations and Sample Calculations 28 -4.1 Summary of Release and Exposure Equations 28 -4.2 Individual Chemical Release and Exposure Examples 32 5. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 36 6. References 37� Appendix A. German Data for� Automotive Coating�� Appendix B. Inhalation Exposure to Polysocyanate in Paint Appendix C. Paint Mist Concentration Data�� Appendix D. Dermal Exposure Assessment Factors
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.  
Book
96 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
As OECD countries emerge from the global financial crisis, several countries have published their plans for the development of a future bioeconomy, an economy in which bio-based materials and production techniques will contribute significantly to economic and environmental sustainability. Such plans typically involve building a bio-based production industry in which fuels, energy and materials such as chemicals and plastics, almost always generated from fossil resources such as oil and natural gas, are incrementally replaced by equivalent or novel products generated from renewable resources. The realisation of this vision will require sustainably harnessing the vast biomass resource. The highest policy priorities at present are on several levels: allowing bio-based materials to compete for biomass on price with bioelectricity and biofuels; rectifying the highly distorting fossil fuel subsidies, heading off future competition for crude oil demand; and correcting for any excessive regulatory impacts. If governments wish to realise a successful bioeconomy in the future, the case for support for bio-based chemicals and plastics warrants serious attention.
As OECD countries emerge from the global financial crisis, several countries have published their plans for the development of a future bioeconomy, an economy in which bio-based materials and production techniques will contribute significantly to economic and environmental sustainability. Such plans typically involve building a bio-based production industry in which fuels, energy and materials such as chemicals and plastics, almost always generated from fossil resources such as oil and natural gas, are incrementally replaced by equivalent or novel products generated from renewable resources. The realisation of this vision will require sustainably harnessing the vast biomass resource. The highest policy priorities at present are on several levels: allowing bio-based materials to compete for biomass on price with bioelectricity and biofuels; rectifying the highly distorting fossil fuel subsidies, heading off future competition for crude oil demand; and correcting for any excessive regulatory impacts. If governments wish to realise a successful bioeconomy in the future, the case for support for bio-based chemicals and plastics warrants serious attention.
Book
127 p.
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 11 -1.1 Aroma Chemical Manufacturing 11 -1.2 Fragrance Oil Formulation 12 -1.3 Formulation of Commercial and Consumer Products 13 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Production of Commercial and Consumer Products Using Functional Fragrance Oils 16 -2.2 Production of Consumer Products Using Fine Fragrance Oils� 18 -2.3 Physical Properties of Aroma Chemicals 19 3. Generl Facility Estimates 21 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)�22 -3.3 Concentration of the Aroma Chemical (Fchem_final)� 22 -3.4 Daily Use Rate of Aroma Chemical (Qchem_site_day) 23 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 25 -3.6 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 26 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Filled per Site (Ncontainer_load_site_yr)� 27 4. Environmental Release Assessments 29 -4.1 Control Technologies 30 -4.2 Adjusted Vapor Pressure 30 -4.3 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1)�31 -4.4 Fugitive Air Releases During Transport Container Cleaning (Release 2) 33 -4.5 Fugitive Air Releases from Unloading Transport Containers (Release 3) 34 -4.6 Fugitive Air Releases During Mixing Operations (Release 4)�35 -4.7 Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 5) 36 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 6)�36 -4.9 Release to Water, Incineration, or Landfill from Equipment Cleaning (Release 7) 37 -4.10 Fugitive Air Releases During Equipment Cleaning (Release 8)�38 -4.11 Fugitive Air Releases During Product Packaging (Release 9)�39 -4.12 Release to Water, Incineration, Land, or Air from Dust Waste Generated from Conveying, Mixing, and Packaging Powdered Commercial and Consumer Products (Release 10)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 42 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 43 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site�43 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A)� 44 -5.4 Exposure During Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 46 -5.5 Exposure from Sampling Product Formulation (Exposure C) 48 -5.6 Exposure During Equipment Cleaning (Exposure D)� 49� -5.7 Exposure from Packaging of Commercial and Consumer Products (Exposure E) 51 6. Sample Calculations 56 -6.1 General Facility Estimates (TIMEworking_days) 56 -6.2 Release Assessments 59 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments� 67 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future� Work 76 8. References 78 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Value Documentation 82 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations� / Defaults for the Standard EPA Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models� 90 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 123 Appendix D. Data Received from Research Institute for Fragrance Materials� 125  
The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the applicability of this scenario.  
