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This page provides data and code to document the referenced paper, which examines four methods by which ground motions can be selected for dynamic seismic response analyses of engineered systems when the underlying seismic hazard is quantified via ground motion simulation rather than empirical ground motion prediction equations. Even with simulation-based seismic hazard, a ground motion selection process is still required in order to extract a small number of time series from the much larger set developed as part of the hazard calculation. Four specific methods are presented for ground motion selection from simulation-based seismic hazard analyses. One of the four methods provides a ‘benchmark’ result (i.e. using all simulated ground motions), enabling the consistency of the other three more efficient selection methods to be addressed.
This page provides data and code to document the referenced paper, which examines four methods by which ground motions can be selected for dynamic seismic response analyses of engineered systems when the underlying seismic hazard is quantified via ground motion simulation rather than empirical ground motion prediction equations. Even with simulation-based seismic hazard, a ground motion selection process is still required in order to extract a small number of time series from the much larger set developed as part of the hazard calculation. Four specific methods are presented for ground motion selection from simulation-based seismic hazard analyses. One of the four methods provides a ‘benchmark’ result (i.e. using all simulated ground motions), enabling the consistency of the other three more efficient selection methods to be addressed.
Book
xx, 467 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
  • Overview of surface wave methods Seismic waves Test methodology Historical perspective Challenges of surface wave methods Typical applications Advantages and limitations Linear wave propagation in verticallyinhomogeneous continua Basic notions of wave propagation Rayleigh waves in homogeneous elastic half-spaces Existence of Love waves Surface waves in vertically inhomogeneouselastic continua Surface waves in vertically inhomogeneous, inelastic continua Measurement of surface waves Seismic data acquisition The wave field as a signal in time and space Acquisition of digital seismic signals Acquisition of surface waves Equipment Dispersion analysis Phase and group velocity Steady-state method Spectral analysis of surface waves Multi-offset phase analysis Spatial autocorrelation Transform-based methods Group velocity analysis Errors and uncertainties in dispersion analyses Attenuation analysis Attenuation of surface waves Univariate regression of amplitude versus offset data Transfer function technique and complex wavenumbers Multichannel multimode complex wavenumber estimation Other simplified approaches Uncertainty in the attenuation measurement Inversion Conceptual issues Forward modeling Surface wave inversion by empirical methods Surface wave inversion by analytical methods Uncertainty Case histories Comparison among processing techniques with active-source methods Comparison among inversion strategies Examples for determining Vs and Ds profiles Dealing with higher modes Surface wave inversion of seismic reflection data Advanced surface wave methods Love waves Offshore and nearshore surface wave testing Joint inversion with other geophysical data Passive seismic interferometry Multicomponent surface wave analysis, polarization studies, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio References Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Develop a Greater Understanding of How and Why Surface Wave Testing Works Using examples and case studies directly drawn from the authors' experience, Surface Wave Methods for Near-Surface Site Characterization addresses both the experimental and theoretical aspects of surface wave propagation in both forward and inverse modeling. This book accents the key facets associated with surface wave testing for near-surface site characterization. It clearly outlines the basic principles, the theoretical framework and the practical implementation of surface wave analysis. In addition, it also describes in detail the equipment and measuring devices, acquisition techniques, signal processing, forward and inverse modeling theories, and testing protocols that form the basis of modern surface wave techniques. Review Examples of Typical Applications for This Geophysical Technique Divided into eight chapters, the book explains surface wave testing principles from data measurement to interpretation. It effectively integrates several examples and case studies illustrating how different ground conditions and geological settings may influence the interpretation of data measurements. The authors accurately describe each phase of testing in addition to the guidelines for correctly performing and interpreting results. They present variants of the test within a consistent framework to facilitate comparisons, and include an in-depth discussion of the uncertainties arising at each stage of surface wave testing. * Provides a comprehensive and in-depth treatment of all the steps involved in surface wave testing * Discusses surface wave methods and their applications in various geotechnical conditions and geological settings * Explains how surface wave measurements can be used to estimate both stiffness and dissipative properties of the ground * Addresses the issue of uncertainty, which is often an overlooked problem in surface wave testing * Includes examples with comparative analysis using different processing techniques and inversion algorithms * Outlines advanced applications of surface wave testing such as joint inversion, underwater investigation, and Love wave analysis Written for geotechnical engineers, engineering seismologists, geophysicists, and researchers, Surface Wave Methods for Near-Surface Site Characterization offers practical guidance, and presents a thorough understanding of the basic concepts.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Overview of surface wave methods Seismic waves Test methodology Historical perspective Challenges of surface wave methods Typical applications Advantages and limitations Linear wave propagation in verticallyinhomogeneous continua Basic notions of wave propagation Rayleigh waves in homogeneous elastic half-spaces Existence of Love waves Surface waves in vertically inhomogeneouselastic continua Surface waves in vertically inhomogeneous, inelastic continua Measurement of surface waves Seismic data acquisition The wave field as a signal in time and space Acquisition of digital seismic signals Acquisition of surface waves Equipment Dispersion analysis Phase and group velocity Steady-state method Spectral analysis of surface waves Multi-offset phase analysis Spatial autocorrelation Transform-based methods Group velocity analysis Errors and uncertainties in dispersion analyses Attenuation analysis Attenuation of surface waves Univariate regression of amplitude versus offset data Transfer function technique and complex wavenumbers Multichannel multimode complex wavenumber estimation Other simplified approaches Uncertainty in the attenuation measurement Inversion Conceptual issues Forward modeling Surface wave inversion by empirical methods Surface wave inversion by analytical methods Uncertainty Case histories Comparison among processing techniques with active-source methods Comparison among inversion strategies Examples for determining Vs and Ds profiles Dealing with higher modes Surface wave inversion of seismic reflection data Advanced surface wave methods Love waves Offshore and nearshore surface wave testing Joint inversion with other geophysical data Passive seismic interferometry Multicomponent surface wave analysis, polarization studies, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio References Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Develop a Greater Understanding of How and Why Surface Wave Testing Works Using examples and case studies directly drawn from the authors' experience, Surface Wave Methods for Near-Surface Site Characterization addresses both the experimental and theoretical aspects of surface wave propagation in both forward and inverse modeling. This book accents the key facets associated with surface wave testing for near-surface site characterization. It clearly outlines the basic principles, the theoretical framework and the practical implementation of surface wave analysis. In addition, it also describes in detail the equipment and measuring devices, acquisition techniques, signal processing, forward and inverse modeling theories, and testing protocols that form the basis of modern surface wave techniques. Review Examples of Typical Applications for This Geophysical Technique Divided into eight chapters, the book explains surface wave testing principles from data measurement to interpretation. It effectively integrates several examples and case studies illustrating how different ground conditions and geological settings may influence the interpretation of data measurements. The authors accurately describe each phase of testing in addition to the guidelines for correctly performing and interpreting results. They present variants of the test within a consistent framework to facilitate comparisons, and include an in-depth discussion of the uncertainties arising at each stage of surface wave testing. * Provides a comprehensive and in-depth treatment of all the steps involved in surface wave testing * Discusses surface wave methods and their applications in various geotechnical conditions and geological settings * Explains how surface wave measurements can be used to estimate both stiffness and dissipative properties of the ground * Addresses the issue of uncertainty, which is often an overlooked problem in surface wave testing * Includes examples with comparative analysis using different processing techniques and inversion algorithms * Outlines advanced applications of surface wave testing such as joint inversion, underwater investigation, and Love wave analysis Written for geotechnical engineers, engineering seismologists, geophysicists, and researchers, Surface Wave Methods for Near-Surface Site Characterization offers practical guidance, and presents a thorough understanding of the basic concepts.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Status of items at Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner) Status
Stacks
QE538.5 .F68 2015 Unknown
Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF
  • Introduction General List of symbols Types of steel-concrete composite bridges General Composite bridges: The concept Highway bridges Railway bridges Construction forms Erection methods Concreting sequence Execution Innovation in composite bridge engineering References Design codes Eurocodes National annexes References Actions Classification of actions Traffic loads on road bridges Actions for accidental design situations Actions on pedestrian parapets and railings Load models for abutments and walls in contact with earth Traffic loads on railway bridges Temperature Wind Earthquake References Basis of design General Limit state design Ultimate limit state (ULS) Serviceability limit state (SLS) Safety factors of resistances Durability References Structural materials Concrete Structural steel Reinforcing steel Prestressing steel Bolts Stud shear connectors References Modeling and methods for global analysis Global analysis models Effective width of wide flanges due to shear lag Cross-sectional properties Effects of the rheological behavior of concrete on structural systems Models for slab analysis and design in transverse direction Finite element models for global analysis References Buckling of plated elements Introduction Elastic critical stress Strength of plates Design by the reduced stress method Effective width method Member verification for axial compression and bending Resistance to shear Resistance to concentrated transverse forces Interaction Flange-induced buckling Design of stiffeners and detailing References Ultimate limit states Classification of cross sections Resistance to tension: Allowance for fastener holes in bending capacity Resistance of steel members and cross sections to compression Resistance to shear due to vertical shear and torsion Resistance to bending of steel cross sections Interaction of bending with shear for steel cross sections Class 1 and 2 cross sections Cross sections with class 3 webs that may be treated as class 2 sections (hole-in-web method) Class 3 cross sections Class 4 cross sections that are treated as class 3 cross sections Class 4 cross sections Class 4 cross sections composed of the flanges Lateral torsional buckling Design of the concrete deck slab References Serviceability limit states Introduction Stress analysis and limitations Cracking of concrete Web breathing Deflections Vibrations References Fatigue General Fatigue resistance to constant amplitude loading Fatigue resistance to variable amplitude loading Detail categories Fatigue load models and simplified fatigue analysis Fatigue verification for structural steel Fatigue verification for headed studs Fatigue verification for reinforcing steel Fatigue verification for concrete Possibilities of omitting fatigue assessment Residual stresses and postweld treatment References Shear connection Introduction Resistance and detailing of headed stud shear connectors Longitudinal shear for elastic behavior Longitudinal shear for inelastic behavior Longitudinal shear due to concentrated forces Longitudinal shear in concrete slabs Shear connection of composite closed box bridges References Structural bearings, dampers, and expansion joints General Reinforced elastomeric bearings Spherical bearings Pot bearings Seismic isolation Anchorage of bearings Calculation of movements and support reactions Bearing schedules, support plans, and installation drawings Fluid viscous dampers Friction devices Expansion joints References Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Combining a theoretical background with engineering practice, Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes covers the conceptual and detailed design of composite bridges in accordance with the Eurocodes. Bridge design is strongly based on prescriptive normative rules regarding loads and their combinations, safety factors, material properties, analysis methods, required verifications, and other issues that are included in the codes. Composite bridges may be designed in accordance with the Eurocodes, which have recently been adopted across the European Union. This book centers on the new design rules incorporated in the EN-versions of the Eurocodes. The book addresses the design for a majority of composite bridge superstructures and guides readers through the selection of appropriate structural bridge systems. It introduces the loads on bridges and their combinations, proposes software supported analysis models, and outlines the required verifications for sections and members at ultimate and serviceability limit states, including fatigue and plate buckling, as well as seismic design of the deck and the bearings. It presents the main types of common composite bridges, discusses structural forms and systems, and describes preliminary design aids and erection methods. It provides information on railway bridges, but through the design examples makes road bridges the focal point. This text includes several design examples within the chapters, explores the structural details, summarizes the relevant design codes, discusses durability issues, presents the properties for structural materials, concentrates on modeling for global analysis, and lays down the rules for the shear connection. It presents fatigue analysis and design, fatigue load models, detail categories, and fatigue verifications for structural steel, reinforcement, concrete, and shear connectors. It also covers structural bearings and dampers, with an emphasis on reinforced elastomeric bearings. The book is appropriate for structural engineering students, bridge designers or practicing engineers converting from other codes to Eurocodes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Introduction General List of symbols Types of steel-concrete composite bridges General Composite bridges: The concept Highway bridges Railway bridges Construction forms Erection methods Concreting sequence Execution Innovation in composite bridge engineering References Design codes Eurocodes National annexes References Actions Classification of actions Traffic loads on road bridges Actions for accidental design situations Actions on pedestrian parapets and railings Load models for abutments and walls in contact with earth Traffic loads on railway bridges Temperature Wind Earthquake References Basis of design General Limit state design Ultimate limit state (ULS) Serviceability limit state (SLS) Safety factors of resistances Durability References Structural materials Concrete Structural steel Reinforcing steel Prestressing steel Bolts Stud shear connectors References Modeling and methods for global analysis Global analysis models Effective width of wide flanges due to shear lag Cross-sectional properties Effects of the rheological behavior of concrete on structural systems Models for slab analysis and design in transverse direction Finite element models for global analysis References Buckling of plated elements Introduction Elastic critical stress Strength of plates Design by the reduced stress method Effective width method Member verification for axial compression and bending Resistance to shear Resistance to concentrated transverse forces Interaction Flange-induced buckling Design of stiffeners and detailing References Ultimate limit states Classification of cross sections Resistance to tension: Allowance for fastener holes in bending capacity Resistance of steel members and cross sections to compression Resistance to shear due to vertical shear and torsion Resistance to bending of steel cross sections Interaction of bending with shear for steel cross sections Class 1 and 2 cross sections Cross sections with class 3 webs that may be treated as class 2 sections (hole-in-web method) Class 3 cross sections Class 4 cross sections that are treated as class 3 cross sections Class 4 cross sections Class 4 cross sections composed of the flanges Lateral torsional buckling Design of the concrete deck slab References Serviceability limit states Introduction Stress analysis and limitations Cracking of concrete Web breathing Deflections Vibrations References Fatigue General Fatigue resistance to constant amplitude loading Fatigue resistance to variable amplitude loading Detail categories Fatigue load models and simplified fatigue analysis Fatigue verification for structural steel Fatigue verification for headed studs Fatigue verification for reinforcing steel Fatigue verification for concrete Possibilities of omitting fatigue assessment Residual stresses and postweld treatment References Shear connection Introduction Resistance and detailing of headed stud shear connectors Longitudinal shear for elastic behavior Longitudinal shear for inelastic behavior Longitudinal shear due to concentrated forces Longitudinal shear in concrete slabs Shear connection of composite closed box bridges References Structural bearings, dampers, and expansion joints General Reinforced elastomeric bearings Spherical bearings Pot bearings Seismic isolation Anchorage of bearings Calculation of movements and support reactions Bearing schedules, support plans, and installation drawings Fluid viscous dampers Friction devices Expansion joints References Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Combining a theoretical background with engineering practice, Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes covers the conceptual and detailed design of composite bridges in accordance with the Eurocodes. Bridge design is strongly based on prescriptive normative rules regarding loads and their combinations, safety factors, material properties, analysis methods, required verifications, and other issues that are included in the codes. Composite bridges may be designed in accordance with the Eurocodes, which have recently been adopted across the European Union. This book centers on the new design rules incorporated in the EN-versions of the Eurocodes. The book addresses the design for a majority of composite bridge superstructures and guides readers through the selection of appropriate structural bridge systems. It introduces the loads on bridges and their combinations, proposes software supported analysis models, and outlines the required verifications for sections and members at ultimate and serviceability limit states, including fatigue and plate buckling, as well as seismic design of the deck and the bearings. It presents the main types of common composite bridges, discusses structural forms and systems, and describes preliminary design aids and erection methods. It provides information on railway bridges, but through the design examples makes road bridges the focal point. This text includes several design examples within the chapters, explores the structural details, summarizes the relevant design codes, discusses durability issues, presents the properties for structural materials, concentrates on modeling for global analysis, and lays down the rules for the shear connection. It presents fatigue analysis and design, fatigue load models, detail categories, and fatigue verifications for structural steel, reinforcement, concrete, and shear connectors. It also covers structural bearings and dampers, with an emphasis on reinforced elastomeric bearings. The book is appropriate for structural engineering students, bridge designers or practicing engineers converting from other codes to Eurocodes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource (307 pages) : illustrations (some color), tables, maps.
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii List of Abbreviations xix List of Mathematical Symbols xxi PART I MODELS 1 1 Motivation: Earthquake science challenges 3 2 Seismological background 6 2.1 Earthquakes 6 2.2 Earthquake catalogs 8 2.3 Description of modern earthquake catalogs 11 2.4 Earthquake temporal occurrence: quasi-periodic, Poisson, or clustered? 14 2.5 Earthquake faults: one fault, several faults, or an infinite number of faults? 16 2.6 Statistical and physical models of seismicity 18 2.7 Laboratory and theoretical studies of fracture 19 3 Stochastic processes and earthquake occurrence models 21 3.1 Earthquake clustering and branching processes 21 3.2 Several problems and challenges 24 3.3 Critical continuum-state branching model of earthquake rupture 26 PART II STATISTICS 31 4 Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: Consequence of branching process 33 4.1 Theoretical considerations 34 4.2 Observed earthquake numbers distribution 43 5 Earthquake size distribution 54 5.1 Magnitude versus seismic moment 54 5.2 Seismic moment distribution 56 5.3 Is 1&uml--M2? 60 5.4 Seismic moment sum distribution 80 5.5 Length of aftershock zone (earthquake spatial scaling) 86 5.6 Maximum or corner magnitude: 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquakes 90 6 Temporal earthquake distribution 96 6.1 Omori s law 96 6.2 Seismic moment release in earthquakes and aftershocks 97 6.3 Random shear stress and Omori s law 107 6.4 Aftershock temporal distribution, theoretical analysis 110 6.5 Temporal distribution of aftershocks: Observations 116 6.6 Example: The New Madrid earthquake sequence of 1811 12 121 6.7 Conclusion 123 7 Earthquake location distribution 125 7.1 Multipoint spatial statistical moments 125 7.2 Sources of error and bias in estimating the correlation dimension 127 7.3 Correlation dimension for earthquake catalogs 141 7.4 Conclusion 145 8 Focal mechanism orientation and source complexity 146 8.1 Random stress tensor and seismic moment tensor 147 8.2 Geometric complexity of earthquake focal zone and fault systems 150 8.3 Rotation of double-couple (DC) earthquake moment tensor and quaternions 154 8.4 Focal mechanism symmetry 159 8.5 Earthquake focal mechanism and crystallographic texture statistics 163 8.6 Rotation angle distributions 167 8.7 Focal mechanisms statistics 170 8.8 Models for complex earthquake sources 177 PART III TESTABLE FORECASTS 183 9 Global earthquake patterns 185 9.1 Earthquake time-space patterns 185 9.2 Defining global tectonic zones 187 9.3 Corner magnitudes in the tectonic zones 188 9.4 Critical branching model (CBM) of earthquake occurrence 190 9.5 Likelihood analysis of catalogs 197 9.6 Results of the catalogs statistical analysis 204 10 Long- and short-term earthquake forecasting 206 10.1 Phenomenological branching models and earthquake occurrence estimation 206 10.2 Long-term rate density estimates 207 10.3 Short-term forecasts 215 10.4 Example: earthquake forecasts during the Tohoku sequence 218 10.5 Forecast results and their discussion 224 10.6 Earthquake fault propagation modeling and earthquake rate estimation 226 11 Testing long-term earthquake forecasts: Likelihood methods and error diagrams 229 11.1 Preamble 229 11.2 Log-likelihood and information score 230 11.3 Error diagram (ED) 235 11.4 Tests and optimization for global high-resolution forecasts 247 11.5 Summary of testing results 250 12 Future prospects and problems 253 12.1 Community efforts for statistical seismicity analysis and earthquake forecast testing 253 12.2 Results and challenges 254 12.3 Future developments 256 References 260 Index 281.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii List of Abbreviations xix List of Mathematical Symbols xxi PART I MODELS 1 1 Motivation: Earthquake science challenges 3 2 Seismological background 6 2.1 Earthquakes 6 2.2 Earthquake catalogs 8 2.3 Description of modern earthquake catalogs 11 2.4 Earthquake temporal occurrence: quasi-periodic, Poisson, or clustered? 14 2.5 Earthquake faults: one fault, several faults, or an infinite number of faults? 16 2.6 Statistical and physical models of seismicity 18 2.7 Laboratory and theoretical studies of fracture 19 3 Stochastic processes and earthquake occurrence models 21 3.1 Earthquake clustering and branching processes 21 3.2 Several problems and challenges 24 3.3 Critical continuum-state branching model of earthquake rupture 26 PART II STATISTICS 31 4 Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: Consequence of branching process 33 4.1 Theoretical considerations 34 4.2 Observed earthquake numbers distribution 43 5 Earthquake size distribution 54 5.1 Magnitude versus seismic moment 54 5.2 Seismic moment distribution 56 5.3 Is 1&uml--M2? 60 5.4 Seismic moment sum distribution 80 5.5 Length of aftershock zone (earthquake spatial scaling) 86 5.6 Maximum or corner magnitude: 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquakes 90 6 Temporal earthquake distribution 96 6.1 Omori s law 96 6.2 Seismic moment release in earthquakes and aftershocks 97 6.3 Random shear stress and Omori s law 107 6.4 Aftershock temporal distribution, theoretical analysis 110 6.5 Temporal distribution of aftershocks: Observations 116 6.6 Example: The New Madrid earthquake sequence of 1811 12 121 6.7 Conclusion 123 7 Earthquake location distribution 125 7.1 Multipoint spatial statistical moments 125 7.2 Sources of error and bias in estimating the correlation dimension 127 7.3 Correlation dimension for earthquake catalogs 141 7.4 Conclusion 145 8 Focal mechanism orientation and source complexity 146 8.1 Random stress tensor and seismic moment tensor 147 8.2 Geometric complexity of earthquake focal zone and fault systems 150 8.3 Rotation of double-couple (DC) earthquake moment tensor and quaternions 154 8.4 Focal mechanism symmetry 159 8.5 Earthquake focal mechanism and crystallographic texture statistics 163 8.6 Rotation angle distributions 167 8.7 Focal mechanisms statistics 170 8.8 Models for complex earthquake sources 177 PART III TESTABLE FORECASTS 183 9 Global earthquake patterns 185 9.1 Earthquake time-space patterns 185 9.2 Defining global tectonic zones 187 9.3 Corner magnitudes in the tectonic zones 188 9.4 Critical branching model (CBM) of earthquake occurrence 190 9.5 Likelihood analysis of catalogs 197 9.6 Results of the catalogs statistical analysis 204 10 Long- and short-term earthquake forecasting 206 10.1 Phenomenological branching models and earthquake occurrence estimation 206 10.2 Long-term rate density estimates 207 10.3 Short-term forecasts 215 10.4 Example: earthquake forecasts during the Tohoku sequence 218 10.5 Forecast results and their discussion 224 10.6 Earthquake fault propagation modeling and earthquake rate estimation 226 11 Testing long-term earthquake forecasts: Likelihood methods and error diagrams 229 11.1 Preamble 229 11.2 Log-likelihood and information score 230 11.3 Error diagram (ED) 235 11.4 Tests and optimization for global high-resolution forecasts 247 11.5 Summary of testing results 250 12 Future prospects and problems 253 12.1 Community efforts for statistical seismicity analysis and earthquake forecast testing 253 12.2 Results and challenges 254 12.3 Future developments 256 References 260 Index 281.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii List of Abbreviations xix List of Mathematical Symbols xxi PART I MODELS 1 1 Motivation: Earthquake science challenges 3 2 Seismological background 6 2.1 Earthquakes 6 2.2 Earthquake catalogs 8 2.3 Description of modern earthquake catalogs 11 2.4 Earthquake temporal occurrence: quasi-periodic, Poisson, or clustered? 14 2.5 Earthquake faults: one fault, several faults, or an infinite number of faults? 16 2.6 Statistical and physical models of seismicity 18 2.7 Laboratory and theoretical studies of fracture 19 3 Stochastic processes and earthquake occurrence models 21 3.1 Earthquake clustering and branching processes 21 3.2 Several problems and challenges 24 3.3 Critical continuum-state branching model of earthquake rupture 26 PART II STATISTICS 31 4 Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: Consequence of branching process 33 4.1 Theoretical considerations 34 4.2 Observed earthquake numbers distribution 43 5 Earthquake size distribution 54 5.1 Magnitude versus seismic moment 54 5.2 Seismic moment distribution 56 5.3 Is 1&uml--M2? 60 5.4 Seismic moment sum distribution 80 5.5 Length of aftershock zone (earthquake spatial scaling) 86 5.6 Maximum or corner magnitude: 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquakes 90 6 Temporal earthquake distribution 96 6.1 Omori s law 96 6.2 Seismic moment release in earthquakes and aftershocks 97 6.3 Random shear stress and Omori s law 107 6.4 Aftershock temporal distribution, theoretical analysis 110 6.5 Temporal distribution of aftershocks: Observations 116 6.6 Example: The New Madrid earthquake sequence of 1811 12 121 6.7 Conclusion 123 7 Earthquake location distribution 125 7.1 Multipoint spatial statistical moments 125 7.2 Sources of error and bias in estimating the correlation dimension 127 7.3 Correlation dimension for earthquake catalogs 141 7.4 Conclusion 145 8 Focal mechanism orientation and source complexity 146 8.1 Random stress tensor and seismic moment tensor 147 8.2 Geometric complexity of earthquake focal zone and fault systems 150 8.3 Rotation of double-couple (DC) earthquake moment tensor and quaternions 154 8.4 Focal mechanism symmetry 159 8.5 Earthquake focal mechanism and crystallographic texture statistics 163 8.6 Rotation angle distributions 167 8.7 Focal mechanisms statistics 170 8.8 Models for complex earthquake sources 177 PART III TESTABLE FORECASTS 183 9 Global earthquake patterns 185 9.1 Earthquake time-space patterns 185 9.2 Defining global tectonic zones 187 9.3 Corner magnitudes in the tectonic zones 188 9.4 Critical branching model (CBM) of earthquake occurrence 190 9.5 Likelihood analysis of catalogs 197 9.6 Results of the catalogs statistical analysis 204 10 Long- and short-term earthquake forecasting 206 10.1 Phenomenological branching models and earthquake occurrence estimation 206 10.2 Long-term rate density estimates 207 10.3 Short-term forecasts 215 10.4 Example: earthquake forecasts during the Tohoku sequence 218 10.5 Forecast results and their discussion 224 10.6 Earthquake fault propagation modeling and earthquake rate estimation 226 11 Testing long-term earthquake forecasts: Likelihood methods and error diagrams 229 11.1 Preamble 229 11.2 Log-likelihood and information score 230 11.3 Error diagram (ED) 235 11.4 Tests and optimization for global high-resolution forecasts 247 11.5 Summary of testing results 250 12 Future prospects and problems 253 12.1 Community efforts for statistical seismicity analysis and earthquake forecast testing 253 12.2 Results and challenges 254 12.3 Future developments 256 References 260 Index 281.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii List of Abbreviations xix List of Mathematical Symbols xxi PART I MODELS 1 1 Motivation: Earthquake science challenges 3 2 Seismological background 6 2.1 Earthquakes 6 2.2 Earthquake catalogs 8 2.3 Description of modern earthquake catalogs 11 2.4 Earthquake temporal occurrence: quasi-periodic, Poisson, or clustered? 14 2.5 Earthquake faults: one fault, several faults, or an infinite number of faults? 16 2.6 Statistical and physical models of seismicity 18 2.7 Laboratory and theoretical studies of fracture 19 3 Stochastic processes and earthquake occurrence models 21 3.1 Earthquake clustering and branching processes 21 3.2 Several problems and challenges 24 3.3 Critical continuum-state branching model of earthquake rupture 26 PART II STATISTICS 31 4 Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: Consequence of branching process 33 4.1 Theoretical considerations 34 4.2 Observed earthquake numbers distribution 43 5 Earthquake size distribution 54 5.1 Magnitude versus seismic moment 54 5.2 Seismic moment distribution 56 5.3 Is 1&uml--M2? 60 5.4 Seismic moment sum distribution 80 5.5 Length of aftershock zone (earthquake spatial scaling) 86 5.6 Maximum or corner magnitude: 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquakes 90 6 Temporal earthquake distribution 96 6.1 Omori s law 96 6.2 Seismic moment release in earthquakes and aftershocks 97 6.3 Random shear stress and Omori s law 107 6.4 Aftershock temporal distribution, theoretical analysis 110 6.5 Temporal distribution of aftershocks: Observations 116 6.6 Example: The New Madrid earthquake sequence of 1811 12 121 6.7 Conclusion 123 7 Earthquake location distribution 125 7.1 Multipoint spatial statistical moments 125 7.2 Sources of error and bias in estimating the correlation dimension 127 7.3 Correlation dimension for earthquake catalogs 141 7.4 Conclusion 145 8 Focal mechanism orientation and source complexity 146 8.1 Random stress tensor and seismic moment tensor 147 8.2 Geometric complexity of earthquake focal zone and fault systems 150 8.3 Rotation of double-couple (DC) earthquake moment tensor and quaternions 154 8.4 Focal mechanism symmetry 159 8.5 Earthquake focal mechanism and crystallographic texture statistics 163 8.6 Rotation angle distributions 167 8.7 Focal mechanisms statistics 170 8.8 Models for complex earthquake sources 177 PART III TESTABLE FORECASTS 183 9 Global earthquake patterns 185 9.1 Earthquake time-space patterns 185 9.2 Defining global tectonic zones 187 9.3 Corner magnitudes in the tectonic zones 188 9.4 Critical branching model (CBM) of earthquake occurrence 190 9.5 Likelihood analysis of catalogs 197 9.6 Results of the catalogs statistical analysis 204 10 Long- and short-term earthquake forecasting 206 10.1 Phenomenological branching models and earthquake occurrence estimation 206 10.2 Long-term rate density estimates 207 10.3 Short-term forecasts 215 10.4 Example: earthquake forecasts during the Tohoku sequence 218 10.5 Forecast results and their discussion 224 10.6 Earthquake fault propagation modeling and earthquake rate estimation 226 11 Testing long-term earthquake forecasts: Likelihood methods and error diagrams 229 11.1 Preamble 229 11.2 Log-likelihood and information score 230 11.3 Error diagram (ED) 235 11.4 Tests and optimization for global high-resolution forecasts 247 11.5 Summary of testing results 250 12 Future prospects and problems 253 12.1 Community efforts for statistical seismicity analysis and earthquake forecast testing 253 12.2 Results and challenges 254 12.3 Future developments 256 References 260 Index 281.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
Engineers use earthquake ground motions for a variety of reasons, including seismic hazard assessment, calibration of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), and input to nonlinear response history analysis. These analyses require a significant number of ground motions and for some scenarios, such as earthquakes with large magnitudes and short distances, it may be difficult to obtain a sufficient number of ground motion recordings. When sufficient recordings do not exist, engineers modify available recordings using scaling or spectrum matching, or they use ground motion simulations. Ground motion simulations have existed for decades, but recent advances in simulation methods due to improved source characterization and wave propagation, coupled with increased computing power, have increased potential benefits for engineers. But before simulations can be used in engineering applications, simulations must be accessible and consistent with natural observations. This dissertation contributes to the latter issue, and it investigates the application of simulations to specific engineering problems. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is an open-source software distribution that enables third-party users to simulate ground motions using research code contributed by model developers. Because the BBP allows users to compute their own simulations with little knowledge of the underlying implementation and it ensures that all calculations are reproducible, it is extremely valuable for simulation validation and engineering applications. In this dissertation, the BBP is evaluated as a simulation generation tool from an engineering perspective. Ground motions are simulated to study parameters of engineering interest, such as high-frequency variability, near-fault ground motions, and local site response. Though some parameters need further development, such as site response (which is currently implemented using simple empirical amplification), the BBP proves to be an effective tool for facilitating these types of engineering studies. This dissertation proposes a simulation validation framework based on simple and robust proxies for the response of more complicated structures. We compile a list of proxies with robust empirical models that are insensitive to changes in earthquake scenario and do not rely on extrapolation for rarely observed events. Because predictions of these proxies are reliable under a variety of earthquake events, we can confidently compare them with simulations. The proposed proxies include correlation of epsilon across periods, ratio of maximum to median response across horizontal orientations, and ratio of inelastic to elastic displacement. The validation framework is applied to example simulations and successfully exposes some parameters that need work, such as variability and correlation of spectral acceleration. Finally, this dissertation investigates the application of simulations to response history analysis and fling-step characterization. A 3D nonlinear structural model is analyzed using recordings and simulations with similar elastic response spectra. The structural performance and resulting design decisions are similar, indicating that simulations are effective for response history analysis subject to certain conditions. To investigate fling-step, we extract fling pulses from a large set of simulations. Extracted fling properties such as amplitude and period are then compared to specially-processed recordings and relevant empirical models for surface displacement and pulse period. Reasonably good agreement is found between simulations, recordings, and empirical models. In general, ground motion simulations are found to be an effective alternative or supplement to recordings in several engineering applications. Because simulation methods are still developing, this work is not intended as an evaluation of existing methods, but rather as a development of procedures that can be used in ongoing work.
Engineers use earthquake ground motions for a variety of reasons, including seismic hazard assessment, calibration of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), and input to nonlinear response history analysis. These analyses require a significant number of ground motions and for some scenarios, such as earthquakes with large magnitudes and short distances, it may be difficult to obtain a sufficient number of ground motion recordings. When sufficient recordings do not exist, engineers modify available recordings using scaling or spectrum matching, or they use ground motion simulations. Ground motion simulations have existed for decades, but recent advances in simulation methods due to improved source characterization and wave propagation, coupled with increased computing power, have increased potential benefits for engineers. But before simulations can be used in engineering applications, simulations must be accessible and consistent with natural observations. This dissertation contributes to the latter issue, and it investigates the application of simulations to specific engineering problems. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is an open-source software distribution that enables third-party users to simulate ground motions using research code contributed by model developers. Because the BBP allows users to compute their own simulations with little knowledge of the underlying implementation and it ensures that all calculations are reproducible, it is extremely valuable for simulation validation and engineering applications. In this dissertation, the BBP is evaluated as a simulation generation tool from an engineering perspective. Ground motions are simulated to study parameters of engineering interest, such as high-frequency variability, near-fault ground motions, and local site response. Though some parameters need further development, such as site response (which is currently implemented using simple empirical amplification), the BBP proves to be an effective tool for facilitating these types of engineering studies. This dissertation proposes a simulation validation framework based on simple and robust proxies for the response of more complicated structures. We compile a list of proxies with robust empirical models that are insensitive to changes in earthquake scenario and do not rely on extrapolation for rarely observed events. Because predictions of these proxies are reliable under a variety of earthquake events, we can confidently compare them with simulations. The proposed proxies include correlation of epsilon across periods, ratio of maximum to median response across horizontal orientations, and ratio of inelastic to elastic displacement. The validation framework is applied to example simulations and successfully exposes some parameters that need work, such as variability and correlation of spectral acceleration. Finally, this dissertation investigates the application of simulations to response history analysis and fling-step characterization. A 3D nonlinear structural model is analyzed using recordings and simulations with similar elastic response spectra. The structural performance and resulting design decisions are similar, indicating that simulations are effective for response history analysis subject to certain conditions. To investigate fling-step, we extract fling pulses from a large set of simulations. Extracted fling properties such as amplitude and period are then compared to specially-processed recordings and relevant empirical models for surface displacement and pulse period. Reasonably good agreement is found between simulations, recordings, and empirical models. In general, ground motion simulations are found to be an effective alternative or supplement to recordings in several engineering applications. Because simulation methods are still developing, this work is not intended as an evaluation of existing methods, but rather as a development of procedures that can be used in ongoing work.
Book
1 online resource (xxv, 1449 pages) : illustrations
  • Risk Evaluation Model of a Supply Chain System Based on Unascertained Theory
  • The Purchasing Policy Based on Robust Optimization in the Electric Power Supply Chain under Cost Uncertainty
  • A Quality Research Commentary on the Logistics Process of Fresh Food
  • Optimization of Port Supply Chain Based on the Fourth Party Logistics
  • Design and Application of Intelligent Transportation System Based on The Internet of Things
  • Supermarket Multi-Level Inventory and Distribution Optimization Research
  • Fresh Agricultural Products Supply Chain Model under an Ec Environment
  • Agri-Food Supply Chain Characteristics Based on Different Circulation Modes
  • Decision Models of Price, Service, and Coordination of a Dual-Channel Logistics Service Supply Chain Consisting of Two Vendors and One Integrator
  • Supply Chain Coordination Based on the Surplus Stock Buy-Back Contract
  • Analysis of an Effective Coordinating Mechanism of Supply Chain Management
  • Selection of Logistics Outsourcing Service Providers for Manufacturing Enterprises
  • Agricultural Commodities Supply Chain Coordination for Food Safety
  • Interactive Development between the Manufacturing Industry and the Logistics Industry in Sichuan Province
  • Uncertainties of the Biofuel Supply Chain Produced from Waste Cooking Oils in China.
  • Bi-Objectives Optimization of a Second-Generation Biofuel Supply Chain under Demand Uncertainty
  • Risk Control of the Global Supply Chain
  • 3PL's Role in the Supply Chain with Capital Constraints
  • An Overview of Railway Revenue Management in China
  • Slot Allocation Algorithm of Railway Freight Transportation Based on Sales Agreements
  • Supply Chain Reliability Based on the Super-Network Theory
  • Logistics Service Assignment Network Planning with the Influences of Regional Logistics Diversity Demand
  • Analysis Method of Two-Way Balance of Transportation Supply and Demand in a Regional Corridor
  • Interactive Development between the Shipping and Regional Economies in the South China Sea
  • Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Characteristics for Railway Freight Decisions Based on Big Data
  • Applications and Management of The Micro-Logistics Industry with Big Data in China
  • Construction of the Regional Public Logistics Information Platform.
  • Performance Evaluation of Railway Logistics Based on the Layers of Entropy and Grey Correlation Degrees
  • Transportation System Security in a Rainy Environment
  • Influence Analysis of Factors of Driving Reliability Based on the Principal Component Method
  • Natural Ventilation of a High-Altitude Super-Long Railway Tunnel
  • Orderly Clustering Division of Highways Considering the Accident Four Indicators
  • Model of Arterial Coordination Based on Particle Swarm Optimization
  • Analysis of Adaptability to Railway Freight Station for All Process Logistics
  • Urban Route Travel Time Distribution Estimation Considering Spillback : An Analytical Model
  • Traffic Analysis and Improvement Measures of On-Ramp Joints of Elevated Expressways
  • Consistency Analysis of Traffic State Clustering Identification on a City Expressway
  • Simplex Method for Seeking the Test Number in Transportation Problems
  • Analysis of Travel Characteristics of Metro Extension Line : A Case Study in Chengdu China.
  • Correlation Analysis between Network Evolution of Railway Lines and Social Economic Development Based on Grey Correlation Theory
  • Method of Highway Facility Allocation Decisions in Comprehensive Transportation Corridors
  • Model and Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Line Planning
  • Analysis of Drivers' Illegal Tendentiousness Based on the Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory
  • Optimization Scheduling of Subway Ticket Vending Machines Based on Passenger Behavior
  • Process Re-Engineering of Railway Freight Logistics
  • Express Freight Train Diagram Coordinating Methodology
  • Game Analysis of City Bus Priority
  • Dynamic Simulation for Car-Bicycle Collisions Based on PC-CRASH
  • Transportation Network Optimization on China Oil Import Considered Safety
  • Comprehensive Optimization Model of Diagrams of High-Speed Railway Express Freight Trains Operated in Passenger Train Patterns
  • Adaptation Evaluation on the Passenger Equipment Capacity of High-Speed Railway Stations Handling Normal Speed Trains
  • Adaptability Analysis of Distance between Exits and Entrances of Urban Expressways.
  • Grey Markov Model Railway Overload Predictions
  • Principle and Method of Making Express Freight Train Working Diagrams
  • Urban Traffic Microcirculation Network Optimization Based on Bi-Level Multi-Goal Programming
  • Automatically Out-of-Gauge Identification of Rail Freight Loading and Transportation Schemes
  • Development Plan of Suburban Highway Networks in the Rapid Urbanization Process of Chengdu
  • Planning for the Ro-Ro and Drayange Transportation Corridor between Shangdong and Liaoning Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering
  • Improvement Direction of Railway Overrun Detector
  • Expounding on the Issues Related to Urban Transportation Planning in the Case of Second Ring Road in Chengdu
  • Real-Time Scheduling Decision Optimization in a Marine Oil Spill Emergency
  • Emergency Logistics Channel Selection Decision Based on Rough Sets Theory and Extension Model
  • Location-Assignment Model and Algorithm for the Transshipment Container Terminal of Maritime Emergency Materials
  • Game Analysis of Cooperation between Government and Enterprise on Storing Emergency Supplies
  • Joint Production and Pricing Strategy under Carbon Cap-and-Trade Policy.