  • 1. Industry Summary and Background 11 -1.1 Aroma Chemical Manufacturing 11 -1.2 Fragrance Oil Formulation 12 -1.3 Formulation of Commercial and Consumer Products 13 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Production of Commercial and Consumer Products Using Functional Fragrance Oils 16 -2.2 Production of Consumer Products Using Fine Fragrance Oils� 18 -2.3 Physical Properties of Aroma Chemicals 19 3. Generl Facility Estimates 21 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)�22 -3.3 Concentration of the Aroma Chemical (Fchem_final)� 22 -3.4 Daily Use Rate of Aroma Chemical (Qchem_site_day) 23 -3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 25 -3.6 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 26 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Filled per Site (Ncontainer_load_site_yr)� 27 4. Environmental Release Assessments 29 -4.1 Control Technologies 30 -4.2 Adjusted Vapor Pressure 30 -4.3 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1)�31 -4.4 Fugitive Air Releases During Transport Container Cleaning (Release 2) 33 -4.5 Fugitive Air Releases from Unloading Transport Containers (Release 3) 34 -4.6 Fugitive Air Releases During Mixing Operations (Release 4)�35 -4.7 Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 5) 36 -4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 6)�36 -4.9 Release to Water, Incineration, or Landfill from Equipment Cleaning (Release 7) 37 -4.10 Fugitive Air Releases During Equipment Cleaning (Release 8)�38 -4.11 Fugitive Air Releases During Product Packaging (Release 9)�39 -4.12 Release to Water, Incineration, Land, or Air from Dust Waste Generated from Conveying, Mixing, and Packaging Powdered Commercial and Consumer Products (Release 10)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 42 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 43 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site�43 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A)� 44 -5.4 Exposure During Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 46 -5.5 Exposure from Sampling Product Formulation (Exposure C) 48 -5.6 Exposure During Equipment Cleaning (Exposure D)� 49� -5.7 Exposure from Packaging of Commercial and Consumer Products (Exposure E) 51 6. Sample Calculations 56 -6.1 General Facility Estimates (TIMEworking_days) 56 -6.2 Release Assessments 59 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments� 67 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future� Work 76 8. References 78 Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Value Documentation 82 Appendix B. Background Information and Equations� / Defaults for the Standard EPA Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models� 90 Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 123 Appendix D. Data Received from Research Institute for Fragrance Materials� 125  
The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the applicability of this scenario.  
Book
75 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 8 -Purpose and background 8 -How to use this document�8 -Coverage and methodology 8 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background 13 -1.1 Exploration 14 -1.2 Well Development 14 -1.3 Petroleum Production 15 -1.4 Site Abandonment15 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Petroleum Production from Oil Wells 16 -2.2 Stages of Petroleum Production 16 -2.3 Petroleum Production Chemicals�18 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates 20 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEoperating_days and TIMEworking_days) 21 -3.3 Concentration of the Oil Well Chemical in Received Formulation (Fchem) 22 -3.4 Injection Concentration of Oil Well Chemicals (Fchem_used_oil and Fchem_used_water) -3.5 Daily Use Rate of Oil Well Chemical (Qchem_oil_site_day and Qchem_water_site_day) 24 -3.6 Number of Sites (Nsites)�28 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 29 4. Environmental Release Assessments 31 -4.1 Control Technologies� 32 -4.2 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1) 32 -4.3 Release to Water or Land from Equipment and Storage Tank Cleaning (Release 2)�34 -4.4 Release to Refinery (Incineration) from Separation Process (Release 3) 35 -4.5 Release to Water or Deep Well Injection from Separation Process (Release 4)�38 -4.6 Release to Land from Separation Process (Release 5)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 40 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 41 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 41 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A) 42 -5.4 Exposure from Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 43 -5.5 Exposure from Equipment/Storage Tank Cleaning (Exposure C) 44 6 Sample Calculations 45 -6.1 General Facility Estimates�45 -6.2 Release Assessments 47 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 50 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 52 References 54� Appendix A: Estimating Equation Summary and Default parameter Values Appendix B: Background Information and Equations/Defaults for the Standard CEB Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.
  • Explanatory Notes 8 -Purpose and background 8 -How to use this document�8 -Coverage and methodology 8 -How this document was developed 10 1. Industry Summary and Background 13 -1.1 Exploration 14 -1.2 Well Development 14 -1.3 Petroleum Production 15 -1.4 Site Abandonment15 2. Process Description 16 -2.1 Petroleum Production from Oil Wells 16 -2.2 Stages of Petroleum Production 16 -2.3 Petroleum Production Chemicals�18 3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates 20 -3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 21 -3.2 Days of Operation (TIMEoperating_days and TIMEworking_days) 21 -3.3 Concentration of the Oil Well Chemical in Received Formulation (Fchem) 22 -3.4 Injection Concentration of Oil Well Chemicals (Fchem_used_oil and Fchem_used_water) -3.5 Daily Use Rate of Oil Well Chemical (Qchem_oil_site_day and Qchem_water_site_day) 24 -3.6 Number of Sites (Nsites)�28 -3.7 Number of Transport Containers Unloaded per Site (Ncontainer_unload_site_yr) 29 4. Environmental Release Assessments 31 -4.1 Control Technologies� 32 -4.2 Release to Water, Incineration, or Land from Container Residue (Release 1) 32 -4.3 Release to Water or Land from Equipment and Storage Tank Cleaning (Release 2)�34 -4.4 Release to Refinery (Incineration) from Separation Process (Release 3) 35 -4.5 Release to Water or Deep Well Injection from Separation Process (Release 4)�38 -4.6 Release to Land from Separation Process (Release 5)� 40 5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 40 -5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 41 -5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 41 -5.3 Exposure from Unloading Transport Containers into Mixing Vessel (Exposure A) 42 -5.4 Exposure from Transport Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 43 -5.5 Exposure from Equipment/Storage Tank Cleaning (Exposure C) 44 6 Sample Calculations 45 -6.1 General Facility Estimates�45 -6.2 Release Assessments 47 -6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 50 7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 52 References 54� Appendix A: Estimating Equation Summary and Default parameter Values Appendix B: Background Information and Equations/Defaults for the Standard CEB Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.
Book
224 p.
  • Explanatory Notes 7 Executive Summary 8 Acknowledgements10 1. Introduction  18 -1.1 Purpose and scope19 -1.2 How to use this document 20 2. Industry Overview 22 -2.1 Specific regulatory background  22 -2.2 General information on the UK industry 27 -2.3 Scales of operation 27 -2.4 Industry associations 29 -2.5 End products 29 -2.6 Chemical categories in the electronics industry 30 -2.7 Electronic components 31 -2.8 Processes in the electronics industry 39 3. Industry Processes and Emissions Estimation 42 -3.1 Estimation overview 42 -3.2 Assembly of components 49 -3.3 Chemical vapour deposition (doping) 61 -3.4 Electroless plating 72 -3.5 Electroplating 84 -3.6 Etching 97 -3.7 High vacuum evaporation / sputtering 109 -3.8 Laminate production and processing 120 -3.9 Photolithography126 -3.10 Soldering  142 -3.11 Other industrial processes 155 -3.12 Service life  156 -3.13 Recovery from waste 157 -3.14 Waste 160 4. Examples  163 -4.1 Notes on risk assessment for electronics chemicals 163 -4.2 Worked example: Solvent used in spin coating  164 -4.3 Worked example: Inorganic salt used as an etchant 168 -4.4 Worked example: Diazo photoresist used in PCB manufacture 171 -4.5 Worked example: Electroplating chemical  177 ANNEXES 182 -Annex I: substances, preparations and components to be removed from separately collected WEEE 182 -Annex II: List of relevant industry associations 183 -Annex III: Substances relevant to the electronics industry 184 -Annex IV: Relevant A- and B-tables 204 -Notes on this Document: Data Gaps, Limitations and Improvements 207 -References 208 -Glossary 220
This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment, for example as required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals.
  • Explanatory Notes 7 Executive Summary 8 Acknowledgements10 1. Introduction  18 -1.1 Purpose and scope19 -1.2 How to use this document 20 2. Industry Overview 22 -2.1 Specific regulatory background  22 -2.2 General information on the UK industry 27 -2.3 Scales of operation 27 -2.4 Industry associations 29 -2.5 End products 29 -2.6 Chemical categories in the electronics industry 30 -2.7 Electronic components 31 -2.8 Processes in the electronics industry 39 3. Industry Processes and Emissions Estimation 42 -3.1 Estimation overview 42 -3.2 Assembly of components 49 -3.3 Chemical vapour deposition (doping) 61 -3.4 Electroless plating 72 -3.5 Electroplating 84 -3.6 Etching 97 -3.7 High vacuum evaporation / sputtering 109 -3.8 Laminate production and processing 120 -3.9 Photolithography126 -3.10 Soldering  142 -3.11 Other industrial processes 155 -3.12 Service life  156 -3.13 Recovery from waste 157 -3.14 Waste 160 4. Examples  163 -4.1 Notes on risk assessment for electronics chemicals 163 -4.2 Worked example: Solvent used in spin coating  164 -4.3 Worked example: Inorganic salt used as an etchant 168 -4.4 Worked example: Diazo photoresist used in PCB manufacture 171 -4.5 Worked example: Electroplating chemical  177 ANNEXES 182 -Annex I: substances, preparations and components to be removed from separately collected WEEE 182 -Annex II: List of relevant industry associations 183 -Annex III: Substances relevant to the electronics industry 184 -Annex IV: Relevant A- and B-tables 204 -Notes on this Document: Data Gaps, Limitations and Improvements 207 -References 208 -Glossary 220
This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment, for example as required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals.
Book
201 p.
  • Explanatory Notes�7 PART I: GENERAL INFORMATION�17 1. Basics about Coatings 17 2. The European Coatings Industry 28 PART II: COATINGS MANUFACTURE�32 1. Content of Part II 32 2. Coatings Manufacture Processes and Emissions�32 3. Prevention and Abatement of Emissions� 50 4. Manufacture of Organic Solvent-Borne Coatings� 52 5. Manufacture of Water-Borne Coatings�68 6. Manufacture of Powder Coatings 87 7. Emission Estimates Assumptions 110 8. Data Gaps / Limitations / Improvements 114 PART III: APPLICATION AND DISPOSAL OF COATINGS�115 1. Presentation of Emissions Estimates 115 2. General Overview of Coatings Application� 117 3. Wooden Furniture Coatings 123 4. Decorative Paints 130 5. Automotive Coating and Refinishing�136 6. Metal Packaging Coatings 150 7. Coiil Coatings 158 8. Marine Coatings 164 9. Coatings in the Aerospace Industry 170 10. Rail Vehicle Coatings 175 11. Treatment of Coatings Wastes 181 12. Data Gaps / Limitations / Improvements 185 PART IV: GLOSSARY AND REFERENCES 186 1. Glossary 186 2. References 195  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the coatings industry (paints, lacquers and varnishes), to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.  