  • Under Carbon Emissions Policy Enterprise Production Strategy Research with Two Products Considering Green-Tech Input
  • Emergency Scheduling Model of Multi-Objective-to-Resource under Uncertain Requirements
  • Constructing the Service Quality Evaluation System of Fresh Meat Cold Chain Logistics
  • Double-Goal Optimized Model for Urban Passenger Transport Structure
  • Multi-Objective Dynamic Scheduling Problem of Bottlenecks in Emergencies Based on Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm
  • Routing Design for Emergency Supplies Based on Multi-Objective Programming
  • A Review of Green Supply Chains Based on Low Carbon Emissions
  • New Problem Research on Logistics Economy Operation Considering Carbon Emissions
  • Low-Carbon Passenger Transport Evaluation System Based on Grey Correlation Evaluation and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
  • Based on Time and Requirements Evaluate An Area of Emergency Repositories' Service Capacity
  • Analysis about Enhancement of Our Country's Emergency Logistics
  • Modeling and Solution Algorithm for Reverse Logistics Recycling Equilibrium
  • Analysis about Project Control, Project Evaluation, Project Audits and Project Monitoring in Logistics Areas
  • Logistics Operations in Major Sports Events Hosted by Universities
  • Analysis about Factors Affecting Waste Household Appliances Recycling Behavior
  • EPQ Model Based on Machine Recession
  • Optimization Model for Multi-Type Pallet Allocation over a Loose Pallet Pool
  • Centrifugal Model Tests of Balance Weight Retaining Walls under Translation Movement.
  • Laboratory Experiment of Upper Excavation Influence on the Existing Tunnel
  • Elastic-Plastic Seismic Response Analysis of the Long Span Combined Highway and Railway Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge
  • On-Site Seepage Test for a Railway Embankment Filled with Volcanic Cinder Gravels
  • Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Seismic Response of a Low-Pylon Cable-Stayed Bridge under a Rare Earthquake
  • Existence of Herd Behavior on the Advertising Market
  • A Game Model for Enterprises' Energy-Saving Product Innovation Strategies Based on Tax Incentives
  • Exploring the Motivations and Decisions of Enterprise Knowledge Communications
  • Market Segmentation of Long-Haul Flights under High-Speed Railway Competitive Conditions
  • Analysis of the Airlines' Merger Integration Performance Based on the Value Chain Analysis of the M&A Case of Hainan Airlines
  • Game Analysis on the Creative Talents Drain in Logistics Enterprises Based on Limited Rationality
  • The Relationship between Enterprise Social Responsibility and Financial Capability
  • Management and Operations on Production Logistics of Automobile Assembly Plants
  • Development of the New Movable Guardrail Combined Steel Pipe with Steel Cables
  • Influence of Different Surface Friction Coefficients on Guardrail Safety Performance
  • Time Criteria for Opening Movable Guardrails Fast
  • Solutions to Promote College Students' Employmentability under the Perspective of the Entrepreneurship Education
  • Summary Introduction of Systems Science Development and Application
  • Path Evolution of Regional Tourism Cooperation Based on Institutional Innovation.
  • A Process Control-Based Public Service Quality Evaluation Model
  • Analysis of Stock Intrinsic Value of Logistics Listed Company Based on the Dividend Discount Model
  • Revenue Allocation in Vehicle Logistics Enterprise Alliance
  • Analysis of Factors on the Performance of Logistics Companies in China Based on the Panel Data of the Listing Corporation
  • Pricing Decisions of Unified Credit Inventory Financing Based on the Stackelberg Game
  • Coupling of the Agricultural Product Logistics Industry and Low-Carbon Economy under the New Urbanization
  • Scheme Design and Effect Analysis on a Container Freight Index System of Ningbo
  • Inventory Financing Model of Micro-Enterprise of Cotton Processing Based on the Pledge
  • Statistics Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing the Proportion of China's Social Logistics Cost in the GDP
  • Effects of Logistics Transportation Infrastructure Investment on the Chongqing's Economic Growth
  • Pyramid Structure, Investor Relations, and the Cost of Equity Capital
  • Application of Improved Kerberos Authentication and AES Algorithm in an Electric Power Materials Management System
  • Exploring Choice Behavior of Express Service in China
  • News Vendor's Ordering Decision with Incomplete Supplementary Information
  • Granger Causality Analysis on the Economy and Transportation Infrastructure Construction
  • Diagnosis and Optimization on the Logistics Cost of a Tobacco Business Company
  • Influence of Transport Development Level on Social Logistics Costs in China
  • Relation Model between the Impawn Rate and the Interest Rate in Inventory Financing.
  • Profit Allocation Problems in Supply Chain by Improved Shapley Value
  • Regional Logistics Industry's Development Level and Strategy Selection
  • Method of Route Optimization for Hazardous Material Road Transportation
  • Risk Management Model of Servitization : A Business Model Perspective
  • Performance Evaluation and Characteristics in Logistics Service Supply Chain
  • Risk Evaluation Index System of Logistics Parks in Different Types
  • Evaluation of Airport Site Selection Based on the Multilayer Fuzzy Reasoning Model
  • Selection of the Multi-Objective Optimal Path for Container Transport Channel
  • Optimal Scheduling Model for Non-Full Load Vehicles
  • Operating Mechanism of Logistics System Based on Environmental Perspective
  • Environmental Impact Analysis for Logistics System
  • Financing and Purchase of Micro Enterprise of Cotton Processing Based on Inventory Financing
  • Evaluation and Optimization of Two-Echelon Distribution Networks with the Aid of Simulate Anneal Arithmetic and Neighbourhood Search Methods
  • A Determination Method of Generalized Cost in a Logistics Chain under Stochastic Conditions
  • Application of Affinity Propagation on the Selection of a Logistics Distribution Center
  • Corporate Purchasing Items Classification Based on the Triangular Fuzzy Number
  • Grey Relational Analysis and Rough Set Theory of Railway Logistics Park Location Method Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making
  • Solving the LRPTW Based on Tabu Search Algorithm
  • Price Risk Control of Inventory Financing Based on the Monte Carlo Method
  • Construction of Intelligent Logistics Platform Based on the Internet of Things Management Model.
  • Operation and Management of the Logistics Park Based on Stackelberg Game Model
  • Site Selection of Logistics Center Based on the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method
  • Unstable Demand Inventory Control Model Research
  • Prospect Theory : A Novel Probability Weighting Function Model
  • Growth Evolving Model of Urban Logistics Network Driven by Cost and Distance
  • Application of a Retail Network's Comprehensive Evaluation in the Location of a Distribution Center
  • A Method of Logistics Facility Location under Equity or Efficiency Preference
  • A Weighted Model of a Logistics Supply and Demand Network of Manufacturing Enterprises
  • Optimization Analysis of a Bulky Cargo Transport Corridor in Sichuan Province
  • Optimization of the Dynamic Disassembly Process Based on Heuristic Tetri Nets
  • Optimization of the Container Loading Sequences Based on Actual Constraints
  • Study of an Aviation Logistics Network Model with the Characteristics of Fractal Structure
  • Designing Rail Freight Production Based on Feedback Control Theory
  • Passageway Optimization of Port Bonded Logistics Park Based on the Cellular Automata Model
  • Storage Location Assignment and Task Scheduling Optimization in Warehouse Management
  • Streamline Selection Model on the Facility Layout in a Distribution Center
  • Construction of the Logistics System of the Expressway Service Area Based on the Internet of Things.
  • Information System Framework of Railway Transportation Capacity Coordination
  • Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Logistics Distribution System Based on the Internet of Things
  • Mode of Data Visualization for Customer-Oriented Railway Freight
  • Intelligent Supervision System of Passenger Transport Based on IOT
  • Using The Internet of Things for an Advanced Traveler Information System
  • Analysis of Railway Freight Customer Satisfaction Evaluation Method Based on Business Intelligence
  • GIS Application in the Logistics Distribution System
  • Integrated Logistics Service Mode of University Sports Events in Network Informationization
  • SMS MMS Build Smart Docking Technology and Its Application in the Agricultural Information Platform
  • Optimal-Path Algorithm Based on the Cloud Platform
  • Function Design of a Railway Freight System Based on Electronic Commerce
  • Design of a Loose Pallet Pool Based on Cloud Computing
  • Railway Information Sharing Platform Security Requirements Analysis
  • City Parking Guidance Information System Based on the Internet of Things
  • Analysis of the GPRS-Based Electronic Bus Stop Board
  • Application of Big Data Technology in Marketing Decisions for Railway Freight
  • Application of Value-Added Service for Railway Freight Information Resources
  • Application of RFID on the Tracking and Tracing System for Pallets.
  • Application of Big Data Technology in Unstructured Data Management for Railway Freight E-Commerce
  • Traffic Information Resources Integration Based on the Internet of Things Management Model
  • Relationships among CSR, Innovation and Value Creation : An Empirical Study Based on China Listed Companies
  • Selection of Manufacturing Enterprises Logistics Mode Based on Group Semantic Information and Entropy Models
  • Building a Railway Logistics Center Based on Freight Stations and Marshalling Yards
  • Matching a Comprehensive Evaluation of a Wharf Function Area Adjustment Based on Grey Rough Set and Entropy Weight Method
  • Impact of High-Speed Rail Express on Regional Development
  • Logistics Development and Industry Change in Tea-Horse Road between Szechwan and Granger Causality Test
  • Design of an Incentive Mechanism for ELVs Recycling Industry Chain
  • Pricing Strategy of Pallet Pooling System
  • Logistics Enterprise Strategy Analysis Based on Super Efficiency DEA and Triangular Fuzzy AHP
  • Evaluation and Selection of a Procurement Model Based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • Systematic Analysis and Evaluation of the Integration Competitiveness of TPL Enterprises
  • Connotation and Modularization Design of Railway Logistics Products
  • Innovative Solutions to "Last-Mile" of Online Shopping Deliveries in China to Create a Dynamic Delivery System
  • Evaluation Model of Railway Freight Transportation's Social Benefits and Government Incentives.
  • Empirical Analysis of the CP Model of the Forest Fruits Industry and Logistics Industry
  • Analysis of Safety Problems in the Express Delivery Industry and Future Development Proposals
  • A Reflection on the Major Constraints and Paths for the Development of Urban Delivery
  • Co-Integration Analysis of the Coordinated Development between the Transportation System and Regional Economy in Sichuan Province
  • Analysis of the Current Situation of Agricultural Products in Shanghai and Future Development Proposals
  • City Group Logistics Ecosystem Live Agents Symbiosis Evolution Analysis
  • Industrial Cluster and Logistics Network to Promote the New Development of the Chengdu Rail Transit Industry
  • Passenger Flow Prediction Model of the Newly Constructed Urban Rail Transit Line
  • Model Planning of an Electric Vehicle Charging Station
  • Application of Flexible Edge Matching Algorithm in a High-Speed Railway
  • Application of Wisdom Logistics Technology in Railway Transportation
  • Design of Urban Expressway Traffic Incident Detection System Based on LabVIEW Instrument
  • Path Choice Behavior in Peak Travel Periods Based on the Prospect Theory
  • System Synergy Evolution Model on Logistics Resources of Large-Scale Sports Event and Its Evaluation of the Synergy Degree.
  • Standardization of Intermodal Freight Terminal
  • Selection Method of Road Freight Transport Intensification Mode
  • Using a Cellular Automata Model to Simulate Freeway Traffic
  • Map Matching Based on Improved Topology Structure Algorithm
  • Numerical Simulation of the Mechanical Behavior of Cobble Rock Mass during Tunneling Using Granular Discrete Element Method
  • Constructing a New-Style Logistics Hub for Special Engineering Vessels in the South China Area under the Marine Power Strategy
  • Prediction of Freight Turnover in Yunnan Based on Improved Grey Model
  • Dynamic Vehicle Routing Optimization on Urban Distribution with Real-Time Information
  • Train-Set Scheduling in Alternating Periods between the Current Train Diagram and the New One
  • Construction of a Railway Freight Tracking Inquiry System
  • Discussion about the Distribution of IC Cards for Railways
  • Discussion of the Pricing Method on Rail-Water Intermodal Transportation
  • Optimization of Empty Pallet Low-Carbon Dispatching Based on Intermodal Freight Transport
  • Multimodal Transport Based on Inventory-Transport Integrated Optimization Model
  • Analysis on Door-Door Total Logistics Service of Railway Freight.
  • Risk Evaluation Model of a Supply Chain System Based on Unascertained Theory
  • The Purchasing Policy Based on Robust Optimization in the Electric Power Supply Chain under Cost Uncertainty
  • A Quality Research Commentary on the Logistics Process of Fresh Food
  • Optimization of Port Supply Chain Based on the Fourth Party Logistics
  • Design and Application of Intelligent Transportation System Based on The Internet of Things
  • Supermarket Multi-Level Inventory and Distribution Optimization Research
  • Fresh Agricultural Products Supply Chain Model under an Ec Environment
  • Agri-Food Supply Chain Characteristics Based on Different Circulation Modes
  • Decision Models of Price, Service, and Coordination of a Dual-Channel Logistics Service Supply Chain Consisting of Two Vendors and One Integrator
  • Supply Chain Coordination Based on the Surplus Stock Buy-Back Contract
  • Analysis of an Effective Coordinating Mechanism of Supply Chain Management
  • Selection of Logistics Outsourcing Service Providers for Manufacturing Enterprises
  • Agricultural Commodities Supply Chain Coordination for Food Safety
  • Interactive Development between the Manufacturing Industry and the Logistics Industry in Sichuan Province
  • Uncertainties of the Biofuel Supply Chain Produced from Waste Cooking Oils in China.
  • Bi-Objectives Optimization of a Second-Generation Biofuel Supply Chain under Demand Uncertainty
  • Risk Control of the Global Supply Chain
  • 3PL's Role in the Supply Chain with Capital Constraints
  • An Overview of Railway Revenue Management in China
  • Slot Allocation Algorithm of Railway Freight Transportation Based on Sales Agreements
  • Supply Chain Reliability Based on the Super-Network Theory
  • Logistics Service Assignment Network Planning with the Influences of Regional Logistics Diversity Demand
  • Analysis Method of Two-Way Balance of Transportation Supply and Demand in a Regional Corridor
  • Interactive Development between the Shipping and Regional Economies in the South China Sea
  • Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Characteristics for Railway Freight Decisions Based on Big Data
  • Applications and Management of The Micro-Logistics Industry with Big Data in China
  • Construction of the Regional Public Logistics Information Platform.
  • Performance Evaluation of Railway Logistics Based on the Layers of Entropy and Grey Correlation Degrees
  • Transportation System Security in a Rainy Environment
  • Influence Analysis of Factors of Driving Reliability Based on the Principal Component Method
  • Natural Ventilation of a High-Altitude Super-Long Railway Tunnel
  • Orderly Clustering Division of Highways Considering the Accident Four Indicators
  • Model of Arterial Coordination Based on Particle Swarm Optimization
  • Analysis of Adaptability to Railway Freight Station for All Process Logistics
  • Urban Route Travel Time Distribution Estimation Considering Spillback : An Analytical Model
  • Traffic Analysis and Improvement Measures of On-Ramp Joints of Elevated Expressways
  • Consistency Analysis of Traffic State Clustering Identification on a City Expressway
  • Simplex Method for Seeking the Test Number in Transportation Problems
  • Analysis of Travel Characteristics of Metro Extension Line : A Case Study in Chengdu China.
  • Correlation Analysis between Network Evolution of Railway Lines and Social Economic Development Based on Grey Correlation Theory
  • Method of Highway Facility Allocation Decisions in Comprehensive Transportation Corridors
  • Model and Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Line Planning
  • Analysis of Drivers' Illegal Tendentiousness Based on the Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory
  • Optimization Scheduling of Subway Ticket Vending Machines Based on Passenger Behavior
  • Process Re-Engineering of Railway Freight Logistics
  • Express Freight Train Diagram Coordinating Methodology
  • Game Analysis of City Bus Priority
  • Dynamic Simulation for Car-Bicycle Collisions Based on PC-CRASH
  • Transportation Network Optimization on China Oil Import Considered Safety
  • Comprehensive Optimization Model of Diagrams of High-Speed Railway Express Freight Trains Operated in Passenger Train Patterns
  • Adaptation Evaluation on the Passenger Equipment Capacity of High-Speed Railway Stations Handling Normal Speed Trains
  • Adaptability Analysis of Distance between Exits and Entrances of Urban Expressways.
  • Grey Markov Model Railway Overload Predictions
  • Principle and Method of Making Express Freight Train Working Diagrams
  • Urban Traffic Microcirculation Network Optimization Based on Bi-Level Multi-Goal Programming
  • Automatically Out-of-Gauge Identification of Rail Freight Loading and Transportation Schemes
  • Development Plan of Suburban Highway Networks in the Rapid Urbanization Process of Chengdu
  • Planning for the Ro-Ro and Drayange Transportation Corridor between Shangdong and Liaoning Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering
  • Improvement Direction of Railway Overrun Detector
  • Expounding on the Issues Related to Urban Transportation Planning in the Case of Second Ring Road in Chengdu
  • Real-Time Scheduling Decision Optimization in a Marine Oil Spill Emergency
  • Emergency Logistics Channel Selection Decision Based on Rough Sets Theory and Extension Model
  • Location-Assignment Model and Algorithm for the Transshipment Container Terminal of Maritime Emergency Materials
  • Game Analysis of Cooperation between Government and Enterprise on Storing Emergency Supplies
  • Joint Production and Pricing Strategy under Carbon Cap-and-Trade Policy.
  • Under Carbon Emissions Policy Enterprise Production Strategy Research with Two Products Considering Green-Tech Input
  • Emergency Scheduling Model of Multi-Objective-to-Resource under Uncertain Requirements
  • Constructing the Service Quality Evaluation System of Fresh Meat Cold Chain Logistics
  • Double-Goal Optimized Model for Urban Passenger Transport Structure
  • Multi-Objective Dynamic Scheduling Problem of Bottlenecks in Emergencies Based on Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm
  • Routing Design for Emergency Supplies Based on Multi-Objective Programming
  • A Review of Green Supply Chains Based on Low Carbon Emissions
  • New Problem Research on Logistics Economy Operation Considering Carbon Emissions
  • Low-Carbon Passenger Transport Evaluation System Based on Grey Correlation Evaluation and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
  • Based on Time and Requirements Evaluate An Area of Emergency Repositories' Service Capacity
  • Analysis about Enhancement of Our Country's Emergency Logistics
  • Modeling and Solution Algorithm for Reverse Logistics Recycling Equilibrium
  • Analysis about Project Control, Project Evaluation, Project Audits and Project Monitoring in Logistics Areas
  • Logistics Operations in Major Sports Events Hosted by Universities
  • Analysis about Factors Affecting Waste Household Appliances Recycling Behavior
  • EPQ Model Based on Machine Recession
  • Optimization Model for Multi-Type Pallet Allocation over a Loose Pallet Pool
  • Centrifugal Model Tests of Balance Weight Retaining Walls under Translation Movement.
  • Laboratory Experiment of Upper Excavation Influence on the Existing Tunnel
  • Elastic-Plastic Seismic Response Analysis of the Long Span Combined Highway and Railway Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge
  • On-Site Seepage Test for a Railway Embankment Filled with Volcanic Cinder Gravels
  • Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Seismic Response of a Low-Pylon Cable-Stayed Bridge under a Rare Earthquake
  • Existence of Herd Behavior on the Advertising Market
  • A Game Model for Enterprises' Energy-Saving Product Innovation Strategies Based on Tax Incentives
  • Exploring the Motivations and Decisions of Enterprise Knowledge Communications
  • Market Segmentation of Long-Haul Flights under High-Speed Railway Competitive Conditions
  • Analysis of the Airlines' Merger Integration Performance Based on the Value Chain Analysis of the M&A Case of Hainan Airlines
  • Game Analysis on the Creative Talents Drain in Logistics Enterprises Based on Limited Rationality
  • The Relationship between Enterprise Social Responsibility and Financial Capability
  • Management and Operations on Production Logistics of Automobile Assembly Plants
  • Development of the New Movable Guardrail Combined Steel Pipe with Steel Cables
  • Influence of Different Surface Friction Coefficients on Guardrail Safety Performance
  • Time Criteria for Opening Movable Guardrails Fast
  • Solutions to Promote College Students' Employmentability under the Perspective of the Entrepreneurship Education
  • Summary Introduction of Systems Science Development and Application
  • Path Evolution of Regional Tourism Cooperation Based on Institutional Innovation.