  • Explanatory Notes�7 PART I: GENERAL INFORMATION�17 1. Basics about Coatings 17 2. The European Coatings Industry 28 PART II: COATINGS MANUFACTURE�32 1. Content of Part II 32 2. Coatings Manufacture Processes and Emissions�32 3. Prevention and Abatement of Emissions� 50 4. Manufacture of Organic Solvent-Borne Coatings� 52 5. Manufacture of Water-Borne Coatings�68 6. Manufacture of Powder Coatings 87 7. Emission Estimates Assumptions 110 8. Data Gaps / Limitations / Improvements 114 PART III: APPLICATION AND DISPOSAL OF COATINGS�115 1. Presentation of Emissions Estimates 115 2. General Overview of Coatings Application� 117 3. Wooden Furniture Coatings 123 4. Decorative Paints 130 5. Automotive Coating and Refinishing�136 6. Metal Packaging Coatings 150 7. Coiil Coatings 158 8. Marine Coatings 164 9. Coatings in the Aerospace Industry 170 10. Rail Vehicle Coatings 175 11. Treatment of Coatings Wastes 181 12. Data Gaps / Limitations / Improvements 185 PART IV: GLOSSARY AND REFERENCES 186 1. Glossary 186 2. References 195  
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the coatings industry (paints, lacquers and varnishes), to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.  
Book
50 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to a global GDP loss of 0.7% to 2.5% by 2060 for the most likely equilibrium climate sensitivity range. Underlying these annual global GDP losses are much larger sectoral and regional variations. Agricultural impacts dominate in most regions, while damages from sea level rise gradually become more important. Negative economic consequences are especially large in South and South-East Asia whereas other regions will be less affected and, in some cases, benefit thanks to adjustments from international trade. Emissions to 2060 will have important consequences in later decades and centuries. Simulations with the AD-RICE model suggest that if emissions continue to grow after 2060, annual damages of climate change could reach 1.5%-4.8% of GDP by the end of the century. Some impacts and risks from climate change have not been quantified in this study, including extreme weather events, water stress and large-scale disruptions. These will potentially have large economic consequences, and on balance the costs of inaction presented here likely underestimate the full costs of climate change impacts. More research is needed to assess them as well as the various uncertainties and risks involved. However, this should not delay policy action, but rather induce policy frameworks that are able to deal with new information and with the fact that by their nature some uncertainties and risks will never be resolved.
This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to a global GDP loss of 0.7% to 2.5% by 2060 for the most likely equilibrium climate sensitivity range. Underlying these annual global GDP losses are much larger sectoral and regional variations. Agricultural impacts dominate in most regions, while damages from sea level rise gradually become more important. Negative economic consequences are especially large in South and South-East Asia whereas other regions will be less affected and, in some cases, benefit thanks to adjustments from international trade. Emissions to 2060 will have important consequences in later decades and centuries. Simulations with the AD-RICE model suggest that if emissions continue to grow after 2060, annual damages of climate change could reach 1.5%-4.8% of GDP by the end of the century. Some impacts and risks from climate change have not been quantified in this study, including extreme weather events, water stress and large-scale disruptions. These will potentially have large economic consequences, and on balance the costs of inaction presented here likely underestimate the full costs of climate change impacts. More research is needed to assess them as well as the various uncertainties and risks involved. However, this should not delay policy action, but rather induce policy frameworks that are able to deal with new information and with the fact that by their nature some uncertainties and risks will never be resolved.
Book
28 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. This is the seventh update prepared under the aegis of the Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) since the series began with the 2007 publication Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. The document covers developments from late 2012 to October 2013. It is based on publicly available information.
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. This is the seventh update prepared under the aegis of the Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) since the series began with the 2007 publication Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. The document covers developments from late 2012 to October 2013. It is based on publicly available information.
Video
1 streaming video file (52 min.) : digital, sd., col.
Endangered orphan orangutans are rehabilitated and returned to their rainforest home, where they can participate in orangutan culture, a rich and complex society of elders and peers.
Endangered orphan orangutans are rehabilitated and returned to their rainforest home, where they can participate in orangutan culture, a rich and complex society of elders and peers.
Book
1 online resource (690 p.)
  • Front Cover; Ecological Modelling and Engineering of Lakes and Wetlands; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1. Models of Lakes and Wetlands; 1.2. Ecological Engineering Applied to Lakes and Wetlands; References; Chapter 2: Structurally Dynamic Models of Lakes; 2.1. Introduction; 2.2. How to Construct Structurally Dynamic Models and Definitions of Eco-Exergy; 2.3. Biomanipulation; 2.4. Development of a SDM to Describe the Competition Between Phytoplankton and Submerged Vegetation; 2.5. SDM Developed for Lake Fure; 2.6. Summary and Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 3: Development of Level-IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model for Dynamic Multimedia Fate and Transport Processes of HCHs ...3.1. Introduction; 3.1.1. Hexachlorocyclohexanes and the isomers; 3.1.2. HCHs usage and residue level in the study site; 3.1.3. Level-IV fugacity-based QWASI model; 3.2. Development of Level IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model; 3.2.1. Model framework; 3.2.2. Model simulation and validation; 3.2.3. Parameter determination; 3.2.4. Sensitivity analysis; 3.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 3.3. Results and Discussion; 3.3.1. Simulation of seasonal variations; 3.3.2. Transfer fluxes
  • 3.3.3. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters3.3.4. Uncertainty analysis of the model simulation; 3.4. Conclusion; References; Chapter 4: Eco-Risk Assessments for Toxic Contaminants Based on Species Sensitivity Distribution Models in Lake Chaohu, China; 4.1. Introduction; 4.1.1. Ecological risk assessments; 4.1.2. Organochlorine pesticides; 4.1.3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; 4.1.4. The study site of Lake Chaohu; 4.2. Materials and Methods; 4.2.1. Measurements of OCPs and PAHs; 4.2.1.1. Measurement of OCPs in the water; 4.2.1.2. Measurement of PAHs in the water
  • 4.2.2. Ecological risk assessments by SSD and PRA4.2.2.1. General procedures of the SSD and PRA methods; 4.2.2.2. Collecting toxicity data; 4.2.2.3. Fitting the distribution of toxicity and exposure data; 4.2.2.4. Ecological risk assessment based on multiple risk indices; 4.2.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 4.3. Eco-Risk Assessments for OCPs in Lake Chaohu; 4.3.1. The residues of OCPs in the water (Liu et al., 2012); 4.3.2. The spatial and temporal distribution of OCPs in the water; 4.3.3. Eco-risk assessments for OCPs; 4.4. Eco-Risk Assessments for PAHs in Lake Chaohu
  • 4.4.1. The residues of PAHs in the water (Qin et al., 2013)4.4.2. Site-specific ecological risk of PAHs based on the SSD method; 4.4.3. Probability of ecological risk of PAHs based on the PRA method; 4.4.4. Uncertainty analysis; 4.4.5. Discussion; References; Chapter 5: Addressing the Uncertainty in Modeling Watershed Nonpoint Source Pollution; 5.1. Introduction to the Issue; 5.1.1. Current status of nonpoint source pollution; 5.1.2. Management efforts; 5.1.3. Existing models; 5.1.4. Modeling for decision support; 5.2. Uncertainty in Modeling NPS Pollution: State of the Art
Ecological modelling has developed rapidly in recent decades, with the focus primarily on the restoration of lakes and wetlands. Ecological Modelling and Engineering in Lakes and Wetlands presents the progress being made in modelling for a wealth of applications. It covers the older biogeochemical models still in use today, structurally dynamic models, 3D models, biophysical models, entire watershed models, and ecotoxicological models, as well as the expansion of modeling to the Arctic and Antarctic climate-zones. The book also addresses modelling the effect of climate change,
  • Front Cover; Ecological Modelling and Engineering of Lakes and Wetlands; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1. Models of Lakes and Wetlands; 1.2. Ecological Engineering Applied to Lakes and Wetlands; References; Chapter 2: Structurally Dynamic Models of Lakes; 2.1. Introduction; 2.2. How to Construct Structurally Dynamic Models and Definitions of Eco-Exergy; 2.3. Biomanipulation; 2.4. Development of a SDM to Describe the Competition Between Phytoplankton and Submerged Vegetation; 2.5. SDM Developed for Lake Fure; 2.6. Summary and Conclusions; References
  • Chapter 3: Development of Level-IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model for Dynamic Multimedia Fate and Transport Processes of HCHs ...3.1. Introduction; 3.1.1. Hexachlorocyclohexanes and the isomers; 3.1.2. HCHs usage and residue level in the study site; 3.1.3. Level-IV fugacity-based QWASI model; 3.2. Development of Level IV Fugacity-Based QWASI Model; 3.2.1. Model framework; 3.2.2. Model simulation and validation; 3.2.3. Parameter determination; 3.2.4. Sensitivity analysis; 3.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 3.3. Results and Discussion; 3.3.1. Simulation of seasonal variations; 3.3.2. Transfer fluxes
  • 3.3.3. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters3.3.4. Uncertainty analysis of the model simulation; 3.4. Conclusion; References; Chapter 4: Eco-Risk Assessments for Toxic Contaminants Based on Species Sensitivity Distribution Models in Lake Chaohu, China; 4.1. Introduction; 4.1.1. Ecological risk assessments; 4.1.2. Organochlorine pesticides; 4.1.3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; 4.1.4. The study site of Lake Chaohu; 4.2. Materials and Methods; 4.2.1. Measurements of OCPs and PAHs; 4.2.1.1. Measurement of OCPs in the water; 4.2.1.2. Measurement of PAHs in the water
  • 4.2.2. Ecological risk assessments by SSD and PRA4.2.2.1. General procedures of the SSD and PRA methods; 4.2.2.2. Collecting toxicity data; 4.2.2.3. Fitting the distribution of toxicity and exposure data; 4.2.2.4. Ecological risk assessment based on multiple risk indices; 4.2.2.5. Uncertainty analysis; 4.3. Eco-Risk Assessments for OCPs in Lake Chaohu; 4.3.1. The residues of OCPs in the water (Liu et al., 2012); 4.3.2. The spatial and temporal distribution of OCPs in the water; 4.3.3. Eco-risk assessments for OCPs; 4.4. Eco-Risk Assessments for PAHs in Lake Chaohu
  • 4.4.1. The residues of PAHs in the water (Qin et al., 2013)4.4.2. Site-specific ecological risk of PAHs based on the SSD method; 4.4.3. Probability of ecological risk of PAHs based on the PRA method; 4.4.4. Uncertainty analysis; 4.4.5. Discussion; References; Chapter 5: Addressing the Uncertainty in Modeling Watershed Nonpoint Source Pollution; 5.1. Introduction to the Issue; 5.1.1. Current status of nonpoint source pollution; 5.1.2. Management efforts; 5.1.3. Existing models; 5.1.4. Modeling for decision support; 5.2. Uncertainty in Modeling NPS Pollution: State of the Art
Ecological modelling has developed rapidly in recent decades, with the focus primarily on the restoration of lakes and wetlands. Ecological Modelling and Engineering in Lakes and Wetlands presents the progress being made in modelling for a wealth of applications. It covers the older biogeochemical models still in use today, structurally dynamic models, 3D models, biophysical models, entire watershed models, and ecotoxicological models, as well as the expansion of modeling to the Arctic and Antarctic climate-zones. The book also addresses modelling the effect of climate change,
Book
66 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies...