  • A Process Control-Based Public Service Quality Evaluation Model
  • Analysis of Stock Intrinsic Value of Logistics Listed Company Based on the Dividend Discount Model
  • Revenue Allocation in Vehicle Logistics Enterprise Alliance
  • Analysis of Factors on the Performance of Logistics Companies in China Based on the Panel Data of the Listing Corporation
  • Pricing Decisions of Unified Credit Inventory Financing Based on the Stackelberg Game
  • Coupling of the Agricultural Product Logistics Industry and Low-Carbon Economy under the New Urbanization
  • Scheme Design and Effect Analysis on a Container Freight Index System of Ningbo
  • Inventory Financing Model of Micro-Enterprise of Cotton Processing Based on the Pledge
  • Statistics Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing the Proportion of China's Social Logistics Cost in the GDP
  • Effects of Logistics Transportation Infrastructure Investment on the Chongqing's Economic Growth
  • Pyramid Structure, Investor Relations, and the Cost of Equity Capital
  • Application of Improved Kerberos Authentication and AES Algorithm in an Electric Power Materials Management System
  • Exploring Choice Behavior of Express Service in China
  • News Vendor's Ordering Decision with Incomplete Supplementary Information
  • Granger Causality Analysis on the Economy and Transportation Infrastructure Construction
  • Diagnosis and Optimization on the Logistics Cost of a Tobacco Business Company
  • Influence of Transport Development Level on Social Logistics Costs in China
  • Relation Model between the Impawn Rate and the Interest Rate in Inventory Financing.
  • Profit Allocation Problems in Supply Chain by Improved Shapley Value
  • Regional Logistics Industry's Development Level and Strategy Selection
  • Method of Route Optimization for Hazardous Material Road Transportation
  • Risk Management Model of Servitization : A Business Model Perspective
  • Performance Evaluation and Characteristics in Logistics Service Supply Chain
  • Risk Evaluation Index System of Logistics Parks in Different Types
  • Evaluation of Airport Site Selection Based on the Multilayer Fuzzy Reasoning Model
  • Selection of the Multi-Objective Optimal Path for Container Transport Channel
  • Optimal Scheduling Model for Non-Full Load Vehicles
  • Operating Mechanism of Logistics System Based on Environmental Perspective
  • Environmental Impact Analysis for Logistics System
  • Financing and Purchase of Micro Enterprise of Cotton Processing Based on Inventory Financing
  • Evaluation and Optimization of Two-Echelon Distribution Networks with the Aid of Simulate Anneal Arithmetic and Neighbourhood Search Methods
  • A Determination Method of Generalized Cost in a Logistics Chain under Stochastic Conditions
  • Application of Affinity Propagation on the Selection of a Logistics Distribution Center
  • Corporate Purchasing Items Classification Based on the Triangular Fuzzy Number
  • Grey Relational Analysis and Rough Set Theory of Railway Logistics Park Location Method Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making
  • Solving the LRPTW Based on Tabu Search Algorithm
  • Price Risk Control of Inventory Financing Based on the Monte Carlo Method
  • Construction of Intelligent Logistics Platform Based on the Internet of Things Management Model.
  • Operation and Management of the Logistics Park Based on Stackelberg Game Model
  • Site Selection of Logistics Center Based on the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method
  • Unstable Demand Inventory Control Model Research
  • Prospect Theory : A Novel Probability Weighting Function Model
  • Growth Evolving Model of Urban Logistics Network Driven by Cost and Distance
  • Application of a Retail Network's Comprehensive Evaluation in the Location of a Distribution Center
  • A Method of Logistics Facility Location under Equity or Efficiency Preference
  • A Weighted Model of a Logistics Supply and Demand Network of Manufacturing Enterprises
  • Optimization Analysis of a Bulky Cargo Transport Corridor in Sichuan Province
  • Optimization of the Dynamic Disassembly Process Based on Heuristic Tetri Nets
  • Optimization of the Container Loading Sequences Based on Actual Constraints
  • Study of an Aviation Logistics Network Model with the Characteristics of Fractal Structure
  • Designing Rail Freight Production Based on Feedback Control Theory
  • Passageway Optimization of Port Bonded Logistics Park Based on the Cellular Automata Model
  • Storage Location Assignment and Task Scheduling Optimization in Warehouse Management
  • Streamline Selection Model on the Facility Layout in a Distribution Center
  • Construction of the Logistics System of the Expressway Service Area Based on the Internet of Things.
  • Information System Framework of Railway Transportation Capacity Coordination
  • Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Logistics Distribution System Based on the Internet of Things
  • Mode of Data Visualization for Customer-Oriented Railway Freight
  • Intelligent Supervision System of Passenger Transport Based on IOT
  • Using The Internet of Things for an Advanced Traveler Information System
  • Analysis of Railway Freight Customer Satisfaction Evaluation Method Based on Business Intelligence
  • GIS Application in the Logistics Distribution System
  • Integrated Logistics Service Mode of University Sports Events in Network Informationization
  • SMS MMS Build Smart Docking Technology and Its Application in the Agricultural Information Platform
  • Optimal-Path Algorithm Based on the Cloud Platform
  • Function Design of a Railway Freight System Based on Electronic Commerce
  • Design of a Loose Pallet Pool Based on Cloud Computing
  • Railway Information Sharing Platform Security Requirements Analysis
  • City Parking Guidance Information System Based on the Internet of Things
  • Analysis of the GPRS-Based Electronic Bus Stop Board
  • Application of Big Data Technology in Marketing Decisions for Railway Freight
  • Application of Value-Added Service for Railway Freight Information Resources
  • Application of RFID on the Tracking and Tracing System for Pallets.
  • Application of Big Data Technology in Unstructured Data Management for Railway Freight E-Commerce
  • Traffic Information Resources Integration Based on the Internet of Things Management Model
  • Relationships among CSR, Innovation and Value Creation : An Empirical Study Based on China Listed Companies
  • Selection of Manufacturing Enterprises Logistics Mode Based on Group Semantic Information and Entropy Models
  • Building a Railway Logistics Center Based on Freight Stations and Marshalling Yards
  • Matching a Comprehensive Evaluation of a Wharf Function Area Adjustment Based on Grey Rough Set and Entropy Weight Method
  • Impact of High-Speed Rail Express on Regional Development
  • Logistics Development and Industry Change in Tea-Horse Road between Szechwan and Granger Causality Test
  • Design of an Incentive Mechanism for ELVs Recycling Industry Chain
  • Pricing Strategy of Pallet Pooling System
  • Logistics Enterprise Strategy Analysis Based on Super Efficiency DEA and Triangular Fuzzy AHP
  • Evaluation and Selection of a Procurement Model Based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • Systematic Analysis and Evaluation of the Integration Competitiveness of TPL Enterprises
  • Connotation and Modularization Design of Railway Logistics Products
  • Innovative Solutions to "Last-Mile" of Online Shopping Deliveries in China to Create a Dynamic Delivery System
  • Evaluation Model of Railway Freight Transportation's Social Benefits and Government Incentives.
  • Empirical Analysis of the CP Model of the Forest Fruits Industry and Logistics Industry
  • Analysis of Safety Problems in the Express Delivery Industry and Future Development Proposals
  • A Reflection on the Major Constraints and Paths for the Development of Urban Delivery
  • Co-Integration Analysis of the Coordinated Development between the Transportation System and Regional Economy in Sichuan Province
  • Analysis of the Current Situation of Agricultural Products in Shanghai and Future Development Proposals
  • City Group Logistics Ecosystem Live Agents Symbiosis Evolution Analysis
  • Industrial Cluster and Logistics Network to Promote the New Development of the Chengdu Rail Transit Industry
  • Passenger Flow Prediction Model of the Newly Constructed Urban Rail Transit Line
  • Model Planning of an Electric Vehicle Charging Station
  • Application of Flexible Edge Matching Algorithm in a High-Speed Railway
  • Application of Wisdom Logistics Technology in Railway Transportation
  • Design of Urban Expressway Traffic Incident Detection System Based on LabVIEW Instrument
  • Path Choice Behavior in Peak Travel Periods Based on the Prospect Theory
  • System Synergy Evolution Model on Logistics Resources of Large-Scale Sports Event and Its Evaluation of the Synergy Degree.
  • Standardization of Intermodal Freight Terminal
  • Selection Method of Road Freight Transport Intensification Mode
  • Using a Cellular Automata Model to Simulate Freeway Traffic
  • Map Matching Based on Improved Topology Structure Algorithm
  • Numerical Simulation of the Mechanical Behavior of Cobble Rock Mass during Tunneling Using Granular Discrete Element Method
  • Constructing a New-Style Logistics Hub for Special Engineering Vessels in the South China Area under the Marine Power Strategy
  • Prediction of Freight Turnover in Yunnan Based on Improved Grey Model
  • Dynamic Vehicle Routing Optimization on Urban Distribution with Real-Time Information
  • Train-Set Scheduling in Alternating Periods between the Current Train Diagram and the New One
  • Construction of a Railway Freight Tracking Inquiry System
  • Discussion about the Distribution of IC Cards for Railways
  • Discussion of the Pricing Method on Rail-Water Intermodal Transportation
  • Optimization of Empty Pallet Low-Carbon Dispatching Based on Intermodal Freight Transport
  • Multimodal Transport Based on Inventory-Transport Integrated Optimization Model
  • Analysis on Door-Door Total Logistics Service of Railway Freight.
Stanford University Libraries
Status of items at Stanford University Libraries
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Book
1 online resource (590 pages, 5 unnumbered pages of plates) : color illustrations, photographs
  • List of Contributors xv Preface xix Acronyms xxi 1 Introduction 1 Thomas T. C. Hsu, Chiun-Lin Wu, and Jui-Liang Lin Part One INFRASTRUCTURE FOR NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY 2 Current Status and Future Role of Nuclear Power 19 Philip G. Tipping 3 Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants 35 Yin-Nan Huang and Andrew S. Whittaker 4 Seismic Abatement Method for Nuclear Power Plants and Seismic-Isolation Systems for Structural Elements 51 Evgeny Kurbatskiy 5 Framework for Design of Next-Generation Base-Isolated Nuclear Structures 63 Eric Keldrauk, Michael Mieler, Bozidar Stojadinovi'c, and Per Peterson 6 Development of Nuclear Energy in Taiwan 77 Hwai-Chiung Hsu 7 Regulatory Challenges on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants in Taiwan 85 Chuen-Horng Tsai, Yi-Bin Chen, Shin Chang, Wen-Chun Teng, Ching-Hui Wu, Gung-Min Ho, Ta-Kang Hsiung, Syh-Tsong Chiou, and Wen-Chuan Chen 8 Concrete Properties, Safety, and Sustainability of Nuclear Power Plant Infrastructures: New Tools and Themes for Future Research 103 Jacky Mazars, Bruno Capra, Alain Rouquand, and Christophe Pontiroli 9 Small Modular Reactors: Infrastructure and Other Systems 127 David Diamond Part Two CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES 10 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Japan: NPP Facilities and High-Rise Buildings 135 Tetsuo Kubo 11 Nonlinear Modeling of 3D Structural Reinforced Concrete and Seismic Performance Assessment 153 Koichi Maekawa and Naoyuki Fukuura 12 Shear Ductility and Energy Dissipation of Reinforced Concrete Walls 185 Thomas T. C. Hsu 13 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Tri-Directional Shear Stresses 203 Moheb Labib, Yashar Moslehy, and Ashraf Ayoub 14 Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Structural Design in China 227 Zufeng Xia 15 Steel Plate Concrete Walls for Containment Structures in Korea: In-Plane Shear Behavior 237 Sung-Gul Hong, Seung-Joon Lee, and Myung-Jae Lee 16 Lessons Learned from Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP after Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake (2007) in View of SSI Effect 259 T. Nishikawa, H. Inoue, S. Motohashi, and K. Ebisawa 17 Blast, Shock, and Impact Hazards to Nuclear Structures 277 Theodor Krauthammer 18 History of Shear Design Provisions in the ASME/ACI Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Containments 287 Ralph G. Oesterle, W. Gene Corley, and Ahmed Elremaily 19 US NRC Requirements for Containment Structure Design 307 John S. Ma, Bret A. Tegeler, and Brian E. Thomas Part Three COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES 20 FE Program SCS for Analyzing Wall-Type Concrete Structures 321 Y.L. Mo, Padmanabha Rao Tadepalli, Norman Hoffman, and Thomas T.C. Hsu 21 Modeling and Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Using ANATECH-ANACAP Software System 345 Joseph Y.R. Rashid, Randy J. James, and Robert S. Dunham 22 SASSI FE Program for Seismic Response Analysis of Nuclear Containment Structures 365 Mansour Tabatabaie 23 FE Program LS-DYNA for Analysis of NPP Structures Including Seismic Soil Structure Interaction 387 Ushnish Basu 24 FE Program ATENA for Safety Assessment of NPP Containments 397 Jan Cervenka and Vladimir Cervenka Part Four NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES 25 Properties of Concrete Required in Nuclear Power Plants 409 Patrick Bamonte and Pietro G. Gambarova 26 Concrete under High Temperature 439 Kaspar Willam, Yunping Xi, and Daniel J. Naus 27 Irradiation Effects on Concrete Structures 459 Osamu Kontani, Yoshikazu Ichikawa, Akihiro Ishizawa, Masayuki Takizawa, and Osamu Sato 28 Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Structures 475 D. J. Naus 29 Spent Nuclear Fuel Final Disposal in Taiwan 497 Y. C. Peng 30 Safety Features of Dry Storage System at Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant 503 Yuhao Huang 31 Seismic Consequence Modeling for the Yucca Mountain Repository Project 519 Stanley A. Orrell and Charles Bryan References 533 Index 535.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Developing sufficient energy resources to replace coal, oil and gas is a globally critical necessity. Alternatives to fossil fuels such as wind, solar, or geothermal energies are desirable, but the usable quantities are limited and each has inherent deterrents. The only virtually unlimited energy source is nuclear energy, where safety of infrastructure systems is the paramount concern. Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy addresses the analysis and design of infrastructures associated with nuclear energy. It provides an overview of the current and future nuclear power industry and the infrastructure systems from the perspectives of regulators, operators, practicing engineers and research academics. This book also provides details on investigations of containment structures, nuclear waste storage facilities and the applications of commercial/academic computer software. Specific environments that challenge the behavior of nuclear power plants infrastructure systems such as earthquake, blast, high temperature, irradiation effects, soil-structure interaction effect, etc., are also discussed. Key features: Includes contributions from global experts representing academia and industry Provides an overview of the nuclear power industry and nuclear infrastructure systems Presents the state-of-the-art as well as the future direction for nuclear civil infrastructure systems Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy is a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for researchers and practitioners working in this field and for graduate studies in civil and mechanical engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • List of Contributors xv Preface xix Acronyms xxi 1 Introduction 1 Thomas T. C. Hsu, Chiun-Lin Wu, and Jui-Liang Lin Part One INFRASTRUCTURE FOR NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY 2 Current Status and Future Role of Nuclear Power 19 Philip G. Tipping 3 Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants 35 Yin-Nan Huang and Andrew S. Whittaker 4 Seismic Abatement Method for Nuclear Power Plants and Seismic-Isolation Systems for Structural Elements 51 Evgeny Kurbatskiy 5 Framework for Design of Next-Generation Base-Isolated Nuclear Structures 63 Eric Keldrauk, Michael Mieler, Bozidar Stojadinovi'c, and Per Peterson 6 Development of Nuclear Energy in Taiwan 77 Hwai-Chiung Hsu 7 Regulatory Challenges on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants in Taiwan 85 Chuen-Horng Tsai, Yi-Bin Chen, Shin Chang, Wen-Chun Teng, Ching-Hui Wu, Gung-Min Ho, Ta-Kang Hsiung, Syh-Tsong Chiou, and Wen-Chuan Chen 8 Concrete Properties, Safety, and Sustainability of Nuclear Power Plant Infrastructures: New Tools and Themes for Future Research 103 Jacky Mazars, Bruno Capra, Alain Rouquand, and Christophe Pontiroli 9 Small Modular Reactors: Infrastructure and Other Systems 127 David Diamond Part Two CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES 10 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Japan: NPP Facilities and High-Rise Buildings 135 Tetsuo Kubo 11 Nonlinear Modeling of 3D Structural Reinforced Concrete and Seismic Performance Assessment 153 Koichi Maekawa and Naoyuki Fukuura 12 Shear Ductility and Energy Dissipation of Reinforced Concrete Walls 185 Thomas T. C. Hsu 13 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Tri-Directional Shear Stresses 203 Moheb Labib, Yashar Moslehy, and Ashraf Ayoub 14 Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Structural Design in China 227 Zufeng Xia 15 Steel Plate Concrete Walls for Containment Structures in Korea: In-Plane Shear Behavior 237 Sung-Gul Hong, Seung-Joon Lee, and Myung-Jae Lee 16 Lessons Learned from Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP after Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake (2007) in View of SSI Effect 259 T. Nishikawa, H. Inoue, S. Motohashi, and K. Ebisawa 17 Blast, Shock, and Impact Hazards to Nuclear Structures 277 Theodor Krauthammer 18 History of Shear Design Provisions in the ASME/ACI Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Containments 287 Ralph G. Oesterle, W. Gene Corley, and Ahmed Elremaily 19 US NRC Requirements for Containment Structure Design 307 John S. Ma, Bret A. Tegeler, and Brian E. Thomas Part Three COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES 20 FE Program SCS for Analyzing Wall-Type Concrete Structures 321 Y.L. Mo, Padmanabha Rao Tadepalli, Norman Hoffman, and Thomas T.C. Hsu 21 Modeling and Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Using ANATECH-ANACAP Software System 345 Joseph Y.R. Rashid, Randy J. James, and Robert S. Dunham 22 SASSI FE Program for Seismic Response Analysis of Nuclear Containment Structures 365 Mansour Tabatabaie 23 FE Program LS-DYNA for Analysis of NPP Structures Including Seismic Soil Structure Interaction 387 Ushnish Basu 24 FE Program ATENA for Safety Assessment of NPP Containments 397 Jan Cervenka and Vladimir Cervenka Part Four NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES 25 Properties of Concrete Required in Nuclear Power Plants 409 Patrick Bamonte and Pietro G. Gambarova 26 Concrete under High Temperature 439 Kaspar Willam, Yunping Xi, and Daniel J. Naus 27 Irradiation Effects on Concrete Structures 459 Osamu Kontani, Yoshikazu Ichikawa, Akihiro Ishizawa, Masayuki Takizawa, and Osamu Sato 28 Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Structures 475 D. J. Naus 29 Spent Nuclear Fuel Final Disposal in Taiwan 497 Y. C. Peng 30 Safety Features of Dry Storage System at Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant 503 Yuhao Huang 31 Seismic Consequence Modeling for the Yucca Mountain Repository Project 519 Stanley A. Orrell and Charles Bryan References 533 Index 535.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Developing sufficient energy resources to replace coal, oil and gas is a globally critical necessity. Alternatives to fossil fuels such as wind, solar, or geothermal energies are desirable, but the usable quantities are limited and each has inherent deterrents. The only virtually unlimited energy source is nuclear energy, where safety of infrastructure systems is the paramount concern. Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy addresses the analysis and design of infrastructures associated with nuclear energy. It provides an overview of the current and future nuclear power industry and the infrastructure systems from the perspectives of regulators, operators, practicing engineers and research academics. This book also provides details on investigations of containment structures, nuclear waste storage facilities and the applications of commercial/academic computer software. Specific environments that challenge the behavior of nuclear power plants infrastructure systems such as earthquake, blast, high temperature, irradiation effects, soil-structure interaction effect, etc., are also discussed. Key features: Includes contributions from global experts representing academia and industry Provides an overview of the nuclear power industry and nuclear infrastructure systems Presents the state-of-the-art as well as the future direction for nuclear civil infrastructure systems Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy is a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for researchers and practitioners working in this field and for graduate studies in civil and mechanical engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
This thesis integrates geomechanics, microseismic, and laboratory studies to investigate the role of preexisting fractures and faults in development of unconventional reservoirs. This study provides a new method for delineation of reservoir structure using microseismic data with support from geomechanics and laboratory measurement. The interpretation from this study can be applied to address some of the practical questions in highly fractured reservoirs, including, but not limited to, well design and hydraulic fracture design. The implication provides insights for future strategic development of fractured and faulted unconventional reservoirs. The first part of this thesis focuses on the production of shale oil from the Bakken Formation and consists of three approaches (Chapters 2-5). A geomechanical model shows the current stress state to be characterized by a NF/SS regime, with SHmax orientation ~N45°E. The microseismic events were recorded in six vertical observation wells during hydraulic fracturing of parallel wells X and Z, and are independently processed by two contractors. Both sets of event locations show three characteristics: First, rather than occurring in proximity to the stages being pressurized, many of the events occur along the length of well Y, a parallel well located between X and Z that had been in production for ~2.5 years at the time X and Z were stimulated. Second, relatively few fracturing stages are associated with an elongated cloud of events trending in the direction of SHmax as is commonly observed during hydraulic fracturing. Instead, the microseismic events in a number of stages appear to trend ~N75°E, about 30° from the direction of SHmax. Earthquake focal plane mechanisms confirm slip on faults with this orientation. Finally, the microseismic events are clustered at two distinct depths, one near the depth of the well being pressurized in the Middle Bakken Formation and the other ~800 ft above in the Mission Canyon Formation. Approximately 60% of the microseismic events from stage 2 exhibit similar waveforms that are occurring in adjacent multiplet clusters. Two multiplet clusters are relocated using the double-difference technique, and the relocated hypocenters are more clustered, delineating reservoir structures that are consistent with the focal plane mechanisms. We argue that all three of these patterns result from the hydraulic stimulation being dominated by flow channeling along preexisting faults. Combined analysis of hypocenter locations, focal plane mechanisms, fault slip, and 3D seismic data indicate that steeply-dipping N75°E striking faults with a combination of normal and strike-slip movement were being stimulated during hydraulic fracturing. A simple geomechanical analysis was carried out to illustrate how this occurred in the context of the current stress field, pore pressure and depletion in the vicinity of well Y during the 2.5 years of production prior to stimulation of wells X and Z. Laboratory measurements of 6 pairs of core samples from the reservoir suggest that the time dependent deformation of these rocks can be characterized by a power-law constitutive law. The constitutive parameters determined from 3-hour creep measurements follow a range and trend similar to those of samples from other shale gas reservoirs. By applying the viscous relaxation model, the differential horizontal stresses are estimated from geophysical logs. With the NF/SS faulting regime in the Bakken and an assumption of a constant faulting regime in sedimentary lithology, a continuous principal stress profile is estimated. The least horizontal stress magnitude suggests that the Lodgepole and Three Forks Formations adjacent to the Bakken Formation are not acting as frac barriers during hydraulic fracture. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of the microseismicity suggests the out-of-zone microseismic events are associated with preexisting fractures and faults rather than purely hydraulic fracturing growth. Moreover, the pore pressure perturbation required for slip is consistent with the occurrence of microseismicity, where events occur at depths that require less elevated pore pressure. Brittleness determined from elastic properties is considered, but it cannot explain the microseismicity. This is because brittleness is not an intrinsic rock property and cannot be characterized in a consistent way. Therefore, applying brittleness for locating the hydraulic fracturing sweet spot needs to be done cautiously. The second part of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of injecting CO2 to enhance coalbed methane production, as well as the capacity for long term CO2 storage in coalbeds of the Power River Basin, Wyoming. Laboratory measurements are performed to study the adsorption/desorption, mechanical, and transport properties of coal with gas saturation of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, at either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress. Results suggest that coal from the PRB has strong adsorption capacity for CO2, and this strong adsorption is stable unless the pore pressure drops below 2 MPa. Also, CO2-induced swelling will cause permeability loss, but the loss is less than one order of magnitude. Laboratory results indicate that the coal seam in the study area might be a good candidate for an ECBM and CO2 sequestration project. However, its feasibility still depends on future numerical modeling predictions, and the results reported in this study can be applied for further modeling work.