Book
20x27 cm.
  • Avant-propos 2 Introduction 5 1. Panorama actuel de l’énergie nucléaire 9 2. Principes fondamentaux de l’énergie nucléaire 13 -Fission nucléaire 13 -Composants essentiels d’un réacteur nucléaire 16 -Filières de réacteurs 17 -Fusion nucléaire 20 3. Le cycle du combustible nucléaire 23 -Début du cycle 24 -Fin du cycle 27 -Déclassement 29 4. Gestion des déchets radioactifs 31 -Catégories de déchets radioactifs 31 -Principes de gestion des déchets radioactifs 33 -Pratiques de gestion des déchets radioactifs 34 -Stockage final des déchets à vie longue dans des formations géologiques 35 -Transport 38 -Considérations sociales et politiques 39 5. Sûreté nucléaire 41 -Éléments fondamentaux de la sûreté nucléaire 41 -Expérience d’exploitation 47 -Impact de la déréglementation des marchés sur la sûreté nucléaire 48 -Sûreté des réacteurs du futur 49 6. Radioprotection 51 -Fondements scientifiques et médicaux 51 -Le système de radioprotection et ses fondements réglementaires 57 -Intervention en cas d’accident 59 -Retour à la normale après un accident 60 7. L’économie de l’énergie nucléaire 63 -Coûts, risques et responsabilités 63 -Aspects concurrentiels 65 8. Le droit nucléaire international et la non-prolifération 69 -Droit nucléaire international 69 -Non-prolifération 74 9. Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 77 -Demande d’énergie 77 -Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 78 10. Avenir de l’énergie nucléaire 85 -Autres applications de l’énergie nucléaire 86 -Recherche et développement 89 Conclusions 93 Glossaire 95 Pour compléter votre information 109 Listes des figures, tableaux et crédits photographiques 116
Le présent ouvrage aborde les grandes questions d’actualité sur l’énergie nucléaire à travers une présentation factuelle bien étayée. Il s’adresse d’abord aux responsables politiques, mais il intéressera aussi les dirigeants d’entreprise, les universitaires, les journalistes et le grand public. Après un bref historique au premier chapitre, l’ouvrage passe en revue les questions essentielles qui jouent un rôle important dans le débat actuel sur l’énergie nucléaire. Les chapitres 2 et 3 exposent les principes fondamentaux et les technologies de base de la filière nucléaire. Les chapitres 4 à 8 présentent les faits et les interrogations concernant la gestion des déchets radioactifs, la sûreté nucléaire, la radioprotection, l’économie, le droit international et la non-prolifération. Le chapitre 9 examine l’énergie nucléaire dans le contexte du développement durable. Le dernier chapitre, tourné vers l’avenir, s’intéresse au potentiel des nouvelles technologies nucléaires.