This thesis integrates geomechanics, microseismic, and laboratory studies to investigate the role of preexisting fractures and faults in development of unconventional reservoirs. This study provides a new method for delineation of reservoir structure using microseismic data with support from geomechanics and laboratory measurement. The interpretation from this study can be applied to address some of the practical questions in highly fractured reservoirs, including, but not limited to, well design and hydraulic fracture design. The implication provides insights for future strategic development of fractured and faulted unconventional reservoirs. The first part of this thesis focuses on the production of shale oil from the Bakken Formation and consists of three approaches (Chapters 2-5). A geomechanical model shows the current stress state to be characterized by a NF/SS regime, with SHmax orientation ~N45°E. The microseismic events were recorded in six vertical observation wells during hydraulic fracturing of parallel wells X and Z, and are independently processed by two contractors. Both sets of event locations show three characteristics: First, rather than occurring in proximity to the stages being pressurized, many of the events occur along the length of well Y, a parallel well located between X and Z that had been in production for ~2.5 years at the time X and Z were stimulated. Second, relatively few fracturing stages are associated with an elongated cloud of events trending in the direction of SHmax as is commonly observed during hydraulic fracturing. Instead, the microseismic events in a number of stages appear to trend ~N75°E, about 30° from the direction of SHmax. Earthquake focal plane mechanisms confirm slip on faults with this orientation. Finally, the microseismic events are clustered at two distinct depths, one near the depth of the well being pressurized in the Middle Bakken Formation and the other ~800 ft above in the Mission Canyon Formation. Approximately 60% of the microseismic events from stage 2 exhibit similar waveforms that are occurring in adjacent multiplet clusters. Two multiplet clusters are relocated using the double-difference technique, and the relocated hypocenters are more clustered, delineating reservoir structures that are consistent with the focal plane mechanisms. We argue that all three of these patterns result from the hydraulic stimulation being dominated by flow channeling along preexisting faults. Combined analysis of hypocenter locations, focal plane mechanisms, fault slip, and 3D seismic data indicate that steeply-dipping N75°E striking faults with a combination of normal and strike-slip movement were being stimulated during hydraulic fracturing. A simple geomechanical analysis was carried out to illustrate how this occurred in the context of the current stress field, pore pressure and depletion in the vicinity of well Y during the 2.5 years of production prior to stimulation of wells X and Z. Laboratory measurements of 6 pairs of core samples from the reservoir suggest that the time dependent deformation of these rocks can be characterized by a power-law constitutive law. The constitutive parameters determined from 3-hour creep measurements follow a range and trend similar to those of samples from other shale gas reservoirs. By applying the viscous relaxation model, the differential horizontal stresses are estimated from geophysical logs. With the NF/SS faulting regime in the Bakken and an assumption of a constant faulting regime in sedimentary lithology, a continuous principal stress profile is estimated. The least horizontal stress magnitude suggests that the Lodgepole and Three Forks Formations adjacent to the Bakken Formation are not acting as frac barriers during hydraulic fracture. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of the microseismicity suggests the out-of-zone microseismic events are associated with preexisting fractures and faults rather than purely hydraulic fracturing growth. Moreover, the pore pressure perturbation required for slip is consistent with the occurrence of microseismicity, where events occur at depths that require less elevated pore pressure. Brittleness determined from elastic properties is considered, but it cannot explain the microseismicity. This is because brittleness is not an intrinsic rock property and cannot be characterized in a consistent way. Therefore, applying brittleness for locating the hydraulic fracturing sweet spot needs to be done cautiously. The second part of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of injecting CO2 to enhance coalbed methane production, as well as the capacity for long term CO2 storage in coalbeds of the Power River Basin, Wyoming. Laboratory measurements are performed to study the adsorption/desorption, mechanical, and transport properties of coal with gas saturation of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, at either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress. Results suggest that coal from the PRB has strong adsorption capacity for CO2, and this strong adsorption is stable unless the pore pressure drops below 2 MPa. Also, CO2-induced swelling will cause permeability loss, but the loss is less than one order of magnitude. Laboratory results indicate that the coal seam in the study area might be a good candidate for an ECBM and CO2 sequestration project. However, its feasibility still depends on future numerical modeling predictions, and the results reported in this study can be applied for further modeling work.
Collection
John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center Technical Report Series
As part of an investigation to enhance the seismic performance of light-frame residential structures by reducing damage to partition walls and other deformation-sensitive components, this report describes the testing and experimental results of twenty full-scale gypsum-sheathed walls. The experiments investigated the effects of enhanced, inexpensive construction procedures with the objective to increase the racking strength and stiffness of partition-type shear walls, lessening seismic deformations. A majority of the specimens utilized wood framing members, while four specimens featured cold-formed steel framing. The specimens were subjected to cyclic earthquake-type loading through established loading histories for light-frame components. The stiffness, strength, and damage progression of specimens with varying wall length, openings, orthogonal wall returns, tie-down and anchoring configurations, and interior and exterior sheathings are discussed. Iterative tests of specific interior wall geometries determined the optimal construction techniques required to reduce deformations and improve life-cycle performance. The main improvement to these specimens over typical construction was the use of construction adhesive and mechanical fasteners to attach the sheathing to the framing. Additional enhancements included mid-height blocking, improved corner stud assemblies, properly sized tie downs at the ends of wall segments, exterior stucco engagement, and bent straps on the exterior of planar wood-framed walls. The stiffness, strength, and residual capacity of specimens with orthogonal walls increased as compared to specimens with in-plane-only shear walls.
As part of an investigation to enhance the seismic performance of light-frame residential structures by reducing damage to partition walls and other deformation-sensitive components, this report describes the testing and experimental results of twenty full-scale gypsum-sheathed walls. The experiments investigated the effects of enhanced, inexpensive construction procedures with the objective to increase the racking strength and stiffness of partition-type shear walls, lessening seismic deformations. A majority of the specimens utilized wood framing members, while four specimens featured cold-formed steel framing. The specimens were subjected to cyclic earthquake-type loading through established loading histories for light-frame components. The stiffness, strength, and damage progression of specimens with varying wall length, openings, orthogonal wall returns, tie-down and anchoring configurations, and interior and exterior sheathings are discussed. Iterative tests of specific interior wall geometries determined the optimal construction techniques required to reduce deformations and improve life-cycle performance. The main improvement to these specimens over typical construction was the use of construction adhesive and mechanical fasteners to attach the sheathing to the framing. Additional enhancements included mid-height blocking, improved corner stud assemblies, properly sized tie downs at the ends of wall segments, exterior stucco engagement, and bent straps on the exterior of planar wood-framed walls. The stiffness, strength, and residual capacity of specimens with orthogonal walls increased as compared to specimens with in-plane-only shear walls.

11. Quay walls [2014]

Book
1 online resource : text file, PDF.
  • Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Function of quay walls 1.2 Objective of this book 1.3 Composition of the book References Chapter 2 Overview of quay wall construction 2.1 Ports as a source of prosperity 2.2 Ports and quays past and present 2.3 History of quay wall construction in Rotterdam 5 References Chapter 3 Main types of quay walls 3.1 Functions and main types of quay walls 3.2 Gravity walls 3.3 Sheet pile walls 3.4 Sheet pile walls with relieving platforms 3.5 Open berth quay 3.6 Examples of gravity walls 3.7 Examples of sheet pile walls 3.8 Examples of walls with relieving platform 3.9 Examples of open berth quays 3.10 Examples of repair or deepening of quay walls References Chapter 4 Investigation 4.1 Importance of investigation 4.2 Survey and monitoring plan 4.3 Topographical and hydrographic investigations 4.4 Hydraulic investigations: water levels 4.5 Hydraulic investigations: waves 4.6 Hydraulic investigation: other wave phenomena 4.7 Hydraulic investigations: points of special interest 4.8 Hydraulic investigation: currents 4.9 Investigation into ice loads 4.10 Investigation into meteorological conditions 4.11 Investigations into morphological conditions 4.12 Investigation into nautical boundary conditions 4.13 Investigation into seismic impacts 4.14 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: soil investigation plan 4.15 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: desktop study, geological maps, groundwater maps 4.16 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: site visits, geophysical investigations and site investigations 4.17 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: laboratory tests 4.18 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: determination of parameters 4.19 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: presentation of the results 4.20 Environmental investigation References Chapter 5 Terms of reference 5.1 Terms of reference for design and construction 5.2 Functional terms of reference 5.3 Technical terms of reference 5.4 Detailed explanation References Chapter 6 Design of Quay walls 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Functional design aspects 6.3 Structural design aspects 6.4 Design philosophy 6.5 Features of the structural design 6.6 Design models and calculation methods of retaining walls 6.7 Sequence of design calculation References Chapter 7 Quay-elements 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Pile foundations 7.3 Sheet pile wall systems 7.4 Anchorages 7.5 Superstructures 7.6 Transitional structures 7.7 Berthing equipment 7.8 Other berth details 7.9 Drainage systems 7.10 Crane tracks and rail structures 7.11 Bottom protection 7.12 Instrumentation for data collection References Chapter 8 Materials 8.1 Concrete and concrete technological aspects 8.2 Steel 8.3 Corrosion References Chapter 9 Construction 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Design 9.3 Construction methods 9.4 Layout of the construction site 9.5 Surveying of the construction site 9.6 Environmental boundary conditions 9.7 Foundation and substructure 9.8 Superstructure 9.9 Monitoring 9.10 Fill behind the quay wall 9.11 Dredging 9.12 Scour protection 9.13 Auxiliary structures 9.14 Quality control and quality assurance 9.15 Completion and acceptance of the works References Chapter 10 Costs 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Cost estimate system according to CROW 10.3 Estimation of the construction costs on the basis of indices 10.4 Estimation of the engineering costs 10.5 Risk analysis References Chapter 11 Management and maintenance of Quay walls 11.1 From reactive to active management 11.2 The quay wall as a system 11.3 Objectives 11.4 Modelling 11.5 Information 11.6 Assessments 11.7 Measures 11.8 Implementation 11.9 Contribution, conveyance and feedback References Chapter 12 Lessons from experience 12.1 You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs 12.2 Soil investigations 12.3 Combined walls 12.4 Pile foundations 12.5 Relieving platform 12.6 Anchorage 12.7 Superstructure 12.8 Berthing equipment 12.9 Bottom protection 12.10 Drainage and dewatering 12.11 Deformations of quay structures 12.12 Back fill and dredging 12.13 Earthquake zones 12.14 Working in an aggressive tropical environment 12.15 Quality assurance 12.16 Wise use of the quay References Chapter 13 Future developments 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Port developments 13.3 Shipping developments 13.4 Development of logistic concepts 13.5 Development of new quay concepts References Chapter 14 Bibliography and standards 14.1 Bibliography 14.2 Standards Annex A Glossary of terms and abbreviations used Notation Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This new edition of the handbook of Quay Walls provides the reader with essential knowledge for the planning, design, execution and maintenance of quay walls, as well as general information about historical developments and lessons learned from the observation of ports in various countries. Technical chapters are followed by a detailed calculation of a quay wall based on a semi-probabilistic design procedure, which applies the theory presented earlier. Since the publication of the Dutch edition in 2003 and the English version in 2005, considerable new experience has been obtained by the many practitioners using the book, prompting the update of this handbook. Moreover, the introduction of the Eurocodes in 2012 has prompted a complete revision of the Design chapter, which is now compliant with the Eurocodes. Furthermore, additional recommendations for using FEM-analysis in quay wall design have been included. In response to ongoing discussions within the industry about buckling criteria for steel pipe piles, a thorough research project was carried out on steel pipe piles fi lled with sand and on piles without sand. The results of this research programme have also been incorporated in this new version. Finally, the section on corrosion has been updated to refl ect the latest knowledge and attention has been given to the latest global developments in quay wall engineering. The new edition was made possible thanks to the contributions of numerous experts from the Netherlands and Belgium.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Function of quay walls 1.2 Objective of this book 1.3 Composition of the book References Chapter 2 Overview of quay wall construction 2.1 Ports as a source of prosperity 2.2 Ports and quays past and present 2.3 History of quay wall construction in Rotterdam 5 References Chapter 3 Main types of quay walls 3.1 Functions and main types of quay walls 3.2 Gravity walls 3.3 Sheet pile walls 3.4 Sheet pile walls with relieving platforms 3.5 Open berth quay 3.6 Examples of gravity walls 3.7 Examples of sheet pile walls 3.8 Examples of walls with relieving platform 3.9 Examples of open berth quays 3.10 Examples of repair or deepening of quay walls References Chapter 4 Investigation 4.1 Importance of investigation 4.2 Survey and monitoring plan 4.3 Topographical and hydrographic investigations 4.4 Hydraulic investigations: water levels 4.5 Hydraulic investigations: waves 4.6 Hydraulic investigation: other wave phenomena 4.7 Hydraulic investigations: points of special interest 4.8 Hydraulic investigation: currents 4.9 Investigation into ice loads 4.10 Investigation into meteorological conditions 4.11 Investigations into morphological conditions 4.12 Investigation into nautical boundary conditions 4.13 Investigation into seismic impacts 4.14 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: soil investigation plan 4.15 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: desktop study, geological maps, groundwater maps 4.16 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: site visits, geophysical investigations and site investigations 4.17 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: laboratory tests 4.18 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: determination of parameters 4.19 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: presentation of the results 4.20 Environmental investigation References Chapter 5 Terms of reference 5.1 Terms of reference for design and construction 5.2 Functional terms of reference 5.3 Technical terms of reference 5.4 Detailed explanation References Chapter 6 Design of Quay walls 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Functional design aspects 6.3 Structural design aspects 6.4 Design philosophy 6.5 Features of the structural design 6.6 Design models and calculation methods of retaining walls 6.7 Sequence of design calculation References Chapter 7 Quay-elements 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Pile foundations 7.3 Sheet pile wall systems 7.4 Anchorages 7.5 Superstructures 7.6 Transitional structures 7.7 Berthing equipment 7.8 Other berth details 7.9 Drainage systems 7.10 Crane tracks and rail structures 7.11 Bottom protection 7.12 Instrumentation for data collection References Chapter 8 Materials 8.1 Concrete and concrete technological aspects 8.2 Steel 8.3 Corrosion References Chapter 9 Construction 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Design 9.3 Construction methods 9.4 Layout of the construction site 9.5 Surveying of the construction site 9.6 Environmental boundary conditions 9.7 Foundation and substructure 9.8 Superstructure 9.9 Monitoring 9.10 Fill behind the quay wall 9.11 Dredging 9.12 Scour protection 9.13 Auxiliary structures 9.14 Quality control and quality assurance 9.15 Completion and acceptance of the works References Chapter 10 Costs 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Cost estimate system according to CROW 10.3 Estimation of the construction costs on the basis of indices 10.4 Estimation of the engineering costs 10.5 Risk analysis References Chapter 11 Management and maintenance of Quay walls 11.1 From reactive to active management 11.2 The quay wall as a system 11.3 Objectives 11.4 Modelling 11.5 Information 11.6 Assessments 11.7 Measures 11.8 Implementation 11.9 Contribution, conveyance and feedback References Chapter 12 Lessons from experience 12.1 You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs 12.2 Soil investigations 12.3 Combined walls 12.4 Pile foundations 12.5 Relieving platform 12.6 Anchorage 12.7 Superstructure 12.8 Berthing equipment 12.9 Bottom protection 12.10 Drainage and dewatering 12.11 Deformations of quay structures 12.12 Back fill and dredging 12.13 Earthquake zones 12.14 Working in an aggressive tropical environment 12.15 Quality assurance 12.16 Wise use of the quay References Chapter 13 Future developments 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Port developments 13.3 Shipping developments 13.4 Development of logistic concepts 13.5 Development of new quay concepts References Chapter 14 Bibliography and standards 14.1 Bibliography 14.2 Standards Annex A Glossary of terms and abbreviations used Notation Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
This new edition of the handbook of Quay Walls provides the reader with essential knowledge for the planning, design, execution and maintenance of quay walls, as well as general information about historical developments and lessons learned from the observation of ports in various countries. Technical chapters are followed by a detailed calculation of a quay wall based on a semi-probabilistic design procedure, which applies the theory presented earlier. Since the publication of the Dutch edition in 2003 and the English version in 2005, considerable new experience has been obtained by the many practitioners using the book, prompting the update of this handbook. Moreover, the introduction of the Eurocodes in 2012 has prompted a complete revision of the Design chapter, which is now compliant with the Eurocodes. Furthermore, additional recommendations for using FEM-analysis in quay wall design have been included. In response to ongoing discussions within the industry about buckling criteria for steel pipe piles, a thorough research project was carried out on steel pipe piles fi lled with sand and on piles without sand. The results of this research programme have also been incorporated in this new version. Finally, the section on corrosion has been updated to refl ect the latest knowledge and attention has been given to the latest global developments in quay wall engineering. The new edition was made possible thanks to the contributions of numerous experts from the Netherlands and Belgium.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
Modern tall buildings are generally not considered to be a large contributor to the seismic risk of cities, based on the presumption that they are designed and built with sufficient safeguards to ensure good performance. This is in spite of the fact that current building code provisions have few, if any, provisions to ensure that tall buildings have better performance than other low-rise structures. This implies that a 40-story building is not expected, or designed, to perform any better than a one-story building following a large seismic event, despite the huge differences in the consequences of collapse and/or damage to these type of structures. The performance of a 42-story couple core wall building located in downtown San Francisco, designed using a state-of-the-practice performance-based approach, is evaluated. Two additional structural schemes, damped outriggers and base isolation, and one additional non-structural scheme are investigated. Non-linear response history analysis is conducted on each of the three structural building designs in order to assess the structural performance at five different seismic hazard levels. Subsequently, the expected building repair cost and downtime are estimated for each scheme; there are six schemes in total when considering the additional non-structural design scheme. The baseline building is expected to suffer financial losses exceeding 15% of the total building cost and functional downtime of almost 2 years (84 weeks) following a design level earthquake. The damped outrigger and base isolation schemes are found to reduce financial losses and downtime, with an expected loss of 14% and 10% of the building cost, respectively and an expected functional downtime of 62 weeks and 43 weeks, respectively following a design-level earthquake. The non-structural design alternative, which also includes provisions to reduce building downtime, was found to reduce loss and downtime in all cases. The best performing building is the base-isolated building with enhanced non-structural design, expected to experience losses of 2.4% of the building value and functional downtime of only 6 weeks following a design-level earthquake. A cost-benefit analysis reveals that all schemes are preferable to the baseline building. The payback period for the two structural design alternatives is found to be 4.6 years and 6.6 years for the damped outrigger and the base isolation schemes, respectively, and the payback period for the non-structural design alternatives are 5.3 years, 9.0 years and 8.7 years for the fixed base, damped outrigger and the base isolation schemes, respectively.
Modern tall buildings are generally not considered to be a large contributor to the seismic risk of cities, based on the presumption that they are designed and built with sufficient safeguards to ensure good performance. This is in spite of the fact that current building code provisions have few, if any, provisions to ensure that tall buildings have better performance than other low-rise structures. This implies that a 40-story building is not expected, or designed, to perform any better than a one-story building following a large seismic event, despite the huge differences in the consequences of collapse and/or damage to these type of structures. The performance of a 42-story couple core wall building located in downtown San Francisco, designed using a state-of-the-practice performance-based approach, is evaluated. Two additional structural schemes, damped outriggers and base isolation, and one additional non-structural scheme are investigated. Non-linear response history analysis is conducted on each of the three structural building designs in order to assess the structural performance at five different seismic hazard levels. Subsequently, the expected building repair cost and downtime are estimated for each scheme; there are six schemes in total when considering the additional non-structural design scheme. The baseline building is expected to suffer financial losses exceeding 15% of the total building cost and functional downtime of almost 2 years (84 weeks) following a design level earthquake. The damped outrigger and base isolation schemes are found to reduce financial losses and downtime, with an expected loss of 14% and 10% of the building cost, respectively and an expected functional downtime of 62 weeks and 43 weeks, respectively following a design-level earthquake. The non-structural design alternative, which also includes provisions to reduce building downtime, was found to reduce loss and downtime in all cases. The best performing building is the base-isolated building with enhanced non-structural design, expected to experience losses of 2.4% of the building value and functional downtime of only 6 weeks following a design-level earthquake. A cost-benefit analysis reveals that all schemes are preferable to the baseline building. The payback period for the two structural design alternatives is found to be 4.6 years and 6.6 years for the damped outrigger and the base isolation schemes, respectively, and the payback period for the non-structural design alternatives are 5.3 years, 9.0 years and 8.7 years for the fixed base, damped outrigger and the base isolation schemes, respectively.
Book
1 online resource.
Deterioration of built infrastructure is growing into a major cause of concern for countries with a large population of aging structures. Although seismic design standards continue to advance as lessons learned from past events get incorporated, structures designed to older standards are likely to be more vulnerable to damage during earthquakes. The poor seismic performance of older structures is likely to be further exacerbated by advanced levels of structural deterioration, which may be caused due to a variety of processes such as chloride-induced corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack, freeze-thaw cycles, carbonation, and fatigue. However, the effects of long-term structural deterioration have been traditionally neglected in seismic risk assessment. This dissertation focuses on the development of a comprehensive methodology for the time-dependent seismic risk assessment of structures located in a multi-hazard environment, that can explicitly account for the effects of (1) the time-varying nature of the different hazards, (2) long-term structural deterioration, and (3) cost escalation and the time-value of economic resources on seismic loss and impact estimates. The methodology for time-dependent seismic risk analysis proposed in this dissertation begins with the PEER framework as a starting point and extends it through the addition of a separate module for time-dependent probabilistic deterioration analysis. Explicitly accounting for deterioration within the proposed framework requires probabilistic models for predicting the time-dependent level of deterioration of structural elements. The steps involved in estimation of the time-dependent degree of deterioration for the case of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridge columns due to chloride-induced corrosion are illustrated in this dissertation, using available empirical models to describe the multi-stage corrosion process. In order to account for the effects of structural deterioration within the proposed framework, the seismic fragility of structural components is modeled as a joint function of the ground motion intensity measure, and the degree of deterioration. Calculation of these deterioration-dependent component fragility functions requires predicting the change in both damage state capacities and seismic demands due to deterioration. The use of a simple, single parameter exponential decay function is proposed to model the decrease in median damage state fragilities with increase in the degree of deterioration. The deterioration-dependent component fragility functions can be integrated with the results from probabilistic time-dependent deterioration analysis, or with actual measurements of the level of deterioration obtained during inspection, at a later stage within the proposed framework to obtain a time-dependent description of the seismic risk. Finally, the proposed methodology for time-dependent seismic risk assessment is used to conduct a comprehensive study of the life cycle costs and environmental impacts of three deteriorating California highway bridge columns. Such a comprehensive evaluation of time-dependent environmental impacts associated with repairs following an earthquake for deteriorating structures located in an evolving multi-hazard environment is the first of its kind.
Deterioration of built infrastructure is growing into a major cause of concern for countries with a large population of aging structures. Although seismic design standards continue to advance as lessons learned from past events get incorporated, structures designed to older standards are likely to be more vulnerable to damage during earthquakes. The poor seismic performance of older structures is likely to be further exacerbated by advanced levels of structural deterioration, which may be caused due to a variety of processes such as chloride-induced corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack, freeze-thaw cycles, carbonation, and fatigue. However, the effects of long-term structural deterioration have been traditionally neglected in seismic risk assessment. This dissertation focuses on the development of a comprehensive methodology for the time-dependent seismic risk assessment of structures located in a multi-hazard environment, that can explicitly account for the effects of (1) the time-varying nature of the different hazards, (2) long-term structural deterioration, and (3) cost escalation and the time-value of economic resources on seismic loss and impact estimates. The methodology for time-dependent seismic risk analysis proposed in this dissertation begins with the PEER framework as a starting point and extends it through the addition of a separate module for time-dependent probabilistic deterioration analysis. Explicitly accounting for deterioration within the proposed framework requires probabilistic models for predicting the time-dependent level of deterioration of structural elements. The steps involved in estimation of the time-dependent degree of deterioration for the case of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridge columns due to chloride-induced corrosion are illustrated in this dissertation, using available empirical models to describe the multi-stage corrosion process. In order to account for the effects of structural deterioration within the proposed framework, the seismic fragility of structural components is modeled as a joint function of the ground motion intensity measure, and the degree of deterioration. Calculation of these deterioration-dependent component fragility functions requires predicting the change in both damage state capacities and seismic demands due to deterioration. The use of a simple, single parameter exponential decay function is proposed to model the decrease in median damage state fragilities with increase in the degree of deterioration. The deterioration-dependent component fragility functions can be integrated with the results from probabilistic time-dependent deterioration analysis, or with actual measurements of the level of deterioration obtained during inspection, at a later stage within the proposed framework to obtain a time-dependent description of the seismic risk. Finally, the proposed methodology for time-dependent seismic risk assessment is used to conduct a comprehensive study of the life cycle costs and environmental impacts of three deteriorating California highway bridge columns. Such a comprehensive evaluation of time-dependent environmental impacts associated with repairs following an earthquake for deteriorating structures located in an evolving multi-hazard environment is the first of its kind.
Book
1 online resource (xii, 354 pages)
  • Preface ix About the Authors xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 History of the Force Analogy Method 1 1.2 Applications of the Force Analogy Method 4 1.2.1 Structural Vibration Control 4 1.2.2 Modal Dynamic Analysis Method 6 1.2.3 Other Design and Analysis Areas 6 1.3 Background of the Force Analogy Method 6 References 14 2 Nonlinear Static Analysis 17 2.1 Plastic Rotation 17 2.2 Force Analogy Method for Static Single-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 19 2.2.1 Inelastic Displacement 19 2.2.2 Application of the FAM on SDOF System 20 2.2.3 Nonlinear Analysis Using FAM 22 2.3 Nonlinear Structural Analysis of Moment-Resisting Frames26 2.4 Force Analogy Method for Static Multi-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 31 2.5 Nonlinear Static Examples 36 2.6 Static Condensation 52 References 61 3 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis 63 3.1 State Space Method for Linear Dynamic Analysis 63 3.1.1 Equation of Motion 64 3.1.2 State Space Solution 66 3.1.3 Solution Procedure 68 3.2 Dynamic Analysis with Material Nonlinearity 72 3.2.1 Force Analogy Method 72 3.2.2 State Space Analysis with the Force Analogy Method 74 3.2.3 Solution Procedure 76 3.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with Static Condensation 87 3.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Examples 99 References 109 4 Flexural Member 111 4.1 Bending and Shear Behaviors 111 4.1.1 Hysteretic Models 111 4.1.2 Displacement Decomposition 113 4.1.3 Local Plastic Mechanisms 115 4.2 Inelastic Mechanisms of Flexural Members 115 4.2.1 Elastic Displacement X' 116 4.2.2 Plastic Bending Displacement X"1 117 4.2.3 Plastic Shear Displacement X"2 117 4.2.4 Combination of the Bending and Shear Behaviors 117 4.3 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Structures with FlexuralMembers 118 4.3.1 Force Analogy Method for Static Single-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 118 4.3.2 Force Analogy Method for Static Multi-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 129 4.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Structures with FlexuralMembers 143 4.4.1 Hysteretic Behaviors of the Flexural Members 143 4.4.2 Solution Procedure of the FAM 146 References 159 5 Axial Deformation Member 161 5.1 Physical Theory Models for Axial Members 161 5.1.1 General Parameters 162 5.1.2 Displacement Decomposition 163 5.2 Sliding Hinge Mechanisms 164 5.3 Force Analogy Method for Static Axial Members 166 5.3.1 Regions O Aa and O F 166 5.3.2 Region F G 166 5.3.3 Regions Aa A and A B 167 5.4 Force Analogy Method for Cycling Response Analysis of AxialMembers 170 5.4.1 Region B C 170 5.4.2 Region C D 171 5.4.3 Region D' A2 172 5.4.4 Region D E 173 5.4.5 Region E F 174 5.4.6 Region Aa2 A2 174 5.5 Application of the Force Analogy Method in ConcentricallyBraced Frames 178 5.5.1 Force Analogy Method for Static SDOF CBFs 178 5.5.2 Force Analogy Method for Static MDOF CBFs 182 5.5.3 Force Analogy Method for Dynamical CBFs under EarthquakeLoads 188 References 194 6 Shear Member 195 6.1 Physical Theory Models of Shear Members 195 6.1.1 Flexural Behavior 195 6.1.2 Axial Behavior 197 6.1.3 Shear Behavior 197 6.2 Local Plastic Mechanisms in the FAM 198 6.2.1 Displacement Decomposition 198 6.2.2 Behavior of VSH 199 6.2.3 Behavior of HSH 200 6.3 Nonlinear Static Analysis of the Shear Wall Structures201 6.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of RC Frame-Shear Wall Structures222 6.4.1 Hysteretic Behaviors of the RC Shear Wall Members 222 6.4.2 Solution Procedure of the FAM 224 References 234 7 Geometric Nonlinearity 235 7.1 Classical Stiffness Matrices with Geometric Nonlinearity236 7.1.1 The P- Approach 237 7.1.2 The Geometric Stiffness Approach 238 7.2 Stability Functions 239 7.2.1 Stiffness Matrix [Ki] 240 7.2.2 Stiffness Matrix [K'i] 244 7.2.3 Stiffness Matrix [K"i ] 246 7.3 Force Analogy Method with Stability Functions 250 7.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Using Stability Functions 261 7.4.1 Force Analogy Method 261 7.4.2 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with the Force Analogy Method262 7.4.3 State Space Analysis with Geometric and MaterialNonlinearities 263 7.5 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with Static Condensation UsingStability Functions 272 7.6 Nonlinear Dynamic Examples 283 References 294 8 Application of the Force Analogy Method in ModalSuperposition 297 8.1 Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis in the FAM 298 8.1.1 NSPA for Mass-Normalized SDOF Systems 299 8.1.2 NSPA for Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 303 8.2 Modal Decomposition in the FAM 312 8.3 Modal Response Summation 318 8.4 Nonlinear Modal Superposition Method Example 319 References 329 9 Application: Structural Vibration Control 331 9.1 Passive Control Technique 331 9.1.1 Model of Passive Energy-Dissipation Devices 331 9.1.2 Model of Framed Structures with PEDDs 333 9.1.3 Force Analogy Method for Dynamical Analysis ofMulti-Degree-Freedom Systems 334 9.2 Application of the FAM in Active or Semi-Active StructuralControl 336 9.2.1 Background of MBC 336 9.2.2 Force Analogy Method in Market-Based Control 342 References 349 Index 351.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
A comprehensive book focusing on the Force Analogy Method, a novel method for nonlinear dynamic analysis and simulation This book focusses on the Force Analogy Method, a novel method for nonlinear dynamic analysis and simulation. A review of the current nonlinear analysis method for earthquake engineering will be summarized and explained. Additionally, how the force analogy method can be used in nonlinear static analysis will be discussed through several nonlinear static examples. The emphasis of this book is to extend and develop the force analogy method to performing dynamic analysis on structures under earthquake excitations, where the force analogy method is incorporated in the flexural element, axial element, shearing element and so on will be exhibited. Moreover, the geometric nonlinearity into nonlinear dynamic analysis algorithm based on the force analogy method is included. The application of the force analogy method in seismic design for buildings and structural control area is discussed and combined with practical engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Preface ix About the Authors xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 History of the Force Analogy Method 1 1.2 Applications of the Force Analogy Method 4 1.2.1 Structural Vibration Control 4 1.2.2 Modal Dynamic Analysis Method 6 1.2.3 Other Design and Analysis Areas 6 1.3 Background of the Force Analogy Method 6 References 14 2 Nonlinear Static Analysis 17 2.1 Plastic Rotation 17 2.2 Force Analogy Method for Static Single-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 19 2.2.1 Inelastic Displacement 19 2.2.2 Application of the FAM on SDOF System 20 2.2.3 Nonlinear Analysis Using FAM 22 2.3 Nonlinear Structural Analysis of Moment-Resisting Frames26 2.4 Force Analogy Method for Static Multi-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 31 2.5 Nonlinear Static Examples 36 2.6 Static Condensation 52 References 61 3 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis 63 3.1 State Space Method for Linear Dynamic Analysis 63 3.1.1 Equation of Motion 64 3.1.2 State Space Solution 66 3.1.3 Solution Procedure 68 3.2 Dynamic Analysis with Material Nonlinearity 72 3.2.1 Force Analogy Method 72 3.2.2 State Space Analysis with the Force Analogy Method 74 3.2.3 Solution Procedure 76 3.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with Static Condensation 87 3.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Examples 99 References 109 4 Flexural Member 111 4.1 Bending and Shear Behaviors 111 4.1.1 Hysteretic Models 111 4.1.2 Displacement Decomposition 113 4.1.3 Local Plastic Mechanisms 115 4.2 Inelastic Mechanisms of Flexural Members 115 4.2.1 Elastic Displacement X' 116 4.2.2 Plastic Bending Displacement X"1 117 4.2.3 Plastic Shear Displacement X"2 117 4.2.4 Combination of the Bending and Shear Behaviors 117 4.3 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Structures with FlexuralMembers 118 4.3.1 Force Analogy Method for Static Single-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 118 4.3.2 Force Analogy Method for Static Multi-Degree-of-FreedomSystems 129 4.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Structures with FlexuralMembers 143 4.4.1 Hysteretic Behaviors of the Flexural Members 143 4.4.2 Solution Procedure of the FAM 146 References 159 5 Axial Deformation Member 161 5.1 Physical Theory Models for Axial Members 161 5.1.1 General Parameters 162 5.1.2 Displacement Decomposition 163 5.2 Sliding Hinge Mechanisms 164 5.3 Force Analogy Method for Static Axial Members 166 5.3.1 Regions O Aa and O F 166 5.3.2 Region F G 166 5.3.3 Regions Aa A and A B 167 5.4 Force Analogy Method for Cycling Response Analysis of AxialMembers 170 5.4.1 Region B C 170 5.4.2 Region C D 171 5.4.3 Region D' A2 172 5.4.4 Region D E 173 5.4.5 Region E F 174 5.4.6 Region Aa2 A2 174 5.5 Application of the Force Analogy Method in ConcentricallyBraced Frames 178 5.5.1 Force Analogy Method for Static SDOF CBFs 178 5.5.2 Force Analogy Method for Static MDOF CBFs 182 5.5.3 Force Analogy Method for Dynamical CBFs under EarthquakeLoads 188 References 194 6 Shear Member 195 6.1 Physical Theory Models of Shear Members 195 6.1.1 Flexural Behavior 195 6.1.2 Axial Behavior 197 6.1.3 Shear Behavior 197 6.2 Local Plastic Mechanisms in the FAM 198 6.2.1 Displacement Decomposition 198 6.2.2 Behavior of VSH 199 6.2.3 Behavior of HSH 200 6.3 Nonlinear Static Analysis of the Shear Wall Structures201 6.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of RC Frame-Shear Wall Structures222 6.4.1 Hysteretic Behaviors of the RC Shear Wall Members 222 6.4.2 Solution Procedure of the FAM 224 References 234 7 Geometric Nonlinearity 235 7.1 Classical Stiffness Matrices with Geometric Nonlinearity236 7.1.1 The P- Approach 237 7.1.2 The Geometric Stiffness Approach 238 7.2 Stability Functions 239 7.2.1 Stiffness Matrix [Ki] 240 7.2.2 Stiffness Matrix [K'i] 244 7.2.3 Stiffness Matrix [K"i ] 246 7.3 Force Analogy Method with Stability Functions 250 7.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Using Stability Functions 261 7.4.1 Force Analogy Method 261 7.4.2 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with the Force Analogy Method262 7.4.3 State Space Analysis with Geometric and MaterialNonlinearities 263 7.5 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis with Static Condensation UsingStability Functions 272 7.6 Nonlinear Dynamic Examples 283 References 294 8 Application of the Force Analogy Method in ModalSuperposition 297 8.1 Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis in the FAM 298 8.1.1 NSPA for Mass-Normalized SDOF Systems 299 8.1.2 NSPA for Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 303 8.2 Modal Decomposition in the FAM 312 8.3 Modal Response Summation 318 8.4 Nonlinear Modal Superposition Method Example 319 References 329 9 Application: Structural Vibration Control 331 9.1 Passive Control Technique 331 9.1.1 Model of Passive Energy-Dissipation Devices 331 9.1.2 Model of Framed Structures with PEDDs 333 9.1.3 Force Analogy Method for Dynamical Analysis ofMulti-Degree-Freedom Systems 334 9.2 Application of the FAM in Active or Semi-Active StructuralControl 336 9.2.1 Background of MBC 336 9.2.2 Force Analogy Method in Market-Based Control 342 References 349 Index 351.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
A comprehensive book focusing on the Force Analogy Method, a novel method for nonlinear dynamic analysis and simulation This book focusses on the Force Analogy Method, a novel method for nonlinear dynamic analysis and simulation. A review of the current nonlinear analysis method for earthquake engineering will be summarized and explained. Additionally, how the force analogy method can be used in nonlinear static analysis will be discussed through several nonlinear static examples. The emphasis of this book is to extend and develop the force analogy method to performing dynamic analysis on structures under earthquake excitations, where the force analogy method is incorporated in the flexural element, axial element, shearing element and so on will be exhibited. Moreover, the geometric nonlinearity into nonlinear dynamic analysis algorithm based on the force analogy method is included. The application of the force analogy method in seismic design for buildings and structural control area is discussed and combined with practical engineering.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Book
1 online resource.