  • Avant-propos 2 Introduction 5 1. Panorama actuel de l’énergie nucléaire 9 2. Principes fondamentaux de l’énergie nucléaire 13 -Fission nucléaire 13 -Composants essentiels d’un réacteur nucléaire 16 -Filières de réacteurs 17 -Fusion nucléaire 20 3. Le cycle du combustible nucléaire 23 -Début du cycle 24 -Fin du cycle 27 -Déclassement 29 4. Gestion des déchets radioactifs 31 -Catégories de déchets radioactifs 31 -Principes de gestion des déchets radioactifs 33 -Pratiques de gestion des déchets radioactifs 34 -Stockage final des déchets à vie longue dans des formations géologiques 35 -Transport 38 -Considérations sociales et politiques 39 5. Sûreté nucléaire 41 -Éléments fondamentaux de la sûreté nucléaire 41 -Expérience d’exploitation 47 -Impact de la déréglementation des marchés sur la sûreté nucléaire 48 -Sûreté des réacteurs du futur 49 6. Radioprotection 51 -Fondements scientifiques et médicaux 51 -Le système de radioprotection et ses fondements réglementaires 57 -Intervention en cas d’accident 59 -Retour à la normale après un accident 60 7. L’économie de l’énergie nucléaire 63 -Coûts, risques et responsabilités 63 -Aspects concurrentiels 65 8. Le droit nucléaire international et la non-prolifération 69 -Droit nucléaire international 69 -Non-prolifération 74 9. Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 77 -Demande d’énergie 77 -Énergie nucléaire et développement durable 78 10. Avenir de l’énergie nucléaire 85 -Autres applications de l’énergie nucléaire 86 -Recherche et développement 89 Conclusions 93 Glossaire 95 Pour compléter votre information 109 Listes des figures, tableaux et crédits photographiques 116
Le présent ouvrage aborde les grandes questions d’actualité sur l’énergie nucléaire à travers une présentation factuelle bien étayée. Il s’adresse d’abord aux responsables politiques, mais il intéressera aussi les dirigeants d’entreprise, les universitaires, les journalistes et le grand public. Après un bref historique au premier chapitre, l’ouvrage passe en revue les questions essentielles qui jouent un rôle important dans le débat actuel sur l’énergie nucléaire. Les chapitres 2 et 3 exposent les principes fondamentaux et les technologies de base de la filière nucléaire. Les chapitres 4 à 8 présentent les faits et les interrogations concernant la gestion des déchets radioactifs, la sûreté nucléaire, la radioprotection, l’économie, le droit international et la non-prolifération. Le chapitre 9 examine l’énergie nucléaire dans le contexte du développement durable. Le dernier chapitre, tourné vers l’avenir, s’intéresse au potentiel des nouvelles technologies nucléaires.
Book
30 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This report examines trends in the use of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements and identifies factors which may explain the presence or absence of these provisions. The report builds on work of the OECD Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) and includes results of an informal survey of delegates. Analysis of the environmental provisions in RTAs reveals an encouraging upward trend. While basic provisions remain the most common types found in RTAs, the incidence of more substantive provisions has increased significantly in recent years. Among these, environmental co-operation has been the most common type. Several factors may have contributed to this evolution. These include countries extending their political mandates for RTAs, for example to include provisions for compliance with multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), as well as a general accumulation of experience with the use of environmental provisions.
This report examines trends in the use of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements and identifies factors which may explain the presence or absence of these provisions. The report builds on work of the OECD Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (JWPTE) and includes results of an informal survey of delegates. Analysis of the environmental provisions in RTAs reveals an encouraging upward trend. While basic provisions remain the most common types found in RTAs, the incidence of more substantive provisions has increased significantly in recent years. Among these, environmental co-operation has been the most common type. Several factors may have contributed to this evolution. These include countries extending their political mandates for RTAs, for example to include provisions for compliance with multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), as well as a general accumulation of experience with the use of environmental provisions.
Book
51 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
This paper builds upon a recent OECD paper on the personal tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses in OECD member-countries and aims to arrive at a better understanding of the environmental and related social costs of the tax treatment described therein. The paper begins with an analysis of the larger transport market, which is the primary storehouse of evidence on the nature and extent of the environmental impacts of the various transport modes, the relative importance of the proximate and underlying determinants of these impacts, and the elasticities and functional relationships at work. Non-linearities in the relevant elasticities and functional relationships mean that the tax treatment of company cars may have a greater or lesser impact than is suggested by the size of the company car market. And distortions in relative prices between competing modes in the larger transport market mean that subsidies can have very different impacts depending on the mode in question. The further analysis of the interaction of the current tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses with the transport market yields several findings. The current under-taxation of company cars is likely to result in a disproportionately large increase in total distance driven, composed of both an increase in the number of cars in use and an increase in distance driven per car. In turn, this is likely to result in disproportionately large impacts on most relevant environmental and related social costs. And a favourable tax treatment of commuting expenses generally, and of employer-paid parking in particular, is likely to impact on the choice of transport mode in favour of the car relative to public transport and non-motorised modes. In turn, this is likely to impact on most relevant environmental and related social costs. An Annex to this paper provides, for the OECD group of countries as a whole, some indicative estimates of the main relevant impacts of the under-taxation of company cars as well as an indicative estimate of its overall social cost. The largest quantified cost elements are additional congestion costs; additional local air pollution costs; and additional traffic accident costs. The overall social cost attributable to the current under-taxation of company cars is estimated at circa EUR 116 billion per year.