Understanding the strength of faults over the course of the seismic cycle is an essential element in developing physical models of earthquakes. This thesis presents results from numerical modeling of shear heating-induced thermal pressurization of pore fluid, which is one of the most-often proposed mechanisms for reducing the strength of faults during earthquakes. Significant fault weakening during dynamic slip is necessary to reconcile several observations. Laboratory rock-sliding experiments over the past 40 years have shown that the static frictional strength of faults is likely to be large. On the other hand, stress and heat-flow observations near faults indicate that shear tractions on faults are much smaller than fault static strength estimated with laboratory friction coefficients. Provided that shear traction somewhere on a fault reaches its static strength in order to nucleate slip, a dynamic weakening mechanism such as thermal pressurization is capable of sustaining an earthquake even as rupture propagates into weakly stressed regions. In the first major section of this thesis, earthquake nucleation (in 2D) is modeled on planar faults with coupled rate-state friction and shear heating-induced thermal pressurization. Diffusive transport of heat and pore pressure is coupled to the shear heating and pressurization. Thermal pressurization increases pore pressure, decreasing effective normal stress and thereby reducing frictional resistance to shear. Depending on the material properties and the friction evolution law used, thermal pressurization may overwhelm frictional weakening before seismic radiation occurs. Even if not the dominant weakening mechanism, thermal pressurization is likely to be significant at or before the onset of seismic radiation. The second section of this thesis continues the investigation by permitting nucleation to proceed into the dynamic rupture phase. Mean shear stresses on the fault are low, but local stress heterogeneities are introduced in order to allow for nucleation. Two endmember stress heterogeneities are considered. In the first case, the "high stress" model, shear stress is locally elevated while initial effective normal stress is uniformly high. In the second case, the "low strength" model, shear stress is uniformly low while nominal effective normal stress is locally depressed. Outside the slip-nucleating stress heterogeneity, background shear stress is low in both cases. The level of background shear stress controls whether the dynamic rupture arrests or is sustained. Using typical values for stresses and material properties corresponding to 7 km depth, sustained rupture occurs at shear stress levels as low as 0.13 times effective normal stress in the high-stress case and 0.15 times the effective normal stress in the low-stress case. Most sustained ruptures are crack-like, but pulse-like ruptures occur for both stress models over a small range of background shear stress just below the threshold for crack-like rupture. At lower values of background shear stress, ruptures arrest. For arresting ruptures, earthquake source parameters such as moment, rupture length, fracture energy, and stress drop are compared to values observed for small earthquakes and are found to be generally consistent. The final portion of this thesis is similar to the preceding section but also includes flash heating of asperity contacts, an additional dynamic weakening mechanism. In this mechanism, shear heating of microscopic asperity contacts reduces their strength, leading to a dramatic reduction of the friction coefficient. Flash heating becomes significant at comparable slip speeds to those at which thermal pressurization becomes significant, about 0.1 m/s. The spatial scale of weakening associated with flash heating is much smaller than that of thermal pressurization, which leads to computational challenges that limit the scope of the investigation to a few high-stress cases. Combined, the two effects sustain rupture at background shear stress levels lower than those at which either weakening mechanism alone can sustain rupture. At a given background shear stress, the two effects combine to allow rupture to propagate greater distances. For arresting ruptures, the comparison of modeled earthquake source parameters to observed values is improved over the models that neglect flash heating. Flash heating alone, however, fails to predict values of fracture energy consistent with those inferred for real earthquakes. Therefore, both flash heating and thermal pressurization together yield the most realistic model for dynamic weakening during earthquakes on weakly stressed faults.
Understanding the strength of faults over the course of the seismic cycle is an essential element in developing physical models of earthquakes. This thesis presents results from numerical modeling of shear heating-induced thermal pressurization of pore fluid, which is one of the most-often proposed mechanisms for reducing the strength of faults during earthquakes. Significant fault weakening during dynamic slip is necessary to reconcile several observations. Laboratory rock-sliding experiments over the past 40 years have shown that the static frictional strength of faults is likely to be large. On the other hand, stress and heat-flow observations near faults indicate that shear tractions on faults are much smaller than fault static strength estimated with laboratory friction coefficients. Provided that shear traction somewhere on a fault reaches its static strength in order to nucleate slip, a dynamic weakening mechanism such as thermal pressurization is capable of sustaining an earthquake even as rupture propagates into weakly stressed regions. In the first major section of this thesis, earthquake nucleation (in 2D) is modeled on planar faults with coupled rate-state friction and shear heating-induced thermal pressurization. Diffusive transport of heat and pore pressure is coupled to the shear heating and pressurization. Thermal pressurization increases pore pressure, decreasing effective normal stress and thereby reducing frictional resistance to shear. Depending on the material properties and the friction evolution law used, thermal pressurization may overwhelm frictional weakening before seismic radiation occurs. Even if not the dominant weakening mechanism, thermal pressurization is likely to be significant at or before the onset of seismic radiation. The second section of this thesis continues the investigation by permitting nucleation to proceed into the dynamic rupture phase. Mean shear stresses on the fault are low, but local stress heterogeneities are introduced in order to allow for nucleation. Two endmember stress heterogeneities are considered. In the first case, the "high stress" model, shear stress is locally elevated while initial effective normal stress is uniformly high. In the second case, the "low strength" model, shear stress is uniformly low while nominal effective normal stress is locally depressed. Outside the slip-nucleating stress heterogeneity, background shear stress is low in both cases. The level of background shear stress controls whether the dynamic rupture arrests or is sustained. Using typical values for stresses and material properties corresponding to 7 km depth, sustained rupture occurs at shear stress levels as low as 0.13 times effective normal stress in the high-stress case and 0.15 times the effective normal stress in the low-stress case. Most sustained ruptures are crack-like, but pulse-like ruptures occur for both stress models over a small range of background shear stress just below the threshold for crack-like rupture. At lower values of background shear stress, ruptures arrest. For arresting ruptures, earthquake source parameters such as moment, rupture length, fracture energy, and stress drop are compared to values observed for small earthquakes and are found to be generally consistent. The final portion of this thesis is similar to the preceding section but also includes flash heating of asperity contacts, an additional dynamic weakening mechanism. In this mechanism, shear heating of microscopic asperity contacts reduces their strength, leading to a dramatic reduction of the friction coefficient. Flash heating becomes significant at comparable slip speeds to those at which thermal pressurization becomes significant, about 0.1 m/s. The spatial scale of weakening associated with flash heating is much smaller than that of thermal pressurization, which leads to computational challenges that limit the scope of the investigation to a few high-stress cases. Combined, the two effects sustain rupture at background shear stress levels lower than those at which either weakening mechanism alone can sustain rupture. At a given background shear stress, the two effects combine to allow rupture to propagate greater distances. For arresting ruptures, the comparison of modeled earthquake source parameters to observed values is improved over the models that neglect flash heating. Flash heating alone, however, fails to predict values of fracture energy consistent with those inferred for real earthquakes. Therefore, both flash heating and thermal pressurization together yield the most realistic model for dynamic weakening during earthquakes on weakly stressed faults.
Collection
John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center Technical Report Series
Growth of major population centers near seismically active faults has significantly increased the probability of a large earthquake striking close to a big city in the near future. This, coupled with the fact that near-fault ground motions are known to impose larger demands on structures than ground motions far from the fault, makes the quantitative study of near-fault seismic hazard and risk important. Directivity effects cause pulse-like ground motions that are known to increase the seismic hazard and risk in near-fault region. These effects depend on the source-to- site geometry parameters, which are not included in most ground-motion models used for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment computation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive framework to study near-fault ground motions, and account for their effects in seismic hazard assessment. The proposed framework is designed to be modular, with separate models to predict the probability of observing a pulse at a site, the probability distribution of the period of the observed pulse, and a narrow band amplification of the spectral ordinate conditioned on the period of the pulse. The framework also allows deaggregation of hazard with respect to probability of observing the pulse at the site and the period of the pulse. This deaggregation information can be used to aid in ground-motion selection at near fault sites. A database of recorded ground motions with each record classified as pulse-like or non-pulse-like is needed for an empirical study of directivity effects. Early studies of directivity effects used manually classified pulses. Manual classification of ground motions as pulse-like is labor intensive, slow, and has the possibility to introduce subjectivity into the classifications. To address these problems we propose an efficient algorithm to classify multi-component ground motions as pulse-like and non-pulse- like. The proposed algorithm uses the continuous wavelet transform of two orthogonal components of the ground motion to identify pulses in arbitrary orientations. The proposed algorithm was used to classify each record in the NGA-West2 database, which created the largest set of pulse-like motions ever used to study directivity effects. The framework to include directivity effects in seismic hazard assessment, as pro- posed in this study, requires a ground-motion model that accounts for directivity effects in its prediction. Most of the current directivity models were developed as a correction for already existing ground-motion models, and were fitted using ground- motion model residuals. Directivity effects are dependent on magnitude, distance, and the spectral acceleration period. This interaction of directivity effects with magnitude and distance makes separation of distance and magnitude scaling from directivity ef- fects challenging. To properly account for directivity effects in a ground-motion model they need to be fitted as a part of the original model and not as a correction. We propose a method to include the effects of directivity in a ground-motion model and also develop models to make unbiased prediction of ground-motion intensity, even when the directivity parameters are not available. Finally, following the approach used to model directivity effects, we developed a modular framework to characterize ground-motion directionality, which causes the ground-motion intensity to vary with orientation. Using the expanded NGA-West2 database we developed new models to predict the ratio between maximum and median ground-motion intensity over all orientations. Other models to predict distribution of orientations of the maximum intensity relative to the fault and the relationship between this orientation at different periods are also presented. The models developed in this dissertation allow us to compute response spectra that are expected to be observed in a single orientation (e.g., fault normal, orientation of maximum intensity at a period). It is expected that the proposed spectra can be a more realistic representation of single orientation ground motion compared to the median or maximum spectra over all orientations that is currently used.
Growth of major population centers near seismically active faults has significantly increased the probability of a large earthquake striking close to a big city in the near future. This, coupled with the fact that near-fault ground motions are known to impose larger demands on structures than ground motions far from the fault, makes the quantitative study of near-fault seismic hazard and risk important. Directivity effects cause pulse-like ground motions that are known to increase the seismic hazard and risk in near-fault region. These effects depend on the source-to- site geometry parameters, which are not included in most ground-motion models used for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment computation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive framework to study near-fault ground motions, and account for their effects in seismic hazard assessment. The proposed framework is designed to be modular, with separate models to predict the probability of observing a pulse at a site, the probability distribution of the period of the observed pulse, and a narrow band amplification of the spectral ordinate conditioned on the period of the pulse. The framework also allows deaggregation of hazard with respect to probability of observing the pulse at the site and the period of the pulse. This deaggregation information can be used to aid in ground-motion selection at near fault sites. A database of recorded ground motions with each record classified as pulse-like or non-pulse-like is needed for an empirical study of directivity effects. Early studies of directivity effects used manually classified pulses. Manual classification of ground motions as pulse-like is labor intensive, slow, and has the possibility to introduce subjectivity into the classifications. To address these problems we propose an efficient algorithm to classify multi-component ground motions as pulse-like and non-pulse- like. The proposed algorithm uses the continuous wavelet transform of two orthogonal components of the ground motion to identify pulses in arbitrary orientations. The proposed algorithm was used to classify each record in the NGA-West2 database, which created the largest set of pulse-like motions ever used to study directivity effects. The framework to include directivity effects in seismic hazard assessment, as pro- posed in this study, requires a ground-motion model that accounts for directivity effects in its prediction. Most of the current directivity models were developed as a correction for already existing ground-motion models, and were fitted using ground- motion model residuals. Directivity effects are dependent on magnitude, distance, and the spectral acceleration period. This interaction of directivity effects with magnitude and distance makes separation of distance and magnitude scaling from directivity ef- fects challenging. To properly account for directivity effects in a ground-motion model they need to be fitted as a part of the original model and not as a correction. We propose a method to include the effects of directivity in a ground-motion model and also develop models to make unbiased prediction of ground-motion intensity, even when the directivity parameters are not available. Finally, following the approach used to model directivity effects, we developed a modular framework to characterize ground-motion directionality, which causes the ground-motion intensity to vary with orientation. Using the expanded NGA-West2 database we developed new models to predict the ratio between maximum and median ground-motion intensity over all orientations. Other models to predict distribution of orientations of the maximum intensity relative to the fault and the relationship between this orientation at different periods are also presented. The models developed in this dissertation allow us to compute response spectra that are expected to be observed in a single orientation (e.g., fault normal, orientation of maximum intensity at a period). It is expected that the proposed spectra can be a more realistic representation of single orientation ground motion compared to the median or maximum spectra over all orientations that is currently used.
Collection
John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center Technical Report Series
Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) quantifies the seismic hazard, predicts the structural response, and estimates the damage to building elements, in order to assess the resulting losses in terms of dollars, downtime, and deaths. This dissertation focuses on the ground motion selection that connects seismic hazard and structural response, the first two elements of PBEE, to ensure that the ground motion selection method to obtain structural response results is consistent with probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Structure- and site-specific ground motion selection typically requires information re-garding the system characteristics of the structure (often through a structural model) and the seismic hazard of the site (often through characterization of seismic sources, their oc-currence frequencies, and their proximity to the site). As the ground motion intensity level changes, the target distribution of important ground motion parameters (e.g., magnitude and distance) also changes. With the quantification of contributing ground motion parameters at a specific spectral acceleration (Sa) level, a target response spectrum can be computed using a single or multiple ground motion prediction models (GMPMs, previously known as attenuation relations). Ground motions are selected from a ground motion database, and their response spectra are scaled to match the target response spectrum. These ground mo-tions are then used as seismic inputs to structural models for nonlinear dynamic analysis, to obtain structural response under such seismic excitations. This procedure to estimate structural response results at a specific intensity level is termed an intensity-based assessment. When this procedure is repeated at different intensity levels to cover the frequent to rare levels of ground motion (expressed in terms of Sa), a risk-based assessment can be performed by integrating the structural response results at each intensity level with their corresponding seismic hazard occurrence (through the seismic hazard curve).
Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) quantifies the seismic hazard, predicts the structural response, and estimates the damage to building elements, in order to assess the resulting losses in terms of dollars, downtime, and deaths. This dissertation focuses on the ground motion selection that connects seismic hazard and structural response, the first two elements of PBEE, to ensure that the ground motion selection method to obtain structural response results is consistent with probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Structure- and site-specific ground motion selection typically requires information re-garding the system characteristics of the structure (often through a structural model) and the seismic hazard of the site (often through characterization of seismic sources, their oc-currence frequencies, and their proximity to the site). As the ground motion intensity level changes, the target distribution of important ground motion parameters (e.g., magnitude and distance) also changes. With the quantification of contributing ground motion parameters at a specific spectral acceleration (Sa) level, a target response spectrum can be computed using a single or multiple ground motion prediction models (GMPMs, previously known as attenuation relations). Ground motions are selected from a ground motion database, and their response spectra are scaled to match the target response spectrum. These ground mo-tions are then used as seismic inputs to structural models for nonlinear dynamic analysis, to obtain structural response under such seismic excitations. This procedure to estimate structural response results at a specific intensity level is termed an intensity-based assessment. When this procedure is repeated at different intensity levels to cover the frequent to rare levels of ground motion (expressed in terms of Sa), a risk-based assessment can be performed by integrating the structural response results at each intensity level with their corresponding seismic hazard occurrence (through the seismic hazard curve).
Book
xx, 437 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Elementary Tensor Analysis Introduction General Tensors, Cartesian Tensors, and Tensor Rank A Brief Review of Vector Analysis Dyadic Form of Second Order Tensors Derivatives of Tensors Divergence and Stokes Theorems Some Formulae in Cylindrical Coordinates Some Formulae in Spherical Coordinates Summary and Further Reading Problems Elasticity and Its Applications Introduction Basic Concepts for Stress Tensor Piola-Kirchhoff Stresses Coordinate Transformation of Stress Basic Concepts for Strain Tensor Rate of Deformation Compatibility Equations Hill's Work-conjugate Stress Measures Constitutive Relation Isotropic Solids Transversely Isotropic Solids Equations of Motion and Equilibrium Compatibility Equation in Terms of Stress Tensor Strain Energy Density Complementary Energy Hyperelasticity and Hypoelasticity Plane Stress, Plane Strain and the Airy Stress Function Stress Concentration at a Circular Hole Force Acting at the Apex of a Wedge Uniform Vertical Loading on Part of the Surface Solution for Indirect Tensile Test (Brazilian Test) Jaeger's Modified Brazilian Test Edge Dislocation Dislocation Pile-up and Crack Screw Dislocation and Faulting Mura Formula for Curved Dislocation Summary and Further Reading Problems Complex Variable Methods for 2-D Elasticity Introduction Coordinate Transformation in Complex Variable Theory Homogeneous Stresses in Terms Analytic Functions A Borehole Subject to Internal Pressure Kirsch Solution by Complex Variable Method Definiteness and Uniqueness of the Analytic Function Boundary Conditions for the Analytic Functions Single-valued Condition for Multi-connected Bodies Multi-connected Body of Infinite Extend General Transformation of Quantities Elastic Body with Holes Stress Concentration at a Square Hole Mapping Functions for Other Holes Summary and Further Reading Problems Three-Dimensional Solutions in Elasticity Introduction Displacement Formulation Stress Formulations Some 3-D Solutions in Geomechanics Harmonic Functions and Indirect Method Harmonic Functions in Spherical Coordinates Harmonic Functions in Cylindrical Coordinates Biharmonic Functions Muki's Formulation in Cylindrical Coordinates Summary and Further Reading Problems Plasticity and Its Applications Introduction Flow Theory and Deformation Theory Yield Function and Plastic Potential Elasto-plastic Constitutive Model Rudnicki-Rice (1975) Model Drucker's Postulate, PMPR, and Il'iushin's Postulate Yield Vertex Mohr-Coulomb Model Lode Angle or Parameter Yield Criteria on the pi-Plane Other Soil Yield Models Cap Models Physical Meaning of Cam-Clay Model Modified Cam-Clay A Cam-Clay Model for Finite Strain Plasticity by Internal Variables Viscoplasticity Summary and Further Reading Problems Fracture Mechanics and Its Applications Introduction Stress Concentration at a Elliptical Hole Stress Concentration at a Tensile Crack Stress Field near a Shear Crack The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode I Cracks The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode II Cracks The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode III Cracks The Energy Release Rate at Crack Tips Fracture Toughness for Rocks J-integral and the Energy Release Rate Westergaard Stress Function and Superposition Growth of Slip Surface in Slopes Energy Release Rate for Earthquake Wing Crack Model under Compressions Bazant's Size Effect Law via J-integral Continuum Damage Mechanics Solids Containing Microcracks Rudnicki-Chau (1996) Multiaxial Microcrack Model Summary and Further Reading Problems Viscoelasticty and Its Applications Introduction Boltzmann's Integral Form of Stress and Strain Stieltjes Convolution Notation Stress-Strain Relation in Differential Equation Form Stress-strain Relation in Laplace Transform Space Correspondence Principle Creeping and Relaxation Tests Calibration of the Viscoelastic Model Viscoelastic Crack Models for Steam Injection Summary and Further Reading Problems Linear Elastic Fluid-Infiltrated Solids and Poroelasticity Introduction Biot's Theory of Poroelasticity Biot-Verruijt Displacement Function McNamee-Gibson-Verruijt Displacement Function Schiffman-Fungaroli-Verruijt Displacement Function Schiffman-Fungaroli Displacement Function Laplace-Hankel Transform Technique Point Forces and Point Fluid Source in Half-space Cleary's Fundamental Solution of Point Forces in Full Space Rudnicki's Fundamental Solutions in Full Space Thermoelasticity vs. Poroelasticity Summary and Further Reading Problems Dynamics and Waves In Geomaterials Introduction Seismic Waves Waves in Infinite Elastic Isotropic Solids Helmholtz Theorem and Wave Speeds Rayleigh Waves Love Waves Stoneley Waves Elastic-plastic Waves Waves in Viscoelastic Solids Dynamic Fracture Mechanics Vibrations and Soil Dynamics Summary and Further Reading Problems Appendices Appendix A: Nanson Formula Appendix B: Laplace Transform Appendix C: Legendre Transform and Work Increments Selected Biographies References Author Index Subject Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
A multidisciplinary field, encompassing both geophysics and civil engineering, geomechanics deals with the deformation and failure process in geomaterials such as soil and rock. Although powerful numerical tools have been developed, analytical solutions still play an important role in solving practical problems in this area. Analytic Methods in Geomechanics provides a much-needed text on mathematical theory in geomechanics, beneficial for readers of varied backgrounds entering this field. Written for scientists and engineers who have had some exposure to engineering mathematics and strength of materials, the text covers major topics in tensor analysis, 2-D elasticity, and 3-D elasticity, plasticity, fracture mechanics, and viscoelasticity. It also discusses the use of displacement functions in poroelasticity, the basics of wave propagations, and dynamics that are relevant to the modeling of geomaterials. The book presents both the fundamentals and more advanced content for understanding the latest research results and applying them to practical problems in geomechanics. The author gives concise explanations of each subject area, using a step-by-step process with many worked examples. He strikes a balance between breadth of material and depth of details, and includes recommended reading in each chapter for readers who would like additional technical information. This text is suitable for students at both undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as for professionals and researchers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Elementary Tensor Analysis Introduction General Tensors, Cartesian Tensors, and Tensor Rank A Brief Review of Vector Analysis Dyadic Form of Second Order Tensors Derivatives of Tensors Divergence and Stokes Theorems Some Formulae in Cylindrical Coordinates Some Formulae in Spherical Coordinates Summary and Further Reading Problems Elasticity and Its Applications Introduction Basic Concepts for Stress Tensor Piola-Kirchhoff Stresses Coordinate Transformation of Stress Basic Concepts for Strain Tensor Rate of Deformation Compatibility Equations Hill's Work-conjugate Stress Measures Constitutive Relation Isotropic Solids Transversely Isotropic Solids Equations of Motion and Equilibrium Compatibility Equation in Terms of Stress Tensor Strain Energy Density Complementary Energy Hyperelasticity and Hypoelasticity Plane Stress, Plane Strain and the Airy Stress Function Stress Concentration at a Circular Hole Force Acting at the Apex of a Wedge Uniform Vertical Loading on Part of the Surface Solution for Indirect Tensile Test (Brazilian Test) Jaeger's Modified Brazilian Test Edge Dislocation Dislocation Pile-up and Crack Screw Dislocation and Faulting Mura Formula for Curved Dislocation Summary and Further Reading Problems Complex Variable Methods for 2-D Elasticity Introduction Coordinate Transformation in Complex Variable Theory Homogeneous Stresses in Terms Analytic Functions A Borehole Subject to Internal Pressure Kirsch Solution by Complex Variable Method Definiteness and Uniqueness of the Analytic Function Boundary Conditions for the Analytic Functions Single-valued Condition for Multi-connected Bodies Multi-connected Body of Infinite Extend General Transformation of Quantities Elastic Body with Holes Stress Concentration at a Square Hole Mapping Functions for Other Holes Summary and Further Reading Problems Three-Dimensional Solutions in Elasticity Introduction Displacement Formulation Stress Formulations Some 3-D Solutions in Geomechanics Harmonic Functions and Indirect Method Harmonic Functions in Spherical Coordinates Harmonic Functions in Cylindrical Coordinates Biharmonic Functions Muki's Formulation in Cylindrical Coordinates Summary and Further Reading Problems Plasticity and Its Applications Introduction Flow Theory and Deformation Theory Yield Function and Plastic Potential Elasto-plastic Constitutive Model Rudnicki-Rice (1975) Model Drucker's Postulate, PMPR, and Il'iushin's Postulate Yield Vertex Mohr-Coulomb Model Lode Angle or Parameter Yield Criteria on the pi-Plane Other Soil Yield Models Cap Models Physical Meaning of Cam-Clay Model Modified Cam-Clay A Cam-Clay Model for Finite Strain Plasticity by Internal Variables Viscoplasticity Summary and Further Reading Problems Fracture Mechanics and Its Applications Introduction Stress Concentration at a Elliptical Hole Stress Concentration at a Tensile Crack Stress Field near a Shear Crack The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode I Cracks The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode II Cracks The General Stress and Displacement Field for Mode III Cracks The Energy Release Rate at Crack Tips Fracture Toughness for Rocks J-integral and the Energy Release Rate Westergaard Stress Function and Superposition Growth of Slip Surface in Slopes Energy Release Rate for Earthquake Wing Crack Model under Compressions Bazant's Size Effect Law via J-integral Continuum Damage Mechanics Solids Containing Microcracks Rudnicki-Chau (1996) Multiaxial Microcrack Model Summary and Further Reading Problems Viscoelasticty and Its Applications Introduction Boltzmann's Integral Form of Stress and Strain Stieltjes Convolution Notation Stress-Strain Relation in Differential Equation Form Stress-strain Relation in Laplace Transform Space Correspondence Principle Creeping and Relaxation Tests Calibration of the Viscoelastic Model Viscoelastic Crack Models for Steam Injection Summary and Further Reading Problems Linear Elastic Fluid-Infiltrated Solids and Poroelasticity Introduction Biot's Theory of Poroelasticity Biot-Verruijt Displacement Function McNamee-Gibson-Verruijt Displacement Function Schiffman-Fungaroli-Verruijt Displacement Function Schiffman-Fungaroli Displacement Function Laplace-Hankel Transform Technique Point Forces and Point Fluid Source in Half-space Cleary's Fundamental Solution of Point Forces in Full Space Rudnicki's Fundamental Solutions in Full Space Thermoelasticity vs. Poroelasticity Summary and Further Reading Problems Dynamics and Waves In Geomaterials Introduction Seismic Waves Waves in Infinite Elastic Isotropic Solids Helmholtz Theorem and Wave Speeds Rayleigh Waves Love Waves Stoneley Waves Elastic-plastic Waves Waves in Viscoelastic Solids Dynamic Fracture Mechanics Vibrations and Soil Dynamics Summary and Further Reading Problems Appendices Appendix A: Nanson Formula Appendix B: Laplace Transform Appendix C: Legendre Transform and Work Increments Selected Biographies References Author Index Subject Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
A multidisciplinary field, encompassing both geophysics and civil engineering, geomechanics deals with the deformation and failure process in geomaterials such as soil and rock. Although powerful numerical tools have been developed, analytical solutions still play an important role in solving practical problems in this area. Analytic Methods in Geomechanics provides a much-needed text on mathematical theory in geomechanics, beneficial for readers of varied backgrounds entering this field. Written for scientists and engineers who have had some exposure to engineering mathematics and strength of materials, the text covers major topics in tensor analysis, 2-D elasticity, and 3-D elasticity, plasticity, fracture mechanics, and viscoelasticity. It also discusses the use of displacement functions in poroelasticity, the basics of wave propagations, and dynamics that are relevant to the modeling of geomaterials. The book presents both the fundamentals and more advanced content for understanding the latest research results and applying them to practical problems in geomechanics. The author gives concise explanations of each subject area, using a step-by-step process with many worked examples. He strikes a balance between breadth of material and depth of details, and includes recommended reading in each chapter for readers who would like additional technical information. This text is suitable for students at both undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as for professionals and researchers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Status of items at Earth Sciences Library (Branner)
Earth Sciences Library (Branner) Status
Stacks
TA710 .C5145 2013 Unknown
Book
1 online resource (xvi, 221 pages) : illustrations.
  • Reappraisal of concepts underlying reinforced concrete design
  • The concept of the compressive-force path
  • Modelling of simply-supported beams
  • Design of simply supported beams
  • Design for punching of flat slabs
  • Design of skeletal structures with beam-like elements
  • Earthquake-resistant design
  • Design examples.
This book presents a method which simplifies and unifies the design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and is applicable to any structural element under both normal and seismic loading conditions. The proposed method has a sound theoretical basis and is expressed in a unified form applicable to all structural members, as well as their connections. It is applied in practice through the use of simple failure criteria derived from first principles without the need for calibration through the use of experimental data. The method is capable of predicting not only load-carrying capacity but also the locations and modes of failure, as well as safeguarding the structural performance code requirements. In this book, the concepts underlying the method are first presented for the case of simply supported RC beams. The application of the method is progressively extended so as to cover all common structural elements. For each structural element considered, evidence of the validity of the proposed method is presented together with design examples and comparisons with current code specifications. The method has been found to produce design solutions which satisfy the seismic performance requirements of current codes in all cases investigated to date, including structural members such as beams, columns, and walls, beam-to-beam or column-to-column connections, and beam-to-column joints.
  • Reappraisal of concepts underlying reinforced concrete design
  • The concept of the compressive-force path
  • Modelling of simply-supported beams
  • Design of simply supported beams
  • Design for punching of flat slabs
  • Design of skeletal structures with beam-like elements
  • Earthquake-resistant design
  • Design examples.
This book presents a method which simplifies and unifies the design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and is applicable to any structural element under both normal and seismic loading conditions. The proposed method has a sound theoretical basis and is expressed in a unified form applicable to all structural members, as well as their connections. It is applied in practice through the use of simple failure criteria derived from first principles without the need for calibration through the use of experimental data. The method is capable of predicting not only load-carrying capacity but also the locations and modes of failure, as well as safeguarding the structural performance code requirements. In this book, the concepts underlying the method are first presented for the case of simply supported RC beams. The application of the method is progressively extended so as to cover all common structural elements. For each structural element considered, evidence of the validity of the proposed method is presented together with design examples and comparisons with current code specifications. The method has been found to produce design solutions which satisfy the seismic performance requirements of current codes in all cases investigated to date, including structural members such as beams, columns, and walls, beam-to-beam or column-to-column connections, and beam-to-column joints.
Book
1 online resource (158 p.)
  • Editorial XI 1 Introduction 1 2 Fields of application 3 3 Basis of design 13 3.1 General 13 3.2 Verifications 14 3.3 Partial factors 15 3.3.1 General 15 3.3.2 Actions 15 3.3.3 Resistance . 16 4 Derivation of forces acting on fasteners 19 4.1 General 19 4.2 Tension loads 19 4.2.1 Tension loads on fastenings with post-installed fasteners and headed fasteners 19 4.2.2 Tension loads on fastenings with anchor channels 21 4.3 Shear loads 23 4.3.1 Shear loads on fastenings with post-installed and headed fasteners 23 4.3.2 Shear loads on fastenings with anchor channels 35 4.4 Tension forces in a supplementary reinforcement 36 5 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for post-installed fasteners (mechanical systems) 41 5.1 General 41 5.2 Tension load 42 5.2.1 Required verifications 42 5.2.2 Steel failure 44 5.2.3 Pull-out/pull-through failure 44 5.2.4 Conical concrete break-out failure 45 5.2.5 Splitting 61 5.3 Shear load 63 5.3.1 Required verifications 63 5.3.2 Steel failure without lever arm 64 5.3.3 Steel failure with lever arm 64 5.3.4 Pry-out failure 65 5.3.5 Concrete edge failure 68 5.4 Combined tension and shear load 80 5.4.1 Steel failure decisive for tension and shear load 80 5.4.2 Other modes of failure decisive 81 6 Verification of post-installed fasteners (chemical systems) for the ultimate limit state based on the theory of elasticity 83 6.1 General 83 6.2 Tension load 83 6.2.1 Required verifications 83 6.2.2 Steel failure 84 6.2.3 Combined pull-out and concrete failure 84 6.2.4 Concrete cone failure 89 6.2.5 Splitting 89 6.3 Shear load 89 6.3.1 Required verifications 89 6.3.2 Steel failure due to shear load without and with lever arm 90 6.3.3 Concrete pry-out 90 6.3.4 Concrete edge failure 90 6.4 Combined tension and shear 90 7 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for headed fasteners 91 7.1 General 91 7.2 Tension forces in the supplementary reinforcement 91 7.2.1 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of tension loaded fastenings 91 7.2.2 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of shear loaded fastenings 92 7.3 Tension load 92 7.3.1 Required verifications 92 7.3.2 Steel failure 93 7.3.3 Pull-out failure 93 7.3.4 Concrete cone failure 93 7.3.5 Splitting 94 7.3.6 Local concrete break-out (blow-out) 94 7.3.7 Steel failure of the supplementary reinforcement 98 7.3.8 Anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement in the concrete cone 98 7.4 Shear load 99 7.4.1 Required verifications 99 7.4.2 Steel failure of the headed fastener 99 7.4.3 Concrete pry-out failure 99 7.4.4 Concrete edge failure 99 7.4.5 Steel failure of the supplementary reinforcement 99 7.4.6 Anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement in the concrete break-out body 100 7.5 Combined tension and shear load 100 8 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for anchor channels 101 8.1 General 101 8.2 Tension forces in the supplementary reinforcement 103 8.2.1 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of tension loaded anchor channels 103 8.2.2 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of shear loaded anchor channels 104 8.3 Tension load 104 8.3.1 Required verifications 104 8.3.2 Steel failure of channel bolt and channel 105 8.3.3 Pull-out failure 105 8.3.4 Concrete cone failure 105 8.3.5 Splitting of the concrete 111 8.3.6 Blow-out failure 111 8.3.7 Steel- and anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement 112 8.4 Shear loads 112 8.4.1 Required verifications 112 8.4.2 Channel bolt (special screw) and local flexure of channel lip 112 8.4.3 Concrete pry-out failure 112 8.4.4 Concrete edge failure 113 8.5 Combined tension and shear loads 119 9 Plastic design approach, fastenings with headed fasteners and post-installed fasteners 121 9.1 General 121 9.2 Conditions of application 121 9.3 Distribution of external forces to the fasteners of a group 123 9.4 Design of fastenings 125 10 Durability 127 10.1 General 127 10.2 Fasteners in dry, internal conditions 127 10.3 Fasteners in external atmospheric or in permanently damp internal exposure and high corrosion exposure 127 10.3.1 Fastenings in external atmospheric or in permanently damp internal exposure 128 10.3.2 Fasteners in high corrosion exposure by chloride and sulphur dioxide 128 11 Exposure to fire 131 11.1 General 131 11.2 Basis of design 132 11.3 Resistances under tension and shear load 135 11.3.1 Steel failure under tension load and shear load 135 11.3.2 Steel failure under shear load with lever arm 136 11.3.3 Pull-out under tension load 136 11.3.4 Concrete break-out under tension load and concrete pry-out failure under shear load 136 11.3.5 Concrete edge failure under shear load 137 12 Seismic loading 139 12.1 General 139 12.2 Additions and alterations to EN 1998-1:2004 (Eurocode 8) 139 12.3 Verification of seismic loading 141 12.3.1 General 141 12.3.2 Derivation of actions 142 12.3.3 Resistance 142 13 Outlook 145 References 147 Index 153.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
The European pre-standard CEN/TS 1992-4 for the design of fastenings by means of headed studs, anchor channels as well as post-installed mechanical and chemical anchors is ready for use. The background and interpretation of the provisions related to the determination of actions and resistances based on limit state design, durability, fire resistance, fatigue and earthquake actions as required by CEN/TS 1992 are described in detail. Selected chapters from the German concrete yearbook are now being published in the new English "Beton-Kalender Series" for the benefit of an international audience. Since it was founded in 1906, the Ernst & Sohn "Beton-Kalender" has been supporting developments in reinforced and prestressed concrete. The aim was to publish a yearbook to reflect progress in "ferro-concrete" structures until - as the book's first editor, Fritz von Emperger (1862-1942), expressed it - the "tempestuous development" in this form of construction came to an end. However, the "Beton-Kalender" quickly became the chosen work of reference for civil and structural engineers, and apart from the years 1945-1950 has been published annually ever since.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
  • Editorial XI 1 Introduction 1 2 Fields of application 3 3 Basis of design 13 3.1 General 13 3.2 Verifications 14 3.3 Partial factors 15 3.3.1 General 15 3.3.2 Actions 15 3.3.3 Resistance . 16 4 Derivation of forces acting on fasteners 19 4.1 General 19 4.2 Tension loads 19 4.2.1 Tension loads on fastenings with post-installed fasteners and headed fasteners 19 4.2.2 Tension loads on fastenings with anchor channels 21 4.3 Shear loads 23 4.3.1 Shear loads on fastenings with post-installed and headed fasteners 23 4.3.2 Shear loads on fastenings with anchor channels 35 4.4 Tension forces in a supplementary reinforcement 36 5 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for post-installed fasteners (mechanical systems) 41 5.1 General 41 5.2 Tension load 42 5.2.1 Required verifications 42 5.2.2 Steel failure 44 5.2.3 Pull-out/pull-through failure 44 5.2.4 Conical concrete break-out failure 45 5.2.5 Splitting 61 5.3 Shear load 63 5.3.1 Required verifications 63 5.3.2 Steel failure without lever arm 64 5.3.3 Steel failure with lever arm 64 5.3.4 Pry-out failure 65 5.3.5 Concrete edge failure 68 5.4 Combined tension and shear load 80 5.4.1 Steel failure decisive for tension and shear load 80 5.4.2 Other modes of failure decisive 81 6 Verification of post-installed fasteners (chemical systems) for the ultimate limit state based on the theory of elasticity 83 6.1 General 83 6.2 Tension load 83 6.2.1 Required verifications 83 6.2.2 Steel failure 84 6.2.3 Combined pull-out and concrete failure 84 6.2.4 Concrete cone failure 89 6.2.5 Splitting 89 6.3 Shear load 89 6.3.1 Required verifications 89 6.3.2 Steel failure due to shear load without and with lever arm 90 6.3.3 Concrete pry-out 90 6.3.4 Concrete edge failure 90 6.4 Combined tension and shear 90 7 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for headed fasteners 91 7.1 General 91 7.2 Tension forces in the supplementary reinforcement 91 7.2.1 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of tension loaded fastenings 91 7.2.2 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of shear loaded fastenings 92 7.3 Tension load 92 7.3.1 Required verifications 92 7.3.2 Steel failure 93 7.3.3 Pull-out failure 93 7.3.4 Concrete cone failure 93 7.3.5 Splitting 94 7.3.6 Local concrete break-out (blow-out) 94 7.3.7 Steel failure of the supplementary reinforcement 98 7.3.8 Anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement in the concrete cone 98 7.4 Shear load 99 7.4.1 Required verifications 99 7.4.2 Steel failure of the headed fastener 99 7.4.3 Concrete pry-out failure 99 7.4.4 Concrete edge failure 99 7.4.5 Steel failure of the supplementary reinforcement 99 7.4.6 Anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement in the concrete break-out body 100 7.5 Combined tension and shear load 100 8 Verification of ultimate limit state by elastic analysis for anchor channels 101 8.1 General 101 8.2 Tension forces in the supplementary reinforcement 103 8.2.1 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of tension loaded anchor channels 103 8.2.2 Detailing of supplementary reinforcement in case of shear loaded anchor channels 104 8.3 Tension load 104 8.3.1 Required verifications 104 8.3.2 Steel failure of channel bolt and channel 105 8.3.3 Pull-out failure 105 8.3.4 Concrete cone failure 105 8.3.5 Splitting of the concrete 111 8.3.6 Blow-out failure 111 8.3.7 Steel- and anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement 112 8.4 Shear loads 112 8.4.1 Required verifications 112 8.4.2 Channel bolt (special screw) and local flexure of channel lip 112 8.4.3 Concrete pry-out failure 112 8.4.4 Concrete edge failure 113 8.5 Combined tension and shear loads 119 9 Plastic design approach, fastenings with headed fasteners and post-installed fasteners 121 9.1 General 121 9.2 Conditions of application 121 9.3 Distribution of external forces to the fasteners of a group 123 9.4 Design of fastenings 125 10 Durability 127 10.1 General 127 10.2 Fasteners in dry, internal conditions 127 10.3 Fasteners in external atmospheric or in permanently damp internal exposure and high corrosion exposure 127 10.3.1 Fastenings in external atmospheric or in permanently damp internal exposure 128 10.3.2 Fasteners in high corrosion exposure by chloride and sulphur dioxide 128 11 Exposure to fire 131 11.1 General 131 11.2 Basis of design 132 11.3 Resistances under tension and shear load 135 11.3.1 Steel failure under tension load and shear load 135 11.3.2 Steel failure under shear load with lever arm 136 11.3.3 Pull-out under tension load 136 11.3.4 Concrete break-out under tension load and concrete pry-out failure under shear load 136 11.3.5 Concrete edge failure under shear load 137 12 Seismic loading 139 12.1 General 139 12.2 Additions and alterations to EN 1998-1:2004 (Eurocode 8) 139 12.3 Verification of seismic loading 141 12.3.1 General 141 12.3.2 Derivation of actions 142 12.3.3 Resistance 142 13 Outlook 145 References 147 Index 153.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
The European pre-standard CEN/TS 1992-4 for the design of fastenings by means of headed studs, anchor channels as well as post-installed mechanical and chemical anchors is ready for use. The background and interpretation of the provisions related to the determination of actions and resistances based on limit state design, durability, fire resistance, fatigue and earthquake actions as required by CEN/TS 1992 are described in detail. Selected chapters from the German concrete yearbook are now being published in the new English "Beton-Kalender Series" for the benefit of an international audience. Since it was founded in 1906, the Ernst & Sohn "Beton-Kalender" has been supporting developments in reinforced and prestressed concrete. The aim was to publish a yearbook to reflect progress in "ferro-concrete" structures until - as the book's first editor, Fritz von Emperger (1862-1942), expressed it - the "tempestuous development" in this form of construction came to an end. However, the "Beton-Kalender" quickly became the chosen work of reference for civil and structural engineers, and apart from the years 1945-1950 has been published annually ever since.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
dx.doi.org Wiley Online Library