This paper builds upon a recent OECD paper on the personal tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses in OECD member-countries and aims to arrive at a better understanding of the environmental and related social costs of the tax treatment described therein. The paper begins with an analysis of the larger transport market, which is the primary storehouse of evidence on the nature and extent of the environmental impacts of the various transport modes, the relative importance of the proximate and underlying determinants of these impacts, and the elasticities and functional relationships at work. Non-linearities in the relevant elasticities and functional relationships mean that the tax treatment of company cars may have a greater or lesser impact than is suggested by the size of the company car market. And distortions in relative prices between competing modes in the larger transport market mean that subsidies can have very different impacts depending on the mode in question. The further analysis of the interaction of the current tax treatment of company cars and commuting expenses with the transport market yields several findings. The current under-taxation of company cars is likely to result in a disproportionately large increase in total distance driven, composed of both an increase in the number of cars in use and an increase in distance driven per car. In turn, this is likely to result in disproportionately large impacts on most relevant environmental and related social costs. And a favourable tax treatment of commuting expenses generally, and of employer-paid parking in particular, is likely to impact on the choice of transport mode in favour of the car relative to public transport and non-motorised modes. In turn, this is likely to impact on most relevant environmental and related social costs. An Annex to this paper provides, for the OECD group of countries as a whole, some indicative estimates of the main relevant impacts of the under-taxation of company cars as well as an indicative estimate of its overall social cost. The largest quantified cost elements are additional congestion costs; additional local air pollution costs; and additional traffic accident costs. The overall social cost attributable to the current under-taxation of company cars is estimated at circa EUR 116 billion per year.
Book
43 p. ; 21 x 29.7 cm.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment.
Book
p. ; cm.
Cette Ligne Directrice vise à évaluer la toxicité des produits chimiques sur le développement des plantes aquatiques submergées Myriophyllum spicatum cultivées dans un milieu sans sédiment. Dans le milieu d’Andrew modifié les  cultures de Myriophyllum spicatum sont exposées à au moins 5 concentrations différentes du produit chimique d’essai pendant 14 jours. On utilise minimum de 10 réplicats pour les témoins et 5 réplicats pour chaque solution d’essai. Les variables mesurées sont : la croissance de la longueur de la tige, des branches latérales et des racines, l’évolution du poids frais et sec, et l’augmentation du nombre de verticilles. On détermine le taux de croissance spécifique (r) et le rendement (y), qui sont ensuite utilisés pour obtenir la CxEr et la CxEy (x pouvant être par exemple 10, 20, 50). De plus, la concentration minimale avec effet observé (CMEO) et la concentration sans effet observé (CSEO) peuvent être déterminé par calcul statistique.
Cette Ligne Directrice vise à évaluer la toxicité des produits chimiques sur le développement des plantes aquatiques submergées Myriophyllum spicatum cultivées dans un milieu sans sédiment. Dans le milieu d’Andrew modifié les  cultures de Myriophyllum spicatum sont exposées à au moins 5 concentrations différentes du produit chimique d’essai pendant 14 jours. On utilise minimum de 10 réplicats pour les témoins et 5 réplicats pour chaque solution d’essai. Les variables mesurées sont : la croissance de la longueur de la tige, des branches latérales et des racines, l’évolution du poids frais et sec, et l’augmentation du nombre de verticilles. On détermine le taux de croissance spécifique (r) et le rendement (y), qui sont ensuite utilisés pour obtenir la CxEr et la CxEy (x pouvant être par exemple 10, 20, 50). De plus, la concentration minimale avec effet observé (CMEO) et la concentration sans effet observé (CSEO) peuvent être déterminé par calcul statistique.
Book
p. ; cm.
Cette ligne directrice vise à évaluer la toxicité des produits chimiques sur le développement des plantes aquatiques à racines (Myriophyllum spicatum) cultivées dans un système eau-sédiment. L’apex d’individus sains et sans fleur sont mis en pot dans un sédiment synthétique normalisé complété par des nutriments et soumis à au moins 5 concentrations différentes du produit chimique d’essai pendant une période de 14 jours. On utilise au minimum 6 réplicats pour les témoins et 4 réplicats pour chaque concentration d’essai. Les variables quantitatives mesurées sont la longueur de la tige et l’évolution du poids frais et sec, et les variables mesurées qualitatives sont la présence ou non de chlorose, et la nécrose ou les anomalies de croissance. On détermine le taux de croissance spécifique (r) et le rendement (y), qui sont ensuite utilisés pour obtenir la CxEr et la CxEy (x pouvant être par exemple 10, 20, 50). De plus, la concentration minimale avec effet observé (CMEO) et la concentration sans effet observé (CSEO) peuvent être déterminées par calcul statistique.
Cette ligne directrice vise à évaluer la toxicité des produits chimiques sur le développement des plantes aquatiques à racines (Myriophyllum spicatum) cultivées dans un système eau-sédiment. L’apex d’individus sains et sans fleur sont mis en pot dans un sédiment synthétique normalisé complété par des nutriments et soumis à au moins 5 concentrations différentes du produit chimique d’essai pendant une période de 14 jours. On utilise au minimum 6 réplicats pour les témoins et 4 réplicats pour chaque concentration d’essai. Les variables quantitatives mesurées sont la longueur de la tige et l’évolution du poids frais et sec, et les variables mesurées qualitatives sont la présence ou non de chlorose, et la nécrose ou les anomalies de croissance. On détermine le taux de croissance spécifique (r) et le rendement (y), qui sont ensuite utilisés pour obtenir la CxEr et la CxEy (x pouvant être par exemple 10, 20, 50). De plus, la concentration minimale avec effet observé (CMEO) et la concentration sans effet observé (CSEO) peuvent être déterminées par calcul statistique.